Gene Summary

Gene:LCP1; lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1
Aliases: LPL, CP64, PLS2, LC64P, HEL-S-37, L-PLASTIN
Summary:Plastins are a family of actin-binding proteins that are conserved throughout eukaryote evolution and expressed in most tissues of higher eukaryotes. In humans, two ubiquitous plastin isoforms (L and T) have been identified. Plastin 1 (otherwise known as Fimbrin) is a third distinct plastin isoform which is specifically expressed at high levels in the small intestine. The L isoform is expressed only in hemopoietic cell lineages, while the T isoform has been found in all other normal cells of solid tissues that have replicative potential (fibroblasts, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, melanocytes, etc.). However, L-plastin has been found in many types of malignant human cells of non-hemopoietic origin suggesting that its expression is induced accompanying tumorigenesis in solid tissues. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Chemokine CXCL12
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Chromosome 13
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Microfilament Proteins
  • Proteomics
  • siRNA
  • Zinc Finger Protein GLI1
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Vimentin
  • AKT1
  • Genetic Markers
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Staging
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Up-Regulation
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Tetrahydronaphthalenes
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Genes, Neoplasm
  • Transcription Factors
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Young Adult
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Movement
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
  • Exosomes
  • Mutation
  • Pseudopodia
  • Signal Transduction
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: LCP1 (cancer-related)

Yang R, Klimentová J, Göckel-Krzikalla E, et al.
Combined Transcriptome and Proteome Analysis of Immortalized Human Keratinocytes Expressing Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) Oncogenes Reveals Novel Key Factors and Networks in HPV-Induced Carcinogenesis.
mSphere. 2019; 4(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although the role of high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs) as etiological agents in cancer development has been intensively studied during the last decades, there is still the necessity of understanding the impact of the HPV

Bosseler M, Marani V, Broukou A, et al.
Inhibition of HIF1α-Dependent Upregulation of Phospho-l-Plastin Resensitizes Multiple Myeloma Cells to Frontline Therapy.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The introduction of novel frontline agents in multiple myeloma (MM), like immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors, has improved the overall survival of patients. Yet, MM is still not curable, and drug resistance (DR) remains the main challenge. To improve the understanding of DR in MM, we established a resistant cell line (MOLP8/R). The exploration of DR mechanisms yielded an overexpression of HIF1α, due to impaired proteasome activity of MOLP8/R. We show that MOLP8/R, like other tumor cells, overexpressing HIF1α, have an increased resistance to the immune system. By exploring the main target genes regulated by HIF1α, we could not show an overexpression of these targets in MOLP8/R. We, however, show that MOLP8/R cells display a very high overexpression of

Chen C, Cai Q, He W, et al.
AP4 modulated by the PI3K/AKT pathway promotes prostate cancer proliferation and metastasis of prostate cancer via upregulating L-plastin.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(10):e3060 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transition from androgen-dependent to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (PCa) is a lethal event of uncertain molecular aetiology. Our previous studies demonstrated that L-plastin is involved in PCa invasion and metastasis and is upregulated by androgen and oestrogen in the hormone-dependent PCa cell line LNCaP. We recently found that L-plastin expression is consistently activated even after androgen deprivation, suggesting that androgen-independent transcription factors may regulate its expression. Herein, we performed sequential deletion and luciferase analysis of the L-plastin promoter and found that an androgen-independent regulatory factor prominently located in the region close to the transcription initiation site (-216 to +118) may facilitate L-plastin upregulation. AP4 was then identified as the relevant transcription activator that directly binds to the L-plastin promoter, as confirmed by EMSAs, supershift assays and CHIP-qPCR experiments. Moreover, we determined that the AP4/L-plastin axis is regulated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, contributing to PCa metastasis and castration resistance. Furthermore, we found that AP4 promotes PCa metastasis by upregulating L-plastin expression in vitro and in vivo. We collected a total of 136 PCa tissues and corresponding adjacent normal tissues from patients who underwent prostatectomy at Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital from 2005 to 2015 and measured AP4 and L-plastin protein levels by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that AP4 levels strongly correlated with those of its downstream target gene L-plastin, were significantly upregulated in PCa tissues, were positively correlated with lymph node metastasis and Gleason scores over 7, and were an independent prognostic factor for patient survival. In summary, these findings support a plausible mechanism by which the AP4/L-plastin axis is regulated by the PI3K/AKT pathway in human PCa and may represent a novel therapeutic target in PCa treatment.

Takamura T, Suguro H, Mikami Y, et al.
Comparison of gene expression profiles of gingival carcinoma Ca9-22 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells to identify potentially important mediators of SLPI-induced cell migration.
J Oral Sci. 2017; 59(2):279-287 [PubMed] Related Publications
Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is a serine protease inhibitor whose expression level is positively correlated with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. However, the mechanism underlying SLPI-induced enhancement of malignant phenotype is not completely understood. The malignancy of cancer cells is highly dependent on cell migration activity. Our previous study revealed that gingival carcinoma Ca9-22 cells, but not colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells, expressed SLPI. Therefore, we investigated the migration activity of these two cell types to understand the nature of SLPI-mediated tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. In vitro wound healing assay indicated that HT-29 cells and SLPI-deleted Ca9-22 cells showed lower migration activity than wild-type Ca9-22 cells, suggesting that SLPI-induced cell migration plays an important role in tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. In addition, our gene expression profiling study based on microarray data for the three cell types identified a number of candidates, including LCP1 and GLI, that could be key molecules in the mechanism of SLPI-induced cell migration.

Jimenez L, Lim J, Burd B, et al.
miR-375 Regulates Invasion-Related Proteins Vimentin and L-Plastin.
Am J Pathol. 2017; 187(7):1523-1536 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Invasion is a hallmark of advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We previously determined that low relative miR-375 expression was associated with poor patient prognosis. HNSCC cells with increased miR-375 expression have lower invasive properties and impaired invadopodium activity. Using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture and reverse-phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, we assessed the impact of miR-375 expression on protein levels in UM-SCC-1 cells. Increased miR-375 expression was associated with down-regulation of proteins involved in cellular assembly and organization, death and survival, and movement. Two invasion-associated proteins, vimentin and L-plastin, were strongly down-regulated by miR-375. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that high miR-375 expression reduced vimentin promoter activity, suggesting that vimentin is an indirect target of miR-375. Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) is a potential miR-375 direct target, and its knockdown reduced vimentin and L-plastin expression. Data in The Cancer Genome Atlas HNSCC database showed a significant inverse correlation between miR-375 expression and RUNX1, vimentin, and L-plastin RNA expression. These clinical correlations validate our in vitro model findings and support a mechanism in which miR-375 suppresses RUNX1 levels, resulting in reduced vimentin and L-plastin expression. Furthermore, knockdown of RUNX1, L-plastin, and vimentin resulted in significant reductions in cell invasion in vitro, indicating the functional significance of miR-375 regulation of specific proteins involved in HNSCC invasion.

Koide N, Kasamatsu A, Endo-Sakamoto Y, et al.
Evidence for Critical Role of Lymphocyte Cytosolic Protein 1 in Oral Cancer.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:43379 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1 (LCP1), a member of actin-binding protein of the plastin family, has been identified in several malignant tumors of non-hematopoietic sites, such as the colon, prostate, and breast. However, little is known about the roles of LCP1 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). This present study sought to clarify the clinical relevance of LCP1 in OSCCs and investigate possible clinical applications for treating OSCCs by regulating LCP1 expression. We found up-regulation of LCP1in OSCCs compared with normal counterparts using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry (P < 0.05). We used shRNA models for LCP1 (shLCP1) and enoxacin (ENX), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic drug, as a regulator of LCP1 expression. In addition to the LCP1 knockdown experiments in which shLCP1 cells showed several depressed functions, including cellular proliferation, invasiveness, and migratory activities, ENX-treated cells also had attenuated functions. Consistent with our hypothesis from our in vitro data, LCP1-positive OSCC samples were correlated closely with the primary tumoral size and regional lymph node metastasis. These results suggested that LCP1 is a useful biomarker for determining progression of OSCCs and that ENX might be a new therapeutic agent for treating OSCCs by controlling LCP1 expression.

Van Audenhove I, Denert M, Boucherie C, et al.
Fascin Rigidity and L-plastin Flexibility Cooperate in Cancer Cell Invadopodia and Filopodia.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(17):9148-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Invadopodia and filopodia are dynamic, actin-based protrusions contributing to cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. The force of actin bundles is essential for their protrusive activity. The bundling protein fascin is known to play a role in both invadopodia and filopodia. As it is more and more acknowledged that functionally related proteins cooperate, it is unlikely that only fascin bundles actin in these protrusions. Another interesting candidate is L-plastin, normally expressed in hematopoietic cells, but considered a common marker of many cancer types. We identified L-plastin as a new component of invadopodia, where it contributes to degradation and invasiveness. By means of specific, high-affinity nanobodies inhibiting bundling of fascin or L-plastin, we further unraveled their cooperative mode of action. We show that the bundlers cannot compensate for each other due to strikingly different bundling characteristics: L-plastin bundles are much thinner and less tightly packed. Composite bundles adopt an intermediate phenotype, with fascin delivering the rigidity and strength for protrusive force and structural stability, whereas L-plastin accounts for the flexibility needed for elongation. Consistent with this, elevated L-plastin expression promotes elongation and reduces protrusion density in cells with relatively lower L-plastin than fascin levels.

Lommel MJ, Trairatphisan P, Gäbler K, et al.
L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation in breast cancer cells and in vitro is mediated by RSK downstream of the ERK/MAPK pathway.
FASEB J. 2016; 30(3):1218-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deregulated cell migration and invasion are hallmarks of metastatic cancer cells. Phosphorylation on residue Ser5 of the actin-bundling protein L-plastin activates L-plastin and has been reported to be crucial for invasion and metastasis. Here, we investigate signal transduction leading to L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation using 4 human breast cancer cell lines. Whole-genome microarray analysis comparing cell lines with different invasive capacities and corresponding variations in L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation level revealed that genes of the ERK/MAPK pathway are differentially expressed. It is noteworthy that in vitro kinase assays showed that ERK/MAPK pathway downstream ribosomal protein S6 kinases α-1 (RSK1) and α-3 (RSK2) are able to directly phosphorylate L-plastin on Ser5. Small interfering RNA- or short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown and activation/inhibition studies followed by immunoblot analysis and computational modeling confirmed that ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) is an essential activator of L-plastin. Migration and invasion assays showed that RSK knockdown led to a decrease of up to 30% of migration and invasion of MDA-MB-435S cells. Although the presence of L-plastin was not necessary for migration/invasion of these cells, immunofluorescence assays illustrated RSK-dependent recruitment of Ser5-phosphorylated L-plastin to migratory structures. Altogether, we provide evidence that the ERK/MAPK pathway is involved in L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation in breast cancer cells with RSK1 and RSK2 kinases able to directly phosphorylate L-plastin residue Ser5.

Inaguma S, Riku M, Ito H, et al.
GLI1 orchestrates CXCR4/CXCR7 signaling to enhance migration and metastasis of breast cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(32):33648-57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The up-regulation of chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 impacts on the distant metastasis and prognosis of breast cancer, though knowledge about the regulatory mechanism of their expressions is limited. Meanwhile, the GLI transcription factors of Hedgehog signaling have been reported to play a pivotal role in the development and progression of many types of human cancer. In breast cancer, the increased expression of GLI1 correlated with metastasis and unfavorable overall prognosis, though its molecular mechanism is also not fully understood. Based on our findings that GLI1 enhanced the lung metastasis of breast cancer cells in a mouse model system, we comprehensively screened for genes up-regulated by GLI1 in breast cancer cells, and as such identified CXCR4, CXCR7/ACKR3, and actin-binding protein LCP1/L-PLASTIN, all of which have been reported to be involved in CXCL12-stimulating signaling. In breast cancer cells, we found that GLI1 and GLI2 up-regulated these expressions, while treatment with GLI-specific inhibitor GANT61 reduced the expressions. As for CXCR4, we confirmed it as a direct target of GLI1 through the reporter assay and the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. We also found that GLI1 enhanced CXCL12-induced ERK phosphorylation and cell migration, both of which were blocked by either CXCR4-specific inhibitor or knockdown of CXCR7 or LCP1. These evidences suggest an indispensable role of GLI1 in the migration and metastasis of breast cancer cells through CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling enhancement.

Chen C, Cai Q, He W, et al.
An NKX3.1 binding site polymorphism in the l-plastin promoter leads to differential gene expression in human prostate cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 138(1):74-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
The L-plastin gene is involved in the invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying L-plastin transcription are unclear. We hypothesize that the occurrence of polymorphic genetic variations in the L-plastin promoter might affect an individual's susceptibility to prostate cancer. In this study, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position -1,687 in the L-plastin promoter by genotype sequencing. The SNP -1,687 showed different transcriptional activity in the luciferase assay in vitro. The TRANSFAC software was applied to predict the multiple cis-elements, and luciferase assay was used to further identify the L-plastin regulatory region. We performed EMSAs, supershift assays and ChIP-qPCR demonstrated that the transcriptional suppressor NKX3.1 binds to the SNP site of the L-plastin promoter. SNP -1,687 (T/T) led to an increase in the affinity of NKX3.1 for L-plastin promoter, resulted in lower levels of L-plastin RNA and protein expression. Furthermore, we collected and sequenced samples from 640 individuals (372 prostate cancer patients and 268 healthy controls) from 2000 to 2013. The results showed that SNP -1,687 (T/T) occurred more frequently in the healthy individuals than that in the prostate cancer patients compared to SNP -1,687 (C/C). Similarly, SNP -1,687 (T/T) genotype occurred more frequently compared to SNP -1,687 (C/C) genotype in the patients with low and moderately differentiated tumors. In conclusion, SNP -1,687, located in the NKX3.1 binding site within the L-plastin promoter, might reduce the expression of L-plastin and potentially decrease the tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer. This SNP could be a potential prognostic factor for prostate cancer.

Dun MD, Chalkley RJ, Faulkner S, et al.
Proteotranscriptomic Profiling of 231-BR Breast Cancer Cells: Identification of Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Brain Metastasis.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2015; 14(9):2316-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Brain metastases are a devastating consequence of cancer and currently there are no specific biomarkers or therapeutic targets for risk prediction, diagnosis, and treatment. Here the proteome of the brain metastatic breast cancer cell line 231-BR has been compared with that of the parental cell line MDA-MB-231, which is also metastatic but has no organ selectivity. Using SILAC and nanoLC-MS/MS, 1957 proteins were identified in reciprocal labeling experiments and 1584 were quantified in the two cell lines. A total of 152 proteins were confidently determined to be up- or down-regulated by more than twofold in 231-BR. Of note, 112/152 proteins were decreased as compared with only 40/152 that were increased, suggesting that down-regulation of specific proteins is an important part of the mechanism underlying the ability of breast cancer cells to metastasize to the brain. When matched against transcriptomic data, 43% of individual protein changes were associated with corresponding changes in mRNA, indicating that the transcript level is a limited predictor of protein level. In addition, differential miRNA analyses showed that most miRNA changes in 231-BR were up- (36/45) as compared with down-regulations (9/45). Pathway analysis revealed that proteome changes were mostly related to cell signaling and cell cycle, metabolism and extracellular matrix remodeling. The major protein changes in 231-BR were confirmed by parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry and consisted in increases (by more than fivefold) in the matrix metalloproteinase-1, ephrin-B1, stomatin, myc target-1, and decreases (by more than 10-fold) in transglutaminase-2, the S100 calcium-binding protein A4, and l-plastin. The clinicopathological significance of these major proteomic changes to predict the occurrence of brain metastases, and their potential value as therapeutic targets, warrants further investigation.

Severson PL, Vrba L, Stampfer MR, Futscher BW
Exome-wide mutation profile in benzo[a]pyrene-derived post-stasis and immortal human mammary epithelial cells.
Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2014; 775-776:48-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genetic mutations are known to drive cancer progression and certain tumors have mutation signatures that reflect exposures to environmental carcinogens. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) has a known mutation signature and has proven capable of inducing changes to DNA sequence that drives normal pre-stasis human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) past a first tumor suppressor barrier (stasis) and toward immortality. We analyzed normal, pre-stasis HMEC, three independent BaP-derived post-stasis HMEC strains (184Aa, 184Be, 184Ce) and two of their immortal derivatives(184A1 and 184BE1) by whole exome sequencing. The independent post-stasis strains exhibited between 93 and 233 BaP-induced mutations in exons. Seventy percent of the mutations were C:G>A:T transversions, consistent with the known mutation spectrum of BaP. Mutations predicted to impact protein function occurred in several known and putative cancer drivers including p16, PLCG1, MED12, TAF1 in 184Aa; PIK3CG, HSP90AB1, WHSC1L1, LCP1 in 184Be and FANCA, LPP in 184Ce. Biological processes that typically harbor cancer driver mutations such as cell cycle, regulation of cell death and proliferation, RNA processing, chromatin modification and DNA repair were found to have mutations predicted to impact function in each of the post-stasis strains. Spontaneously immortalized HMEC lines derived from two of the BaP-derived post-stasis strains shared greater than 95% of their BaP-induced mutations with their precursor cells. These immortal HMEC had 10 or fewer additional point mutations relative to their post-stasis precursors, but acquired chromosomal anomalies during immortalization that arose independent of BaP. The results of this study indicate that acute exposures of HMEC to high dose BaP recapitulate mutation patterns of human tumors and can induce mutations in a number of cancer driver genes.

Riplinger SM, Wabnitz GH, Kirchgessner H, et al.
Metastasis of prostate cancer and melanoma cells in a preclinical in vivo mouse model is enhanced by L-plastin expression and phosphorylation.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor cell migration and metastasis require dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Interestingly, the F-actin cross-linking and stabilizing protein L-plastin, originally described as a leukocyte specific protein, is aberrantly expressed in several non-hematopoietic malignant tumors. Therefore, it has been discussed as a tumor marker. However, systematic in vivo analyses of the functional relevance of L-plastin for tumor cell metastasis were so far lacking.
METHODS: We investigated the relevance of L-plastin expression and phosphorylation by ectopical expression of L-plastin in human melanoma cells (MV3) and knock-down of endogenous L-plastin in prostate cancer (PC3M). The growth and metastatic potential of tumor cells expressing no L-plastin, phosphorylatable or non-phosphorylatable L-plastin was analyzed in a preclinical mouse model after subcutaneous and intracardial injection of the tumor cells.
RESULTS: Knock-down of endogenous L-plastin in human prostate carcinoma cells led to reduced tumor cell growth and metastasis. Vice versa, and in line with these findings, ectopic expression of L-plastin in L-plastin negative melanoma cells significantly increased the number of metastases. Strikingly, the metastasis promoting effect of L-plastin was not observed if a non-phosphorylatable L-plastin mutant was expressed.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide the first in vivo evidence that expression of L-plastin promotes tumor metastasis and, importantly, that this effect depends on an additionally required phosphorylation of L-plastin. In conclusion, these findings imply that for determining the importance of tumor-associated proteins like L-plastin a characterization of posttranslational modifications is indispensable.

Ramsay AG
Identifying CLL antigens for future combinational therapy.
Blood. 2013; 122(19):3241-2 [PubMed] Related Publications

Ning Y, Gerger A, Zhang W, et al.
Plastin polymorphisms predict gender- and stage-specific colon cancer recurrence after adjuvant chemotherapy.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014; 13(2):528-39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor recurrence after curative resection remains a major problem in patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Genetic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) may serve as useful molecular markers to predict clinical outcomes in these patients and identify targets for future drug development. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that the plastin genes PLS3 and LCP1 are overexpressed in colon cancer cells and play an important role in tumor cell invasion, adhesion, and migration. Hence, we hypothesized that functional genetic variations of plastin may have direct effects on the progression and prognosis of locally advanced colorectal cancer. We tested whether functional tagging polymorphisms of PLS3 and LCP1 predict time to tumor recurrence (TTR) in 732 patients (training set, 234; validation set, 498) with stage II/III colorectal cancer. The PLS3 rs11342 and LCP1 rs4941543 polymorphisms were associated with a significantly increased risk for recurrence in the training set. PLS3 rs6643869 showed a consistent association with TTR in the training and validation set, when stratified by gender and tumor location. Female patients with the PLS3 rs6643869 AA genotype had the shortest median TTR compared with those with any G allele in the training set [1.7 vs. 9.4 years; HR, 2.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.32-6.1; P = 0.005] and validation set (3.3 vs. 13.7 years; HR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.09-3.91; P = 0.021). Our findings suggest that several SNPs of the PLS3 and LCP1 genes could serve as gender- and/or stage-specific molecular predictors of tumor recurrence in stage II/III patients with colorectal cancer as well as potential therapeutic targets.

Dubovsky JA, Chappell DL, Harrington BK, et al.
Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1 is a chronic lymphocytic leukemia membrane-associated antigen critical to niche homing.
Blood. 2013; 122(19):3308-16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Membrane antigens are critical to the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) as they facilitate microenvironment homing, proliferation, and survival. Targeting the CLL membrane and associated signaling patterns is a current focus of therapeutic development. Many tumor membrane targets are simultaneously targeted by humoral immunity, thus forming recognizable immunoglobulin responses. We sought to use this immune response to identify novel membrane-associated targets for CLL. Using a novel strategy, we interrogated CLL membrane-specific autologous immunoglobulin G reactivity. Our analysis unveiled lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1 (LCP1), a lymphocyte-specific target that is highly expressed in CLL. LCP1 plays a critical role in B-cell biology by crosslinking F-actin filaments, thereby solidifying cytoskeletal structures and providing a scaffold for critical signaling pathways. Small interfering RNA knockdown of LCP1 blocked migration toward CXCL12 in transwell assays and to bone marrow in an in vivo xenotransplant model, confirming a role for LCP1 in leukemia migration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib or the PI3K inhibitor idelalisib block B-cell receptor induced activation of LCP1. Our data demonstrate a novel strategy to identify cancer membrane target antigens using humoral anti-tumor immunity. In addition, we identify LCP1 as a membrane-associated target in CLL with confirmed pathogenic significance. This clinical trial was registered at; study ID number: OSU-0025 OSU-0156.

Fang ZQ, Zang WD, Chen R, et al.
Gene expression profile and enrichment pathways in different stages of bladder cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2013; 12(2):1479-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bladder cancer is a highly heterogeneous neoplasm. We examined the gene expression profile in 3 bladder cancer stages (Ta, T1, T2) using expression microarray analysis of 40 bladder tumors. Differentially expressed genes were found by the t-test, with <0.005 as the significance threshold. KEGG pathway-enrichment analysis was used to study the signaling pathways of the genes. We found 36 genes that could be used as molecular markers for predicting the transition from Ta-T1 to T1-T2. Among these, 11 overlapped between Ta-T1 and T1-T2 stages. Six genes were down-regulated at the Ta-T1 stage, but were up-regulated at the T1-T2 stage (ANXA5, ATP6V1B2, CTGF, GEM, IL13RA1, and LCP1); 5 genes were up-regulated at the Ta-T1 stage, but down-regulated at the T1-T2 stage (ACPP, GNL1, RIPK1, RAPGEF3, and ZER1). Another 25 genes changed relative expression levels at the T1-T2 stage. These genes (including COL1A1, COL1A2, FN1, ITGA5, LGALS1, SPP1, VIM, POSTN, and COL18A1) may be involved in bladder cancer progression by affecting extracellular matrix-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. The cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, and calcium-signaling pathway were associated with bladder cancer progression at both the Ta-T1 and T1-T2 stages.

Forrester AM, Grabher C, McBride ER, et al.
NUP98-HOXA9-transgenic zebrafish develop a myeloproliferative neoplasm and provide new insight into mechanisms of myeloid leukaemogenesis.
Br J Haematol. 2011; 155(2):167-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
NUP98-HOXA9 [t(7;11) (p15;p15)] is associated with inferior prognosis in de novo and treatment-related acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and contributes to blast crisis in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). We have engineered an inducible transgenic zebrafish harbouring human NUP98-HOXA9 under the zebrafish spi1(pu.1) promoter. NUP98-HOXA9 perturbed zebrafish embryonic haematopoiesis, with upregulated spi1 expression at the expense of gata1a. Markers associated with more differentiated myeloid cells, lcp1, lyz, and mpx were also elevated, but to a lesser extent than spi1, suggesting differentiation of early myeloid progenitors may be impaired by NUP98-HOXA9. Following irradiation, NUP98-HOXA9-expressing embryos showed increased numbers of cells in G2-M transition compared to controls and absence of a normal apoptotic response, which may result from an upregulation of bcl2. These data suggest NUP98-HOXA9-induced oncogenesis may result from a combination of defects in haematopoiesis and an aberrant response to DNA damage. Importantly, 23% of adult NUP98-HOXA9-transgenic fish developed a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) at 19-23 months of age. In summary, we have identified an embryonic haematopoietic phenotype in a transgenic zebrafish line that subsequently develops MPN. This tool provides a unique opportunity for high-throughput in vivo chemical modifier screens to identify novel therapeutic agents in high risk AML.

Janji B, Vallar L, Al Tanoury Z, et al.
The actin filament cross-linker L-plastin confers resistance to TNF-alpha in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in a phosphorylation-dependent manner.
J Cell Mol Med. 2010; 14(6A):1264-75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We used a tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha resistant breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cell line to investigate the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in the mechanism of cell resistance to this cytokine. We found that TNF resistance correlates with the loss of cell epithelial properties and the gain of a mesenchymal phenotype, reminiscent of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Morphological changes were associated with a profound reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and with a change in the repertoire of expressed actin cytoskeleton genes and EMT markers, as revealed by DNA microarray-based expression profiling. L-plastin, an F-actin cross-linking and stabilizing protein, was identified as one of the most significantly up-regulated genes in TNF-resistant cells. Knockdown of L-plastin in these cells revealed its crucial role in conferring TNF resistance. Importantly, overexpression of wild-type L-plastin in TNF-sensitive MCF-7 cells was sufficient to protect them against TNF-mediated cell death. Furthermore, we found that this effect is dependent on serine-5 phosphorylation of L-plastin and that non-conventional protein kinase C isoforms and the ceramide pathway may regulate its phosphorylation state. The protective role of L-plastin was not restricted to TNF-alpha resistant MCF-7 cells because a correlation between the expression of L-plastin and the resistance to TNF-alpha was observed in other breast cancer cell lines. Together, our study discloses a novel unexpected role of the actin bundling protein L-plastin as a cell protective protein against TNF-cytotoxicity.

Schulz DM, Böllner C, Thomas G, et al.
Identification of differentially expressed proteins in triple-negative breast carcinomas using DIGE and mass spectrometry.
J Proteome Res. 2009; 8(7):3430-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We compared the protein expression pattern of triple-negative breast carcinomas (HER2-, ER-, PR-) versus those being positive for HER2 and negative for the hormone receptors (HER2+, ER-, PR-) by 2-D DIGE and mass spectrometry. We obtained differential expression patterns for several glycolytic enzymes (as for example MDH2, PGK1, TKT, Aldolase1), cytokeratins (CK7, 8, 9, 14, 17, 19), further structure proteins (vimentin, fibronectin, L-plastin), for NME1-NME2, lactoferrin, and members of the Annexin family. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were conducted to verify the results. The identified marker proteins may advance a more detailed characterization of triple-negative breast cancers and may contribute to the development of better treatment strategies.

Harris LD, De La Cerda J, Tuziak T, et al.
Analysis of the expression of biomarkers in urinary bladder cancer using a tissue microarray.
Mol Carcinog. 2008; 47(9):678-85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysregulation of Akt, PTEN, Drg-1, Cx-26, and L-plastin expression appear to be important in the progression of various cancers. Their expression in bladder cancer has not been well characterized. To assess the expression of these genes and their relationship to the outcome of bladder cancer, we used a bladder cancer tissue microarray (TMA) of 251 transitional cell carcinomas. We quantitated immunohistochemical staining of each protein using both automated and manual methods and correlated the expression levels with the clinicopathologic characteristics of the tumor and patient survival. Overall, the results from both automated and manual analyses were similar. We found a significant correlation between the expression of PTEN, Cx-26 and L-plastin with known clinically important pathologic features of bladder cancer (tumor grade, stage, and growth pattern). Aberrant localization patterns of Cx-26 and Drg-1 were observed in bladder tumors. There was also a significant correlation in expression among pAkt, PTEN, and L-plastin. Although the expression of these genes correlated with factors known to be associated with patient outcome, none of them was an independent predictor of progression-free or overall survival.

Ueda K, Nakanishi T, Shimizu A, et al.
Identification of L-plastin autoantibody in plasma of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma using a proteomics-based analysis.
Ann Clin Biochem. 2008; 45(Pt 1):65-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of malignant lymphoma (ML) such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) was mainly performed by morphological examination and gene analysis. There are only a few serum/plasma biomarkers such as lactate dehydrogenase and soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha to diagnose ML. The classifications are various, and therefore the cell surface markers using flow cytometry or lymph node biopsy have been examined. It is difficult, however, to distinguish the two diseases, NHL and HL, from each other.
METHODS: In order to identify the haematological malignancy-associated autoimmunoreactivity (autoantibodies) in patients' plasma, a novel proteomics-based approach using electrophoresis/mass spectrometry was applied. Solubilized proteins from a Burkitt's lymphoma cell line (Raji) were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis, in which the plasma of individual patients with haematological malignancies was tested for primary antibodies, followed by visualization with anti-IgG antibody conjugated with horseradish peroxidase.
RESULTS: Two proteins, L-plastin and alpha-enolase, capable of reacting with the antibodies in plasma of patients with NHL, were detected using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. The rates of the detections of an anti L-plastin autoantibody were significantly higher: 0.84 (21/25) in patients with NHL; 0.00 (0/4) in HL; 0.38 (5/13) in autoimmune diseases; 0.20 (2/10) in leukaemia; and 0.13 (1/8) in healthy controls. In contrast, those of anti alpha-enolase antibody were not specific to NHL.
CONCLUSIONS: We first identified autoantibody against L-plastin in plasma of patients with NHL, suggesting that the autoantibody can be a new diagnostic biomarker for NHL.

Jung K, Kim S, Lee K, et al.
Cytotoxic effect of a replication-incompetent adenoviral vector with cytosine deaminase gene driven by L-plastin promoter in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Arch Pharm Res. 2007; 30(6):770-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Great expectations are set on gene therapy for the treatment of malignant hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) in East Asia. Recombinant adenoviral vectors (AV) have been developed in which the L-plastin promoter (LP) regulates the expression of transgenes, in a tumor cell specific manner, resulting in an increase in the therapeutic index. The development of the AdLPCD vector, a replication-incompetent AV, containing a transcription unit of LP and E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD), was reported in our previous work. In the present study, the AdLPCD vector combined with 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) administration was tested to see if it might have significant utility in the chemosensitization of L-plastin positive HCC. Four HCC cell lines (HepG2, Chang Liver, Huh-7 and SK-Hep-1 cells) were investigated for the expression of LacZ after infecting the cells with the AdLPLacZ vector containing a 2.4 kb fragment of LP and the LacZ gene. Relatively high levels of LP activity were detected in HepG2, followed by Chang Liver cells; whereas, no promoter activity was found in Huh-7 and SK-Hep-1 cells, as determined by AdLPLacZ infection followed by the beta-galactosidase assay. In addition, the results of RT-PCR assays for the detection of endogenous L-plastin mRNA in these cells lines correlated well with those of the beta-galactosidase activity after infection with AdLPLacZ. Based on these data, the cytotoxic effect of AdLPCD/5-FC was evaluated in HepG2 cells. These results indicate that the CD gene delivered by AV could sensitize HepG2 cells to the prodrug, 5-FC. However, the observed effects were insufficient to cause the death of most of cells. This suggests that the screening of patients for an AdLP/5-FC strategy based on AdLPLacZ data might not always guarantee a good therapeutic outcome.

Kassie F, Anderson LB, Scherber R, et al.
Indole-3-carbinol inhibits 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone plus benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice and modulates carcinogen-induced alterations in protein levels.
Cancer Res. 2007; 67(13):6502-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
We tested the chemopreventive efficacy of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a constituent of Brassica vegetables, and its major condensation product, 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), against lung tumorigenesis induced by a mixture of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in A/J mice. The mixture of NNK plus BaP (2 micromol each) was administered by gavage as eight weekly doses, whereas I3C (112 micromol/g diet) and DIM (2 and 30 micromol/g diet in experiments 1 and 2, respectively) were given in the diet for 23 weeks beginning at 50% of carcinogen treatment. I3C reduced NNK plus BaP-induced tumor multiplicity by 78% in experiment 1 and 86% in experiment 2; the respective reductions in tumor multiplicity by DIM were 5% and 66%. Using a quantitative proteomics method, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified and quantified at least 250 proteins in lung tissues. Of these proteins, nine showed differences in relative abundance in lung tissues of carcinogen-treated versus untreated mice: fatty acid synthase, transketolase, pulmonary surfactant-associated protein C (SP-C), L-plastin, annexin A1, and haptoglobin increased, whereas transferrin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and apolipoprotein A-1 decreased. Supplementation of the diet of carcinogen-treated mice with I3C reduced the level of SP-C, L-plastin, annexin A1, and haptoglobin to that of untreated controls. These results were verified using immunoblotting. We show here that tumor-associated signature proteins are increased during NNK plus BaP-induced lung carcinogenesis, and I3C inhibits this effect, suggesting that the lung tumor chemopreventive activity of I3C might be related to modulation of carcinogen-induced alterations in protein levels.

Klemke M, Rafael MT, Wabnitz GH, et al.
Phosphorylation of ectopically expressed L-plastin enhances invasiveness of human melanoma cells.
Int J Cancer. 2007; 120(12):2590-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The leukocyte specific actin-binding protein L-plastin is aberrantly expressed in several nonhematopoetic malignant tumors. However, little is known about the functional consequences of L-plastin expression. Here, we investigated the function of L-plastin in human malignant melanoma cells. Knock-down of endogenous L-plastin by siRNA treatment reduced migration of the melanoma cell line IF6. However, in melanoma patients, no correlation existed between L-plastin expression and tumor stages. This implied that additional factors such as phosphorylation of L-plastin may influence its function in tumor cells. To investigate this further, EGFP-tagged wild-type L-plastin (wt-LPL-EGFP) and a mutated, nonphosphorylatable L-plastin protein (5A7A-LPL-EGFP), were expressed in the L-plastin negative melanoma cell line MV3. Biochemical analysis revealed that wt-LPL-EGFP is phosphorylated in MV3 cells while 5A7A-LPL-EGFP is not. Although both wt-LPL-EGFP and 5A7A-LPL-EGFP were targeted to, and promote the formation of, vinculin-containing adhesion sites, static adhesion to either Matrigel or isolated extracellular matrix molecules was neither influenced by expression of wt-LPL-EGFP nor by expression of 5A7A-LPL-EGFP when compared with EGFP expressing control cells. In contrast, haptotactic, but not chemotactic, migration of melanoma cells towards either Matrigel or isolated extracellular matrix molecules was similarly enhanced, if either 5A7A-LPL-EGFP or wt-LPL-EGFP were expressed in MV3 cells. Interestingly, only cells expressing the phosphorylatable wt-LPL-EGFP protein showed enhanced invasion into Matrigel. In line with these findings the in vivo metastatic capacity of mouse B16 melanoma cells correlates with expression and phosphorylation of L-plastin. These data show that an increase in melanoma cell invasiveness requires not only expression but also phosphorylation of L-plastin.

Foran E, McWilliam P, Kelleher D, et al.
The leukocyte protein L-plastin induces proliferation, invasion and loss of E-cadherin expression in colon cancer cells.
Int J Cancer. 2006; 118(8):2098-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
L-plastin, a gene that codes for an actin-bundling protein, is upregulated in the metastatic colon cancer cell line SW620, when compared to its premetastatic counterpart SW480. The aim of our study was to characterise the effect of L-plastin overexpression on SW480 cells in the context of the acquisition of a metastatic phenotype. SW480 cell lines overexpressing L-plastin were established (SW480-LPL). Analysis of these cell lines revealed significantly higher rates of proliferation and invasion than the control cell line (SW480-Ctrl). In addition, the expression of E-cadherin was lost from SW480-LPL cells. Treatment of SW480-LPL cells with cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of endocytosis, attenuated the loss of E-cadherin expression in these cells. The association of L-plastin overexpression with an increased rate of proliferation and invasion, and loss of E-cadherin expression in the SW480 colon cancer cell line indicates that L-plastin plays an important mechanistic role in colorectal cancer metastasis (supplementary material for this article can be found on the International Journal of Cancer website at

Lin TX, Huang J, Huang H, et al.
[Identification of response element gene sequence for non-steroid hormone transcription factors for the activation and up-regulation of L-plastin expression in prostate cancer].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2005; 11(10):731-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To search and identify the non-steroid receptor binding cis-acting elements in the L-plastin promoter in prostate cancer, and the correlative regulation pathway and transcription factors.
METHODS: On the basis of construction of the L-plastin promoter luciferase vectors which were removed the steroid hormone receptor AR and ER binding elements, the promoter on the vector was nest-deleted by Exonuclease III and the relative luciferase plasmids were constructed. Transfected these twelve plasmids into prostate cancer cell line LNCaP under dihydrotestosterone-stimulated situation or not and test the intensity of luciferase, then we got the regulation message of every 200 bp part of the promoter in prostate cancer. After the analysis of relative programme, we got the possible regu- lation pathway of non-steroid hormone transcription factors. After removing the possible transcription factors binding site sequence by site-specific mutagenesis, the changes luciferase of activities proved our reasoning.
RESULTS: We succeed in segmental deletion of the L-plastin promoter, and constructing the relative plasmids containing part L-plastin promoter on luciferase vector pGL3-basic. After testing the luciferase activities of constructed plasmids, we found the sequence from 206 to 1 of L-plastin promoter had significant luciferase activity. The software TRANSFECT showed that there were binding elements for transcription factors AP-4 at seq-198 to 192 and SP-1 at seq-54 to 41 on the short part promoter (206 to 1). The recombinant plasmids deleted the AP-4 and SP-1 binding elements had lower luciferase activity than the wild-type.
CONCLUSION: There are some other non-steroid hormone pathway to regulate the expression of L-plastin except the steroid hormone pathway in prostate cancer. The main binding sites of the non-steroid hormone regulator lies in the sequence from 206 to 1. Transcription factors AP4 and SP-1 may up-regulated the expression of L-plastin by binding these sites.

Liu Y, Ye T, Maynard J, et al.
Engineering conditionally replication-competent adenoviral vectors carrying the cytosine deaminase gene increases the infectivity and therapeutic effect for breast cancer gene therapy.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2006; 13(4):346-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
We constructed a conditionally replication-competent adenoviral vector Ad.Lp-CD-IRES-E1A(control) in which the expression of both the prodrug-activating cytosine deaminase gene and the viral replication E1A gene were driven by the L-plastin tumor-specific promoter. In order to overcome the low infectivity of the adenoviral vectors for breast cancer cells, and to increase the safety and efficacy for cancer gene therapy, this vector was further modified on a transductional level by simultaneously ablating the native tropism of the vector to the primary CAR receptor and inserting a RGD-4C peptide into the HI loop of the fiber, which allows the vector to use the alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 receptors as alternative receptors. The resulting vector was named Ad.Lp-CD-IRES-E1A(MRGD). The transduction efficiency of the vector for breast cancer cell lines which have low expression level of CAR was increased both in vitro and in vivo. The Ad.Lp-CD-IRES-E1A(MRGD) vector produces a higher vector particle yield and a greater cytotoxic effect in tumor cells which have a low expression level of CAR, than did the Ad.Lp-CD-IRES-E1A(control) vector. Intratumoral injection of the Ad.Lp-CD-IRES-E1A(MRGD) vector following the intraperitoneal injection of 5FC into xenotransplanted human breast cancer cell lines which have low expression level of CAR led to greater degree of tumor regression in vivo than did the intratumoral injection of control adenoviral vectors not so modified.

Akbulut H, Tang Y, Maynard J, et al.
Vector targeting makes 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy less toxic and more effective in animal models of epithelial neoplasms.
Clin Cancer Res. 2004; 10(22):7738-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been combined in the past with other drugs for the combination chemotherapy for cancers of the breast, ovary, and colon. These drug regimens were limited by the fact that 5-FU fails to kill nondividing cancer cells at the doses that are safe to deliver. The goal of the present study is to test the feasibility of replacing 5-FU in established 5-FU combination chemotherapy with the Ad-LpCDIRESE1A/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) system for the purpose of reducing toxicity and increasing efficacy.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We have replaced 5-FU in the weekly combination of CPT-11, folinic acid (FA) and 5-FU chemotherapy by 5-FC and an adenoviral vector that carries the L-plastin (Lp) tumor-specific promoter-driven transcription unit encoding the cytosine deaminase gene linked to the E1A gene by an internal ribosomal entry site element. This combination is called "genetic combination therapy." The goal of using the vector was to decrease the toxicity to normal tissue and to increase the efficacy of therapy in the cancer cells by increasing the concentration of 5-FU sufficiently high that even nondividing cancer cells would be killed by 5-FU through its incorporation into mRNA and consequent inhibition of synthesis of functional proteins. We compared the in vivo efficacy of the genetic combination therapy with the conventional combination chemotherapy in a mouse colon cancer model.
RESULTS: Both replication-competent and -noncompetent adenoviral vectors carrying an L-plastin-driven cytosine deaminase transcription unit when combined with 5-FC, CPT-11, and FA showed increased in vitro therapeutic activity that was significantly higher than that of the conventional chemotherapy combination. Tumor-bearing mice treated with the genetic combination therapy showed a statistically significant advantage in terms of increased response rate, response duration, survival, and reduced toxicity when compared with tumor-bearing mice treated with the conventional combination chemotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Replacement of 5-FU in 5-FU-based combination chemotherapy with the Ad-LpCDIRESE1A vector and 5-FU reduces toxicity and increases efficacy. This is a concept that could be potentially applied widely for many forms of cancer treatment.

Chung I, Deisseroth AB
Recombinant adenoviral vector containing tumor-specific L-plastin promoter fused to cytosine deaminase gene as a transcription unit: generation and functional test.
Arch Pharm Res. 2004; 27(6):633-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The expression of therapeutic transgenes in recombinant adenoviral vectors is a major cause of toxicity in dividing cancer cells as well as non dividing normal cells. To solve the problem of toxicity to normal cells, we have reported on a recombinant adenoviral vector system (AdLP-) in which the expression of the transgene is directed by the tumor-specific L-plastin promoter (LP) (Chung et al., 1999). The object of this study was to generate a recombinant adenoviral vector system which would generate tumor cell specific expression of cytosine deaminase (CD) gene. We report the construction of a replication-incompetent adenoviral vector in which CD is driven by the L-plastin promoter (AdLPCD). Infection of 293 cells by AdLPCD generated the functional CD protein as measured by HPLC analysis for the conversion of 5-Fluorocytosine (5-FC) to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). HPLC analysis in conjunction with counting radioactivity for [6-3H]-5FC and [6-3H]-5FU demonstrated vector dose-dependent conversion of 5-FC to 5-FU in AdLPCD infected ovarian cancer cells. The results from present and previous studies (Peng et al., 2001; Akbulut et al., 2003) suggest that the use of the AdLPCD/5-FC system may be of value in the treatment of cancer including microscopic ovarian cancer in the peritoneal cavity.

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