Gene Summary

Gene:MX1; MX dynamin like GTPase 1
Aliases: MX, MxA, IFI78, IFI-78K
Summary:This gene encodes a guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-metabolizing protein that participates in the cellular antiviral response. The encoded protein is induced by type I and type II interferons and antagonizes the replication process of several different RNA and DNA viruses. There is a related gene located adjacent to this gene on chromosome 21, and there are multiple pseudogenes located in a cluster on chromosome 4. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 13 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (18)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 13 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Translocation
  • siRNA
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Down-Regulation
  • Epigenetics
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Mutation
  • Transcription
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Drug Resistance
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • STAT Transcription Factors
  • Virus Replication
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Phenotype
  • p21-Activated Kinases
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells
  • Virus Diseases
  • Signal Transduction
  • MX1
  • ras Proteins
  • Interferons
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Tubulin
  • Breast Cancer
  • Tyrosine
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Up-Regulation
  • Chromosome 21
  • DNA Methylation
  • Myxovirus Resistance Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • STAT1 Transcription Factor
  • alpha Catenin
Tag cloud generated 13 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MX1 (cancer-related)

Rosales-Reynoso MA, Arredondo-Valdez AR, Juárez-Vázquez CI, et al.
TCF7L2 and CCND1 polymorphisms and its association with colorectal cancer in Mexican patients.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2016; 62(11):13-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulative evidence suggests that alterations due to mutations or genetic polymorphisms in the TCF7L2 and CCND1 genes, which are components of the Wnt signaling pathway, contributes to carcinogenesis. The present study was designated to clarify whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the transcription factor 7- like 2 (TCF7L2) and cyclin D1 (CCND1) genes are associated with colorectal cancer risk in Mexican patients. A case-control study including 197 colorectal cancer patients and 100 healthy subjects was conducted in a Mexican population. Identification of polymorphisms was made by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology. The association was calculated by the odds ratio (OR) test. The results demonstrate that patients with the T/T genotype for the rs12255372 polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene present an increased colorectal cancer risk (OR=2.64, P=0.0236). Also, the risk analysis for Tumor-Nodule-Metastasis (TNM) stage and tumor location showed association with this polymorphism under the over-dominant model of inheritance (OR=1.75, P=0.0440). A similar relation was observed for the genotype T/T of the rs7903146 polymorphism and the rectal location of cancer (OR=7.57, P=0.0403). For the rs603965 polymorphism of the CCND1 gene, we observed a protection effect for the colon cancer location under the dominant model (OR=0.49, P=0.0477). These results reveal a significant role of the analyzed polymorphisms in the TCF7L2 and CCND1 genes on the susceptibility or protection for developing colorectal cancer in the Mexican population.

García-Tobilla P, Solórzano SR, Salido-Guadarrama I, et al.
SFRP1 repression in prostate cancer is triggered by two different epigenetic mechanisms.
Gene. 2016; 593(2):292-301 [PubMed] Related Publications
Worldwide, prostate cancer (PCa) is the second cause of death from malignant tumors among men. Establishment of aberrant epigenetic modifications, such as histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) and DNA methylation (DNAme) produce alterations of gene expression that are common in PCa. Genes of the SFRP family are tumor suppressor genes that are frequently silenced by DNA hypermethylation in many cancer types. The SFRP family is composed of 5 members (SFRP1-5) that modulate the WNT pathway, which is aberrantly activated in PCa. The expression of SFRP genes in PCa and their regulation by DNAme has been controversial. Our objective was to determine the gene expression pattern of the SFRP family in prostatic cell lines and fresh frozen tissues from normal prostates (NP), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa), by qRT-PCR, and their DNAme status by MSP and bisulfite sequencing. In prostatic cancer cell lines, the 5 SFRPs showed significantly decreased expression levels compared to a control normal prostatic cell line (p<0.0001). In agreement, SFRP1 and SFRP5 genes showed decreased expression levels in CaP fresh frozen tissues compared to NP (p<0.01), while a similar trend was observed for SFRP2. Conversely, increased levels of SFRP4 expression were found in PCa compared to BPH (p<0.01). Moreover, SFRP2, SFRP3, and SFRP5 showed DNA hypermethylation in PCa cell lines. Interestingly, we observed DNA hypermethylation at the promoter of SFRP1 in the PC3 cell line, but not in LNCaP. However, in the LNCaP cell line we found an aberrant gain of the repressive histone posttranslational modification Histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). In conclusion, decreased expression by DNA hypermethylation of SFRP5 is a common feature of PCa, while decreased expression of SFRP1 can be due to DNA hypermethylation, but sometimes an aberrant gain of the histone mark H3K27me3 is observed instead.

GallegosVargas J, SanchezRoldan J, RonquilloSanchez M, et al.
Gene Expression of CYP1A1 and its Possible Clinical Application in Thyroid Cancer Cases.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(7):3477-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and exact causes remain unknown. The role of CYP450 1A1 (CYP1A1) in cancer initiation and progression has been investigated. The aim of this work was to analyze, for the first time, CYP1A1 gene expression and its relationship with several clinicopathological factors in Mexican patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Realtime PCR analysis was conducted on 32 sets of thyroid tumors and benign pathologies. Expression levels were tested for correlations with clinical and pathological data. All statistical analysis were performed using GraphPad Prism version 3.0 software.
RESULTS: We found that female gender was associated with thyroid cancer risk (P<0.05). A positive relationship was identified between CYP1A1 mRNA levels and the presence of chronic disease, alcohol use, tumor size, metastasis and an advanced clinical stage (P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that CYP1A1 gene expression could be used as a marker for thyroid cancer.

Guzmán-Rodríguez JJ, López-Gómez R, Salgado-Garciglia R, et al.
The defensin from avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) PaDef induces apoptosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 82:620-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cytotoxic to cancer cells; however, mainly the effects of AMPs from animals have been evaluated. In this work, we assessed the cytotoxicity of PaDef defensin from avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) on the MCF-7 cancer cell line (a breast cancer cell line) and evaluated its mechanism of action. PaDef inhibited the viability of MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50=141.62μg/ml. The viability of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells was unaffected by this AMP. Additionally, PaDef induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells in a time-dependent manner, but did not affect the membrane potential or calcium flow. In addition, PaDef IC50 induced the expression of cytochrome c, Apaf-1, and the caspase 7 and 9 genes. Likewise, this defensin induced the loss of mitochondrial Δψm and increased the phosphorylation of MAPK p38, which may lead to MCF-7 apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway. This is the first report of an avocado defensin inducing intrinsic apoptosis in cancer cells, which suggests that it could be a potential therapeutic molecule in the treatment of cancer.

Muñiz-Hernández S, Huerta-Yepez S, Hernández-Pedro N, et al.
Association between nuclear expression of retinoic acid receptor alpha and beta and clinicopathological features and prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Int J Clin Oncol. 2016; 21(6):1051-1061 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Transcription factors such as retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) and beta (RARβ) and Yin Yang 1 (YY1) are associated with the progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In particular, a lack of RARβ expression is associated with NSCLC development. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of RARα, RARβ and YY1 and their relationship with prognosis in patients with advanced NSCLC.
METHODS: The expression of RARα, RARβ and YY1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative computerized image software.
RESULTS: Eighty-five patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy were included in the analysis. The mean and standard deviation of the nuclear expression of RARα, RARβ and YY1 were 184.5 ± 124.4, 18 ± 27 and 16.6 ± 20.5, respectively. The nuclear expression of RARβ was associated with the nuclear expression of YY1 (R (2) = 0.28; p value < 0.0001). Patients with high nuclear expression of YY1 were likely to be non-smokers (61.9 vs 40.5 %). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.9 months (3.48-8.28). Low expression of RARα was independently associated with worse PFS following chemotherapy (10.3 vs 5.46 months p = 0.040). Median overall survival (OS) was 15.6 months (4.5-26.7), and lower nuclear expression of RARβ was independently associated with shorter OS (27.5 vs 8.7 months; p = 0.037).
CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that the loss of RARs is associated with a worse prognosis and these receptors could be a potential molecular target for NSCLC.

Gutiérrez-Malacatt H, Ayala-Sanchez M, Aquino-Ortega X, et al.
The rs61764370 Functional Variant in the KRAS Oncogene is Associated with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Risk in Women.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(4):2265-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is one of the most frequent hematopoietic malignancies in the elderly population; however, knowledge is limited regarding the genetic factors associated with increased risk for CML. Polymorphisms affecting microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis or mRNA:miRNA interactions are important risk factors in the development of different types of cancer. Thus, we carried out a case-control study to test the association with CML susceptibility of gene variants located in the miRNA machinery genes AGO1 (rs636832) and GEMIN4 (rs2740348), as well as in the miRNA binding sites of the genes BRCA1 (rs799917) and KRAS (rs61764370).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined the genotype of 781 Mexican-Mestizo individuals (469 healthy subjects and 312 CML cases) for the four polymorphisms using TaqMan probes to test the association with CML susceptibility.
RESULTS: We found a borderline association of the minor homozygote genotype of the KRAS_rs61764370 polymorphism with an increased risk for CML susceptibility (P = 0.06). After gender stratification, this association was significant only for women (odds ratio [OR] = 13.41, P = 0.04). The distribution of the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the four studied SNPs was neither associated with advanced phases of CML nor treatment response.
CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to show a significant association of the KRAS_rs61764370 SNP with CML. To further determine such an association of with CML susceptibility, our results must be replicated in different ethnic groups.

Ortega-Gómez A, Rangel-Escareño C, Molina-Romero C, et al.
Gene-expression profiles in lung adenocarcinomas related to chronic wood smoke or tobacco exposure.
Respir Res. 2016; 17:42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tobacco-smoke is the major etiological factor related to lung cancer. However, other important factor is chronic wood smoke exposure (WSE). Approximately 30 % of lung cancer patients in Mexico have a history of WSE, and present different clinical, pathological and molecular characteristics compared to tobacco related lung cancer, including differences in mutational profiles. There are several molecular alterations identified in WSE associated lung cancer, however most studies have focused on the analysis of changes in several pathogenesis related proteins.
METHODS: Our group evaluated gene expression profiles of primary lung adenocarcinoma, from patients with history of WSE or tobacco exposure. Differential expression between these two groups were studied through gene expression microarrays.
RESULTS: Results of the gene expression profiling revealed 57 statistically significant genes (p < 0.01). The associated biological functional pathways included: lipid metabolism, biochemistry of small molecules, molecular transport, cell morphology, function and maintenance. A highlight of our analysis is that three of the main functional networks represent 37 differentially expressed genes out of the 57 found. These hubs are related with ubiquitin C, GABA(A) receptor-associated like protein; and the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathways.
CONCLUSION: Our results reflect the intrinsic biology that sustains the development of adenocarcinoma related to WSE and show that there is a different gene expression profile of WSE associated lung adenocarcinoma compared to tobacco exposure, suggesting that they arise through different carcinogenic mechanisms, which may explain the clinical and mutation profile divergences between both lung adenocarcinomas.

Kim YA, Lee HJ, Heo SH, et al.
MxA expression is associated with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and is a prognostic factor in triple-negative breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016; 156(3):597-606 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interferons (IFNs) play an important role in tumor-immune system interactions. As one of the main mediators of IFNs, myxovirus resistance A (MxA) is upregulated in various cancers. However, the exact role of MxA in breast cancer is not fully understood. As part of the immune response to tumors, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have prognostic significance in breast cancer. The aim of our present study was to examine the relationship between MxA and immune system components, including the amount of TILs and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression, in breast cancer. TILs, MxA expression, HLA intensity, and clinicopathological factors were retrospectively analyzed in 688 patients with primary breast cancer between 1993 and 1998 and in 705 patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) between 2004 and 2011. MxA expression was higher in TNBC tumors than in other subtypes. High MxA levels were associated with a higher histologic grade, abundant TILs, and stronger HLA-ABC expression in both the TNBC subtype within the consecutive breast cancer cohort and the validation TNBC cohort. MxA expression showed a significant positive correlation with TILs, the number of CD8(+) cells, and the number of CD69(+) cells in the validation TNBC cohort. High MxA levels and abundant TILs were found to be independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival in patients with TNBC. These results indicate that MxA expression is closely related to TILs in TNBC and, along with TILs, provides prognostic information after chemotherapy in patients with TNBC.

Ludwig N, Werner TV, Backes C, et al.
Combining miRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in Wilms Tumor Subtypes.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(4):475 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common childhood renal cancer. Recent findings of mutations in microRNA (miRNA) processing proteins suggest a pivotal role of miRNAs in WT genesis. We performed miRNA expression profiling of 36 WTs of different subtypes and four normal kidney tissues using microarrays. Additionally, we determined the gene expression profile of 28 of these tumors to identify potentially correlated target genes and affected pathways. We identified 85 miRNAs and 2107 messenger RNAs (mRNA) differentially expressed in blastemal WT, and 266 miRNAs and 1267 mRNAs differentially expressed in regressive subtype. The hierarchical clustering of the samples, using either the miRNA or mRNA profile, showed the clear separation of WT from normal kidney samples, but the miRNA pattern yielded better separation of WT subtypes. A correlation analysis of the deregulated miRNA and mRNAs identified 13,026 miRNA/mRNA pairs with inversely correlated expression, of which 2844 are potential interactions of miRNA and their predicted mRNA targets. We found significant upregulation of miRNAs-183, -301a/b and -335 for the blastemal subtype, and miRNAs-181b, -223 and -630 for the regressive subtype. We found marked deregulation of miRNAs regulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition, especially in the blastemal subtype, and miRNAs influencing chemosensitivity, especially in regressive subtypes. Further research is needed to assess the influence of preoperative chemotherapy and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes on the miRNA and mRNA patterns in WT.

Karthikeyan C, Malla R, Ashby CR, et al.
Pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinolines: Novel compounds that reverse ABCG2-mediated resistance in cancer cells.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 376(1):118-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) subfamily G2 in cancer cells is known to elicit a MDR phenotype, ultimately resulting in cancer chemotherapy failure. Here, we report, for the first time, the effect of eight novel pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline (IND) derivatives that inhibit ABCG2 transporter restoring cancer cell chemosensitivity. IND -4, -5, -6, -7, and -8, at 10 µM, and nilotinib at 5 µM, significantly potentiated (8-10 fold) the cytotoxicity of the ABCG2 substrates mitoxantrone (MX) and doxorubicin in HEK293 cells overexpressing ABCG2 transporter, MX (~14 fold) in MX-resistant NCI-H460/MX-20 small cell lung cancer, and of topotecan (~7 fold) in S1-M1-80 colon cancer cells which all stably expressing ABCG2. In contrast, cytotoxicity of cisplatin, which is not an ABCG2 substrate, was not altered. IND-5,-6,-7, and -8 significantly increased the accumulation of rhodamine-123 in multidrug resistant NCI-H460/MX-20 cells overexpressing ABCG2. Both IND-7 and -8, the most potent ABCG2 inhibitors, had the highest affinities for the binding sites of ABCG2 in modeling studies. In conclusion, the beneficial actions of new class of agents warrant further development as potential MDR reversal agents for clinical anticancer agents that suffer from ABCG2-mediated MDR insensitivity.

Ayala-Ortega E, Arzate-Mejía R, Pérez-Molina R, et al.
Epigenetic silencing of miR-181c by DNA methylation in glioblastoma cell lines.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:226 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Post-transcriptional regulation by microRNAs is recognized as one of the major pathways for the control of cellular homeostasis. Less well understood is the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of genes encoding microRNAs. In the present study we addressed the epigenetic regulation of the miR-181c in normal and malignant brain cells.
METHODS: To explore the epigenetic regulation of the miR-181c we evaluated its expression using RT-qPCR and the in vivo binding of the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) to its regulatory region in different glioblastoma cell lines. DNA methylation survey, chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA interference assays were used to assess the role of CTCF in the miR-181c epigenetic silencing.
RESULTS: We found that miR-181c is downregulated in glioblastoma cell lines, as compared to normal brain tissues. Loss of expression correlated with a notorious gain of DNA methylation at the miR-181c promoter region and the dissociation of the multifunctional nuclear factor CTCF. Taking advantage of the genomic distribution of CTCF in different cell types we propose that CTCF has a local and cell type specific regulatory role over the miR-181c and not an architectural one through chromatin loop formation. This is supported by the depletion of CTCF in glioblastoma cells affecting the expression levels of NOTCH2 as a target of miR-181c.
CONCLUSION: Together, our results point to the epigenetic role of CTCF in the regulation of microRNAs implicated in tumorigenesis.

Peralta-Zaragoza O, Deas J, Meneses-Acosta A, et al.
Relevance of miR-21 in regulation of tumor suppressor gene PTEN in human cervical cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:215 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Expression of the microRNA miR-21 has been found to be altered in almost all types of cancers and it has been classified as an oncogenic microRNA or oncomir. Due to the critical functions of its target proteins in various signaling pathways, miR-21 is an attractive target for genetic and pharmacological modulation in various cancers. Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide and persistent HPV infection is the main etiologic agent. This malignancy merits special attention for the development of new treatment strategies. In the present study we analyze the role of miR-21 in cervical cancer cells.
METHODS: To identify the downstream cellular target genes of upstream miR-21, we silenced endogenous miR-21 expression in a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-derived cell lines using siRNAs. The effect of miR-21 on gene expression was assessed in cervical cancer cells transfected with the siRNA expression plasmid pSIMIR21. We identified the tumor suppressor gene PTEN as a target of miR-21 and determined the mechanism of its regulation throughout reporter construct plasmids. Using this model, we analyzed the expression of miR-21 and PTEN as well as functional effects such as autophagy and apoptosis induction.
RESULTS: In SiHa cells, there was an inverse correlation between miR-21 expression and PTEN mRNA level as well as PTEN protein expression in cervical cancer cells. Transfection with the pSIMIR21 plasmid increased luciferase reporter activity in construct plasmids containing the PTEN-3'-UTR microRNA response elements MRE21-1 and MRE21-2. The role of miR-21 in cell proliferation was also analyzed in SiHa and HeLa cells transfected with the pSIMIR21 plasmid, and tumor cells exhibited markedly reduced cell proliferation along with autophagy and apoptosis induction.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that miR-21 post-transcriptionally down-regulates the expression of PTEN to promote cell proliferation and cervical cancer cell survival. Therefore, it may be a potential therapeutic target in gene therapy for cervical cancer.

Hsu YA, Huang CC, Kung YJ, et al.
The anti-proliferative effects of type I IFN involve STAT6-mediated regulation of SP1 and BCL6.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 375(2):303-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Type I IFN-induced STAT6 has been shown to have anti-proliferative effects in Daudi and B cells. IFN-sensitive (DS) and IFN-resistant (DR) subclones of Daudi cells were used to study the role of STAT6 in the anti-proliferative activities. Type I IFN significantly increased STAT6 mRNA and protein expression in DS but not DR cells. STAT6 knockdown significantly reduced the sensitivity to IFN in both cell lines. The molecular targets and functional importance of IFN-activated STAT6 were performed by chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip (ChIP-on-chip) experiments in type I IFN-treated Daudi cells. Two target genes (Sp1 and BCL6) were selected from the ChIP-on-chip data. IFN-induced STAT6 activation led to Sp1 upregulation and BCL6 downregulation in DS cells, with only minimal effects in DR cells. siRNA inhibition of STAT6 expression resulted in decreased Sp1 and BCL6 mRNA and protein levels in both DS and DR cells. IFN treatment did not increase Sp1 and BCL6 expression in a STAT2-deficient RST2 cell line, and this effect was mitigated by plasmid overexpression of STAT2, indicating that STAT2 is important for STAT6 activation. These results suggest that STAT6 plays an important role in regulating Sp1 and BCL6 through STAT2 to exert the anti-proliferative effects of type I IFN.

Pineda AL, Ogoe HA, Balasubramanian JB, et al.
On Predicting lung cancer subtypes using 'omic' data from tumor and tumor-adjacent histologically-normal tissue.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:184 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most prevalent histological types among lung cancers. Distinguishing between these subtypes is critically important because they have different implications for prognosis and treatment. Normally, histopathological analyses are used to distinguish between the two, where the tissue samples are collected based on small endoscopic samples or needle aspirations. However, the lack of cell architecture in these small tissue samples hampers the process of distinguishing between the two subtypes. Molecular profiling can also be used to discriminate between the two lung cancer subtypes, on condition that the biopsy is composed of at least 50 % of tumor cells. However, for some cases, the tissue composition of a biopsy might be a mix of tumor and tumor-adjacent histologically normal tissue (TAHN). When this happens, a new biopsy is required, with associated cost, risks and discomfort to the patient. To avoid this problem, we hypothesize that a computational method can distinguish between lung cancer subtypes given tumor and TAHN tissue.
METHODS: Using publicly available datasets for gene expression and DNA methylation, we applied four classification tasks, depending on the possible combinations of tumor and TAHN tissue. First, we used a feature selector (ReliefF/Limma) to select relevant variables, which were then used to build a simple naïve Bayes classification model. Then, we evaluated the classification performance of our models by measuring the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Finally, we analyzed the relevance of the selected genes using hierarchical clustering and IPA® software for gene functional analysis.
RESULTS: All Bayesian models achieved high classification performance (AUC > 0.94), which were confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis. From the genes selected, 25 (93 %) were found to be related to cancer (19 were associated with ADC or SCC), confirming the biological relevance of our method.
CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study confirm that computational methods using tumor and TAHN tissue can serve as a prognostic tool for lung cancer subtype classification. Our study complements results from other studies where TAHN tissue has been used as prognostic tool for prostate cancer. The clinical implications of this finding could greatly benefit lung cancer patients.

Zhou Q, Ji M, Zhou J, et al.
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases inhibitor, Zj6413, as a potential therapeutic agent against breast cancer.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2016; 107:29-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) facilitate repairing of cancer cell DNA damage as a mean to promote cancer proliferation and metastasis. Inhibitors of PARPs which interfering DNA repair, in context of defects in other DNA repair mechanisms, can thus be potentially exploited to inhibit or even kill cancer cells. However, nondiscriminatory inhibition of PARPs, such as PARP2, may lead to undesired consequences. Here, we demonstrated the design and development of the Zj6413 as a potent and selective PARP1 catalytic inhibitor. It trapped PARP1/2 at damaged sites of DNA. As expected, the Zj6413 showed notable anti-tumor activity against breast cancer gene (BRCA) deficient triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs). Zj6413 treated breast cancers (BCs) showed an elevated level of DNA damage evidenced by the accumulation of γ-H2AX foci and DNA damaged related proteins. Zj6413 also induced G2/M arrest and cell death in the MX-1, MDA-MB-453 BC cells, exerted chemo-sensitizing effect on BRCA proficient cancer cells and potentiated Temozolomide (TMZ)'s cytotoxicity in MX-1 xenograft tumors mice. In conclusion, our study provided evidence that a new PARP inhibitor strongly inhibited the catalytic activity of PARPs, trapped them on nicked DNA and damaged the cancer cells, eventually inhibiting the growth of breast tumor cells in vitro and in vivo.

García-Chequer AJ, Méndez-Tenorio A, Olguín-Ruiz G, et al.
Overview of recurrent chromosomal losses in retinoblastoma detected by low coverage next generation sequencing.
Cancer Genet. 2016; 209(3):57-69 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genes are frequently lost or gained in malignant tumors and the analysis of these changes can be informative about the underlying tumor biology. Retinoblastoma is a pediatric intraocular malignancy, and since deletions in chromosome 13 have been described in this tumor, we performed genome wide sequencing with the Illumina platform to test whether recurrent losses could be detected in low coverage data from DNA pools of Rb cases. An in silico reference profile for each pool was created from the human genome sequence GRCh37p5; a chromosome integrity score and a graphics 40 Kb window analysis approach, allowed us to identify with high resolution previously reported non random recurrent losses in all chromosomes of these tumors. We also found a pattern of gains and losses associated to clear and dark cytogenetic bands respectively. We further analyze a pool of medulloblastoma and found a more stable genomic profile and previously reported losses in this tumor. This approach facilitates identification of recurrent deletions from many patients that may be biological relevant for tumor development.

Sandoval-Borrego D, Moreno-Lafont MC, Vazquez-Sanchez EA, et al.
Overexpression of CD158 and NKG2A Inhibitory Receptors and Underexpression of NKG2D and NKp46 Activating Receptors on NK Cells in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Arch Med Res. 2016; 47(1):55-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune system cells that are actively involved in immune-surveillance of tumor cells. Recognition of tumors by NK cells occurred via natural cytotoxicity receptors and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors. Some ligands of the activating receptors seem to be present on malignant cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of activating receptors such as NKG2D, DNAM-1, NKp30, and NKp46, and inhibitory receptors such as NKG2A, CD158b, CD158a, and CD158e1 on NK cells from patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia before and after stimulation with IL-2 and IL-12.
METHODS: Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 AML M3, and group 2 non-M3 AML. Flow cytometry was performed on whole PBMC to evaluate NK cell receptors.
RESULTS: Twenty one AML patients, aged 26-78 years, and 11 matched healthy individuals were studied. NKG2D, and NKp46 expression was decreased in group 1 (p <0.019). Patients in Group 2 showed underexpression of the activating receptors NKp46. Differences after stimulation of NK cells with IL-2 and IL-12 were observed only in Group 2, in which a significant decrease in the expression of NKp46 receptor was found (p <0.0016). Patients in groups 1 and 2 showed overexpression of the inhibitory receptors CD158b (p <0.007) and NKG2A (p <0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: NKG2D receptor expression is decreased in patients with AML M3. In addition, patients with all FAB types of AML have overexpression of inhibitory receptors such as CD158b and NKG2A and decreased expression of the activating receptor NKp46.

Oroz-Parra I, Navarro M, Cervantes-Luevano KE, et al.
Apoptosis Activation in Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines by a Novel Synthetic Peptide Derived from Conus californicus Venom.
Toxins (Basel). 2016; 8(2):38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men and women and a leading cause of death worldwide resulting in more than one million deaths per year. The venom of marine snails Conus contains up to 200 pharmacologically active compounds that target several receptors in the cell membrane. Due to their diversity and specific binding properties, Conus toxins hold great potential as source of new drugs against cancer. We analyzed the cytotoxic effect of a 17-amino acid synthetic peptide (s-cal14.1a) that is based on a native toxin (cal14.1a) isolated from the sea snail Conus californicus. Cytotoxicity studies in four lung cancer cell lines were complemented with measurement of gene expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2, BAX and the pro-survival proteins NFκB-1 and COX-2, as well as quantification of caspase activity. Our results showed that H1299 and H1437 cell lines treated with s-call4.1a had decreased cell viability, activated caspases, and reduced expression of the pro-survival protein NFκB-1. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing activation of apoptosis in human lung cancer cell lines by s-cal14.1a and we offer insight into the possible mechanism of action.

Zhang T, Xing M
HABP2 G534E Mutation in Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2016; 108(6):djv415 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2017 Related Publications
Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is a common endocrine malignancy, accounting for nearly 90% of all thyroid cancers. About 5% of PTC is hereditary familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC). No general susceptibility gene is known for FNMTC. An oncogenic HABP2 G534E mutation has been recently reported in one FNMTC kindred, suggesting that HABP2 is a susceptibility gene for FNMTC. Because of the limited kindred studied, how commonly this gene is responsible-and hence how important clinically it is-for FNMTC remains to be answered. By investigating a large number of FNMTC kindreds in the present study, we identified HABP2 G534E in several independent kindreds of FNMTC. The overall prevalence of HABP2 G534E was six per 43 (14.0%) PTC patients from the 29 kindreds and four per 29 (13.8%) kindreds. None of the subjects with benign thyroid neoplasm or the normal subjects from these kindreds had this mutation. These results are consistent with HABP2 G534E being a susceptibility gene in a subgroup of FNMTC, providing important diagnostic implications for this hereditary thyroid cancer.

Jiang CY, Gao Y, Wang XJ, et al.
Long non-coding RNA lnc-MX1-1 is associated with poor clinical features and promotes cellular proliferation and invasiveness in prostate cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016; 470(3):721-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key molecules in human cancer genesis and progression, including prostate cancer. Large amount of lncRNAs have been found that differentially expressed between prostate cancer tissues and normal prostate tissues. Whether these lncRNAs could serve as a novel biomarker for prostate cancer diagnosis or prognosis, and their biological functions in prostate cancer need further investigation. In the present study, we identified that lncRNA lnc-MX1-1 is over-expressed in prostate cancer tissues compared with their adjacent normal prostate tissues by gene expression array profiling. The expression of lnc-MX1-1 in 60 prostate cancer cases was determined by real-time quantitative PCR and the correlations between lnc-MX1-1 expression and patients' clinical features were further analyzed. Next, we impaired lnc-MX1-1 expression using RNAi in LNCaP and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells to explore the effects of lnc-MX1-1 on proliferation and invasiveness of the cells. Our results showed that there was a significant association between over-expression of lnc-MX1-1 and patients' clinical features such as PSA, Gleason score, metastasis, and recurrence free survival. Moreover, knockdown of lnc-MX1-1 reduced both proliferation and invasiveness of LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells. In conclusion, the results suggest that lnc-MX1-1 may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for prostate cancer.

Legrier ME, Bièche I, Gaston J, et al.
Activation of IFN/STAT1 signalling predicts response to chemotherapy in oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 114(2):177-87 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oestrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer is intrinsically sensitive to chemotherapy. However, tumour response is often incomplete, and relapse occurs with high frequency. The aim of this work was to analyse the molecular characteristics of residual tumours and early response to chemotherapy in patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of breast cancer.
METHODS: Gene and protein expression profiles were analysed in a panel of ER- breast cancer PDXs before and after chemotherapy treatment. Tumour and stromal interferon-gamma expression was measured in xenografts lysates by human and mouse cytokine arrays, respectively.
RESULTS: The analysis of residual tumour cells in chemo-responder PDX revealed a strong overexpression of IFN-inducible genes, induced early after AC treatment and associated with increased STAT1 phosphorylation, DNA-damage and apoptosis. No increase in IFN-inducible gene expression was observed in chemo-resistant PDXs upon chemotherapy. Overexpression of IFN-related genes was associated with human IFN-γ secretion by tumour cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment-induced activation of the IFN/STAT1 pathway in tumour cells is associated with chemotherapy response in ER- breast cancer. Further validations in prospective clinical trials will aim to evaluate the usefulness of this signature to assist therapeutic strategies in the clinical setting.

Lin CH, Chang CY, Lee KR, et al.
Flavones inhibit breast cancer proliferation through the Akt/FOXO3a signaling pathway.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:958 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Flavones found in plants display various biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, and anti-tumor effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effects of flavone, apigenin and luteolin on human breast cancer cells.
METHODS: The anti-cancer activity of flavone, apigenin and luteolin was investigated using the MTS assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by Hoechst 33342 staining, flow cytometry and western blot. Cell migration was determined using the culture inserts and xCELLigence real-time cell analyzer instrument equipped with a CIM-plate 16. Real-time quantitative PCR and western blot were used to determine the signaling pathway elicited by flavone, apigenin and luteolin.
RESULTS: Flavone, apigenin and luteolin showed potent inhibitory effects on the proliferation of Hs578T, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. The ability of flavone, apigenin and luteolin to inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells through apoptosis was confirmed by Hoechst33342 staining and the induction of sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle. Flavone, apigenin and luteolin induced forkhead box O3 (FOXO3a) expression by inhibiting Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt. This subsequently elevated the expression of FOXO3a target genes, including the Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21Cip1 (p21) and p27kip1 (p27), which increased the levels of activated poly(ADP) polymerase (PARP) and cytochrome c.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, these data demonstrated that flavone, apigenin and luteolin induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in breast cancer cells through inhibiting PI3K/Akt activation and increasing FOXO3a activation, which suggest that flavone, apigenin and luteolin will be the potential leads for the preventing and treating of breast cancer.

Nakamura Y, Tokita K, Nagasawa F, et al.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase transforming into acute leukemia under treatment with dasatinib 4 months after diagnosis.
Int J Hematol. 2016; 103(3):348-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a 64-year-old woman morphologically diagnosed with chronic myelogenous leukemia in the chronic phase. Despite having achieved a complete hematological response following treatment with dasatinib, she developed lymphoblastic crisis 4 months later. Blastic cells were in a CD45-negative and SSC-low fraction, and positive for CD10, CD19, CD34, and HLA-DR expression and rearrangement in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. Chemotherapy using the HyperCVAD/MA regimen led to a complete cytogenetic response, and after cord blood transplantation, she obtained a complete molecular remission. However, the crisis recurred 6 months later. Another salvage therapy using L-AdVP regimen followed by nilotinib led to a complete molecular remission. Retrospective analyses using flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction revealed a minimal blastic crisis clone present in the initial marrow in chronic phase. This case is informative as it suggests that sudden blastic crisis may occur from an undetectable blastic clone present at initial diagnosis and that leukemic stem cells may survive cytotoxic chemotherapy that eliminates most of the blastic cells.

Vasanthakumar A, Arnovitz S, Marquez R, et al.
Brca1 deficiency causes bone marrow failure and spontaneous hematologic malignancies in mice.
Blood. 2016; 127(3):310-3 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2017 Related Publications
BRCA1 is critical for maintenance of genomic stability and interacts directly with several proteins that regulate hematopoietic stem cell function and are part of the Fanconi anemia (FA) double-strand break DNA repair pathway. The effects of complete BRCA1 deficiency on bone marrow (BM) function are unknown. To test the hypothesis that Brca1 is essential in hematopoiesis, we developed a conditional mouse model with Mx1-Cre-mediated Brca1 deletion. Mice lacking Brca1 in the BM have baseline cytopenias and develop spontaneous bone marrow failure or diverse hematologic malignancies by 6 months of age. Brca1(-/-) BM cells have a reduced capacity to form hematopoietic colonies in vitro and to reconstitute hematopoiesis in irradiated recipients, consistent with a hematopoietic progenitor functional defect. Brca1(-/-) BM cells also show FA-like hypersensitivity to the DNA crosslinking agent mitomycin C, and karyotypes feature genomic instability. Taken together, our results show that loss of Brca1 in murine BM causes hematopoietic defects similar to those seen in people with FA, which provides strong evidence that Brca1 is critical for normal hematopoiesis and that Brca1 is a bona fide FA-like gene.

Yolanda LV, Sergio PD, Hugo ES, et al.
Gastric cancer progression associated with local humoral immune responses.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:924 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although the association between H. pylori and gastric cancer has been well described, the alterations studies are scarce in the humoral immune response in specific anatomical areas of stomach and during the stages of gastric cancer. The aim in this study was to determine the influence of humoral immune responses against H. pylori infection on gastric carcinoma.
METHODS: We selected 16 gastric cancer cases and approximately one matched control per case at the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ); all the cases met the inclusion criteria for the study. We obtained three biopsies from each patient and from each of the predetermined regions of the stomach: antrum, angular portion, corpus, and fundus. From the patients with gastric cancer, additional biopsy specimens were obtained from tumor mid-lesion and tumor margin, and additional specimens were collected at least 2 and 5 cm from the tumor margin. We compared IgA levels against H. pylori in each area of stomach between cases and controls as well as between early and advanced stages of gastric cancer.
RESULTS: IgA values were strikingly elevated in cancer cases compared with control subjects; a value that was even higher in the distant periphery of tumor but was remarkably decreased toward the carcinoma lesion. The advanced stages of gastric cancer demonstrated the relapse of the humoral immune response in the mid-lesion region of the tumor compared with the tumor margins and adjacent non-tumor tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: Gastric cancer is characterized by progressive accumulation of a concentrated, specific IgA response against H. pylori, beginning with an abnormal increase in the entire stomach but particularly in the adjacent non-tumor tissue. Thus, it is possible that this strong immune response also participates in some degree in the damage and in the development of gastric cancer to some extent.

Duque-Afonso J, Smith KS, Cleary ML
Conditional Expression of E2A-HLF Induces B-Cell Precursor Death and Myeloproliferative-Like Disease in Knock-In Mice.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0143216 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2017 Related Publications
Chromosomal translocations are driver mutations of human cancers, particularly leukemias. They define disease subtypes and are used as prognostic markers, for minimal residual disease monitoring and therapeutic targets. Due to their low incidence, several translocations and their biological consequences remain poorly characterized. To address this, we engineered mouse strains that conditionally express E2A-HLF, a fusion oncogene from the translocation t(17;19) associated with 1% of pediatric B-cell precursor ALL. Conditional oncogene activation and expression were directed to the B-cell compartment by the Cre driver promoters CD19 or Mb1 (Igα, CD79a), or to the hematopoietic stem cell compartment by the Mx1 promoter. E2A-HLF expression in B-cell progenitors induced hyposplenia and lymphopenia, whereas expression in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells was embryonic lethal. Increased cell death was detected in E2A-HLF expressing cells, suggesting the need for cooperating genetic events that suppress cell death for B-cell oncogenic transformation. E2A-HLF/Mb1.Cre aged mice developed a fatal myeloproliferative-like disorder with low frequency characterized by leukocytosis, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly and organ-infiltration by mature myelocytes. In conclusion, we have developed conditional E2A-HLF knock-in mice, which provide an experimental platform to study cooperating genetic events and further elucidate translational biology in cross-species comparative studies.

Avilés-Jiménez F, Guitron A, Segura-López F, et al.
Microbiota studies in the bile duct strongly suggest a role for Helicobacter pylori in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016; 22(2):178.e11-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Biliary tract cancer or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECCA) represents the sixth commonest cause of cancer in the gastrointestinal tract in western countries. We aimed to characterize the microbiota and its predicted associated functions in the biliary tract of ECCA and benign biliary pathology (BBP). Samples were taken from 100 patients with ECCA and 100 patients with BBP by endoscopic cholangio-pancreatography for DNA extraction. Ten patients with ECCA and ten with BBP were selected for microbiota studies using the V4-16S rRNA gene and sequenced in Illumina platform. Microbiota analyses included sample-to-sample distance metrics, ordination/clustering and prediction of functions. Presence of Nesterenkonia sp. and Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genes were tested in the 100 ECCA and 100 BBP samples. Phylum Proteobacteria dominated all samples (60.4% average). Ordination multicomponent analyses showed significant microbiota separation between ECCA and BBP (p 0.010). Analyses of 4002 operational taxonomic units with presence variation in at least one category probed a separation of ECCA from BBP. Among these, Nesterenkonia decreased, whereas Methylophilaceae, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Novosphingobium and H. pylori increased in ECCA. Predicted associated functions showed increased abundance of H. pylori virulence genes in ECCA. cagA and vacA genes were confirmed by PCR in ECCA and BBP samples. This is the first microbiota report in ECCA and BBP to show significant changes in microbial composition. Bacterial species unusual for human flora were found: Methylophilaceae and Nesterenkonia are reported in hypersaline soils, and Mesorhizobium is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium. Enrichment of virulence genes confirms previous studies suggesting that H. pylori might be associated with ECCA.

Vega GG, Avilés-Salas A, Chalapud JR, et al.
P38 MAPK expression and activation predicts failure of response to CHOP in patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:722 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The p38 MAPK is constitutively activated in B-NHL cell lines and regulates chemoresistance. Accordingly, we hypothesized that activated p38 MAPK may be associated with the in vivo unresponsiveness to chemotherapy in B-NHL patients.
METHODS: Tissue microarrays generated from eighty untreated patients with Diffused Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) were examined by immunohistochemistry for the expression of p38 and phospho p38 (p-p38) MAPK. In addition, both Bcl-2 and NF-κB expressions were determined. Kaplan Meier analysis was assessed.
RESULTS: Tumor tissues expressed p38 MAPK (82 %) and p-p38 MAPK (30 %). Both p38 and p-p38 MAPK expressions correlated with the high score performance status. A significant correlation was found between the expression p-p38 and poor response to CHOP. The five year median follow-up FFS was 81 % for p38(-) and 34 % for p38(+) and for OS was 83 % for p38(-) and 47 % for p38(+). The p-p38(+) tissues expressed Bcl-2 and 90 % of p-p38(-) where Bcl-2(-). The coexpression of p-p38 and Bcl-2 correlated with pool EFS and OS. There was no correlation between the expression of p-p38 and the expression of NF-κB.
CONCLUSION: The findings revealed, for the first time, that a subset of patients with DLBCL and whose tumors expressed high p-p38 MAPK responded poorly to CHOP therapy and had poor EFS and OS. The expression of p38, p-p38, Bcl2 and the ABC subtype are significant risk factors both p38 and p-p38 expressions remain independent prognostic factors.

Rodríguez A, Torres L, Juárez U, et al.
Fanconi anemia cells with unrepaired DNA damage activate components of the checkpoint recovery process.
Theor Biol Med Model. 2015; 12:19 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The FA/BRCA pathway repairs DNA interstrand crosslinks. Mutations in this pathway cause Fanconi anemia (FA), a chromosome instability syndrome with bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition. Upon DNA damage, normal and FA cells inhibit the cell cycle progression, until the G2/M checkpoint is turned off by the checkpoint recovery, which becomes activated when the DNA damage has been repaired. Interestingly, highly damaged FA cells seem to override the G2/M checkpoint. In this study we explored with a Boolean network model and key experiments whether checkpoint recovery activation occurs in FA cells with extensive unrepaired DNA damage.
METHODS: We performed synchronous/asynchronous simulations of the FA/BRCA pathway Boolean network model. FA-A and normal lymphoblastoid cell lines were used to study checkpoint and checkpoint recovery activation after DNA damage induction. The experimental approach included flow cytometry cell cycle analysis, cell division tracking, chromosome aberration analysis and gene expression analysis through qRT-PCR and western blot.
RESULTS: Computational simulations suggested that in FA mutants checkpoint recovery activity inhibits the checkpoint components despite unrepaired DNA damage, a behavior that we did not observed in wild-type simulations. This result implies that FA cells would eventually reenter the cell cycle after a DNA damage induced G2/M checkpoint arrest, but before the damage has been fixed. We observed that FA-A cells activate the G2/M checkpoint and arrest in G2 phase, but eventually reach mitosis and divide with unrepaired DNA damage, thus resolving the initial checkpoint arrest. Based on our model result we look for ectopic activity of checkpoint recovery components. We found that checkpoint recovery components, such as PLK1, are expressed to a similar extent as normal undamaged cells do, even though FA-A cells harbor highly damaged DNA.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that FA cells, despite extensive DNA damage, do not loss the capacity to express the transcriptional and protein components of checkpoint recovery that might eventually allow their division with unrepaired DNA damage. This might allow cell survival but increases the genomic instability inherent to FA individuals and promotes cancer.

Tovar H, García-Herrera R, Espinal-Enríquez J, Hernández-Lemus E
Transcriptional master regulator analysis in breast cancer genetic networks.
Comput Biol Chem. 2015; 59 Pt B:67-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene regulatory networks account for the delicate mechanisms that control gene expression. Under certain circumstances, gene regulatory programs may give rise to amplification cascades. Such transcriptional cascades are events in which activation of key-responsive transcription factors called master regulators trigger a series of gene expression events. The action of transcriptional master regulators is then important for the establishment of certain programs like cell development and differentiation. However, such cascades have also been related with the onset and maintenance of cancer phenotypes. Here we present a systematic implementation of a series of algorithms aimed at the inference of a gene regulatory network and analysis of transcriptional master regulators in the context of primary breast cancer cells. Such studies were performed in a highly curated database of 880 microarray gene expression experiments on biopsy-captured tissue corresponding to primary breast cancer and healthy controls. Biological function and biochemical pathway enrichment analyses were also performed to study the role that the processes controlled - at the transcriptional level - by such master regulators may have in relation to primary breast cancer. We found that transcription factors such as AGTR2, ZNF132, TFDP3 and others are master regulators in this gene regulatory network. Sets of genes controlled by these regulators are involved in processes that are well-known hallmarks of cancer. This kind of analyses may help to understand the most upstream events in the development of phenotypes, in particular, those regarding cancer biology.

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