Gene Summary

Gene:MX1; MX dynamin like GTPase 1
Aliases: MX, MxA, IFI78, IFI-78K
Summary:This gene encodes a guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-metabolizing protein that participates in the cellular antiviral response. The encoded protein is induced by type I and type II interferons and antagonizes the replication process of several different RNA and DNA viruses. There is a related gene located adjacent to this gene on chromosome 21, and there are multiple pseudogenes located in a cluster on chromosome 4. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (18)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Phenotype
  • STAT1 Transcription Factor
  • Up-Regulation
  • GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Hematopoiesis
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells
  • Protein Binding
  • Drug Resistance
  • Chromosome 21
  • Myxovirus Resistance Proteins
  • Virus Diseases
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Translocation
  • Down-Regulation
  • MX1
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Mutation
  • Knockout Mice
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • siRNA
  • DNA Methylation
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Virus Replication
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • ras Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Messenger RNA
Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MX1 (cancer-related)

Barajas-Olmos FM, Ortiz-Sánchez E, Imaz-Rosshandler I, et al.
Analysis of the dynamic aberrant landscape of DNA methylation and gene expression during arsenic-induced cell transformation.
Gene. 2019; 711:143941 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inorganic arsenic is a well-known carcinogen associated with several types of cancer, but the mechanisms involved in arsenic-induced carcinogenesis are not fully understood. Recent evidence points to epigenetic dysregulation as an important mechanism in this process; however, the effects of epigenetic alterations in gene expression have not been explored in depth. Using microarray data and applying a multivariate clustering analysis in a Gaussian mixture model, we describe the alterations in DNA methylation around the promoter region and the impact on gene expression in HaCaT cells during the transformation process caused by chronic exposure to arsenic. Using this clustering approach, the genes were grouped according to their methylation and expression status in the epigenetic landscape, and the changes that occurred during the cellular transformation were identified adequately. Thus, we present a valuable method for identifying epigenomic dysregulation.

Salmerón-Hernández Á, Noriega-Reyes MY, Jordan A, et al.
BCAS2 Enhances Carcinogenic Effects of Estrogen Receptor Alpha in Breast Cancer Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) has an established role in breast cancer biology. Transcriptional activation by ERα is a multistep process modulated by coactivator and corepressor proteins. Breast Cancer Amplified Sequence 2 (BCAS2), is a poorly studied ERα coactivator. In this work, we characterize some of the mechanisms through which this protein increases ERα activity and how this promotes carcinogenic processes in breast cancer cells. Using protein-protein interaction and luciferase assays we show that BCAS2 interacts with ERα both in vitro and in vivo and upregulates transcriptional activation of ERα directly through its N-terminal region (AF-1) and indirectly through its C-terminal (AF-2) region, acting in concert with AF-2 interacting coactivators. Elevated expression of BCAS2 positively affects proliferation, clonogenicity and migration of breast cancer cells and directly activates ERα regulated genes which have been shown to play a role in tumor growth and progression. Finally, we used signal transduction pathway inhibitors to elucidate how BCAS2 is regulated in these cells and observed that BCAS2 is preferentially regulated by the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. BCAS2 is an AF-1 coactivator of ERα whose overexpression promotes carcinogenic processes, suggesting an important role in the development of estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer.

González-Castro TB, Juárez-Rojop IE, López-Narváez ML, et al.
Genetic Polymorphisms of CCDC26 rs891835, rs6470745, and rs55705857 in Glioma Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Biochem Genet. 2019; 57(4):583-605 [PubMed] Related Publications
A genetic component is accepted in the etiology of the glioma. Evidence from candidate genes studies and GWAS reveal that CCDC26 gene could increase the risk of glioma. We performed a systematic review and up-to-date meta-analysis to explore if polymorphisms of CCDC26 gene (rs891835, rs6470745, and rs55705857) may be a susceptibility factor in developing glioma. An online search in PubMed, Web of Science, and SCOPUS up to September 2018 was performed. The pooled odds ratios were evaluated by fixed effects model and random effects model. Analyses of the overall sample and ethnic sub-groups were performed. In all the analyses, the allelic, additive, dominant, and recessive models were used. We found an association between all polymorphisms evaluated and an increased risk for glioma in the overall population in all the models studied. In sub-group analysis, we found that rs891835 and rs6470745 increased the risk of glioma in Europeans and Caucasians. On the other hand, the rs891835 polymorphism did not reveal any statistical association in Chinese population. Taken into consideration the limitations of this study, the present findings suggest a possible participation of rs891835, rs6470745, and rs55705857 as risk factors to develop glioma. Furthermore, it is possible that the involvement of CCDC26 variants depends on ethnicity. However, we recommend to perform further studies to have conclusive outcomes.

Wang B, Xu X, Yang Z, et al.
POH1 contributes to hyperactivation of TGF-β signaling and facilitates hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis through deubiquitinating TGF-β receptors and caveolin-1.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 41:320-332 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hyper-activation of TGF-β signaling is critically involved in progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the events that contribute to the dysregulation of TGF-β pathway in HCC, especially at the post-translational level, are not well understood.
METHODS: Associations of deubiquitinase POH1 with TGF-β signaling activity and the outcomes of HCC patients were examined by data mining of online HCC datasets, immunohistochemistry analyses using human HCC specimens, spearman correlation and survival analyses. The effects of POH1 on the ubiquitination and stability of the TGF-β receptors (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2) and the activation of downstream effectors were tested by western blotting. Primary mouse liver tissues from polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C)- treated Mx-Cre+, poh1
FINDINGS: Here we show that POH1 is a critical regulator of TGF-β signaling and promotes tumor metastasis. Integrative analyses of HCC subgroups classified with unsupervised transcriptome clustering of the TGF-β response, metastatic potential and outcomes, reveal that POH1 expression positively correlates with activities of TGF-β signaling in tumors and with malignant disease progression. Functionally, POH1 intensifies TGF-β signaling delivery and, as a consequence, promotes HCC cell metastatic properties both in vitro and in vivo. The expression of the TGF-β receptors was severely downregulated in POH1-deficient mouse hepatocytes. Mechanistically, POH1 deubiquitinates the TGF-β receptors and CAV1, therefore negatively regulates lysosome pathway-mediated turnover of TGF-β receptors.
CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the pathological significance of aberrantly expressed POH1 in TGF-β signaling hyperactivation and aggressive progression in HCC.

Cruz-Miranda GM, Hidalgo-Miranda A, Bárcenas-López DA, et al.
Long Non-Coding RNA and Acute Leukemia.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute leukemia (AL) is the main type of cancer in children worldwide. Mortality by this disease is high in developing countries and its etiology remains unanswered. Evidences showing the role of the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the pathophysiology of hematological malignancies have increased drastically in the last decade. In addition to the contribution of these lncRNAs in leukemogenesis, recent studies have suggested that lncRNAs could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic response in leukemia patients. The focus of this review is to describe the functional classification, biogenesis, and the role of lncRNAs in leukemogenesis, to summarize the evidence about the lncRNAs which are playing a role in AL, and how these genes could be useful as potential therapeutic targets.

Córdova-Rivas S, Fraire-Soto I, Mercado-Casas Torres A, et al.
5p and 3p Strands of miR-34 Family Members Have Differential Effects in Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion in Cervical Cancer Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The micro RNA (miR)-34 family is composed of 5p and 3p strands of miR-34a, miR-34b, and miR-34c. The 5p strand's expression and function is studied in cervical cancer. The 3p strand's function and regulation remain to be elucidated. To study the function of the passenger strands of miR-34 family members, we overexpressed 5p and 3p strands using a synthetic miRNA in cervical cell lines. Cell proliferation was evaluated using crystal violet. Migration and invasion were tested using transwell assays, Western blot, and zymography. Possible specific targets and cell signaling were investigated for each strand. We found that miR-34a-5p inhibited proliferation, migration, and cell invasion accompanied by matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) activity and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) protein reduction. We also found that miR-34b-5p and miR-34c-5p inhibit proliferation and migration, but not invasion. In contrast, miR-34c-5p inhibits MMP9 activity and MAP2 protein, while miR-34b-5p has no effect on these genes. Furthermore, miR-34a-3p and miR-34b-3p inhibit proliferation and migration, but not invasion, despite the later reducing MMP2 activity, while miR-34c-3p inhibit proliferation, migration, and cell invasion accompanied by MMP9 activity and MAP2 protein inhibition. The difference in cellular processes, MMP2 and MMP9 activity, and MAP2 protein inhibition by miR-34 family members suggests the participation of other regulated genes. This study provides insights into the roles of passenger strands (strand*) of the miR-34 family in cervical cancer.

Mendoza-Rodríguez MG, Ayala-Sumuano JT, García-Morales L, et al.
IL-1β Inflammatory Cytokine-Induced
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mechanisms behind the induction of malignancy and chemoresistance in breast cancer cells are still not completely understood. Inflammation is associated with the induction of malignancy in different types of cancer and is highlighted as an important factor for chemoresistance. In previous work, we demonstrated that the inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β)-induced upregulation of genes was associated with chemoresistance in breast cancer cells. Here, we evaluated the participation and the expression profile of

Fernández-Lopez JC, Romero-Córdoba S, Rebollar-Vega R, et al.
Population and breast cancer patients' analysis reveals the diversity of genomic variation of the BRCA genes in the Mexican population.
Hum Genomics. 2019; 13(1):3 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interpretation of variants of unknown significance (VUS) in genetic tests is complicated in ethnically diverse populations, given the lack of information regarding the common spectrum of genetic variation in clinically relevant genes. Public availability of data obtained from high-throughput genotyping and/or exome massive parallel sequencing (MPS)-based projects from several thousands of outbred samples might become useful tools to evaluate the pathogenicity of a VUS, based on its frequency in different populations. In the case of the Mexican and other Latino populations, several thousands of samples have been genotyped or sequenced during the last few years as part of different efforts to identify common variants associated to common diseases. In this report, we analyzed Mexican population data from a sample of 3985 outbred individuals, and additional 66 hereditary breast cancer patients were analyzed in order to better define the spectrum of common genomic variation of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Our analyses identified the most common genetic variants in these clinically relevant genes as well as the presence and frequency of specific pathogenic mutations present in the Mexican population. Analysis of the 3985 population samples by MPS identified three pathogenic mutations in BRCA1, only one population sample showed a BRCA1 exon 16-17 deletion by MLPA. This resulted in a basal prevalence of deleterious mutations of 0.10% (1:996) for BRCA1 and 11 pathogenic mutations in BRCA2, resulting in a basal prevalence of deleterious mutations of 0.276% (1:362) for BRCA2, combined of 0.376% (1:265). Separate analysis of the breast cancer patients identified the presence of pathogenic mutations in 18% (12 pathogenic mutations in 66 patients) of the samples by MPS and 13 additional alterations by MLPA. These results will support a better interpretation of clinical studies focused on the detection of BRCA mutations in Mexican and Latino populations and will help to define the general prevalence of deleterious mutations within these populations.

Manzanarez-Ozuna E, Flores DL, Gutiérrez-López E, et al.
Model based on GA and DNN for prediction of mRNA-Smad7 expression regulated by miRNAs in breast cancer.
Theor Biol Med Model. 2018; 15(1):24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Smad7 protein is negative regulator of the TGF-β signaling pathway, which is upregulated in patients with breast cancer. miRNAs regulate proteins expressions by arresting or degrading the mRNAs. The purpose of this work is to identify a miRNAs profile that regulates the expression of the mRNA coding for Smad7 in breast cancer using the data from patients with breast cancer obtained from the Cancer Genome Atlas Project.
METHODS: We develop an automatic search method based on genetic algorithms to find a predictive model based on deep neural networks (DNN) which fit the set of biological data and apply the Olden algorithm to identify the relative importance of each miRNAs.
RESULTS: A computational model of non-linear regression is shown, based on deep neural networks that predict the regulation given by the miRNA target transcripts mRNA coding for Smad7 protein in patients with breast cancer, with R
CONCLUSIONS: We developed a genetic algorithm to select best features as DNN inputs (miRNAs). The genetic algorithm also builds the best DNN architecture by optimizing the parameters. Although the confirmation of the results by laboratory experiments has not occurred, the results allow suggesting that miRNAs profile could be used as biomarkers or targets in targeted therapies.

Trejo-Solís C, Serrano-Garcia N, Escamilla-Ramírez Á, et al.
Autophagic and Apoptotic Pathways as Targets for Chemotherapy in Glioblastoma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(12) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most malignant and aggressive type of brain tumor, with a mean life expectancy of less than 15 months. This is due in part to the high resistance to apoptosis and moderate resistant to autophagic cell death in glioblastoma cells, and to the poor therapeutic response to conventional therapies. Autophagic cell death represents an alternative mechanism to overcome the resistance of glioblastoma to pro-apoptosis-related therapies. Nevertheless, apoptosis induction plays a major conceptual role in several experimental studies to develop novel therapies against brain tumors. In this review, we outline the different components of the apoptotic and autophagic pathways and explore the mechanisms of resistance to these cell death pathways in glioblastoma cells. Finally, we discuss drugs with clinical and preclinical use that interfere with the mechanisms of survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, invasion, and cell death of malignant cells, favoring the induction of apoptosis and autophagy, or the inhibition of the latter leading to cell death, as well as their therapeutic potential in glioma, and examine new perspectives in this promising research field.

González-Torres A, Bañuelos-Villegas EG, Martínez-Acuña N, et al.
MYPT1 is targeted by miR-145 inhibiting viability, migration and invasion in 2D and 3D HeLa cultures.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 507(1-4):348-354 [PubMed] Related Publications
The miR-143/145 cluster is down-regulated in cervical tumor cells suggesting a role in tumorigenesis including cytoskeleton remodeling, a key event for tumor progression. The aim of the present work was to determine the role of miR-143/145 in the modulation of the myosin regulator phospho-myosin light chain (pMLC). HeLa monolayer and tridimensional cultures were transfected with miR-143 or miR-145 mimics inhibiting cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion, mainly through miR-145. MiR-145 transfection increased pMLC levels by targeting the MYPT1 subunit of the regulatory myosin phosphatase. MYPT1 knockdown by siRNAs reproduced miR-145 effects suggesting miR-145 as a tumor suppressor through MYPT1 targeting, leading to a subsequent increase of pMLC levels with implications for cervical cell viability, migration and invasion.

Servín-Blanco R, Chávaro-Ortiz RM, Zamora-Alvarado R, et al.
Generation of cancer vaccine immunogens derived from major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules using variable epitope libraries.
Immunol Lett. 2018; 204:47-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although various immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), used for the treatment of advanced cancer, showed remarkably durable tumor regression in a subset of patients, there are important limitations in a large group of non-responders, and the generation of novel immunogens capable of inducing protective cellular immune responses is a priority in cancer immunotherapy field. During the last decades, several types of vaccine immunogens have been used in numerous preclinical studies and clinical trials. However, although immunity to tumor Ags can be elicited by most vaccines tested, their clinical efficacy remains modest. Recently, we have developed an innovative vaccine concept, called Variable Epitope Libraries (VELs), with the purpose to exploit the high antigenic variability of many important pathogens and tumor cells as starting points for the construction of a new class of vaccine immunogens capable of inducing the largest possible repertoire of both B and T cells. In the present study, we decided to generate VEL immunogens derived from both classical and non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. The MHC molecules, responsible for antigen presentation and subsequent activation of T lymphocytes, undergo multiple modifications that directly affect their proper function, resulting in immune escape of tumor cells. Two large VELs derived from multi-epitope region of H2-Kd and Qa-2 sequences (46 and 34 amino acids long, respectively), along with their wild type counterparts have been generated as synthetic peptides and tested in an aggressive 4T1 mouse model of breast cancer. Significant inhibition of tumor growth and the reduction of metastatic lesions in the lungs of immunized mice were observed. This study demonstrated for the first time the successful application of VELs carrying combinatorial libraries of epitope variants derived from MHC class I molecules as novel vaccine immunogens.

Muñoz-Bello JO, Olmedo-Nieva L, Castro-Muñoz LJ, et al.
HPV-18 E6 Oncoprotein and Its Spliced Isoform E6*I Regulate the Wnt/β-Catenin Cell Signaling Pathway through the TCF-4 Transcriptional Factor.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway regulates cell proliferation and differentiation and its aberrant activation in cervical cancer has been described. Persistent infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the most important factor for the development of this neoplasia, since E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins alter cellular processes, promoting cervical cancer development. A role of HPV-16 E6 in Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been proposed, although the participation of HPV-18 E6 has not been previously studied. The aim of this work was to investigate the participation of HPV-18 E6 and E6*I, in the regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Here, we show that E6 proteins up-regulate TCF-4 transcriptional activity and promote overexpression of Wnt target genes. In addition, it was demonstrated that E6 and E6*I bind to the TCF-4 (T cell factor 4) and β-catenin, impacting TCF-4 stabilization. We found that both E6 and E6*I proteins interact with the promoter of

López-Urrutia E, Salazar-Rojas V, Brito-Elías L, et al.
BRCA mutations: is everything said?
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 173(1):49-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes constitute a risk factor for breast cancer development. BRCA mutation research has been an active field since the discovery of the genes, and new mutations in both genes are constantly described and classified according to several systems.
AIM: We intend to provide an overview of the current state of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation description and classification. We wanted to know whether there was a trend towards a more frequently described mutation type and what the proportion of pathogenic mutations was.
RESULTS: We found that, although new mutations are described each year as reflected in current database records, very few of them are reported in papers. Classification systems are highly heterogeneous and a consensus among them is still under development. Regarding their function, a large number of mutations are yet to be analyzed, a very complex task, due to the great number of possible variations and their diverse effect in the BRCA gene functions. After individual analysis, many variants of unknown significance turn out to be pathogenic, and many can disrupt interactions with other proteins involved in mechanisms such as DNA damage repair pathways. Recent data suggest that looking for mutation patterns or combinations would shed a wider light on BRCA-derived cancer susceptibility in the upcoming years.

Salhab A, Nordström K, Gasparoni G, et al.
A comprehensive analysis of 195 DNA methylomes reveals shared and cell-specific features of partially methylated domains.
Genome Biol. 2018; 19(1):150 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Partially methylated domains are extended regions in the genome exhibiting a reduced average DNA methylation level. They cover gene-poor and transcriptionally inactive regions and tend to be heterochromatic. We present a comprehensive comparative analysis of partially methylated domains in human and mouse cells, to identify structural and functional features associated with them.
RESULTS: Partially methylated domains are present in up to 75% of the genome in human and mouse cells irrespective of their tissue or cell origin. Each cell type has a distinct set of partially methylated domains, and genes expressed in such domains show a strong cell type effect. The methylation level varies between cell types with a more pronounced effect in differentiating and replicating cells. The lowest level of methylation is observed in highly proliferating and immortal cancer cell lines. A decrease of DNA methylation within partially methylated domains tends to be linked to an increase in heterochromatic histone marks and a decrease of gene expression. Characteristic combinations of heterochromatic signatures in partially methylated domains are linked to domains of early and middle S-phase and late S-G2 phases of DNA replication.
CONCLUSIONS: Partially methylated domains are prominent signatures of long-range epigenomic organization. Integrative analysis identifies them as important general, lineage- and cell type-specific topological features. Changes in partially methylated domains are hallmarks of cell differentiation, with decreased methylation levels and increased heterochromatic marks being linked to enhanced cell proliferation. In combination with broad histone marks, partially methylated domains demarcate distinct domains of late DNA replication.

Bigoni-Ordóñez GD, Ortiz-Sánchez E, Rosendo-Chalma P, et al.
Molecular iodine inhibits the expression of stemness markers on cancer stem-like cells of established cell lines derived from cervical cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):928 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSC) are characterized by deregulated self-renewal, tumorigenicity, metastatic potential, aberrant stemness signaling pathways, resistance to conventional therapy, and the ability to give rise to a progeny of proliferating cells that constitute the bulk of tumors. Targeting CSC will provide novel treatments for cancer. Different investigations have focused on developing complementary approaches that involve natural compounds that decrease chemo-resistance and reduce the side effects of conventional therapies. Since, it has been reported that molecular iodine (I
METHODS: HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cells were treated with 200uM I
RESULTS: In the present study, monolayer and CSC-enriched cultures (cervospheres) from cervical cancer-derived cell lines, HeLa and SiHa, showed that 200uM I
CONCLUSIONS: All this data led us to suggest a clinical potential use of I

Campos-Parra AD, López-Urrutia E, Orozco Moreno LT, et al.
Long Non-Coding RNAs as New Master Regulators of Resistance to Systemic Treatments in Breast Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Predicting response to systemic treatments in breast cancer (BC) patients is an urgent, yet still unattained health aim. Easily detectable molecules such as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the ideal biomarkers when they act as master regulators of many resistance mechanisms, or of mechanisms that are common to more than one treatment. These kinds of markers are pivotal in quasi-personalized treatment selection, and consequently, in improvement of outcome prediction. In order to provide a better approach to understanding development of disease and resistance to treatments, we reviewed current literature searching for lncRNA-associated systemic BC treatments including endocrine therapies, aromatase inhibitors, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), trastuzumab, paclitaxel, docetaxel, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), anthracyclines, and cisplatin. We found that the engagement of lncRNAs in resistance is well described, and that lncRNAs such as urotelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1) and regulator of reprogramming (ROR) are indeed involved in multiple resistance mechanisms, which offers tantalizing perspectives for wide usage of lncRNAs as treatment resistance biomarkers. Thus, we propose this work as the foundation for a wide landscape of functions and mechanisms that link more lncRNAs to resistance to current and new treatments in years of research to come.

Granados-Riveron JT, Aquino-Jarquin G
CRISPR-Cas13 Precision Transcriptome Engineering in Cancer.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(15):4107-4113 [PubMed] Related Publications
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated genes (Cas) system has been rapidly harnessed to perform various genomic engineering tasks. Recently, it has been demonstrated that a novel RNA-targeting CRISPR effector protein, called Cas13, binds and cleaves RNA rather than DNA substrates analogously to the eukaryotic RNA interference system. The known Cas13a-Cas13d effectors are able to efficiently cleave complementary target single-stranded RNAs, which represent a potentially safer alternative to deoxyribonuclease Cas9, because it induces loss-of-function phenotypes without genomic loss of the targeted gene. Furthermore, through the improvement in Cas13 effector functionalities, a system called REPAIR has been developed to edit full-length transcripts containing pathogenic mutations, thus providing a promising opportunity for precise base editing. Moreover, advanced engineering of this CRISPR effector also permits nucleic acid detection, allowing the identification of mutations in cell-free tumor DNA through a platform termed Specific High Sensitivity Enzymatic Reporter Unlocking. All of these properties give us a glimpse about the potential of the CRISPR toolkit for precise transcriptome engineering, possibly leading to an expansion of CRISPR technologies for cancer therapeutics and diagnostics. Here, we examine previously unaddressed aspects of the CRISPR-based RNA-targeting approach as a feasible strategy for globally interrogating gene function in cancer in a programmable manner.

Cruz-Ramos E, Sandoval-Hernández A, Tecalco-Cruz AC
Differential expression and molecular interactions of chromosome region maintenance 1 and calreticulin exportins in breast cancer cells.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019; 185:7-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM-1) and calreticulin (CALR) are two proteins that act as exportins for some nuclear receptors, in addition to other critical functions for cellular homeostasis. In several cancer types, CRM-1 and CALR are upregulated suggesting an imbalance in their functions. However, the regulation of CRM-1 and CALR, and their biological implications, are not completely known. Here, we evaluated the interplay between the levels of CRM-1 and CALR, and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) status, in breast cancer cells. CRM-1 and CALR were upregulated in mammary tumors relative to normal mammary tissue. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of CRM-1 and CALR were higher in breast cancer cells lacking ERα, in comparison with those that express ERα. Additionally, both proteins were distributed in the nucleus and cytoplasm in the two cell types. Importantly, we identified novel interactions for these exportins. First, we showed an interaction between CRM-1 and CALR, and then we identified that SUN1 and SUN2, two proteins localized in the nuclear envelop, were able to interact specifically with CRM-1, but not CALR. Interestingly, SUN1 and SUN2 expression seemed to be decreased in breast cancer, thereby affecting the interactions of these proteins with CRM-1, and possibly its actions as an exportin. Thus, our data suggest that expression levels for CRM-1 and CALR, the interaction between these exportins, and specific interactions of SUN1 and SUN2 with CRM-1 but not CALR, may be central elements in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. Furthermore, deregulation of these elements may have serious implications in the progression of breast and other types of cancer.

Mandujano-Tinoco EA, García-Venzor A, Melendez-Zajgla J, Maldonado V
New emerging roles of microRNAs in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 171(2):247-259 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs constitute a large family of non-coding RNAs, which actively participate in tumorigenesis by regulating a set of mRNAs of distinct signaling pathways. An altered expression of these molecules has been found in different tumorigenic processes of breast cancer, the most common type of cancer in the female population worldwide.
PURPOSE: The objective of this review is to discuss how miRNAs become master regulators in breast tumorigenesis.
METHODS: An integrative review of miRNAs and breast cancer literature from the last 5 years was done on PubMed. We summarize recent works showing that the defects on the biogenesis of miRNAs are associated with different breast cancer characteristics. Then, we show several examples that demonstrate the link between cellular processes regulated by miRNAs and the hallmarks of breast cancer. Finally, we examine the complexity in the regulation of these molecules as they are modulated by other non-coding RNAs and the clinical applications of miRNAs as they could serve as good diagnostic and classification tools.
CONCLUSION: The information presented in this review is important to encourage new directed studies that consider microRNAs as a good tool to improve the diagnostic and treatment alternatives in breast cancer.

Sánchez-Hernández L, Hernández-Soto J, Vergara P, et al.
Additive effects of the combined expression of soluble forms of GAS1 and PTEN inhibiting glioblastoma growth.
Gene Ther. 2018; 25(6):439-449 [PubMed] Related Publications
The overexpression of GAS1 (Growth Arrest Specific 1) in glioma cells induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. We previously demonstrated that the apoptotic process set off by GAS1 is caused by its capacity to inhibit the Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-mediated intracellular survival signaling pathway. Whereas on the other hand, PTEN is a tumor suppressor, inactive in many tumors, and both GAS1 and PTEN inhibit the PI3K/AKT pathway. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate the potential additive effect of the overexpression of GAS1 and PTEN on tumor growth. In particular, we employed secreted forms of both GAS1 (tGAS1) and PTEN (PTEN-LONG, or PTEN-L) and tested their combined effect on glioma cells. We observed that the co-expression of both the proteins inhibited the growth of U-87 MG human glioblastoma cells more effectively than when independently expressed, and decreased the activity of both AKT and ERK1/2. Interestingly, the combination of the soluble forms was always the most effective treatment. To improve the transfer of tGAS1 and PTEN-L, we employed a lentiviral vector with a p2A peptide-enabled dual expression system that allowed the generation of the two proteins using a single promoter (CMV), in equimolar amounts. The viral vector reduced the growth of U-87 MG cells in vitro and had a striking effect in inhibiting their proliferation after inoculating it into the immunosuppressed mice. The present results support a potential adjuvant role for the combined use of tGAS1 and PTEN-L in the treatment of glioblastoma.

Nava-Salazar S, Gómez-Manzo S, Marcial-Quino J, et al.
Effect of Nicotine on CYP2B1 Expression in a Glioma Animal Model and Analysis of CYP2B6 Expression in Pediatric Gliomas.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cyclophosphamide (CPA) is a pro-drug commonly used in the chemotherapeutic schemes for glioma treatment but has high toxicity and the side effects include brain damage and even death. Since CPA is activated mainly by CY2B6, over-expression of the enzyme in the tumor cells has been proposed to enhance CPA activation. In this study, we explored the induction of the

Monterde-Cruz L, Ramírez-Salazar EG, Rico-Martínez G, et al.
Circulating miR-215-5p and miR-642a-5p as potential biomarker for diagnosis of osteosarcoma in Mexican population.
Hum Cell. 2018; 31(4):292-299 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone neoplasia affecting individuals in the second decade of life. The survival rate has not been improved during the last 25 years, in part because of the lack of specific markers. The microRNAs have been identified as important regulators of gene expression, experimental evidence suggests these molecules as key players in cancer development and progression. To identify miRNAs differentially expressed in serum from patients with osteosarcoma compared to healthy donors in Mexican population. Fifteen osteosarcoma patients and fifteen age and sex matched healthy individuals were recruited. Two pools of total RNA extracted from serum per study group were prepared and the miRNA expression profiles were analyzed through TaqMan Low Density Arrays. Validation was carried out through RT-qPCR using individual TaqMan assays for those miRNAs differentially expressed. Fifteen miRNAs were differentially expressed in osteosarcoma patients compared to healthy controls. Overexpression of miR-215-5p and miR-642a-5p was confirmed by validation through RT-qPCR. The expression analysis of miRNAs from serum in osteosarcoma patients revealed differential expression of miR-215-5p and miR-642a-5p. Both microRNAs are potential markers for osteosarcoma diagnosis.

Jiang R, Zhao C, Gao B, et al.
Mixomics analysis of breast cancer: Long non-coding RNA linc01561 acts as ceRNA involved in the progression of breast cancer.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2018; 102:1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at finding the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), miRNA and mRNA which played critical roles in breast cancer (BrCa) by using mixOmics R package.
METHOD: The BrCa dataset were obtained from TCGA and then analyzed using "DESeq2" R package. Multivariate analyses were performed with the "mixOmics" R package and the first component of the stacked partial least-Squares discriminant analysis results were used for searching the interested lncRNA, miRNA and mRNA. qRT-PCR was applied to identify the bioinformatics results in four BrCa cell lines (MCF7, BT-20, ZR-75-1, and MX-1) and the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10 A. Then cells (MCF-1 and MX-1) were transfected with si-linc01561, miR-145-5p mimics and si-MMP11 to further investigate the effects of linc01561, miR-145-5p and MMP11 on the BrCa cells proliferation and apoptosis.
RESULTS: MixOmics results showed that linc01561, miR-145-5p and MMP11 might play important roles in BrCa. qRT-PCR results identified that in BrCa cell lines, linc01561 and MMP11 were higher expressed while miR-145-5p was lower expressed compared with those in epithelial cell line. The linc01561 inhibition elevated miR-145-5p expression and then suppressed MMP11 expression. Moreover, linc01561 inhibition suppressed the BrCa cells proliferation and promoted the apoptosis, which was realized by up-regulating expression of miR-145-5p and down-regulating expression of MMP11.
CONCLUSION: In summary, the findings of this study, based on ceRNA theory, combining the research foundation of miR-145-5p and MMP11, and taking linc01561 as a new study point, provide new insight into molecular-level reversing proliferation and apoptosis of BrCa.

Garrido-Armas M, Corona JC, Escobar ML, et al.
Paraptosis in human glioblastoma cell line induced by curcumin.
Toxicol In Vitro. 2018; 51:63-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Curcumin is a polyphenol compound extracted from Curcuma longa plant, is a molecule with pleiotropic effects that suppresses transformation, proliferation and metastasis of malignant tumors. Curcumin can cause different kinds of cell death depending of its concentration on the exposed cell type. Here we show that exposure of the glioblastoma cell line A172 to curcumin at 50 μM, the IC50, causes morphological change characteristic of paraptosis cell-death. Vesicles derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and low membrane potential of the mitochondria were constantly found in the exposed cells. Furthermore, changes in expression of the ER Stress Response (ERSR) genes IRE1 and ATF6, and the microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-27a, miR-222, miR-449 was observed after exposure to curcumin. AKT-Insulin and p53-BCL2 networks were predicted being modulated by the affected miRNAs. Furthermore, AKT protein levels reduction was confirmed. Our data, strongly suggest that curcumin exerts its cell-death properties by affecting the integrity of the reticulum, leading to paraptosis in the glioblastoma cells. These data unveils the versatility of curcumin to control cancer progression.

Tecalco-Cruz AC, Cruz-Ramos E
Protein ISGylation and free ISG15 levels are increased by interferon gamma in breast cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 499(4):973-978 [PubMed] Related Publications
The induction of ISG15 by interferon (IFN)-α/β and subsequent protein ISGylation has been demonstrated in several cell types. However, regulation of free ISG15 levels and ISGylation by other IFNs and its implications in some carcinomas have not yet been completely evaluated. Here, we demonstrated that free ISG15 and ISGylation levels are enhanced by IFN-γ treatment in the estrogen receptor-α-positive and -negative breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, respectively. Specifically, IFN-γ increases free ISG15 levels in the cytoplasm and ISGylation in the nucleus and cytoplasm, but in a manner distinct between MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, free ISG15 and ISGylation may play central roles in mammary tumors by differentially modulating certain tumorigenic characteristics of estrogen receptor-α-positive and -negative breast cancer cells.

Zacapala-Gómez AE, Navarro-Tito N, Alarcón-Romero LDC, et al.
Ezrin and E-cadherin expression profile in cervical cytology: a prognostic marker for tumor progression in cervical cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):349 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth cause of mortality by neoplasia in women worldwide. The use of immunomarkers is an alternative tool to complement currently used algorithms for detection of cancer, and to improve selection of therapeutic schemes. Aberrant expression of Ezrin and E-cadherin play an important role in tumor invasion. In this study we analyzed Ezrin and E-cadherin expression in liquid-based cervical cytology samples, and evaluated their potential use as prognostic immunomarkers.
METHODS: Immunocytochemical staining of Ezrin and E-cadherin was performed in cervical samples of 125 patients. The cytological or histological diagnostic was performed by Papanicolaou staining or H&E staining, respectively. HPV genotyping was determined using INNO-LIPA Genotyping Extra kit and the HPV physical status by in situ hybridization. Ezrin expression in HaCaT, HeLa and SiHa cell lines was determined by immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blot.
RESULTS: High Ezrin expression was observed in cervical cancer samples (70%), samples with multiple infection by HR-HPV (43%), and samples with integrated viral genome (47%). High Ezrin expression was associated with degree of SIL, viral genotype and physical status. In contrast, low E-cadherin expression was found in cervical cancer samples (95%), samples with multiple infection by HR-HPV/LR-HPV (87%) and integrated viral genome (72%). Low E-cadherin expression was associated with degree of SIL and viral genotype. Interestingly, Ezrin nuclear staining was associated with degree of SIL and viral genotype. High Ezrin expression, high percent of nuclear Ezrin and low E-cadherin expression behaved as risk factors for progression to HSIL and cervical cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Ezrin and E-cadherin expression profile in cervical cytology samples could be a potential prognostic marker, useful for identifying cervical lesions with a high-risk of progression to cervical cancer.

Sánchez BE, Aguayo A, Martínez B, et al.
Using Genetic and Epigenetic Markers to Improve Differential Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Noninvasive Methods in Mexican Patients.
Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2018; 16(4):e867-e877 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in Mexican men. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the usual noninvasive biomarker used for its detection. Its low specificity can increase the number of unnecessary prostate biopsies and the incidence of unpleasant complications for patients. The androgen-receptor gene (AR-CAG) repeat length and the percentage of promoter methylation (PPM) of genes glutathione-S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and Ras association domain family 1 isoform A (RASSF1A) improve PCa detection. As an option for noninvasive assessment, we evaluated a combined analysis of all these biomarkers.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 186 patients scheduled for biopsy were included in the present study. PSA and AR-CAG repeats were analyzed in blood samples. The PPM of GSTP1 and RASSF1A genes was estimated in prostate tissue and urinary sediment cells (USCs) and plasma DNA using quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The predictive values for PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), logistic regression analysis, receiver operating characteristic curve, and decision curve analysis were used to assess the differential diagnosis.
RESULTS: Statistically significant differences between PCa and BPH patients were observed for all biomarkers, with higher positive and negative predictive values when all biomarkers were included in the analysis, attaining USC values of 89.2% and 78.0%, respectively. The differential diagnosis accuracy of PSA (area under the curve, 0.59) increased to 0.70 and 0.68, respectively, when the combined analysis of PPM of RASSF1A
CONCLUSION: The results showed that combined analysis of the proposed biomarkers in plasma and USCs significantly increased the confidence for the differential diagnosis for PCa and BPH. This noninvasive practice might help in the early detection of PCa and patient follow-up, avoiding to some extent unnecessary prostate biopsies.

Flores-Alvarez LJ, Guzmán-Rodríguez JJ, López-Gómez R, et al.
PaDef defensin from avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) is cytotoxic to K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cells through extrinsic apoptosis.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2018; 99:10-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
Plant defensins, a group of antimicrobial peptides, show selective cytotoxicity toward cancer cells. However, their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of PaDef defensin from avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) on K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cells and analyzed the pathway involved in the induction of cell death. The defensin PaDef was not cytotoxic against human PBMCs; however, it was cytotoxic for K562 cell line (IC

Ortiz-Matamoros A, Arias C
Chronic infusion of Wnt7a, Wnt5a and Dkk-1 in the adult hippocampus induces structural synaptic changes and modifies anxiety and memory performance.
Brain Res Bull. 2018; 139:243-255 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wnt signaling plays an important role in the adult brain function and its dysregulation has been implicated in some neurodegenerative pathways. Despite the functional role of the Wnt signaling in adult neural circuits, there is currently no evidence regarding the relationships between exogenously Wnt signaling activation or inhibition and hippocampal structural changes in vivo. Thus, we analyzed the effect of the chronic infusion of Wnt agonists, Wnt7a and Wnt5a, and antagonist, Dkk-1, on different markers of plasticity such as neuronal MAP-2, Tau, synapse number and morphology, and behavioral changes. We observed that Wnt7a and Wnt5a increased the number of perforated synapses and the content of pre-and postsynaptic proteins associated with synapse assembly compared to control and Dkk-1 infusion. These two Wnt agonists also reduced anxiety-like behavior. Conversely, the canonical antagonist, Dkk-1, increased anxiety and inhibited spatial memory recall. Therefore, the present study elucidates the potential participation of Wnt signaling in the remodeling of hippocampal circuits underlying plasticity events in vivo, and provides evidence of the potential benefits of Wnt agonist infusion for the treatment of some neurodegenerative conditions.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. , Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 29 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999