Gene Summary

Gene:ERRFI1; ERBB receptor feedback inhibitor 1
Aliases: MIG6, RALT, MIG-6, GENE-33
Summary:ERRFI1 is a cytoplasmic protein whose expression is upregulated with cell growth (Wick et al., 1995 [PubMed 7641805]). It shares significant homology with the protein product of rat gene-33, which is induced during cell stress and mediates cell signaling (Makkinje et al., 2000 [PubMed 10749885]; Fiorentino et al., 2000 [PubMed 11003669]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ERBB receptor feedback inhibitor 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (15)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Mutation
  • Tumor Markers
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Exons
  • Apoptosis
  • EGFR
  • Phosphorylation
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins
  • Sulfonamides
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Transcriptome
  • Up-Regulation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cancer RNA
  • Chromosome 1
  • Bone Cancer
  • Ncoa1 protein, mouse
  • Histone Acetyltransferases
  • Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Gene Expression
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Retinol-Binding Proteins, Cellular
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • Adolescents
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • TACC3
  • Endometrial Hyperplasia
  • Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
  • Genetic Variation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Histones
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ERRFI1 (cancer-related)

Izumchenko E, Chang X, Michailidi C, et al.
The TGFβ-miR200-MIG6 pathway orchestrates the EMT-associated kinase switch that induces resistance to EGFR inhibitors.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(14):3995-4005 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although specific mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) identify tumors that are responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), these genetic alterations are present in only a minority of patients. Patients with tumors expressing wild-type EGFR lack reliable predictive markers of their clinical response to EGFR TKIs. Although epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been inversely correlated with the response of cancers to EGFR-targeted therapy, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying this association have not been defined and no specific EMT-associated biomarker of clinical benefit has been identified. Here, we show that during transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-mediated EMT, inhibition of the microRNAs 200 (miR200) family results in upregulated expression of the mitogen-inducible gene 6 (MIG6), a negative regulator of EGFR. The MIG6-mediated reduction of EGFR occurs concomitantly with a TGFβ-induced EMT-associated kinase switch of tumor cells to an AKT-activated EGFR-independent state. In a panel of 25 cancer cell lines of different tissue origins, we find that the ratio of the expression levels of MIG6 and miR200c is highly correlated with EMT and resistance to erlotinib. Analyses of primary tumor xenografts of patient-derived lung and pancreatic cancers carrying wild-type EGFR showed that the tumor MIG6(mRNA)/miR200 ratio was inversely correlated with response to erlotinib in vivo. Our data demonstrate that the TGFβ-miR200-MIG6 network orchestrates the EMT-associated kinase switch that induces resistance to EGFR inhibitors, and identify a low ratio of MIG6 to miR200 as a promising predictive biomarker of the response of tumors to EGFR TKIs.

Kuo CC, Lin CY, Shih YL, et al.
Frequent methylation of HOXA9 gene in tumor tissues and plasma samples from human hepatocellular carcinomas.
Clin Chem Lab Med. 2014; 52(8):1235-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant DNA methylation is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), suggesting that gene methylation could be a potential biomarker for detection of HCC. The aim of this study is to identify potential biomarkers in HCC.
METHODS: We used the Infinium methylation array and a DNA-pooling strategy to analyze the genome-wide methylation profile in HCC. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR (Q-MSP) was used to validate homeobox A9 (HOXA9) methylation in 29 normal controls, 100 HCC samples and adjacent non-tumor tissues and in 74 plasma samples, including 40 patients with HCC.
RESULTS: Ten genes (HOXA9, NEUROG1, TNFRSF10C, IRAK3, GFPT2, ZNF177, DPYSL4, ELOVL4, FSD1, and CACNA1G) showed differences in methylation between controls and HCCs. Of these, HOXA9 was significantly hypermethylated in HCCs (76.7%; 23/30) compared with controls (3.4%; 1/29). In addition, combination analysis of two- and three-gene sets for HCC detection showed greater sensitivity (90%-96.7%) and comparable specificity (93.1%-96.6%) to each individual gene (33.3%-76.7% and 55.2%-100.0%). HOXA9 methylation was further validated by Q-MSP in two independent set of clinical samples including 100 HCC and paired non-tumor tissues. Further, HOXA9 methylation could be detected in plasma from HCC patients (n=40) but not in normal plasma (n=34) (p<0.0005). Combined testing (either parameter positive) for α-fetoprotein (AFP, a plasma protein biomarker) and HOXA9 methylation showed greater sensitivity (94.6%) for detection of HCC than AFP alone (75.7%).
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that methylation of HOXA9 could be a helpful biomarker to assist in HCC detection.

Li Z, Qu L, Zhong H, et al.
Low expression of Mig-6 is associated with poor survival outcome in NSCLC and inhibits cell apoptosis via ERK-mediated upregulation of Bcl-2.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(4):1707-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mitogen-inducible gene-6 (Mig-6), an immediate early response gene, is a specific negative regulator of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Ablation of Mig-6 has been shown to induce tumor formation in various tissues, supporting the tumor suppressor function of Mig-6. However, little is known about the role of Mig-6 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) apoptosis, nor has the contribution of upregulated Mig-6 on biological behaviors of A549 and H157 cells previously been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exogenously transfected Mig-6 on proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of A549 and H157 cells and to identify novel underlying mechanisms of Mig-6-induced apoptosis. We used immunohistochemical staining to examine the expression of Mig-6 protein in NSCLC tissues. For evaluation of the prognostic value of Mig-6 expression to each clinicopathologic factor, Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's proportional hazards model were employed. Mig-6 low expression was correlated with a poor prognosis in patients with lung cancer. Patients with high expression of Mig-6 had a statistically significantly longer survival than those with low expression of Mig-6. Cox's regression analysis indicated that loss of Mig-6 expression was an independent, unfavorable prognostic factors. We utilized siRNA-targeting Mig-6 and Mig-6 overexpression plasmid to determine the effect of Mig-6 on lung cancer cells. Flow cytometry studies revealed Mig-6 overexpression promoted apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines. siRNA-mediated Mig-6 knockdown inhibited apoptosis of cancer cells, but this anti-apoptotic effect was abolished by inhibition of ERK. Upregulation of Mig-6 decreased the proliferation and invasive potential of transfected cells. Moreover, upregulation of Mig-6 inhibited proliferation and invasion of A549 and H157 cells. Collectively, our results showed that Mig-6 is a potential biomarker for evaluation of tumor prognosis of lung cancer. Mig-6 promotes apoptosis in lung cancer cells via the ERK pathway.

Walsh AM, Lazzara MJ
Differential parsing of EGFR endocytic flux among parallel internalization pathways in lung cancer cells with EGFR-activating mutations.
Integr Biol (Camb). 2014; 6(3):312-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Due to the existence of parallel pathways for receptor endocytosis and their complexities, a quantitative understanding of receptor endocytosis in normal and pathological settings requires computational analysis. Here, we develop a mechanistic model of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) endocytosis to determine the relative contributions of three parallel pathways: clathrin-dependent internalization mediated by mitogen-inducible gene 6 (MIG6), an endogenous EGFR kinase inhibitor that links EGFR to endocytic proteins; clathrin-dependent internalization mediated by the ubiquitin ligase CBL, which can be sequestered by the regulatory protein Sprouty2; or alternative pathways that may be non-clathrin mediated. We applied the model to interpret our previous measurements of EGFR endocytosis in lung cancer cells. Interestingly, our results suggest that MIG6 is responsible for at least as much wild-type EGFR internalization as CBL, indicating that a significant fraction of internalizing EGFR may be incapable of driving signaling. Model results also suggest that MIG6's endocytic function is reduced for the kinase-activated and internalization-impaired EGFR mutants found in some lung cancers. Analysis of Sprouty2 knockdown data indicates that Sprouty2 regulates EGFR endocytosis primarily by controlling EGFR expression, rather than by sequestering CBL, and supports the notion that CBL-mediated internalization is impaired for EGFR mutants. We further demonstrate that differences in internalization between wild-type and mutant EGFR cannot explain differences in EGF-mediated EGFR degradation without concomitant changes in EGFR recycling, which we previously quantified. This work provides new quantitative insights into EGFR trafficking in lung cancer and provides a framework for studying parallel endocytosis pathways for other receptors.

Chang X, Izumchenko E, Solis LM, et al.
The relative expression of Mig6 and EGFR is associated with resistance to EGFR kinase inhibitors.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e68966 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The sensitivity of only a few tumors to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) can be explained by the presence of EGFR tyrosine kinase (TK) domain mutations. In addition, such mutations were rarely found in tumor types other than lung, such as pancreatic and head and neck cancer. In this study we sought to elucidate mechanisms of resistance to EGFR-targeted therapies in tumors that do not harbor TK sensitizing mutations in order to identify markers capable of guiding the decision to incorporate these drugs into chemotherapeutic regimens. Here we show that EGFR activity was markedly decreased during the evolution of resistance to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) erlotinib, with a concomitant increase of mitogen-inducible gene 6 (Mig6), a negative regulator of EGFR through the upregulation of the PI3K-AKT pathway. EGFR activity, which was more accurately predicted by the ratio of Mig6/EGFR, highly correlated with erlotinib sensitivity in panels of cancer cell lines of different tissue origins. Blinded testing and analysis in a prospectively followed cohort of lung cancer patients treated with gefitinib alone demonstrated higher response rates and a marked increased in progression free survival for patients with a low Mig6/EGFR ratio (approximately 100 days, P = 0.01).

Walsh AM, Lazzara MJ
Regulation of EGFR trafficking and cell signaling by Sprouty2 and MIG6 in lung cancer cells.
J Cell Sci. 2013; 126(Pt 19):4339-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
The duration and specificity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation and signaling are determinants of cellular decision processes and are tightly regulated by receptor dephosphorylation, internalization and degradation. In addition, regulatory proteins that are upregulated or activated post-transcriptionally upon receptor activation may initiate feedback loops that play crucial roles in spatiotemporal regulation of signaling. We examined the roles of Sprouty2 (SPRY2) and mitogen-inducible gene 6 (MIG6), two feedback regulators of EGFR trafficking and signaling, in lung cancer cells with or without EGFR-activating mutations. These mutations are of interest because they confer unusual cellular sensitivity to EGFR inhibition through a mechanism involving an impairment of EGFR endocytosis. We found that the endocytosis of wild-type and mutant EGFR was promoted by SPRY2 knockdown and antagonized by MIG6 knockdown. SPRY2 knockdown also significantly reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, EGFR expression, and EGFR recycling. In a cell line expressing mutant EGFR, this effect on ERK led to a marked increase in cell death response to EGFR inhibition. The effects of SPRY2 knockdown on EGFR endocytosis and recycling were primarily the result of the concomitant change in EGFR expression, but this was not true for the observed changes in ERK phosphorylation. Thus, our study demonstrates that SPRY2 and MIG6 are important regulators of wild-type and mutant EGFR trafficking and points to an EGFR expression-independent function of SPRY2 in the regulation of ERK activity that may impact cellular sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors, especially in the context of EGFR mutation.

Kraguljac Kurtović N, Krajnović M, Bogdanović A, et al.
Concomitant aberrant methylation of p15 and MGMT genes in acute myeloid leukemia: association with a particular immunophenotype of blast cells.
Med Oncol. 2012; 29(5):3547-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) was used to define the methylation status of the target promoter sequences of p15 and MGMT genes in the group of 21 adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The incidence of aberrant hypermethylation of p15 gene (71 %) was higher comparing to MGMT gene (33 %), whereas concomitant methylation of both genes had 24 % of the patients. Although the incidence of cytogenetic abnormalities between the groups with a different methylation status of p15 and/or MGMT genes was not significantly different, we observed general trend of clustering of abnormalities with adverse prognosis into groups with concomitant hypermethylation of both genes and only p15 gene. Also, we showed that AML patients with concomitant methylation of p15/MGMT genes had a higher proportion of leukemic blast cells characterized with specific expression of individual leukocyte surface antigens (CD117(+)/CD7(+)/CD34(+)/CD15(-)), indicating leukemic cells as early myeloid progenitors. Although we could not prove that hypermethylation of p15 and/or MGMT genes is predictive parameter for response to therapy and overall survival, we noticed that AML patients with comethylated p15/MGMT genes or methylated p15 gene exhibited a higher frequency of early death, lower frequency of complete remissions as well as a trend for shorter overall survival. Assessing of the methylation status of p15 and MGMT genes may allow stratification of patients with AML into distinct groups with potentially different prognosis.

Shahabi V, Whitney G, Hamid O, et al.
Assessment of association between BRAF-V600E mutation status in melanomas and clinical response to ipilimumab.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2012; 61(5):733-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ipilimumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, has demonstrated significant improvement in overall survival in previously treated advanced melanoma patients. The BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, has shown up to 78% objective response rates in melanoma patients harboring the BRAF-V600E mutation but not in patients lacking the mutation. As an immune potentiator, the mechanism of action of ipilimumab may not be dependent of the activity of the BRAF pathway. To test this, we investigated whether the clinical activity of ipilimumab would be affected by the BRAF-V600E mutation status of the tumors. Thus, this retrospective analysis was carried using a set of tumor biopsies from a completed phase II clinical trial. CA184004 was a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial of 82 previously treated or untreated patients with unresectable stage III/IV melanoma. Patients received ipilimumab 3 or 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks for four doses followed by maintenance dosing in eligible patients. The BRAF-V600E mutation status for 80 patients was determined in tumor biopsies by PCR-based assays. Data on disease control were available for 69 patients with evaluated BRAF-V600E mutation status. Rates of objective responses and stable disease in patients with BRAF-V600E mutation positive tumors (30%) were comparable to those in patients with the wild-type gene (~33%). Eleven patients displayed Durable Disease Control (DDC) of which 55% had BRAF-V600E mutation positive tumors and 45% did not. In the 48 patients showing no DDC, the mutation frequency was 50%. In this study, no association between BRAF-V600E mutation status of melanoma tumors and DDC after treatment with ipilimumab was detected.

Gypas F, Bei ES, Zervakis M, Sfakianakis S
A disease annotation study of gene signatures in a breast cancer microarray dataset.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011; 2011:5551-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is a complex disease with heterogeneity between patients regarding prognosis and treatment response. Recent progress in advanced molecular biology techniques and the development of efficient methods for database mining lead to the discovery of promising novel biomarkers for prognosis and prediction of breast cancer. In this paper, we applied three computational algorithms (RFE-LNW, Lasso and FSMLP) to one microarray dataset for breast cancer and compared the obtained gene signatures with a recently described disease-agnostic tool, the Genotator. We identified a panel of 152 genes as a potential prognostic signature and the ERRFI1 gene as possible biomarker of breast cancer disease.

Siu A, Virtanen C, Jongstra J
PIM kinase isoform specific regulation of MIG6 expression and EGFR signaling in prostate cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2011; 2(12):1134-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The PIM family of oncogenic serine/threonine kinases regulates tumour cell proliferation. To identify proliferative signaling pathways that are regulated by PIM kinases we analyzed gene expression differences in DU-145 and PC3 prostate cancer derived cells induced by treatment with the recently developed highly selective PIM kinase inhibitor M-110. This identified 97 genes the expression of which is affected by M-110 in both cell lines. We then focused on the M-110 induced up regulation of the MIG6 gene that encodes a negative regulator of EGFR signaling. Here we show that M-110 and the structurally unrelated PIM kinase inhibitor SGI-1776 up regulate MIG6 in DU-145 and PC3 cells. Knockdown of PIM-1 but not of PIM-2 or PIM-3 also up regulates MIG6 expression, which identifies MIG6 as a PIM-1 regulated gene. In agreement with the role of MIG6 protein as a negative regulator of EGFR signaling we found that M-110 treatment inhibits EGF induced EGFR activation and the activation of the downstream ERK MAPkinase pathway. The biological significance of these findings are demonstrated by the fact that co-treatment of DU-145 or PC3 cells with the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor Gefitinib and M-110 or SGI-1776 has synergistic inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. These experiments define a novel biological function of PIM-1 as a co-regulator of EGFR signaling and suggest that PIM inhibitors may be used in combination therapies to increase the efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

Tesser-Gamba F, Petrilli AS, de Seixas Alves MT, et al.
MAPK7 and MAP2K4 as prognostic markers in osteosarcoma.
Hum Pathol. 2012; 43(7):994-1002 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is a class of cancer originating from the bone, affecting mainly children and young adults. Cytogenetic studies showed the presence of rearrangements and recurrent gains in specific chromosomal regions, indicating the possible involvement of genes located in these regions during the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. These studies investigated expression of 10 genes located in the chromosomal region involved in abnormalities in osteosarcoma, 1p36, 17p, and chromosome 19. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression profile of genes located in regions involved in chromosomal rearrangements in osteosarcoma. We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to investigate the expression of 10 genes located in 1p36.3 (MTHFR, ERRFI1, FGR, E2F2), 17p (MAPK7, MAP2K4), and chromosome 19 (BBC3, FOSB, JUND, and RRAS), in 70 samples taken from 30 patients (30 prechemotherapy, 30 postchemotherapy, and 10 metastases specimens) and 10 healthy bones as a control sample. The most interesting results showed a strong association between the expression levels of MAPK7 and MAP2K4 genes and clinical parameters of osteosarcoma. Overexpression of these genes was significantly associated to a poor response to treatment (P = .0001 and P = .0049, respectively), tumor progression, and worse overall survival (P = .0052 and P = .0085, respectively), suggesting that MAPK7 and MAP2K4 could play an important role in osteosarcoma tumorigenesis. Thus, these genes could be good markers in assessing response to treatment and development of osteosarcoma.

Li Z, Dong Q, Wang Y, et al.
Downregulation of Mig-6 in nonsmall-cell lung cancer is associated with EGFR signaling.
Mol Carcinog. 2012; 51(7):522-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Downregulation of Mig-6 expression has been implicated in several human cancers and its loss can lead to prolonged activation of EGFR and carcinogenesis. The present study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of loss of Mig-6 expression in nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the biological functions of Mig-6 in NSCLC cell lines. Mig-6 expression was downregulated in 47/91 (51.6%) cases of NSCLC that were examined. Mig-6 downregulation significantly correlated with poor differentiation (P = 0.0131), histological type (P = 0.0021), and EGFR expression (P = 0.003). In addition, knockdown of Mig-6 expression in H1299 and BE1 cells promoted EGF-induced tumor cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, Mig-6 knockdown led to a significant increase in phospho-AKT, phospho-ERK, phospho-EGFR as well as MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. These results indicate that downregulated Mig-6 in NSCLC tissues may serve as a new marker that can predict the activation of EGFR signaling pathway.

Segatto O, Anastasi S, Alemà S
Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signalling by inducible feedback inhibitors.
J Cell Sci. 2011; 124(Pt 11):1785-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Signalling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) controls morphogenesis and/or homeostasis of several tissues from worms to mammals. The correct execution of these programmes requires the generation of EGFR signals of appropriate strength and duration. This is obtained through a complex circuitry of positive and negative feedback regulation. Feedback inhibitory mechanisms restrain EGFR activity in time and space, which is key to ensuring that receptor outputs are commensurate to the cell and tissue needs. Here, we focus on the emerging field of inducible negative feedback regulation of the EGFR in mammals. In mammalian cells, four EGFR inducible feedback inhibitors (IFIs), namely LRIG1, RALT (also known as MIG6 and ERRFI1), SOCS4 and SOCS5, have been discovered recently. EGFR IFIs are expressed de novo in the context of early or delayed transcriptional responses triggered by EGFR activation. They all bind to the EGFR and suppress receptor signalling through several mechanisms, including catalytic inhibition and receptor downregulation. Here, we review the mechanistic basis of IFI signalling and rationalise the function of IFIs in light of gene-knockout studies that assign LRIG1 and RALT an essential role in restricting cell proliferation. Finally, we discuss how IFIs might participate in system control of EGFR signalling and highlight the emerging roles for IFIs in the suppression of EGFR-driven tumorigenesis.

Savaris RF, Groll JM, Young SL, et al.
Progesterone resistance in PCOS endometrium: a microarray analysis in clomiphene citrate-treated and artificial menstrual cycles.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96(6):1737-46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CONTEXT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy of reproductive-aged women, is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and hyperandrogenism.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare gene expression between endometrial samples of normal fertile controls and women with PCOS.
DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a case control study at university teaching hospitals.
PATIENTS: Normal fertile controls and women with PCOS participated in the study.
INTERVENTIONS: Endometrial samples were obtained from normal fertile controls and from women with PCOS, either induced to ovulate with clomiphene citrate or from a modeled secretory phase using daily administration of progesterone.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Total RNA was isolated from samples and processed for array hybridization with Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2 arrays. Data were analyzed using GeneSpring GX11 and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis. Selected gene expression differences were validated using RT-PCR and/or immunohistochemistry in separately obtained PCOS and normal endometrium.
RESULTS: ANOVA analysis revealed 5160 significantly different genes among the three conditions. Of these, 466 were differentially regulated between fertile controls and PCOS. Progesterone-regulated genes, including mitogen-inducible gene 6 (MIG6), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (GAB1), S100P, and claudin-4 were significantly lower in PCOS endometrium; whereas cell proliferation genes, such as Anillin and cyclin B1, were up-regulated.
CONCLUSIONS: Differences in gene expression provide evidence of progesterone resistance in midsecretory PCOS endometrium, independent of clomiphene citrate and corresponding to the observed phenotypes of hyperplasia, cancer, and poor reproductive outcomes in this group of women.

Ramdas P, Rajihuzzaman M, Veerasenan SD, et al.
Tocotrienol-treated MCF-7 human breast cancer cells show down-regulation of API5 and up-regulation of MIG6 genes.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2011 Jan-Feb; 8(1):19-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tocotrienols belong to the vitamin E family and have multiple anticancer effects, such as antiproliferative, antioxidant, pro-apoptosis and antimetastatic. This study aimed to identify the genes that are regulated in human breast cancer cells following exposure to various isomers of vitamin E as these may be potential targets for the treatment of breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gene expression profiling was performed with MCF-7 cells at inhibitory conditions of IC(50) using Illumina's Sentrix Array Human-6 BeadChips. The expression levels of selected differentially expressed genes were verified by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR).
RESULTS: The treatment with tocotrienol-rich palm oil fraction (TRF), α-tocopherol and isomers of tocotrienols (α, γ, and δ) altered the expression of several genes that code for proteins involved in the regulation of immune response, tumour growth and metastatic suppression, apoptotic signalling, transcription, protein biosynthesis regulation and many others.
CONCLUSION: Treatment of human MCF-7 cells with tocotrienol isomers causes the down-regulation of the API5 gene and up-regulation of the MIG6 gene and the differential expression of other genes reported to play a key role in breast cancer biology.

Lin CI, Du J, Shen WT, et al.
Mitogen-inducible gene-6 is a multifunctional adaptor protein with tumor suppressor-like activity in papillary thyroid cancer.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96(3):E554-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Low tumoral expression of mitogen-inducible gene-6 (Mig-6) is associated with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) recurrence after thyroidectomy.
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that Mig-6 behaves as a tumor suppressor in PTC.
DESIGN: Mig-6 expression and promoter methylation status were compared in 31 PTC specimens with matched normal thyroid tissue from the same patient. The impact of Mig-6 loss and gain of function on nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation, global tyrosine kinase phosphorylation, and cellular invasion was determined in vitro.
RESULTS: Mig-6 protein was abundant in all normal thyroid specimens, whereas 77% of PTC had low Mig-6 expression. Mig-6 promoter methylation was found in 79% of PTC with low Mig-6 expression. Low Mig-6 expression in PTC specimens was associated with low NF-κB activity but high levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ERK phosphorylation. Mig-6 expression inversely correlated with PTC size but had no association with other clinicopathological variables including age, extrathyroidal extension, lymphovascular invasion, or histological subtype. Mig-6 knockdown in thyroid cancer cell lines resulted in EGFR phosphorylation and diminished NF-κB activity, whereas Mig-6 overexpression had the opposite effects. Mig-6 knockdown activated ErbB2, Met, and Src phosphorylation. Furthermore, Mig-6 regulated ERK phosphorylation independent from its effects on EGFR. Mig-6 knockdown promoted cellular proliferation, as determined by clonogenic survival. Lastly, Mig-6 knockdown increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities and increased cellular invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: Mig-6 has tumor suppressor-like activity in PTC. In vivo studies are required to confirm that Mig-6 is a putative tumor suppressor in PTC, and future studies should investigate the utility of Mig-6 as a diagnostic marker.

Duncan CG, Killela PJ, Payne CA, et al.
Integrated genomic analyses identify ERRFI1 and TACC3 as glioblastoma-targeted genes.
Oncotarget. 2010; 1(4):265-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The glioblastoma genome displays remarkable chromosomal aberrations, which harbor critical glioblastoma-specific genes contributing to several oncogenetic pathways. To identify glioblastoma-targeted genes, we completed a multifaceted genome-wide analysis to characterize the most significant aberrations of DNA content occurring in glioblastomas. We performed copy number analysis of 111 glioblastomas by Digital Karyotyping and Illumina BeadChip assays and validated our findings using data from the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) glioblastoma project. From this study, we identified recurrent focal copy number alterations in 1p36.23 and 4p16.3. Expression analyses of genes located in the two regions revealed genes which are dysregulated in glioblastomas. Specifically, we identify EGFR negative regulator, ERRFI1, within the minimal region of deletion in 1p36.23. In glioblastoma cells with a focal deletion of the ERRFI1 locus, restoration of ERRFI1 expression slowed cell migration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that TACC3, an Aurora-A kinase substrate, on 4p16.3, displays gain of copy number, is overexpressed in a glioma-grade-specific pattern, and correlates with Aurora kinase overexpression in glioblastomas. Our multifaceted genomic evaluation of glioblastoma establishes ERRFI1 as a potential candidate tumor suppressor gene and TACC3 as a potential oncogene, and provides insight on targets for oncogenic pathway-based therapy.

Flores O, Burnstein KL
GADD45gamma: a new vitamin D-regulated gene that is antiproliferative in prostate cancer cells.
Endocrinology. 2010; 151(10):4654-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] inhibits proliferation of normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells at least in part through inhibition of G1 to S phase cell cycle progression. The mechanisms of the antiproliferative effects of 1,25-(OH)2D3 have yet to be fully elucidated but are known to require the vitamin D receptor. We previously developed a 1,25-(OH)2D3-resistant derivative of the human prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP, which retains active vitamin D receptors but is not growth inhibited by 1,25-(OH)2D3. Gene expression profiling revealed two novel 1,25-(OH)2D3-inducible genes, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene gamma (GADD45γ) and mitogen induced gene 6 (MIG6), in LNCaP but not in 1,25-(OH)2D3-resistant cells. GADD45γ up-regulation was associated with growth inhibition by 1,25-(OH)2D3 in human prostate cancer cells. Ectopic expression of GADD45γ in either LNCaP or ALVA31 cells resulted in G1 accumulation and inhibition of proliferation equal to or greater than that caused by 1,25-(OH)2D3 treatment. In contrast, ectopic expression of MIG6 had only minimal effects on cell cycle distribution and proliferation. Whereas GADD45γ has been shown to be induced by androgens in prostate cancer cells, up-regulation of GADD45γ by 1,25-(OH)2D3 was not dependent on androgen receptor signaling, further refuting a requirement for androgens/androgen receptor in vitamin D-mediated growth inhibition. These data introduce two novel 1,25-(OH)2D3-regulated genes and establish GADD45γ as a growth-inhibitory protein in prostate cancer. Furthermore, the induction of GADD45γ gene expression by 1,25-(OH)2D3 may mark therapeutic response in prostate cancer.

Ying H, Zheng H, Scott K, et al.
Mig-6 controls EGFR trafficking and suppresses gliomagenesis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010; 107(15):6912-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary brain cancer that is driven by aberrant signaling of growth factor receptors, particularly the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR signaling is tightly regulated by receptor endocytosis and lysosome-mediated degradation, although the molecular mechanisms governing such regulation, particularly in the context of cancer, remain poorly delineated. Here, high-resolution genomic profiles of GBM identified a highly recurrent focal 1p36 deletion encompassing the putative tumor suppressor gene, Mig-6. We show that Mig-6 quells the malignant potential of GBM cells and dampens EGFR signaling by driving EGFR into late endosomes and lysosome-mediated degradation upon ligand stimulation. Mechanistically, this effect is mediated by the binding of Mig-6 to a SNARE protein STX8, a protein known to be required for late endosome trafficking. Thus, Mig-6 functions to ensure recruitment of internalized receptor to late endosomes and subsequently the lysosomal degradation compartment through its ability to specifically link EGFR and STX8 during ligand-stimulated EGFR trafficking. In GBM, the highly frequent loss of Mig-6 would therefore serve to sustain aberrant EGFR-mediated oncogenic signaling. Together, these data uncover a unique tumor suppression mechanism involving the regulation of receptor trafficking.

Reschke M, Ferby I, Stepniak E, et al.
Mitogen-inducible gene-6 is a negative regulator of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in hepatocytes and human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology. 2010; 51(4):1383-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The mitogen-inducible gene-6 (mig-6) is a multi-adaptor protein implicated in the regulation of the HER family of receptor tyrosine kinases. We have reported recently that mig-6 is a negative regulator of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-dependent skin morphogenesis and tumor formation in vivo. In the liver, ablation of mig-6 leads to an increase in EGFR protein levels, suggesting that mig-6 is a negative regulator of EGFR function. In line with this observation, primary hepatocytes isolated from mig-6 knockout and wild-type control mice display sustained mitogenic signaling in response to EGF. In order to explore the role of mig-6 in the liver in vivo, we analyzed liver regeneration in mig-6 knockout and wild-type control mice. Interestingly, mig-6 knockout mice display enhanced hepatocyte proliferation in the initial phases after partial hepatectomy. This phenotype correlates with activation of endogenous EGFR signaling, predominantly through the protein kinase B pathway. In addition, mig-6 is an endogenous inhibitor of EGFR signaling and EGF-induced tumor cell migration in human liver cancer cell lines. Moreover, mig-6 is down-regulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma and this correlates with increased EGFR expression.
CONCLUSION: Our data implicate mig-6 as a regulator of EGFR activity in hepatocytes and as a suppressor of EGFR signaling in human liver cancer.

Romanuik TL, Wang G, Holt RA, et al.
Identification of novel androgen-responsive genes by sequencing of LongSAGE libraries.
BMC Genomics. 2009; 10:476 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The development and maintenance of the prostate is dependent on androgens and the androgen receptor. The androgen pathway continues to be important in prostate cancer. Here, we evaluated the transcriptome of prostate cancer cells in response to androgen using long serial analysis of gene expression (LongSAGE) libraries.
RESULTS: There were 131 tags (87 genes) that displayed statistically significant (p CONCLUSION: These processes may represent the molecular mechanisms of androgen-dependency of the prostate. Genes that participate in these pathways may be targets for therapies or biomarkers of prostate cancer.

Jeong JW, Lee HS, Lee KY, et al.
Mig-6 modulates uterine steroid hormone responsiveness and exhibits altered expression in endometrial disease.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009; 106(21):8677-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Normal endometrial function requires a balance of progesterone (P4) and estrogen (E2) effects. An imbalance caused by increased E2 action and/or decreased P4 action can result in abnormal endometrial proliferation and, ultimately, endometrial adenocarcinoma, the fourth most common cancer in women. We have identified mitogen-inducible gene 6 (Mig-6) as a downstream target of progesterone receptor (PR) and steroid receptor coactivator (SRC-1) action in the uterus. Here, we demonstrate that absence of Mig-6 in mice results in the inability of P4 to inhibit E2-induced uterine weight gain and E2-responsive target genes expression. At 5 months of age, the absence of Mig-6 results in endometrial hyperplasia. Ovariectomized Mig-6(d/d) mice exhibit this hyperplastic phenotype in the presence of E2 and P4 but not without ovarian hormone. Ovariectomized Mig-6(d/d) mice treated with E2 developed invasive endometrioid-type endometrial adenocarcinoma. Importantly, the observation that endometrial carcinomas from women have a significant reduction in MIG-6 expression provides compelling support for an important growth regulatory role for Mig-6 in the uterus of both humans and mice. This demonstrates the Mig-6 is a critical regulator of the response of the endometrium to E2 in regulating tissue homeostasis. Since Mig-6 is regulated by both PR and SRC-1, this identifies a PR, SRC-1, Mig-6 regulatory pathway that is critical in the suppression of endometrial cancer.

Ruan DT, Warren RS, Moalem J, et al.
Mitogen-inducible gene-6 expression correlates with survival and is an independent predictor of recurrence in BRAF(V600E) positive papillary thyroid cancers.
Surgery. 2008; 144(6):908-13; discussion 913-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mitogen-inducible gene-6 (Mig-6) is an immediate early response gene that negatively regulates signaling. EGFR overexpression and activating mutations in MAPK signaling effectors are common events in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The purpose of this study was to determine if Mig-6 expression is associated with EGFR expression or surgical outcomes in PTC.
METHODS: We determined Mig-6 transcript levels from a microarray in 19 patients with PTC who underwent thyroidectomy. We established a maximally selected cutoff to discriminate Kaplan-Meier survival estimates. For cross-validation, we performed quantitative RT-PCR on resected well-differentiated PTC from an additional 106 patients.
RESULTS: Mig-6 and EGFR mRNA levels correlated directly (P < .0001). Mig-6 expression above the cutoff of 1.10 (2;-dCt[Mig6-GUS]) was associated with greater survival (P = .008). When this cutoff was applied in the cross-validation, high Mig-6 expression was associated with longer survival (P = .03) and disease-free survival (P = .07). Furthermore, high Mig-6 expression was independently predictive of greater disease-free survival in BRAF(V600E)-positive PTC.
CONCLUSION: High Mig-6 expression in PTC is associated with favorable outcomes. Mig-6 is a novel tumor suppressor that may be a candidate for targeted cancer therapeutics in patients with PTC refractory to conventional therapy.

Guha U, Chaerkady R, Marimuthu A, et al.
Comparisons of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in cells expressing lung cancer-specific alleles of EGFR and KRAS.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008; 105(37):14112-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have used unbiased phosphoproteomic approaches, based on quantitative mass spectrometry using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), to identify tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in isogenic human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, expressing either of the two mutant alleles of EGFR (L858R and Del E746-A750), or a mutant KRAS allele, which are common in human lung adenocarcinomas. Tyrosine phosphorylation of signaling molecules was greater in HBECs expressing the mutant EGFRs than in cells expressing WT EGFR or mutant KRAS. Receptor tyrosine kinases (such as EGFR, ERBB2, MET, and IGF1R), and Mig-6, an inhibitor of EGFR signaling, were more phosphorylated in HBECs expressing mutant EGFR than in cells expressing WT EGFR or mutant RAS. Phosphorylation of some proteins differed in the two EGFR mutant-expressing cells; for example, some cell junction proteins (beta-catenin, plakoglobin, and E-cadherin) were more phosphorylated in HBECs expressing L858R EGFR than in cells expressing Del EGFR. There were also differences in degree of phosphorylation at individual tyrosine sites within a protein; for example, a previously uncharacterized phosphorylation site in the nucleotide-binding loop of the kinase domains of EGFR (Y727), ERBB2 (Y735), or ERBB4 (Y733), is phosphorylated significantly more in HBECs expressing the deletion mutant than in cells expressing the wild type or L858R EGFR. Signaling molecules not previously implicated in ERBB signaling, such as polymerase transcript release factor (PTRF), were also phosphorylated in cells expressing mutant EGFR. Bayesian network analysis of these and other datasets revealed that PTRF might be a potentially important component of the ERBB signaling network.

Gotoh N
Feedback inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathways.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009; 41(3):511-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The epidermal growth factor receptor family tyrosine kinases transduce signals for cell proliferation and migration and contribute to tumorigenesis. A recent extensive research has highlighted the major roles of the negative regulators of complex epidermal growth factor receptor signaling networks. These regulators fine-tune signaling under physiological conditions. When their expression is downregulated, the resultant aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor signaling may promote cell proliferation and migration, leading to increased tumorigenesis. In this paper, I review specific feedback inhibitors that target epidermal growth factor receptors preferentially, via multiple modes of action. The inhibitors include mitogen-inducible gene-6 (Mig-6)/receptor-associated late transducer (RALT)/Gene 33, fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2beta (FRS2beta)/suc1-associated neurotrophic factor target-2 (SNT-2)/FRS3, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3)/SOCS4/SOCS5, and leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1). Although only fragmentary evidence is available regarding these inhibitors, they might be useful as cancer biomarkers, and the development of drugs that target them would certainly advance personalized medicine in the near future.

Floryk D, Thompson TC
Antiproliferative effects of AVN944, a novel inosine 5-monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor, in prostate cancer cells.
Int J Cancer. 2008; 123(10):2294-302 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inosine 5-monophosphate dehydrogenase II, a key enzyme in the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides, is expressed in prostate tumors and prostate cancer cells. AVN944 is a new, specific, noncompetitive IMPDH inhibitor. In this study, we investigated the effects of IMPDH inhibitor AVN944 on LNCaP, CWR22Rv1, DU145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. AVN944 inhibited proliferation of these 4 prostate cancer cell lines and was associated with cell cycle G1 arrest of LNCaP cells and S-phase block of androgen-independent CWR22Rv1, DU145 and PC-3 cells. AVN944 induced caspase-dependentand caspase-independent cell death in LNCaP, CWR22Rv1, and DU145 cells. AVN944 induced expression of p53-target proteins Bok, Bax and Noxa in androgen-responsive cell lines and suppressed expression of survivin in prostate cancer cells regardless of their androgen sensitivity. AVN944 also induced differentiation of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells as indicated by morphological changes and increased expression of genes coding for prostasomal proteins, keratins and other proteins, including tumor suppressor genes MIG-6 and NDRG1. AVN944-differentiated androgen-independent DU145 and PC-3 cells are sensitized to TRAIL-induced apoptosis as demonstrated by induction of caspases and PARP cleavage. In summary, AVN944 inhibited the growth of human prostate cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest, cell death as well as differentiation. AVN944 is a novel, promising therapeutic agent that might be combined with other agents for treatment of human prostate cancer.

Carén H, Fransson S, Ejeskär K, et al.
Genetic and epigenetic changes in the common 1p36 deletion in neuroblastoma tumours.
Br J Cancer. 2007; 97(10):1416-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromosome 1p is frequently deleted in neuroblastoma (NB) tumours. The commonly deleted region has been narrowed down by loss of heterozygosity studies undertaken by different groups. Based on earlier mapping data, we have focused on a region on 1p36 (chr1: 7 765 595-11 019 814) and performed an analysis of 30 genes by exploring features such as epigenetic regulation, that is DNA methylation and histone deacetylation, mutations at the DNA level and mRNA expression. Treatment of NB cell lines with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A led to increased gene transcription of four of the 30 genes, ERRFI1 (MIG-6), PIK3CD, RBP7 (CRBPIV) and CASZ1, indicating that these genes could be affected by epigenetic downregulation in NBs. Two patients with nonsynonymous mutations in the PIK3CD gene were detected. One patient harboured three variations in the same exon, and p.R188W. The other patient had the variation p.M655I. In addition, synonymous variations and one variation in an intronic sequence were also found. The mRNA expression of this gene is downregulated in unfavourable, compared to favourable, NBs. One nonsynonymous mutation was also identified in the ERRFI1 gene, p.N343S, and one synonymous. None of the variations above were found in healthy control individuals. In conclusion, of the 30 genes analysed, the PIK3CD gene stands out as one of the most interesting for further studies of NB development and progression.

Burney RO, Talbi S, Hamilton AE, et al.
Gene expression analysis of endometrium reveals progesterone resistance and candidate susceptibility genes in women with endometriosis.
Endocrinology. 2007; 148(8):3814-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
The identification of molecular differences in the endometrium of women with endometriosis is an important step toward understanding the pathogenesis of this condition and toward developing novel strategies for the treatment of associated infertility and pain. In this study, we conducted global gene expression analysis of endometrium from women with and without moderate/severe stage endometriosis and compared the gene expression signatures across various phases of the menstrual cycle. The transcriptome analysis revealed molecular dysregulation of the proliferative-to-secretory transition in endometrium of women with endometriosis. Paralleled gene expression analysis of endometrial specimens obtained during the early secretory phase demonstrated a signature of enhanced cellular survival and persistent expression of genes involved in DNA synthesis and cellular mitosis in the setting of endometriosis. Comparative gene expression analysis of progesterone-regulated genes in secretory phase endometrium confirmed the observation of attenuated progesterone response. Additionally, interesting candidate susceptibility genes were identified that may be associated with this disorder, including FOXO1A, MIG6, and CYP26A1. Collectively these findings provide a framework for further investigations on causality and mechanisms underlying attenuated progesterone response in endometrium of women with endometriosis.

Packer LM, Pavey SJ, Boyle GM, et al.
Gene expression profiling in melanoma identifies novel downstream effectors of p14ARF.
Int J Cancer. 2007; 121(4):784-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
p14ARF is inactivated by deletions/mutations in many cancer types and can suppress cell growth by both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. To identify novel downstream effectors of p14ARF, we used gene expression profiling as a primary screening tool to select candidates for follow up validation studies using in vitro cell-based assays. Gene expression profiles of a panel of 35 melanoma cell lines with either wild-type (n = 12) or mutant (n = 23) p14ARF were compared to identify genes associated with inactivation of p14ARF. Analysis of the microarray data identified 1,316 probe sets that were significantly (p < 0.01) differentially expressed between the p14ARF wild-type and mutant cell lines. Pathway analysis of these genes showed an overrepresentation of many receptor-mediated signal transduction pathways, e.g. TGFbeta, EGF, HGF, PDGF, MAPK, Wnt and integrin pathways. A number of components of these pathways, including FLRT3, RUNX2, MIG-6 and SMURF2 were confirmed as downstream targets of p14ARF using p14ARF-inducible cell lines and RNAi. We propose that regulation of these genes may contribute to melanoma development when p14ARF function is lost.

Zhang YW, Vande Woude GF
Mig-6, signal transduction, stress response and cancer.
Cell Cycle. 2007; 6(5):507-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mitogen-inducible gene-6 (Mig-6) is an immediate early response gene encoding a nonkinase scaffolding adaptor protein. Mig-6 gene expression can be rapidly and robustly induced under both normal and pathological scenarios by factors including hormones, growth factors, and stresses. However, the precise role of Mig-6 has virtually been a mystery until recently, when we and others discovered that Mig-6 may play important roles in regulating stress response, maintaining homeostasis in tissues like joints or cardiac muscle, and functioning as a tumor suppressor. The discovery that Mig-6 acts as a negative feedback inhibitor of EGF receptor signaling through a direct, physical interaction with the EGF receptor opens a door for understanding the mechanism underlying Mig-6 function. Yet how Mig-6 fine tunes or integrates signal transduction in many pathophysiological situations remains to be determined. Here we will highlight recent discoveries on the role of Mig-6 in stress response, tissue homeostasis, and cancer development; review the transcriptional regulation of Mig-6 expression; share insight into its mechanism in regulating signal transduction; and discuss the paradox of its action modes under different pathophysiological conditions.

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