ERCC5

Gene Summary

Gene:ERCC5; ERCC excision repair 5, endonuclease
Aliases: XPG, UVDR, XPGC, COFS3, ERCM2, ERCC5-201
Location:13q33.1
Summary:This gene encodes a single-strand specific DNA endonuclease that makes the 3' incision in DNA excision repair following UV-induced damage. The protein may also function in other cellular processes, including RNA polymerase II transcription, and transcription-coupled DNA repair. Mutations in this gene cause xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group G (XP-G), which is also referred to as xeroderma pigmentosum VII (XP7), a skin disorder characterized by hypersensitivity to UV light and increased susceptibility for skin cancer development following UV exposure. Some patients also develop Cockayne syndrome, which is characterized by severe growth defects, mental retardation, and cachexia. Read-through transcription exists between this gene and the neighboring upstream BIVM (basic, immunoglobulin-like variable motif containing) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA repair protein complementing XP-G cells
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ERCC5 (cancer-related)

Yang LQ, Zhang Y, Sun HF
Investigation on ERCC5 genetic polymorphisms and the development of gastric cancer in a Chinese population.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(3) [PubMed] Related Publications
Our study aimed to investigate the role of 2 ERCC5 promoter SNPs (rs2094258 and rs751402) in the development of gastric cancer in the Chinese population. The present hospital-based case-control study consisted of 155 patients with gastric cancer and 246 healthy controls recruited between March 2012 and December 2014. Genotyping for the rs2094258 and rs751402 polymorphic sites was carried out using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Statistical analyses were conducted using the SPASS version 16.0 software (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). As determined by the chi-square test, there was a significant difference in the genotype distributions of rs751402 between patients and controls (X(2) = 6.74, P = 0.03). By unconditional logistic regression analysis, we observed that the TT genotype in rs751402 was significantly associated with increased risk to gastric cancer as compared with the CC genotype, and the adjusted OR (95%CI) was 2.17 (1.15-4.09). Moreover, subjects carrying the T allele in rs751402 had elevated risk of developing gastric cancer when compared with those carrying the C allele, with an adjusted OR value (95%CI) of 1.47 (1.09-1.99). In conclusion, we suggest that the ERCC5 rs751402 gene polymorphism may influence the susceptibility to gastric cancer in the Chinese population.

Guo BW, Yang L, Zhao R, Hao SZ
Association between ERCC5 gene polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigate the role of ERCC5 gene polymorphisms (rs17655 and rs751402) in the development of gastric cancer in a Chinese population. A total of 142 gastric cancer patients whose diagnoses were confirmed by pathology, and 274 control subjects were recruited from Tangshan Gongren Hospital between March 2013 and March 2015. Genotyping of ERCC5 rs17655 and rs751402 polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Compared with the control subjects, we found that gastric cancer patients were more likely to be older, smoke tobacco, drink alcohol, and suffer from Helicobacter pylori infection. Using a chi-square test, a significant difference was observed in the distribution ofERCC5 rs751402 genotypes between patient and control groups (chi-square = 7.79, P = 0.02). In addition, unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the AA genotype of rs751402 significantly increased gastric cancer risk compared to the GG genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 2.61, 95%CI = 1.23-5.49; P = 0.005]. Moreover, we found that the AA genotype correlated with elevated risk of gastric cancer when compared to the GG+AG genotype under a recessive model (OR = 2.21, 95%CI = 1.11-4.39; P = 0.01). In conclusion, we suggest that the ERCC5 rs751402 polymorphism is associated with development of gastric cancer.

Feng YB, Fan DQ, Yu J, Bie YK
Association between XPG gene polymorphisms and development of gastric cancer risk in a Chinese population.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
We conducted a case-control study to investigate the role of three common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group G (XPG) gene (rs2094258, rs751402 and rs17655) in the development of gastric cancer in a Chinese population. Between January 2012 and December 2014, samples from a total of 177 patients with gastric cancer and 237 control subjects were collected from the Ankang City Central Hospital. XPG rs2094258, rs751402 and rs17655 polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that the CC genotype of rs17655 was associated with an elevated risk of gastric cancer, and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were 1.91 and 1.07-3.41, respectively. Moreover, individuals carrying the GC + CC genotype of rs17655 had an increased susceptibility to gastric cancer (OR = 1.61, 95%CI = 1.03-2.54). However, we did not observe a significant association between XPG rs2094258 and rs751402 polymorphisms and development of gastric cancer. In conclusion, our study suggests that the rs17655 polymorphism in XPG is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The results of our findings should be further validated by further large sample size studies.

Lu JJ, Zhang HQ, Mai P, et al.
Lack of association between ERCC5 gene polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk in a Chinese population.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
We conducted a case-control study to assess the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ERCC5 promoter (rs2094258 and rs751402) and development of gastric cancer in a Chinese population. This investigation included 184 patients with pathologically diagnosed gastric cancer and 206 healthy subjects recruited between October 2012 and December 2014. The genotyping of ERCC5 rs2094258 and rs751402 variants was performed by polymerase chain reaction coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism. Genotype distributions of these polymorphisms conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both patient (P = 0.25 for rs2094258 and P = 0.61 for rs751402) and control groups (P = 0.48 for rs2094258 and P = 0.42 for rs751402). Using unconditional logistic regression analysis, we found that neither of these ERCC5 variants was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer under co-dominant, dominant, or recessive models (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that the rs2094258 and rs751402 polymorphisms are not connected to the development of this disease under codominant, dominant, and recessive models.

Zhou B, Hu XM, Wu GY
Association between the XPG gene Asp1104His polymorphism and lung cancer risk.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been suggested that the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group G (XPG) gene Asp1104His polymorphism is linked to susceptibility to lung cancer. However, the results from the published studies are contradictory rather than conclusive. With this meta-analysis, we aimed to achieve a better understanding of the effects of the XPG gene Asp1104His polymorphism on lung cancer risk. We identified six eligible studies from five publications that included a total of 2293 lung cancer patients and 2586 controls. There was a significant association between the XPG gene Asp1104His polymorphism and lung cancer (His/His vs Asp/Asp: OR = 1.24, 95%CI = 1.04-1.48; Asp/His vs Asp/Asp: OR = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.03-1.34; the dominant model: OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.04-1.33; the recessive model: OR = 1.10, 95%CI = 0.94-1.28). In a subgroup analysis by nationality, we found a significant association between the XPG gene Asp1104His polymorphism and lung cancer risk in Asians. No publication bias was found in this study. The results from this meta-analysis indicate that the XPG gene Asp1104His polymorphism is associated with lung cancer risk, especially in Asians.

Ma SH, Ling FH, Sun YX, et al.
Investigation on the role of XPG gene polymorphisms in breast cancer risk in a Chinese population.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
We conducted a case-control study to investigate the role of XPG gene polymorphisms (rs2094258, rs751402, and rs17655) in the development of breast cancer. Patients with breast cancer (320) and control subjects (294) were consecutively selected from the Zhongshan Hospital between April 2013 and January 2015. The genotyping of XPG rs2094258, rs751402, and rs17655 was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Using the chi-square test, we did not find any significant differences in the genotype distributions of XPG rs2094258 (χ(2) = 1.48, P = 0.48), rs751402 (χ(2) = 0.65, P = 0.72), and rs17655 (χ(2) = 0.01, P = 0.92) genes between breast cancer patients and control subjects. The genotype distributions of XPG rs2094258, rs751402, and rs17655 did not deviate from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in control subjects, and the P values were 0.58, 0.97, and 0.26, respectively. Using unconditional logistic regression analysis, we found that XPG rs2094258, rs751402 and rs17655 gene polymorphisms are not associated with the development of breast cancer after adjusting for potential confounding factors. In conclusion, we found that XPG rs2094258, rs751402, and rs17655 do not influence the development of breast cancer in a Chinese population.

Chen J, Luo X, Xie G, et al.
Functional Analysis of SNPs in the ERCC5 Promoter in Advanced Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated With Oxaliplatin-Based Chemotherapy.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(19):e3652 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The promoter is the center for regulation of gene transcription due to containing numerous transcription factor binding sites. The aim of the study was to determine whether genetic variations at excision repair cross complementation group 5 (ERCC5) promoter could affect transcription factor binding and whether such single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-dependent binding could affect gene expression, drug response, and clinical outcome.A total of 170 patients who were cytologically or histologically confirmed with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC), at least 1 measurable lesion, and underwent oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy were studied. The polymerase chain reaction-ligation detection reaction (PCR-LDR) was used to analyze SNPs. The reporter gene assay system and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) were performed to investigate the effect of SNPs on the ERCC5 promoter activity and DNA-binding activity, respectively. The mRNA and protein expression of ERCC5 in tumor tissues of colorectal cancer patients with different genotypes were detected by real-time PCR and western blot, respectively.Both -763A and -763G allele had nuclear protein-binding ability. +25A allele did not show any nuclear protein-binding ability, whereas +25G allele did. The relative luciferase activity of the -763A/+25G haplotype was significantly higher than other 3 haplotypes (P < 0.05). The expression level of ERCC5 mRNA and protein was significantly higher in tumor tissues with -763AA+25GG genotype combination than that with -763GG+25AA genotype combination (P < 0.05, respectively). Allelic variants (-763AA vs -763AG or -763GG, +25GG versus +25AG or +25AA) were significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.05, respectively). At multivariate analysis, patients with risk genotypes (-763AA or +25GG genotype) demonstrated a significantly increasing risk of progression (P = 0.01) or worse OS (P = 0.001).The ERCC5 promoter polymorphisms at -763 and +25 may be important functional variants and predictors of clinical outcome of CRC patients who received oxaliplatin chemotherapy.

Li RJ, Li M, Liu GJ, et al.
Association between ERCC5 gene polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk in a Chinese population.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(1) [PubMed] Related Publications
We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to investigate the association between 3 common SNPs in the ERCC5 gene (rs1047768, rs751402, and rs17655) and the risk of developing gastric cancer. Between January 2013 and December 2014, samples were collected from 216 gastric cancer patients and 216 control subjects. ERCC5 rs1047768, rs751402, and rs17655 polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. By conditional logistic regression analysis, the GG genotype of rs17655 was found to be associated with an elevated risk of gastric cancer in a codominant model, and the adjusted OR (95%CI) was 1.96 (1.10-3.50). Moreover, in a dominant model, the CG + GG genotype of rs17655 was correlated with an increased risk of gastric cancer compared to the CC genotype (OR = 1.48; 95%CI = 1.00-2.22). rs1047768 and rs751402 were not significantly correlated with an increased or decreased gastric cancer risk.

Ying MF, Zhao R
Role of single nucleotide polymorphisms of DNA repair genes in susceptibility to pancreatic cancer in Chinese population.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(1) [PubMed] Related Publications
We conducted a case-control study to investigate the role of ERCC1-ERCC5 gene polymorphisms in the risk of pancreatic cancer. This study included 195 patients who were newly diagnosed with histopathologically confirmed primary pancreatic cancer, and 254 controls were recruited from Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, between January 2012 and December 2014. Genotyping of ERCC1 rs3212986 and rs11615, ERCC2 rs13181, ERCC3 rs4150441, ERCC4 rs6498486, and ERCC5 rs2094258 polymorphisms was carried out using polymerase chain reaction coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism. Unconditional logistic regression analyses showed that the TT genotype of ERCC1 rs3212986 was associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, and the OR (95%CI) was 2.26 (1.21-4.22). However, we did not find a significant association between ERCC1 rs11615, ERCC2 rs13181, ERCC3 rs4150441, ERCC4 rs6498486, and ERCC5 rs2094258 polymorphisms and risk of pancreatic cancer. In summary, we found that the presence of the ERCC1 rs3212986 polymorphism correlated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer.

Fu L, Xu X, Ren R, et al.
Modeling xeroderma pigmentosum associated neurological pathologies with patients-derived iPSCs.
Protein Cell. 2016; 7(3):210-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a group of genetic disorders caused by mutations of XP-associated genes, resulting in impairment of DNA repair. XP patients frequently exhibit neurological degeneration, but the underlying mechanism is unknown, in part due to lack of proper disease models. Here, we generated patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) harboring mutations in five different XP genes including XPA, XPB, XPC, XPG, and XPV. These iPSCs were further differentiated to neural cells, and their susceptibility to DNA damage stress was investigated. Mutation of XPA in either neural stem cells (NSCs) or neurons resulted in severe DNA damage repair defects, and these neural cells with mutant XPA were hyper-sensitive to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Thus, XP-mutant neural cells represent valuable tools to clarify the molecular mechanisms of neurological abnormalities in the XP patients.

Chen YZ, Guo F, Sun HW, et al.
Association between XPG polymorphisms and stomach cancer susceptibility in a Chinese population.
J Cell Mol Med. 2016; 20(5):903-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) protein plays an important role in the DNA repair process by cutting the damaged DNA at the 3' terminus. Previous studies have indicated some polymorphisms in the XPG gene are associated with stomach cancer susceptibility. We performed this hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the association of four potentially functional XPG polymorphisms (rs2094258 C>T, rs751402 C>T, rs2296147 T>C and rs873601G>A) with stomach cancer susceptibility. The four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 692 stomach cancer cases and 771 healthy controls. Logistic regression analysis was conducted, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association of interest. Of the studied SNPs, XPG rs873601G>A polymorphism was found to significantly associate with stomach cancer susceptibility (AA versus
GG/AG: OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.03-1.66, P = 0.027). Combined analysis of all SNPs revealed that the individuals with two of risk genotypes had a significantly increased stomach cancer risk (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.13-2.06). In the stratification analysis, the association between the rs873601AA genotype and stomach cancer risk was observed in older group (>59 year), as well as patients with non-cardia stomach cancer. Further combined analysis indicated men, smokers, or non-drinkers more than one risk genotypes had a significantly increased stomach cancer risk. Our results indicate that XPG rs873601G>A polymorphism may be associated with the risk of stomach cancer. Further prospective studies with different ethnicities and large sample sizes are needed to validate our findings.

Bănescu C, Iancu M, Trifa AP, et al.
Influence of XPC, XPD, XPF, and XPG gene polymorphisms on the risk and the outcome of acute myeloid leukemia in a Romanian population.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):9357-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
XPC, XPD, XPF, and XPG genes are implicated in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) system. Gene polymorphisms in NER repair system may influence the individual's capacity to recognize and repair DNA lesions, thus increasing the cancer risk. We hypothesized that these gene polymorphisms might influence the probability of developing acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We investigated the XPC, XPD, XPF, and XPG gene polymorphisms in 108 AML cases and 163 healthy controls. Also cytogenetic analyses besides FLT3 and DNMT3A mutations status were investigated. We found that variant genotypes (heterozygous and homozygous) of XPD 2251A > C and 22541A > C and the heterozygous genotype of XPG 3507G > C were associated with the risk of developing AML (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.53-4.25; p value <0.001; OR = 1.66, 95 % CI = 1.02-2.72; p value = 0.047, and OR = 2.36; 95 % CI = 1.32-4.21; p value = 0.004, respectively). No association was found between white blood cell counts, FLT3, DNMT3A mutations, cytogenetic risk group, and variant genotypes of none of the analyzed polymorphisms. Variant homozygous XPF 673C > T genotype was associated with higher dose of cytosine arabinoside treatment administrated to AML patients (p value = 0.04). No differences were found regarding survival time and variant genotype in the investigated gene polymorphisms with the exception of XPD 2251A > C. In conclusion, XPD 22541A > C, XPD 2251A > C, and XPG 3507G > C gene polymorphisms confer susceptibility to AML, while XPC 2920A > C, XPF-673C > T, XPF 11985A > G are not associated with AML.

Sun Y, Tan L, Li H, et al.
Association of NER pathway gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to laryngeal cancer in a Chinese population.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(9):11615-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We systematically analyzed the association of nine SNPs of seven key NER pathway genes with the development of laryngeal cancer patients, and investigated whether NER pathway polymorphisms could serve as potential biomarkers for laryngeal cancer risk. 271 patients with pathologically proven laryngeal cancer and 271 control subjects were included in our study. Genotyping of ERCC1 rs11615 and rs2298881, ERCC2 rs13181 and rs50871, ERCC3 rs4150441, ERCC4 rs6498486, ERCC5 rs2094258, XPA rs2808668 and XPC rs2228001 were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). By conditional logistic regression analysis, individuals carrying the TT genotype of ERCC1 rs11615 were correlated with an increased risk of larynx cancer when compared with the CC genotype (OR=1.89, 95% CI=1.07-3.37; P value=0.02). Moreover, individuals with the GG genotype of ERCC2 rs50871 were associated with an elevated risk of larynx cancer when compare with the TT genotype (OR=2.03, 95% CI=1.15-3.63; P value=0.01). We found a significant interaction between ERCC2 rs50871 polymorphism and tobacco smoking in the risk of larynx cancer (P for interaction <0.05). In conclusion, our study showed that ERCC1 rs11615 and ERCC2 rs50871 polymorphisms could influence the risk of larynx cancer in Chinese population, particularly among smokers.

Zhao F, Shang Y, Zeng C, et al.
Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of DNA repair genes in NER pathway and susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(9):11579-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In our study, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the association of ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, XPA, XPC and DDB2 gene polymorphisms in the risk of pancreatic cancer. Between May 2012 and May 2014, a total of 246 patients with who were newly diagnosed with histopathologically confirmed primary pancreatic cancer and 246 controls were selected into our study. Genotyping of ERCC1 rs3212986 and rs11615, ERCC2 rs13181, ERCC3 rs4150441, ERCC4 rs6498486, ERCC5 rs873601, XPA rs2808668, XPC rs2228000, XPC rs2228001 and DDB2 rs2029298 were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). By conditional logistic regression analysis, individuals carrying with TT genotype of ERCC1 rs3212986 and GG genotype of ERCC2 rs13181 were associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer when compared with wide-type genotype, and the adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 2.40 (1.29-4.52) and 2.27 (1.26-4.15), respectively. We found that individuals carrying with GT+TT genotype of ERCC1 rs3212986 and TG+GG genotype of ERCC2 rs1318 gene polymorphisms were correlated with higher risk of pancreatic cancer in smokers when compared with non-smokers, and the adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 1.89 (1.05-3.40) and 1.88 (1.06-3.34), respectively. In conclusion, our study suggests that ERCC1 rs3212986 and ERCC2 rs1318 gene polymorphisms contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer, especially in smokers.

Wang MJ, Zhu Y, Guo XJ, Tian ZZ
Genetic variability of genes involved in DNA repair influence treatment outcome in osteosarcoma.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(3):11652-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
We conducted a perspective study to investigate the role of ERCC1 (rs11615), ERCC2 (rs13181 and rs1799793), ERCC4 (rs1800067), and ERCC5 (rs17655) in NER pathway in the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients. In total, 146 osteosarcoma patients were recruited between 2008 and 2013. ERCC1 rs11615, ERCC2 rs13181 and rs1799793, ERCC4 rs1800067, and ERCC5 rs17655 gene polymorphisms were assessed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. By multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we found that carriers of ERCC1 rs11615 TT genotype showed significantly favorable survival compared to wide-type CC genotype, and the adjusted OR (95%CI) was 0.24 (0.08-0.96). Moreover, we found that subjects with ERCC2 rs1799793 AA genotype were associated with decreased hazards of death in multivariate analysis (HR = 0.22, 95%CI = 0.12-0.93). In conclusion, our results suggest that ERCC1 rs11615 and ERCC2 rs1799793 may be useful genetic prognostic markers for osteosarcoma in a Chinese population.

Sun Y, Wu Y, Li W, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair pathway influences response to chemotherapy and overall survival in osteosarcoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(7):7905-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We analyzed the role of genetic polymorphisms of six important NER pathway genes in response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome of osteosarcoma patients. A prospective study including 172 osteosarcoma patients was conducted between January 2009 and January 2011. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used for ERCC1 rs11615 and rs2298881, ERCC2 rs13181 and rs1799793, ERCC4 rs1800067, ERCC5 rs1047768, XPA 1800975, and XPC rs2228000 and rs2228001 gene polymorphisms. By logistic regression analysis, TT genotype of ERCC1 rs11615 genetic polymorphism was significant correlated with poor response to chemotherapy when compared with wide-type genotype (OR=0.27, 95% CI=0.10-0.71). AC and CC genotype of ERCC1 rs2298881 were significantly associated with poor response to chemotherapy when compared with AA genotype (For AC genotype, OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.21-0.97; for CC genotype, OR=0.19, 95% CI=0.06-0.58). By Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, TT genotype of ERCC1 rs11615 and CC genotype of ERCC1 rs2298881 suffered a 3.16 and 3.57-fold increased hazards of death (For ERCC1 rs11615, HR=3.16, 95% CI=1.19-9.16; for ERCC1 rs2298881, HR=3.57, 95% CI=1.10-11.35). In conclusion, our findings suggest that ERCC1 rs11615 and ERCC1 rs2298881 genetic polymorphisms are significantly associated with poor response to chemotherapy and unfavourable survival of osteosarcoma.

Somers J, Wilson LA, Kilday JP, et al.
A common polymorphism in the 5' UTR of ERCC5 creates an upstream ORF that confers resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy.
Genes Dev. 2015; 29(18):1891-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We show that a common polymorphic variant in the ERCC5 5' untranslated region (UTR) generates an upstream ORF (uORF) that affects both the background expression of this protein and its ability to be synthesized following exposure to agents that cause bulky adduct DNA damage. Individuals that harbor uORF1 have a marked resistance to platinum-based agents, illustrated by the significantly reduced progression-free survival of pediatric ependymoma patients treated with such compounds. Importantly, inhibition of DNA-PKcs restores sensitivity to platinum-based compounds by preventing uORF1-dependent ERCC5 expression. Our data support a model in which a heritable 5' noncoding mRNA element influences individuals' responses to platinum-based chemotherapy.

Geng P, Ou J, Li J, et al.
A Comprehensive Analysis of Influence ERCC Polymorphisms Confer on the Development of Brain Tumors.
Mol Neurobiol. 2016; 53(4):2705-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Within DNA repair genes, there lie a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms that may impair protein function and attenuate DNA repair capability, resulting in genomic instability and individual predisposition to malignancies. The purpose of this study was to assess the previously reported inconsistent association of polymorphisms in ERCC1 (rs11615, rs3212986), ERCC2 (rs13181, rs1799793, rs238406), and ERCC5 (rs17655) with the development of brain tumors. In the present work, we carried out a comprehensive meta-analysis of results from all published data (5 data sets for rs11615, 7 for rs3212986, 11 for rs13181, 5 for rs1799793, 3 for rs238406, and 4 for rs17655) to evaluate risk of brain tumors contributed by the polymorphisms being investigated. Either the analytic method described by Mantel and Haenszel or that proposed by DerSimonian and Laird was properly used to summarize the risk estimates (OR and 95% CI). Data analyses were done with Stata version 12.0. Meta-analyses were performed for all polymorphisms, and only rs3212986 in the ERCC1 gene showed a significant association with glioma incidence. In the homozygote comparison, we found 1.26-fold elevated risk of glioma in relation to presence of the AA genotype (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.05-1.52, P OR = 0.013, P heterogeneity = 0.849, I(2) = 0.0%). We also noted that individuals with the rs3212986-AA as compared to those with rs3212986-CC/CA had a 28% higher risk to develop glioma (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.06-1.53, P OR = 0.008, Pheterogeneity = 0.808, I(2) = 0.0%). No major effects were observed for Caucasians or Asians in subgroup analysis by ethnicity. ERCC1 rs3212986 is a common single nucleotide polymorphism and may contribute toward individual susceptibility for glioma. Further research in this filed is required to verify the association obtained based on a relatively small number.

Kjersem JB, Thomsen M, Guren T, et al.
AGXT and ERCC2 polymorphisms are associated with clinical outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with 5-FU/oxaliplatin.
Pharmacogenomics J. 2016; 16(3):272-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of the study was to investigate whether specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with influence on drug transport, biotransformation and repair mechanisms are associated with treatment outcome and toxicity in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We genotyped blood samples from 519 mCRC patients treated with first-line 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin +/- cetuximab for 17 SNPs in 10 genes involved in membrane transport (ABCC1 and ABCC2), drug biotransformation (GSTP1 and AGXT) and DNA repair (ERCC1, ERCC2, XRCC1, XRCC3, XPG and MSH6). The AGXT-rs34116584 and the ERCC2-rs238406 polymorphisms were significantly associated with progression-free survival (P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively). Associations between 18 toxicity variables and SNPs were identified, although none were significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The study identified SNPs of potential use as markers of clinical outcome in oxaliplatin-treated mCRC patients. If validated in other studies, they could improve the selection of therapy in mCRC.

Zeng Y, Wei L, Wang YJ, Liu C
Genetic Association between ERCC5 rs17655 Polymorphism and Colorectal Cancer Risk: Evidence Based on a Meta-analysis.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(13):5565-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies evaluating the association between the excision repair cross complementing group 5 (ERCC5) gene rs17655 polymorphism and colorectal cancer susceptibility generated controversial results. To generate large-scale evidence on whether the ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism might indeed be associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility, the present meta-analysis was performed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected from PubMed, Embase and Web of Science, with the last report up to Apr 03, 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of any association.
RESULTS: A total of nine studies including 5,102 cases and 6,326 controls based on the search criteria were included and significant associations were found between ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism CG vs GG overall (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.18~1.40) and in the dominant model (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.13~1.33). On subgroup analysis by ethnicity and source of controls, the ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism was found to correlate with the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer among Asians and Caucasians and with hospital-based populations.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that the ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism might contribute to genetic susceptibility to colorectal cancer.

Powrózek T, Mlak R, Krawczyk P, et al.
The relationship between polymorphisms of genes regulating DNA repair or cell division and the toxicity of platinum and vinorelbine chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC patients.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2016; 18(2):125-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Platinum-based chemotherapy and 3rd generation drugs is still the main treatment option for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients without activating EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangements. However, the side effects associated with cytostatics are well known. Changes in the genes (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) encoding proteins regulating DNA repair or cell division could potentially influence on both the susceptibility of cancer cells to chemotherapy, and the occurrence of toxicities.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In presented study, the relationship between the fourteen SNPs in nine DNA repair and cell division regulating genes: ERCC1, XPD, XPA, XPC, XRCC1, XPG, RRM1, BRCA1, STMN1 and the toxicity of first-line chemotherapy in NSCLC patients were investigated. SNPs were determined by SNaPshot PCR® in DNA isolated from peripheral blood of 55 NSCLC patients treated with platinum compound and vinorelbine. The toxicity of therapy was evaluated according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) Version 4.03.
RESULTS: The odds ratio (OR) of severe haematological toxicity was significantly lower in carriers of the T allele of XRCC1 gene (1196A > G, OR = 0.22, 95 % CI: 0.06-0.82, p = 0.018) and higher in the carriers of the T allele (2704C > A) of XPC gene (OR: 7.50, 95 % CI: 0.89-63.17, p = 0.036) compared to the remaining patients. Risk of severe hepatotoxicity was significantly lower in carriers of the C allele of STMN1 (-2166T > C, OR = 0.09, 95 % CI: 0.01-1.12, p = 0.025) than in patients with T allele of this gene. In carriers of G allele (2251A > C, OR: 0.24, 95 % CI: 0.07-0.81, p = 0.017) and T (934G > A, OR: 0.26, 95 % CI: 0.07-0.90, p = 0.029) of XPD gene, risk of severe nephrotoxicity was significantly lower than in other patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Selected SNPs of genes encoding DNA repair enzymes and cell division regulation proteins could be useful biomarkers for prediction of platinum and vinorelbine-based chemotherapy toxicity in patients with advanced NSCLC.

Xue MH, Li GY, Wu XJ, et al.
Genetic variability of genes in NER pathway influences the treatment outcome of gastric cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(5):5563-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We performed a study to investigate the role of ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC5, XPA and XPC polymorphisms from perspective of the whole NER pathway in the prognosis of gastric cancer. A total of 410 gastric cancer patients were recruited between January 2010 and December 2011. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) was used to analyze genotypes of ERCC1 rs11615 and rs3212986, ERCC2 rs13181 and s1799793, ERCC5 rs17655, XPA rs1800975 and XPC rs2228001. Our study found that carriers of ERCC1 rs3212986 TT genotype showed significantly favorable survival than wide-type GG genotype in multivariate analysis (OR=6.38, 95% CI=2.54-19.03), and patients with variant CC genotype of ERCC2 rs13181 exhibited better response to chemotherapy than those with AA genotype (OR=2.21, 95% CI=1.17-4.25). By Cox proportional hazards model, patients with variant TT genotype of ERCC1 rs3212986 exhibited longer PFS and OS than those who had GG genotype (for PFS, HR=0.37, 95% CI=0.17-0.75; for OS, HR=0.36, 95% CI=0.13-0.87). For ERCC2 rs13181 polymorphism, carriers with CC genotype demonstrated significantly increased hazards of progression of disease and death in multivariate model (for PFS, HR=0.48, 95% CI=0.26-0.88; for OS, HR=0.44, 95% CI=0.20-0.91). In conclusion, our finding suggests that ERCC1 rs3212986 and ERCC2 rs13181 gene polymorphism could influence the response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome of gastric cancer.

Narita T, Narita K, Takedachi A, et al.
Regulation of Transcription Elongation by the XPG-TFIIH Complex Is Implicated in Cockayne Syndrome.
Mol Cell Biol. 2015; 35(18):3178-88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
XPG is a causative gene underlying the photosensitive disorder xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XP-G) and is involved in nucleotide excision repair. Here, we show that XPG knockdown represses epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced FOS transcription at the level of transcription elongation with little effect on EGF signal transduction. XPG interacted with transcription elongation factors in concert with TFIIH, suggesting that the XPG-TFIIH complex serves as a transcription elongation factor. The XPG-TFIIH complex was recruited to promoter and coding regions of both EGF-induced (FOS) and housekeeping (EEF1A1) genes. Further, EGF-induced recruitment of RNA polymerase II and TFIIH to FOS was reduced by XPG knockdown. Importantly, EGF-induced FOS transcription was markedly lower in XP-G/Cockayne syndrome (CS) cells expressing truncated XPG than in control cells expressing wild-type (WT) XPG, with less significant decreases in XP-G cells with XPG nuclease domain mutations. In corroboration of this finding, both WT XPG and a missense XPG mutant from an XP-G patient were recruited to FOS upon EGF stimulation, but an XPG mutant mimicking a C-terminal truncation from an XP-G/CS patient was not. These results suggest that the XPG-TFIIH complex is involved in transcription elongation and that defects in this association may partly account for Cockayne syndrome in XP-G/CS patients.

Na N, Dun E, Ren L, Li G
Association between ERCC5 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(3):3192-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the association between ERCC5 polymorphism and breast cancer risk. 325 breast cancer patients and 325 controls were recruited in our study between January 2011 and March 2014. ERCC5 rs1047768, rs2094258, rs2296147, rs751402 and rs873601 polymorphisms were genotyped, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. By logistic regression analysis, we found that individuals with AA genotype of rs2094258 was associated with increased risk of breast cancer when compared with wide-type genotype, and the OR (95% CI) was 1.80 (1.12-2.92) for AA genotype. Individuals with GA+GG genotype of rs2094258 were significantly correlated with increased risk of breast cancer in tobacco smokers, and the OR (95% CI) was 7.35 (1.21-47.20). In conclusion, our study indicated that ERCC5 rs2094258 polymorphism may contribute to the risk of breast cancer.

Kabzinski J, Przybylowska K, Dziki L, et al.
An association of selected ERCC2 and ERCC5 genes polymorphisms, the level of oxidative DNA damage and its repair efficiency with a risk of colorectal cancer in Polish population.
Cancer Biomark. 2015; 15(4):413-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between polymorphisms of ERCC2 and ERCC5 genes and efficiency of repair of oxidative DNA damage with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Experimental material was peripheral blood and tumor slices from CRC collected from 235 patients, 240 people without any cancer were control group. Distribution of polymorphisms of ERCC2 and ERCC5 genes in patients with CRC and healthy subjects, as well as level of oxidative DNA damage in patients and in healthy controls was performed. It has been found that the genotype 751Gln/Gln and allele Gln of ERCC2 gene and allele Asp of 312Asn/Asp polymorphism of ERCC2 gene may be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Reduced DNA repair efficiency was also demonstrated, which can confirm the important role of oxidative damage and polymorphisms of ERCC2 and ERCC5 genes in the pathogenesis of CRC. In summary, it is critical to establish a link between gene polymorphisms in repair of oxidative DNA damage with the risk of cancer. This in future will allow for diagnostic tests which will let to identify persons with high risk of developing cancer and thus effectively implement prophylactic treatment.

Feltes BC, Bonatto D
Overview of xeroderma pigmentosum proteins architecture, mutations and post-translational modifications.
Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res. 2015 Jan-Mar; 763:306-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
The xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group proteins (XPs), which include XPA through XPG, play a critical role in coordinating and promoting global genome and transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER and TC-NER, respectively) pathways in eukaryotic cells. GG-NER and TC-NER are both required for the repair of bulky DNA lesions, such as those induced by UV radiation. Mutations in genes that encode XPs lead to the clinical condition xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). Although the roles of XPs in the GG-NER/TC-NER subpathways have been extensively studied, complete knowledge of their three-dimensional structure is only beginning to emerge. Hence, this review aims to summarize the current knowledge of mapped mutations and other structural information on XP proteins that influence their function and protein-protein interactions. We also review the possible post-translational modifications for each protein and the impact of these modifications on XP protein functions.

Zou HZ, Zhao YQ
XPG polymorphisms are associated with prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with platinum-based doublet chemotherapy.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(1):500-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We conducted a cohort study to investigate whether 3 potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group G (XPG) gene could predict the survival of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with platinum-based doublet chemotherapy. We enrolled 262 patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC between November 2007 and December 2008 in this study. The 3 SNPs (rs2296147T>C, rs2094258C>T, and rs873601G>A) were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Older age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score ≥2 and higher disease stage were associated with shorter survival. In the Cox proportional hazard model, patients carrying the rs2296147 TT genotype and the T allele had a significantly reduced risk of developing progressive disease or dying from NSCLC. The HRs (95%CI) were 0.31 (0.13-0.73) and 0.44 (0.24-0.83) for progression-free survival and 0.32 (0.14-0.71) and 0.54 (0.32-0.98) for overall survival, respectively. Moreover, advanced NSCLC patients carrying the rs2094258 GG and the G allele had a significantly decreased risk of developing progressive disease. The HRs (95%CI) for the rs2094258 GG genotype and the G allele were 0.35 (0.16-0.80) and 0.45 (0.23-0.86) for overall survival, respectively. We suggest that the rs2296147 and rs2094258 polymorphisms could be used as surrogate markers, leading to individualization of NSCLC treatment strategies.

Wang H, Wang T, Guo H, et al.
Association analysis of ERCC5 gene polymorphisms with risk of breast cancer in Han women of northwest China.
Breast Cancer. 2016; 23(3):479-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: ERCC5 plays an important role in DNA damage repair. Mutations in it will lead to DNA repair defects and genomic instability. Its functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may alter DNA repair capacity and affect cancer susceptibility.
METHODS: This study aims to evaluate the association between SNPs in ERCC5 and breast cancer susceptibility in Han women subjects genetically from northwest China. A total of 101 breast cancer patients and 101 healthy controls provided blood samples for analysis of ERCC5 rs17655 and rs751402 genotypes.
RESULTS: After adjusting covariates, rs751402 homozygote AA and heterozygote AG were found to confer statistically significant protections (OR 0.052, 95% CI 0.006-0.411, P = 0.005; OR 0.145, 95% CI 0.067-0.315, P < 0.001, respectively) against breast cancer. Moreover, both of the dominant and recessive models of rs751402 also conferred a decreased risk of breast cancer (AA + AG vs. GG, OR 0.125, 95% CI 0.060-0.261, P < 0.001; AA vs. GG + AG, OR 0.082, 95% CI 0.010-0.648, P = 0.018, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the rs751402 in ERCC5 may affect the risk of breast cancer and show that it is associated with breast cancer characteristics in the Han population of northwest China. However, we found no significant differences between breast cancer patients and control subjects regarding ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism in the studied population.

Graves CA, Jones A, Reynolds J, et al.
Neuroendocrine Merkel cell carcinoma is associated with mutations in key DNA repair, epigenetic and apoptosis pathways: a case-based study using targeted massively parallel sequencing.
Neuroendocrinology. 2015; 101(2):112-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine carcinoma with a poorly understood molecular etiology. We implemented a comprehensive deep sequencing approach to identify mutations in the tumor DNA from a cohort of patients treated at our institution over the past 15 years. Our results indicate mutations that may constitute therapeutic targets in MCC.
METHODS: Five patients were treated for MCC within the study interval. Patients with adequate tissue (n = 4), positive neuroendocrine differentiation (chromogranin, synaptophysin, and cytokeratin 20), and histopathological confirmation of MCC were included in the study. DNA was extracted from archival tumor tissue samples and analyzed by massively parallel sequencing using a targeted, multiplex PCR approach followed by semiconductor sequencing.
RESULTS: We demonstrate high-penetrance nonsense mutations in PDE4DIP (n = 4) as well as various missense mutations in the DNA damage response (PRKDC, AURKB, ERCC5, ATR, and ATRX) and epigenetic modulating enzymes (MLL3).
CONCLUSION: We describe several mutations in potential disease-relevant genes and pathways. These targets should be evaluated in a larger cohort to determine their role in the molecular pathogenesis of MCC.

Asnaghi L, Alkatan H, Mahale A, et al.
Identification of multiple DNA copy number alterations including frequent 8p11.22 amplification in conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014; 55(12):8604-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Little is known about the molecular alterations that drive formation and growth of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). We therefore sought to identify genetic changes that could be used as diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets.
METHODS: The DNA extracted from 10 snap-frozen cSCC tumor specimens and 2 in situ carcinomas was analyzed using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), and further examined with NanoString and quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: The number of regions of DNA loss ranged from 1 to 23 per tumor, whereas gains and amplifications ranged from 1 to 15 per tumor. Most large regions of chromosomal gain and loss were confirmed by NanoString karyotype analysis. The commonest alteration was amplification of 8p11.22 in 9 tumors (75%), and quantitative PCR analysis revealed 100-fold or greater overexpression of ADAM3A mRNA from 8p11.22 locus. In addition, recurring losses were observed at 14q13.2 and 22q11.23, both lost in 5 (42%) of the 12 tumors, and at 12p13.31, lost in 4 (33%) of the 12 samples. Of the eight loci associated with the DNA damage repair syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum, three showed loss of at least one allele in our aCGH analysis, including XPA (9q22.33, one tumor), XPE/DDB2 (11p11.2, one tumor) and XPG/ERCC5 (13q33.1, three tumors).
CONCLUSIONS: Conjunctival SCC contains a range of chromosomal alterations potentially important in tumor formation and growth. Amplification of 8p11.22 and overexpression of ADAM3A suggests a potential role for this protease. Our findings also suggest that defects in DNA repair loci are important in sporadic cSCC.

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