MEIS1

Gene Summary

Gene:MEIS1; Meis homeobox 1
Location:2p14
Summary:Homeobox genes, of which the most well-characterized category is represented by the HOX genes, play a crucial role in normal development. In addition, several homeoproteins are involved in neoplasia. This gene encodes a homeobox protein belonging to the TALE ('three amino acid loop extension') family of homeodomain-containing proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:homeobox protein Meis1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (13)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Base Sequence
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • KMT2A
  • Histones
  • Chromosome 2
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cultured Cells
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • RTPCR
  • MicroRNAs
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Down-Regulation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Up-Regulation
  • DNA Methylation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Tumor Stem Cell Assay
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Tumor Markers
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Validation Studies as Topic
  • Myeloid Leukemia
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Leukaemia
  • Protein Binding
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Mutation
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Promoter Regions
  • S100 Proteins
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Homeobox Genes
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells
  • Apoptosis
Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MEIS1 (cancer-related)

Ogawara Y, Katsumoto T, Aikawa Y, et al.
IDH2 and NPM1 Mutations Cooperate to Activate Hoxa9/Meis1 and Hypoxia Pathways in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(10):2005-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
IDH1 and IDH2 mutations occur frequently in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other cancers. The mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) enzymes convert α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), which dysregulates a set of α-KG-dependent dioxygenases. To determine whether mutant IDH enzymes are valid targets for cancer therapy, we created a mouse model of AML in which mice were transplanted with nucleophosmin1 (NPM)(+/-) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells cotransduced with four mutant genes (NPMc, IDH2/R140Q, DNMT3A/R882H, and FLT3/ITD), which often occur simultaneously in human AML patients. Conditional deletion of IDH2/R140Q blocked 2-HG production and maintenance of leukemia stem cells, resulting in survival of the AML mice. IDH2/R140Q was necessary for the engraftment or survival of NPMc(+) cells in vivo. Gene expression analysis indicated that NPMc increased expression of Hoxa9. IDH2/R140Q also increased the level of Meis1 and activated the hypoxia pathway in AML cells. IDH2/R140Q decreased the 5hmC modification and expression of some differentiation-inducing genes (Ebf1 and Spib). Taken together, our results indicated that IDH2 mutation is critical for the development and maintenance of AML stem-like cells, and they provided a preclinical justification for targeting mutant IDH enzymes as a strategy for anticancer therapy.

Roychoudhury J, Clark JP, Gracia-Maldonado G, et al.
MEIS1 regulates an HLF-oxidative stress axis in MLL-fusion gene leukemia.
Blood. 2015; 125(16):2544-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
Leukemias with MLL translocations are often found in infants and are associated with poor outcomes. The pathogenesis of MLL-fusion leukemias has been linked to upregulation of HOX/MEIS1 genes. The functions of the Hox/Meis1 complex in leukemia, however, remain elusive. Here, we used inducible Meis1-knockout mice coupled with MLL-AF9 knockin mice to decipher the mechanistic role of Meis1 in established MLL leukemia. We demonstrate that Meis1 is essential for maintenance of established leukemia. In addition, in both the murine model and human leukemia cells, we found that Meis1 loss led to increased oxidative stress, oxygen flux, and apoptosis. Gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed hepatic leukemia factor (HLF) as a target gene of Meis1. Hypoxia or HLF expression reversed the oxidative stress, rescuing leukemia development in Meis1-deficient cells. Thus, the leukemia-promoting properties of Meis1 are at least partly mediated by a low-oxidative state, aided by HLF. These results suggest that stimulants of oxidative metabolism could have therapeutic potential in leukemia treatment.

Willer A, Jakobsen JS, Ohlsson E, et al.
TGIF1 is a negative regulator of MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(5):1018-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Members of the TALE (three-amino-acid loop extension) family of atypical homeodomain-containing transcription factors are important downstream effectors of oncogenic fusion proteins involving the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene. A well-characterized member of this protein family is MEIS1, which orchestrates a transcriptional program required for the maintenance of MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia (AML). TGIF1/TGIF2 are relatively uncharacterized TALE transcription factors, which, in contrast to the remaining family, have been shown to act as transcriptional repressors. Given the general importance of this family in malignant hematopoiesis, we therefore tested the potential function of TGIF1 in the maintenance of MLL-rearranged AML. Gene expression analysis of MLL-rearranged patient blasts demonstrated reduced TGIF1 levels, and, in accordance, we find that forced expression of TGIF1 in MLL-AF9-transformed cells promoted differentiation and cell cycle exit in vitro, and delayed leukemic onset in vivo. Mechanistically, we show that TGIF1 interferes with a MEIS1-dependent transcriptional program by associating with MEIS1-bound regions in a competitive manner and that the MEIS1:TGIF1 ratio influence the clinical outcome. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that TALE family members can act both positively and negatively on transcriptional programs responsible for leukemic maintenance and provide novel insights into the regulatory gene expression circuitries in MLL-rearranged AML.

Cui L, Li M, Feng F, et al.
MEIS1 functions as a potential AR negative regulator.
Exp Cell Res. 2014; 328(1):58-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
The androgen receptor (AR) plays critical roles in human prostate carcinoma progression and transformation. However, the activation of AR is regulated by co-regulators. MEIS1 protein, the homeodomain transcription factor, exhibited a decreased level in poor-prognosis prostate tumors. In this study, we investigated a potential interaction between MEIS1 and AR. We found that overexpression of MEIS1 inhibited the AR transcriptional activity and reduced the expression of AR target gene. A potential protein-protein interaction between AR and MEIS1 was identified by the immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Furthermore, MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation and the recruitment to androgen response element in prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene promoter sequences. In addition, MEIS1 promoted the recruitment of NCoR and SMRT in the presence of R1881. Finally, MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells. Taken together, our data suggests that MEIS1 functions as a novel AR co-repressor.

Sharma A, Yun H, Jyotsana N, et al.
Constitutive IRF8 expression inhibits AML by activation of repressed immune response signaling.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(1):157-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myeloid differentiation is blocked in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but the molecular mechanisms are not well characterized. Meningioma 1 (MN1) is overexpressed in AML patients and confers resistance to all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation. To understand the role of MN1 as a transcriptional regulator in myeloid differentiation, we fused transcriptional activation (VP16) or repression (M33) domains with MN1 and characterized these cells in vivo. Transcriptional activation of MN1 target genes induced myeloproliferative disease with long latency and differentiation potential to mature neutrophils. A large proportion of differentially expressed genes between leukemic MN1 and differentiation-permissive MN1VP16 cells belonged to the immune response pathway like interferon-response factor (Irf) 8 and Ccl9. As MN1 is a cofactor of MEIS1 and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA), we compared chromatin occupancy between these genes. Immune response genes that were upregulated in MN1VP16 cells were co-targeted by MN1 and MEIS1, but not RARA, suggesting that myeloid differentiation is blocked through transcriptional repression of shared target genes of MN1 and MEIS1. Constitutive expression of Irf8 or its target gene Ccl9 identified these genes as potent inhibitors of murine and human leukemias in vivo. Our data show that MN1 prevents activation of the immune response pathway, and suggest restoration of IRF8 signaling as therapeutic target in AML.

Liu W, Deng L, Song Y, Redell M
DOT1L inhibition sensitizes MLL-rearranged AML to chemotherapy.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e98270 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
DOT1L, the only known histone H3-lysine 79 (H3K79) methyltransferase, has been shown to be essential for the survival and proliferation of mixed-linkage leukemia (MLL) gene rearranged leukemia cells, which are often resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. To study the functions of DOT1L in MLL-rearranged leukemia, SYC-522, a potent inhibitor of DOT1L developed in our laboratory, was used to treat MLL-rearranged leukemia cell lines and patient samples. SYC-522 significantly inhibited methylation at H3K79, but not H3K4 or H3K27, and decreased the expression of two important leukemia-relevant genes, HOXA9 and MEIS1, by more than 50%. It also significantly reduced the expression of CCND1 and BCL2L1, which are important regulators of cell cycle and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. Exposure of MLL-rearranged leukemia cells to this compound caused cell cycle arrest and promoted differentiation of those cells, both morphologically and by increased CD14 expression. SYC-522 did not induce apoptosis, even at 10 µM for as long as 6 days. However, treatment with this DOT1L inhibitor decreased the colony formation ability of primary MLL-rearranged AML cells by up to 50%, and promoted monocytic differentiation. Notably, SYC-522 treatment significantly increased the sensitivity of MLL-rearranged leukemia cells to chemotherapeutics, such as mitoxantrone, etoposide and cytarabine. A similar sensitization was seen with primary MLL-rearranged AML cells. SYC-522 did not affect chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells without MLL-rearrangement. Suppression of DOT1L activity inhibited the mitoxantrone-induced increase in the DNA damage response marker, γH2AX, and increased the level of cPARP, an intracellular marker of apoptosis. These results demonstrated that SYC-522 selectively inhibited DOT1L, and thereby altered gene expression, promoted differentiation, and increased chemosensitivity by preventing DNA damage response. Therefore, inhibition of DOT1L, in combination with DNA damaging chemotherapy, represents a promising approach to improving outcomes for MLL-rearranged leukemia.

Palma CA, Al Sheikha D, Lim TK, et al.
MicroRNA-155 as an inducer of apoptosis and cell differentiation in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:79 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is characterised by the halt in maturation of myeloid progenitor cells, combined with uncontrolled proliferation and abnormal survival, leading to the accumulation of immature blasts. In many subtypes of AML the underlying causative genetic insults are not fully described. MicroRNAs are known to be dysregulated during oncogenesis. Overexpression of miR-155 is associated with some cancers, including haematological malignancies, and it has been postulated that miR-155 has an oncogenic role. This study investigated the effects of modulating miR-155 expression in human AML cells, and its mechanism of action.
RESULTS: Analysis of miR-155 expression patterns in AML patients found that Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-wildtype AML has the same expression level as normal bone marrow, with increased expression restricted to AML with the FLT3-ITD mutation. Induction of apoptosis by cytarabine arabinoside or myelomonocytic differentiation by 1,23-dihydroxyvitaminD3 in FLT3-wildtype AML cells led to upregulated miR-155 expression. Knockdown of miR-155 by locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides in the FLT3-wildtype AML cells conferred resistance to cytarabine arabinoside induced apoptosis and suppressed the ability of cells to differentiate.Ectopic expression of miR-155 in FLT3-wildtype AML cells led to a significant gain of myelomonocytic markers (CD11b, CD14 and CD15), increase in apoptosis (AnnexinV binding), decrease in cell growth and clonogenic capacity.In silico target prediction identified a number of putative miR-155 target genes, and the expression changes of key transcription regulators of myeloid differentiation and apoptosis (MEIS1, GF1, cMYC, JARID2, cJUN, FOS, CTNNB1 and TRIB2) were confirmed by PCR. Assessment of expression of apoptosis-related proteins demonstrated a marked increase in cleaved caspase-3 expression confirming activation of the apoptosis cascade.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for an anti-leukaemic role for miR-155 in human FLT3-wildtype AML, by inducing cell apoptosis and myelomonocytic differentiation, which is in contrast to its previously hypothesized role as an oncogene. This highlights the complexity of gene regulation by microRNAs that may have tumour repressor or oncogenic effects depending on disease context or tissue type.

Koller K, Pichler M, Koch K, et al.
Nephroblastomas show low expression of microR-204 and high expression of its target, the oncogenic transcription factor MEIS1.
Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2014 May-Jun; 17(3):169-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
By comparing several studies we identified a possible deregulation of the transcription factors PBX2 (pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 2) and one of its binding partners, MEIS1 (Meis homeobox 1) in nephroblastomas. The regulation of MEIS1 is complex, and its expression is known to be influenced by changes of promoter methylation and binding of microRNA-204 (miR-204). Therefore, in our study, we assessed the expression of MEIS1 and PBX2 and the factors regulating expression of MEIS1 in nephroblastomas. MEIS1 and PBX2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were investigated by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Promoter methylation of MEIS1 was evaluated using a methylation-specific PCR assay. Expression levels of miR-204 were examined by qRT-PCR. Eighteen of 21 nephroblastomas showed a high level of MEIS1 mRNA, and 22 of 26 samples had a specific nuclear protein expression. MicroRNA-204 had a statistically significantly lower expression in all nephroblastomas investigated compared with renal parenchyma, but no change of MEIS1 promoter methylation status was noted. Eleven of 23 nephroblastomas had a high expression of PBX2 mRNA, and 15 of 23 samples had a specific nuclear protein expression was noted. In our study, we demonstrated an expression of MEIS1 and its binding partner PBX2 in most nephroblastomas. The statistically significantly lower expression of miR-204 in all nephroblastomas investigated might point to an involvement of miR-204 in the regulation of MEIS1 in nephroblastomas.

Busch AM, Galimberti F, Nehls KE, et al.
All-trans-retinoic acid antagonizes the Hedgehog pathway by inducing patched.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2014; 15(4):463-72 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
Male germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a model for a curable solid tumor. GCTs can differentiate into mature teratomas. Embryonal carcinomas (ECs) represent the stem cell compartment of GCTs and are the malignant counterpart to embryonic stem (ES) cells. GCTs and EC cells are useful to investigate differentiation therapy and chemotherapy response. This study explored mechanistic interactions between all-trans-retinoic acid (RA), which induces differentiation of EC and ES cells, and the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway, a regulator of self-renewal and proliferation. RA was found to induce mRNA and protein expression of Patched 1 (Ptch1), the Hh ligand receptor and negative regulator of this pathway. PTCH1 is also a target gene of Hh signaling through Smoothened (Smo) activation. Yet, this observed RA-mediated Ptch1 induction was independent of Smo. It occurred despite co-treatment with RA and Smo inhibitors. Retinoid induction of Ptch1 also occurred in other RA-responsive cancer cell lines and in normal ES cells. Notably, this enhanced Ptch1 expression was preceded by induction of the homeobox transcription factor Meis1, a direct RA target. Direct interaction between Meis1 and Ptch1 was confirmed using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. To establish the translational relevance of this work, Ptch1 expression was shown to be deregulated in human ECs relative to mature teratoma and the normal seminiferous tubule. Taken together, these findings reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism through which RA can inhibit the Hh pathway via Ptch1 induction. Engaging this pathway is a new way to repress the Hh pathway that can be translated into the cancer clinic.

Fang K, Han BW, Chen ZH, et al.
A distinct set of long non-coding RNAs in childhood MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia: biology and epigenetic target.
Hum Mol Genet. 2014; 23(12):3278-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been recently found to be pervasively transcribed in human genome and link to diverse human diseases. However, the expression patterns and regulatory roles of lncRNAs in hematopoietic malignancies have not been reported. Here, we carried out a genome-wide lncRNA expression study in MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia (MLL-r ALL) and established lncRNA/messenger RNA coexpression networks to gain insight into the biological roles of these dysregulated lncRNAs. We detected a number of lncRNAs that were differentially expressed in MLL-r ALL samples compared with MLL-r wild-type and identified unique lncRNA expression patterns between MLL-r subtypes with different translocations as well as between infant MLL-r ALL with other MLL-r ALL patients, suggesting that they might be served as novel biomarkers for the disease. Importantly, several lncRNAs that correspond with membrane protein genes, including a lysosome-associated membrane protein, were identified. No such link between the membrane proteins and MLL-r leukemia has been reported previously. Impressively, the functional analysis showed that several lncRNAs corresponded to the expression of MLL-fusion protein target genes, including HOXA9, MEIS1, etc., while some other associated with histone-related functions or membrane proteins. Further experiments characterize the effect of some lncRNAs on MLL-r leukemia apoptosis and proliferation as the function of the coexpressed HOXA gene cluster. Finally, a set of lncRNAs epigenetically regulated by H3K79 methylation were also discovered. These findings may provide novel insights into the mechanisms of lncRNAs involved in the initiation of MLL-r leukemia. This is the first study linking lncRNAs to leukemogenesis.

Zhou J, Wu J, Li B, et al.
PU.1 is essential for MLL leukemia partially via crosstalk with the MEIS/HOX pathway.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(7):1436-48 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
Mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) fusion proteins directly activate the expression of key downstream genes such as MEIS1, HOXA9 to drive an aggressive form of human leukemia. However, it is still poorly understood what additional transcriptional regulators, independent of the MLL fusion pathway, contribute to the development of MLL leukemia. Here we show that the transcription factor PU.1 is essential for MLL leukemia and is required for the growth of MLL leukemic cells via the promotion of cell-cycle progression and inhibition of apoptosis. Importantly, PU.1 expression is not under the control of MLL fusion proteins. We further identified a PU.1-governed 15-gene signature, which contains key regulators in the MEIS-HOX program (MEIS1, PBX3, FLT3, and c-KIT). PU.1 directly binds to the genomic loci of its target genes in vivo, and is required to maintain active expression of those genes in both normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and in MLL leukemia. Finally, the clinical significance of the identified PU.1 signature was indicated by its ability to predict survival in acute myelogenous leukemia patients. Together, our findings demonstrate that PU.1 contributes to the development of MLL leukemia, partially via crosstalk with the MEIS/HOX pathway.

Ohlsson E, Hasemann MS, Willer A, et al.
Initiation of MLL-rearranged AML is dependent on C/EBPα.
J Exp Med. 2014; 211(1):5-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
MLL-fusion proteins are potent inducers of oncogenic transformation, and their expression is considered to be the main oncogenic driving force in ∼10% of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. These oncogenic fusion proteins are responsible for the initiation of a downstream transcriptional program leading to the expression of factors such as MEIS1 and HOXA9, which in turn can replace MLL-fusion proteins in overexpression experiments. To what extent MLL fusion proteins act on their own during tumor initiation, or if they collaborate with other transcriptional regulators, is unclear. Here, we have compared gene expression profiles from human MLL-rearranged AML to normal progenitors and identified the myeloid tumor suppressor C/EBPα as a putative collaborator in MLL-rearranged AML. Interestingly, we find that deletion of Cebpa rendered murine hematopoietic progenitors completely resistant to MLL-ENL-induced leukemic transformation, whereas C/EBPα was dispensable in already established AMLs. Furthermore, we show that Cebpa-deficient granulocytic-monocytic progenitors were equally resistant to transformation and that C/EBPα collaborates with MLL-ENL in the induction of a transcriptional program, which is also apparent in human AML. Thus, our studies demonstrate a key role of C/EBPα in MLL fusion-driven transformation and find that it sharply demarcates tumor initiation and maintenance.

Mulgrew NM, Kettyle LM, Ramsey JM, et al.
c-Met inhibition in a HOXA9/Meis1 model of CN-AML.
Dev Dyn. 2014; 243(1):172-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hematopoiesis is a paradigm for developmental processes, hierarchically organized, with stem cells at its origin. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) replenish progenitor and precursor cells of multiple lineages, which normally differentiate into short-lived mature circulating cells. Hematopoiesis has provided insight into the molecular basis of tissue homeostasis and malignancy. Malignant hematopoiesis, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML), results from impaired development or differentiation of HSCs and progenitors. Co-overexpression of HOX and TALE genes, particularly the HOXA cluster and MEIS1, is associated with AML. Clinically relevant models of AML are required to advance drug development for an aging patient cohort.
RESULTS: Molecular analysis identified altered gene, microRNA, and protein expression in HOXA9/Meis1 leukemic bone marrow compared to normal controls. A candidate drug screen identified the c-Met inhibitor SU11274 for further analysis. Altered cell cycle status, apoptosis, differentiation, and impaired colony formation were shown for SU11274 in AML cell lines and primary leukemic bone marrow.
CONCLUSIONS: The clonal HOXA9/Meis1 AML model is amenable to drug screening analysis. The data presented indicate that human AML cells respond in a similar manner to the HOXA9/Meis1 cells, indicating pre-clinical relevance of the mouse model.

Shima H, Yamagata K, Aikawa Y, et al.
Bromodomain-PHD finger protein 1 is critical for leukemogenesis associated with MOZ-TIF2 fusion.
Int J Hematol. 2014; 99(1):21-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal translocations that involve the monocytic leukemia zinc finger (MOZ) gene are typically associated with human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and often predict a poor prognosis. Overexpression of HOXA9, HOXA10, and MEIS1 was observed in AML patients with MOZ fusions. To assess the functional role of HOX upregulation in leukemogenesis by MOZ-TIF2, we focused on bromodomain-PHD finger protein 1 (BRPF1), a component of the MOZ complex that carries out histone acetylation for generating and maintaining proper epigenetic programs in hematopoietic cells. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that MOZ-TIF2 forms a stable complex with BRPF1, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that MOZ-TIF2 and BRPF1 interact with HOX genes in MOZ-TIF2-induced AML cells. Depletion of BRPF1 decreased the MOZ localization on HOX genes, resulting in loss of transformation ability induced by MOZ-TIF2. Furthermore, mutant MOZ-TIF2 engineered to lack histone acetyltransferase activity was incapable of deregulating HOX genes as well as initiating leukemia. These data indicate that MOZ-TIF2/BRPF1 complex upregulates HOX genes mediated by MOZ-dependent histone acetylation, leading to the development of leukemia. We suggest that activation of BRPF1/HOX pathway through MOZ HAT activity is critical for MOZ-TIF2 to induce AML.

Dihal AA, Boot A, van Roon EH, et al.
The homeobox gene MEIS1 is methylated in BRAF (p.V600E) mutated colon tumors.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e79898 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
Development of colorectal cancer (CRC) can occur both via gene mutations in tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, as well as via epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation. Site-specific methylation in CRC regulates expression of tumor-associated genes. Right-sided colon tumors more frequently have BRAF (p.V600E) mutations and have higher methylation grades when compared to left-sided malignancies. The aim of this study was to identify DNA methylation changes associated with BRAF (p.V600E) mutation status. We performed methylation profiling of colon tumor DNA, isolated from frozen sections enriched for epithelial cells by macro-dissection, and from paired healthy tissue. Single gene analyses comparing BRAF (p.V600E) with BRAF wild type revealed MEIS1 as the most significant differentially methylated gene (log2 fold change: 0.89, false discovery rate-adjusted P-value 2.8*10(-9)). This finding was validated by methylation-specific PCR that was concordant with the microarray data. Additionally, validation in an independent cohort (n=228) showed a significant association between BRAF (p.V600E) and MEIS1 methylation (OR: 13.0, 95% CI: 5.2 - 33.0, P<0.0001). MEIS1 methylation was associated with decreased MEIS1 gene expression in both patient samples and CRC cell lines. The same was true for gene expression of a truncated form of MEIS1, MEIS1 D27 , which misses exon 8 and has a proposed tumor suppression function. To trace the origin of MEIS1 promoter methylation, 14 colorectal tumors were flow-sorted. Four out of eight BRAF (p.V600E) tumor epithelial fractions (50%) showed MEIS1 promoter methylation, as well as three out of eight BRAF (p.V600E) stromal fractions (38%). Only one out of six BRAF wild type showed MEIS1 promoter methylation in both the epithelial tumor and stromal fractions (17%). In conclusion, BRAF (p.V600E) colon tumors showed significant MEIS1 promoter methylation, which was associated with decreased MEIS1 gene expression.

Wang QF, Li YJ, Dong JF, et al.
Regulation of MEIS1 by distal enhancer elements in acute leukemia.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(1):138-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant activation of the three-amino-acid-loop extension homeobox gene MEIS1 shortens the latency and accelerates the onset and progression of acute leukemia, yet the molecular mechanism underlying persistent activation of the MEIS1 gene in leukemia remains poorly understood. Here we used a combined comparative genomics analysis and an in vivo transgenic zebrafish assay to identify six regulatory DNA elements that are able to direct green fluorescent protein expression in a spatiotemporal manner during zebrafish embryonic hematopoiesis. Analysis of chromatin characteristics and regulatory signatures suggests that many of these predicted elements are potential enhancers in mammalian hematopoiesis. Strikingly, one of the enhancer elements (E9) is a frequent integration site in retroviral-induced mouse acute leukemia. The genomic region corresponding to enhancer E9 is differentially marked by H3K4 monomethylation and H3K27 acetylation, hallmarks of active enhancers, in multiple leukemia cell lines. Decreased enrichment of these histone marks is associated with downregulation of MEIS1 expression during hematopoietic differentiation. Further, MEIS1/HOXA9 transactivate this enhancer via a conserved binding motif in vitro, and participate in an autoregulatory loop that modulates MEIS1 expression in vivo. Our results suggest that an intronic enhancer regulates the expression of MEIS1 in hematopoiesis and contributes to its aberrant expression in acute leukemia.

Zhang Y, Owens K, Hatem L, et al.
Essential role of PR-domain protein MDS1-EVI1 in MLL-AF9 leukemia.
Blood. 2013; 122(16):2888-92 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
A subgroup of leukemogenic mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) fusion proteins (MFPs) including MLL-AF9 activates the Mecom locus and exhibits extremely poor clinical prognosis. Mecom encodes EVI1 and MDS1-EVI1 (ME) proteins via alternative transcription start sites; these differ by the presence of a PRDI-BF1-RIZ1 (PR) domain with histone methyltransferase activity in the ME isoform. Using an ME-deficient mouse, we show that ME is required for MLL-AF9-induced transformation both in vitro and in vivo. And, although Nup98-HOXA9, MEIS1-HOXA9, and E2A-Hlf could transform ME-deficient cells, both MLL-AF9 and MLL-ENL were ineffective, indicating that the ME requirement is specific to MLL fusion leukemia. Further, we show that the PR domain is essential for MFP-induced transformation. These studies clearly indicate an essential role of PR-domain protein ME in MFP leukemia, suggesting that ME may be a novel target for therapeutic intervention for this group of leukemias.

Muntean AG, Chen W, Jones M, et al.
MLL fusion protein-driven AML is selectively inhibited by targeted disruption of the MLL-PAFc interaction.
Blood. 2013; 122(11):1914-22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
MLL rearrangements are common in leukemia and considered an adverse risk factor. Through interactions with the polymerase-associated factor complex (PAFc), mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) fusion proteins activate genes critical for blocking differentiation, such as HOXA9. Here we investigate whether the MLL-PAFc interaction can be exploited therapeutically using both genetic and biochemical approaches. We tested the genetic requirement of the PAFc in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a conditional allele of the PAFc subunit, Cdc73. We show that the PAFc is indiscriminately necessary for the proliferation of AML cells through the epigenetic regulation of proleukemogenic target genes, such as MEIS1 and Bcl2. To investigate the therapeutic potential of targeting the MLL-PAFc interaction, we engineered a dominant negative fragment of MLL capable of binding to the PAFc. Disruption of the MLL-PAFc interaction selectively inhibits the proliferation of MLL leukemic cells without affecting cells transformed by an unrelated E2A-HLF fusion protein. Using in vivo hematopoietic reconstitution assays, we demonstrate that disruption of the MLL-PAFc does not alter normal hematopoietic stem cell function. Together, our data show a selective growth inhibition of MLL-associated leukemic cells and tolerance of normal hematopoiesis to disruption of the MLL-PAFc interaction establishing the MLL-PAFc interaction as an attractive therapeutic target.

Ono R, Masuya M, Nakajima H, et al.
Plzf drives MLL-fusion-mediated leukemogenesis specifically in long-term hematopoietic stem cells.
Blood. 2013; 122(7):1271-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncogenic transformation requires unlimited self-renewal. Currently, it remains unclear whether a normal capacity for self-renewal is required for acquiring an aberrant self-renewal capacity. Our results in a new conditional transgenic mouse showed that a mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) fusion oncogene, MLL-ENL, at an endogenous-like expression level led to leukemic transformation selectively in a restricted subpopulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) through upregulation of promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (Plzf). Interestingly, forced expression of Plzf itself immortalized HSCs and myeloid progenitors in vitro without upregulation of Hoxa9/Meis1, which are well-known targets of MLL fusion proteins, whereas its mutant lacking the BTB/POZ domain did not. In contrast, depletion of Plzf suppressed the MLL-fusion-induced leukemic transformation of HSCs in vitro and in vivo. Gene expression analyses of human clinical samples showed that a subtype of PLZF-high MLL-rearranged myeloid leukemia cells was closely associated with the gene expression signature of HSCs. These findings suggested that MLL fusion protein enhances the self-renewal potential of normal HSCs to develop leukemia, in part through a Plzf-driven self-renewal program.

Huang H, Jiang X, Li Z, et al.
TET1 plays an essential oncogenic role in MLL-rearranged leukemia.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(29):11994-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
The ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) gene is the founding member of the TET family of enzymes (TET1/2/3) that convert 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. Although TET1 was first identified as a fusion partner of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene in acute myeloid leukemia carrying t(10,11), its definitive role in leukemia is unclear. In contrast to the frequent down-regulation (or loss-of-function mutations) and critical tumor-suppressor roles of the three TET genes observed in various types of cancers, here we show that TET1 is a direct target of MLL-fusion proteins and is significantly up-regulated in MLL-rearranged leukemia, leading to a global increase of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine level. Furthermore, our both in vitro and in vivo functional studies demonstrate that Tet1 plays an indispensable oncogenic role in the development of MLL-rearranged leukemia, through coordination with MLL-fusion proteins in regulating their critical cotargets, including homeobox A9 (Hoxa9)/myeloid ecotropic viral integration 1 (Meis1)/pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 3 (Pbx3) genes. Collectively, our data delineate an MLL-fusion/Tet1/Hoxa9/Meis1/Pbx3 signaling axis in MLL-rearranged leukemia and highlight TET1 as a potential therapeutic target in treating this presently therapy-resistant disease.

Benetatos L, Vartholomatos G
MicroRNAs mark in the MLL-rearranged leukemia.
Ann Hematol. 2013; 92(11):1439-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs, known regulators of several signaling pathways cell differentiation and proliferation, development, and apoptosis, which are deregulated in acute leukemia. Mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene encodes a protein with histone methyltransferase activity, which is essential for the fine tuning of hematopoietic stem cell development and differentiation through the regulation of HOXA and MEIS1. MLL gene rearrangements characterize both acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia associated with poor outcomes. MicroRNAs and MLL rearrangements are in tight association regulating each other expression, affecting cell cycle regulators, and composing complex networks with factors involved in leukemogenesis such as MYC and FLT3. MLL fusion genes are also capable of recruiting DNA methyltransferases at microRNAs promoters controlling their expression through epigenetic changes. Direct drug targeting of MLL has been difficult to achieve, and in this context, microRNA expression modulation represents an attractive approach.

Ding X, Yang Z, Zhou F, et al.
Transcription factor AP-2α regulates acute myeloid leukemia cell proliferation by influencing Hoxa gene expression.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013; 45(8):1647-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcription factor AP-2α mediates transcription of a number of genes implicated in mammalian development, cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. In the current study, we identified Hoxa7, Hoxa9 and Hox cofactor Meis1 as AP-2α target genes, which are involved in myeloid leukemogenesis. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that overexpression of AP-2α activated transcription activities of Hoxa7, Hoxa9 and Meis1, whereas siRNA of AP-2α inhibited their transcription activities. We found that AP-2 binding sites in regulatory regions of three genes activated their transcription by mutant analysis and AP-2α could interact with AP-2 binding sites in vivo by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Further results showed that the AP-2α shRNA efficiently inhibited mRNA and protein levels of Hoxa7, Hoxa9 and Meis1 in AML cell lines U937 and HL60. Moreover, decreased expression of AP-2α resulted in a significant reduction in the growth and proliferation of AML cells in vitro. Remarkably, AP-2α knockdown leukemia cells exhibit decreased tumorigenicity in vivo compared with controls. Finally, AP-2α and target genes in clinical acute myeloid leukemia samples of M5b subtype revealed variable expression levels and broadly paralleled expression. These data support a role of AP-2α in mediating the expression of Hoxa genes in acute myeloid leukemia to influence the proliferation and cell survival.

Kandilci A, Surtel J, Janke L, et al.
Mapping of MN1 sequences necessary for myeloid transformation.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e61706 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
The MN1 oncogene is deregulated in human acute myeloid leukemia and its overexpression induces proliferation and represses myeloid differentiation of primitive human and mouse hematopoietic cells, leading to myeloid leukemia in mouse models. To delineate the sequences within MN1 necessary for MN1-induced leukemia, we tested the transforming capacity of in-frame deletion mutants, using retroviral transduction of mouse bone marrow. We found that integrity of the regions between amino acids 12 to 458 and 1119 to 1273 are required for MN1's in vivo transforming activity, generating myeloid leukemia with some mutants also producing T-cell lympho-leukemia and megakaryocytic leukemia. Although both full length MN1 and a mutant that lacks the residues between 12-228 (Δ12-228 mutant) repressed myeloid differentiation and increased myeloproliferative activity in vitro, the mutant lost its transforming activity in vivo. Both MN1 and Δ12-228 increased the frequency of common myeloid progentiors (CMP) in vitro and microarray comparisons of purified MN1-CMP and Δ12-228-CMP cells showed many differentially expressed genes including Hoxa9, Meis1, Myb, Runx2, Cebpa, Cebpb and Cebpd. This collection of immediate MN1-responsive candidate genes distinguishes the leukemic activity from the in vitro myeloproliferative capacity of this oncoprotein.

Dickson GJ, Liberante FG, Kettyle LM, et al.
HOXA/PBX3 knockdown impairs growth and sensitizes cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia cells to chemotherapy.
Haematologica. 2013; 98(8):1216-25 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
The cytogenetically normal subtype of acute myeloid leukemia is associated with an intermediate risk which complicates therapeutic options. Lower overall HOX/TALE expression appears to correlate with more favorable prognosis/better response to treatment in some leukemias and solid cancer. The functional significance of the associated gene expression and response to chemotherapy is not known. Three independent microarray datasets obtained from large cohorts of patients along with quantitative polymerase chain reaction validation were used to identify a four-gene HOXA/TALE signature capable of prognostic stratification. Biochemical analysis was used to identify interactions between the four encoded proteins and targeted knockdown used to examine the functional importance of sustained expression of the signature in leukemia maintenance and response to chemotherapy. An 11 HOXA/TALE code identified in an intermediate-risk group of patients (n=315) compared to a group with a favorable risk (n=105) was reduced to a four-gene signature of HOXA6, HOXA9, PBX3 and MEIS1 by iterative analysis of independent platforms. This signature maintained the favorable/intermediate risk partition and where applicable, correlated with overall survival in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia. We further showed that cell growth and function are dependent on maintained levels of these core genes and that direct targeting of HOXA/PBX3 sensitizes cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia cells to standard chemotherapy. Together the data support a key role for HOXA/TALE in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia and demonstrate that targeting of clinically significant HOXA/PBX3 elements may provide therapeutic benefit to patients with this subtype of leukemia.

Wang E, Kawaoka S, Yu M, et al.
Histone H2B ubiquitin ligase RNF20 is required for MLL-rearranged leukemia.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(10):3901-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) fusions are potent oncogenes that initiate aggressive forms of acute leukemia. As aberrant transcriptional regulators, MLL-fusion proteins alter gene expression in hematopoietic cells through interactions with the histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79) methyltransferase DOT1L. Notably, interference with MLL-fusion cofactors like DOT1L is an emerging therapeutic strategy in this disease. Here, we identify the histone H2B E3 ubiquitin ligase ring finger protein 20 (RNF20) as an additional chromatin regulator that is necessary for MLL-fusion-mediated leukemogenesis. Suppressing the expression of Rnf20 in diverse models of MLL-rearranged leukemia leads to inhibition of cell proliferation, under tissue culture conditions as well as in vivo. Rnf20 knockdown leads to reduced expression of MLL-fusion target genes, effects resembling Dot1l inhibition. Using ChIP-seq, we found that H2B ubiquitination is enriched in the body of MLL-fusion target genes, correlating with sites of H3K79 methylation and transcription elongation. Furthermore, Rnf20 is required to maintain local levels of H3K79 methylation by Dot1l at Hoxa9 and Meis1. These findings support a model whereby cotranscriptional recruitment of Rnf20 at MLL-fusion target genes leads to amplification of Dot1l-mediated H3K79 methylation, thereby rendering leukemia cells dependent on Rnf20 to maintain their oncogenic transcriptional program.

Beukers W, Hercegovac A, Vermeij M, et al.
Hypermethylation of the polycomb group target gene PCDH7 in bladder tumors from patients of all ages.
J Urol. 2013; 190(1):311-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Bladder tumors in patients younger than 20 years show a low incidence of the genetic and epigenetic aberrations typically found in older patients. One of the most common epigenetic aberrations in human malignancies is DNA hypermethylation. Polycomb group complexes have an important role during lineage choices in embryogenesis and their target genes are 12 times more likely to be methylated than nonpolycomb group target genes. We hypothesized that methylation of polycomb group target genes is an early event in urothelial carcinogenesis and thus might be observed in young patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We stratified 167 patients by age into 4 groups, including age less than 20 years in 14, 20 to 40 in 48, 40 to 60 in 47 and greater than 60 in 58. Five previously identified polycomb group target genes (MEIS1, ONECUT2, OTX1, PCDH7 and SOX21) were selected for methylation analysis. Methylation ratios were calculated by using the unmethylated and methylated signal. The outcome represented the fraction of methylated cells within one tumor. Genes with similar methylation ratios in all age groups were considered as potential bladder cancer initiating candidates.
RESULTS: Three genes showed higher methylation ratios in tumors from older patients, including ONECUT2, SOX21 and OTX1 (each p <0.001). MEIS1 showed a similar methylation ratio in all groups but the median methylation ratio was low. PCDH7 showed a similar median methylation percent in all age categories, ie 54% at less than 20, 59% at 20 to 40, 59% at 40 to 60 and 67% at greater than 60 years (p = 0.1).
CONCLUSIONS: Tumors from young patients showed less methylation for most markers. PCDH7 showed high methylation ratios in all age categories. Therefore, it could have an important role in early urothelial carcinogenesis.

Elton TS, Selemon H, Elton SM, Parinandi NL
Regulation of the MIR155 host gene in physiological and pathological processes.
Gene. 2013; 532(1):1-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small nonprotein-coding RNAs, play a critical role in posttranscriptional gene regulation by acting as adaptors for the miRNA-induced silencing complex to inhibit gene expression by targeting mRNAs for translational repression and/or cleavage. miR-155-5p and miR-155-3p are processed from the B-cell Integration Cluster (BIC) gene (now designated, MIR155 host gene or MIR155HG). MiR-155-5p is highly expressed in both activated B- and T-cells and in monocytes/macrophages. MiR-155-5p is one of the best characterized miRNAs and recent data indicate that miR-155-5p plays a critical role in various physiological and pathological processes such as hematopoietic lineage differentiation, immunity, inflammation, viral infections, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Down syndrome. In this review we summarize the mechanisms by which MIR155HG expression can be regulated. Given that the pathologies mediated by miR-155-5p result from the over-expression of this miRNA it may be possible to therapeutically attenuate miR-155-5p levels in the treatment of several pathological processes.

Jiang X, Huang H, Li Z, et al.
MiR-495 is a tumor-suppressor microRNA down-regulated in MLL-rearranged leukemia.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(47):19397-402 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic malignancies with variable response to treatment. AMLs bearing MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) rearrangements are associated with intermediate or poor survival. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs, have been postulated to be important gene expression regulators virtually in all biological processes, including leukemogenesis. Through a large-scale, genome-wide miRNA expression profiling assay of 85 human AML and 15 normal control samples, we show that among 48 miRNAs that are significantly differentially expressed between MLL- and non-MLL-rearranged AML samples, only one (miR-495) is expressed at a lower level in MLL-rearranged AML than in non-MLL-rearranged AML; meanwhile, miR-495 is also significantly down-regulated in MLL-rearranged AML samples compared with normal control samples. Through in vitro colony-forming/replating assays and in vivo bone marrow transplantation studies, we show that forced expression of miR-495 significantly inhibits MLL-fusion-mediated cell transformation in vitro and leukemogenesis in vivo. In human leukemic cells carrying MLL rearrangements, ectopic expression of miR-495 greatly inhibits cell viability and increases cell apoptosis. Furthermore, our studies demonstrate that PBX3 and MEIS1 are two direct target genes of miR-495, and forced expression of either of them can reverse the effects of miR-495 overexpression on inhibiting cell viability and promoting apoptosis of human MLL-rearranged leukemic cells. Thus, our data indicate that miR-495 likely functions as a tumor suppressor in AML with MLL rearrangements by targeting essential leukemia-related genes.

Jiang X, Huang H, Li Z, et al.
Blockade of miR-150 maturation by MLL-fusion/MYC/LIN-28 is required for MLL-associated leukemia.
Cancer Cell. 2012; 22(4):524-35 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
Expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is under stringent regulation at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Disturbance at either level could cause dysregulation of miRNAs. Here, we show that MLL fusion proteins negatively regulate production of miR-150, an miRNA widely repressed in acute leukemia, by blocking miR-150 precursors from being processed to mature miRNAs through MYC/LIN28 functional axis. Forced expression of miR-150 dramatically inhibited leukemic cell growth and delayed MLL-fusion-mediated leukemogenesis, likely through targeting FLT3 and MYB and thereby interfering with the HOXA9/MEIS1/FLT3/MYB signaling network, which in turn caused downregulation of MYC/LIN28. Collectively, we revealed a MLL-fusion/MYC/LIN28⊣miR-150⊣FLT3/MYB/HOXA9/MEIS1 signaling circuit underlying the pathogenesis of leukemia, where miR-150 functions as a pivotal gatekeeper and its repression is required for leukemogenesis.

Novak RL, Harper DP, Caudell D, et al.
Gene expression profiling and candidate gene resequencing identifies pathways and mutations important for malignant transformation caused by leukemogenic fusion genes.
Exp Hematol. 2012; 40(12):1016-27 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) and CALM-AF10 (CA10) are oncogenic fusion proteins produced by recurrent chromosomal translocations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Transgenic mice that express these fusions develop AML with a long latency and incomplete penetrance, suggesting that collaborating genetic events are required for leukemic transformation. We employed genetic techniques to identify both preleukemic abnormalities in healthy transgenic mice as well as collaborating events leading to leukemic transformation. Candidate gene resequencing revealed that 6 of 27 (22%) CA10 AMLs spontaneously acquired a Ras pathway mutation and 8 of 27 (30%) acquired an Flt3 mutation. Two CA10 AMLs acquired an Flt3 internal-tandem duplication, demonstrating that these mutations can be acquired in murine as well as human AML. Gene expression profiles revealed a marked upregulation of Hox genes, particularly Hoxa5, Hoxa9, and Hoxa10 in both NHD13 and CA10 mice. Furthermore, mir196b, which is embedded within the Hoxa locus, was overexpressed in both CA10 and NHD13 samples. In contrast, the Hox cofactors Meis1 and Pbx3 were differentially expressed; Meis1 was increased in CA10 AMLs but not NHD13 AMLs, whereas Pbx3 was consistently increased in NHD13 but not CA10 AMLs. Silencing of Pbx3 in NHD13 cells led to decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and decreased colony formation in vitro, suggesting a previously unexpected role for Pbx3 in leukemic transformation.

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