Gene Summary

Gene:MYOG; myogenin
Aliases: MYF4, myf-4, bHLHc3
Summary:Myogenin is a muscle-specific transcription factor that can induce myogenesis in a variety of cell types in tissue culture. It is a member of a large family of proteins related by sequence homology, the helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins. It is essential for the development of functional skeletal muscle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (18)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • PAX7
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Childhood Cancer
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Wilms Tumour
  • Soft Tissue Cancers
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Paired Box Transcription Factors
  • Adolescents
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • p53 Protein
  • Messenger RNA
  • MYOG
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Infant
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal
  • Chromosome 1
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Soft Tissue Sarcoma
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Transcription Factors
  • X Chromosome
  • Muscles
  • FISH
  • Translocation
  • DNA Primers
  • Mutation
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • PAX3 Transcription Factor
  • Forkhead Box Protein O1
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Cell Line
  • MyoD Protein
  • Muscle, Skeletal
  • Myogenin
  • Muscle Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Base Sequence
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MYOG (cancer-related)

Liu D, Qiao X, Ge Z, et al.
IMB0901 inhibits muscle atrophy induced by cancer cachexia through MSTN signaling pathway.
Skelet Muscle. 2019; 9(1):8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia as a metabolic syndrome can lead to at least 25% of cancer deaths. The inhibition of muscle atrophy is a main strategy to treat cancer cachexia. In this process, myostatin (MSTN) can exert a dual effect on protein metabolism, including inhibition of protein biosynthesis and enhancement of protein degradation. In this study, we will test the effect on muscle atrophy induced by cancer cachexia of IMB0901, a MSTN inhibitor.
METHODS: Two high-throughput screening models against MSTN were developed. By screening, IMB0901, 2-((1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-pyrazolo [3,4-d] pyrimidin-4-yl) amino) butan-1-ol, was picked out from the compound library. The in vitro cell model and the C26 animal model of muscle atrophy induced by cancer cachexia were used to determine the pharmacological activity of IMB0901. Whether IMB0901 could inhibit the aggravating effect of doxorubicin on muscle wasting was examined in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: IMB0901 inhibited the MSTN promoter activity, the MSTN signaling pathway, and the MSTN positive feedback regulation. In atrophied C2C12 myotubes, IMB0901 had a potent efficiency of decreasing MSTN expression and modulating MSTN signaling pathway which was activated by C26-conditioned medium (CM). In C2C12 myotubes, the expressions of three common myotube markers, myosin heavy chain (MyHC), myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD), and myogenin (MyoG), were downregulated by CM, which could be efficiently reversed by IMB0901 via reduction of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and enhancement of AKT/mTOR-mediated protein synthesis. In the C26 animal model, IMB0901 mitigated the weight loss of body, quadricep and liver, and protected the quadriceps cell morphology. Furthermore, IMB0901 decreased the expression of two E3 ligases Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 in the quadriceps in vivo. At the cellular level, IMB0901 had no influence on anti-tumor effect of three chemotherapeutic agents (cisplatin, doxorubicin, and gemcitabine) and lowered doxorubicin-induced upregulation of MSTN in C2C12 myotubes. IMB0901 did not affect the inhibitory effect of doxorubicin on C26 tumor and delayed the weight loss of muscle and adipose tissue caused by C26 tumor and doxorubicin.
CONCLUSIONS: IMB0901 inhibits muscle atrophy induced by cancer cachexia by suppressing ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and promoting protein synthesis. These findings collectively suggest that IMB0901 is a promising leading compound for the management of muscle atrophy induced by cancer cachexia.

Tang S, Dodd LG
CIC-DUX4 sarcoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology: A case report.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2018; 46(11):958-963 [PubMed] Related Publications
The CIC-DUX4 sarcoma is a small round blue cell sarcoma which presents like extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma, but is negative for the EWSR1 gene translocation. The recognition of CIC-DUX4 sarcomas as an aggressive sarcoma may be challenging in fine needle aspirates or small needle core biopsies. We present a case of a 13-year-old female with a fine needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy (CNB) of a thigh mass showing CIC-DUX4 sarcoma. Cytologic findings include tumor cells with high nuclear to cytoplasmic (N:C) ratio, eccentric nuclei and small nucleoli. The tumor cells were arranged in sheets and singly dispersed with background necrosis. Mitotic figures and apoptosis were present. These findings are similar to cases previously reported. Other reported findings of spindled nuclei, clear cell change and lobular growth pattern were not seen in our case. Immunohistochemical stains showed tumor cells positive for CD99, WT1, vimentin and negative for pancytokeratin, desmin and myogenin, which is the pattern similar to cases previously reported. However, our case was also positive for BCL-2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was negative for EWSR1 and SS18 (SYT) rearrangements and positive for CIC gene rearrangement. On balance, if the following features are seen: (1) a small round blue cell tumor with histomorphology more atypical than that of Ewing sarcoma, (2) cytoplasmic CD99 staining, nuclear WT1 positivity, negative keratin, desmin and myogenin; and (3) EWSR1 rearrangement negative by FISH, then molecular testing for CIC-DUX4 sarcoma should be considered.

Folpe AL, Graham RP, Martinez A, et al.
Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas showing immunohistochemical evidence of rhabdomyoblastic differentiation: a potential diagnostic pitfall.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 77:28-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
The diagnosis of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, a distinctive biphasic malignant neoplasm harboring the HEY1-NCOA2 gene fusion and consisting of primitive round to spindled cells admixed with foci of relatively mature hyaline cartilage, is usually straightforward by morphologic evaluation alone. However, in the setting of a limited biopsy, specimens lacking cartilage generate a broad differential diagnosis, encompassing a variety of other primitive sarcomas, including spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma. Although a small number of cases of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with aberrant skeletal muscle marker expression have been reported, pathologists are largely unaware of this potential diagnostic pitfall. We report 6 additional cases of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma showing expression of multiple skeletal muscle markers, including one case initially misdiagnosed as "spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma" on needle biopsy. Awareness of this phenomenon and judicious application of molecular diagnostic testing for the HEY1-NCOA2 fusion are critical to avoid misclassification of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma as rhabdomyosarcoma, with potentially adverse patient impact.

Zhang Y, Wan D, Gao F
Primary low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the breast: a rare case report with immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization detection.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 79:208-211 [PubMed] Related Publications
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare tumor with a bland histologic appearance but malignant biological behavior. Primary LGFMS of the breast has not been described in the English-language literature. Here, we report a 58-year-old Chinese female patient who presented with a painless mass in the right breast for more than 30 years. The tumor consists of spindle cells resembling fibroblasts and includes 2 kinds of morphologic change, which are alternating collagenized hypocellular zone and cell-rich myxoid area. There are more arcades of curvilinear blood vessels. The spindle cells are not heteromorphic, and mitotic figures are scarce. Immunostaining shows that tumor cells are positive for vimentin, mucin4, CD99, and Bcl-2, but negative for smooth muscle actin, desmin, S100, CD34, ALK, and myogenin. FUS gene rearrangement is positively detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The patient has been followed up for 59 months and is in a favorable condition. This rare location of LGFMS should be noted.

Siegfried A, Romary C, Escudié F, et al.
RREB1-MKL2 fusion in biphenotypic "oropharyngeal" sarcoma: New entity or part of the spectrum of biphenotypic sinonasal sarcomas?
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(4):203-210 [PubMed] Related Publications
An increasing number of sarcomas displaying a primitive, monomorphic spindle cell phenotype have been shown to harbor recurrent gene fusions, including biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma (SNS). Occurring in the sinonasal area of middle-aged patients, SNS is a locally aggressive tumor harboring in 90% of cases recurrent gene fusions involving the PAX3 gene, in which the chimeric transcription factor induces an aberrant dual myogenic and neural phenotype. Here, we report an unusual oropharyngeal monomorphic spindle cell sarcoma in a 53-year-old man that revealed a novel RREB1-MKL2 gene fusion by RNA sequencing with the Illumina TruSight RNA Fusion Panel. The gene fusion was validated by RT-PCR. Although the tumor location is unusual (but head and neck seated), most of the other clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic (focal combined expression of S100 protein, SMA, desmin, and myogenin) and oncogenic data suggest that this biphenotypic "oropharyngeal" sarcoma is closely related to the biphenotypic SNS spectrum. Notably, the RREB1-MKL2 chimeric transcription factor encoded by this fusion gene produced an increase in MKL2 expression, which regulates both neural and myogenic differentiation, mimicking the crucial role of PAX3 reported in SNS oncogenesis. NGS and especially RNA sequencing may be used to identify new candidate fusion oncogenes in soft tissue tumors, which would help in updating the existing classification. In turn, this would lead to better therapeutic management of patients.

Arbajian E, Köster J, Vult von Steyern F, Mertens F
Inflammatory leiomyosarcoma is a distinct tumor characterized by near-haploidization, few somatic mutations, and a primitive myogenic gene expression signature.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(1):93-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammatory leiomyosarcoma is a soft-tissue tumor resembling conventional leiomyosarcoma, but with a prominent intrinsic inflammatory component. Previous studies have suggested that inflammatory leiomyosarcoma differs genetically from leiomyosarcoma, but in-depth analyses are lacking. Here we provide a comprehensive picture of the genome and transcriptome of inflammatory leiomyosarcoma by combining cytogenetic, single-nucleotide polymorphism array, mRNA-sequencing, and whole-exome sequencing data. The results show that inflammatory leiomyosarcoma has a specific genetic profile characterized by near-haploidization with or without subsequent whole-genome doubling. Consistently, both parental copies of chromosomes 5 and 22 are preserved. Apart from recurrent mutation of the NF1 gene, additional somatic events that could serve as driver mutations were not found at either the nucleotide or the genome level. Furthermore, no fusion transcripts were identified. Global gene expression profiling revealed particularly prominent differential expression of genes, including ITGA7, MYF5, MYF6, MYOD1, MYOG, and PAX7, involved in muscle development and function, providing strong argument for grouping inflammatory leiomyosarcoma with myogenic sarcomas, rather than with myofibroblastic lesions. Combined with previously published data, there are now 10 cases of inflammatory leiomyosarcoma with confirmed near-haploid genotype. These patients differ from leiomyosarcoma patients in being younger (median 41 years), showing a male predominance (9:1), and few relapses (1 of 8 informative patients). Thus, the clinical, morphological, and genetic data provide compelling support for inflammatory leiomyosarcoma being a distinct subtype of myogenic tumors.

Fu L, Jin Y, Jia C, et al.
Detection of FOXO1 break-apart status by fluorescence in situ hybridization in atypical alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
Sci China Life Sci. 2017; 60(7):721-728 [PubMed] Related Publications
The morphologies of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) are various. Some cases entirely lack an alveolar pattern and instead display a histological pattern that overlaps with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS). The method of pathological diagnosis of ARMS and ERMS has been updated in the 4th edition of the World Health Organization's guidelines for classification of skeletal muscle tumors. Under the new guidelines, there is still no molecular test to distinguish between these two subtypes of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). In the present study, we applied fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and found that the Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) gene broke apart, amplified, and displayed an aneuploid signal that was related to the RMS pathological subtype. Aside from the fact that FOXO1 break-apart and its amplification were correlated with atypical ARMS, aneuploidies were usually found in atypical ERMS. In conclusion, our results detail a potential biomarker to improve the accuracy of pathological diagnosis by discriminating between atypical ARMS and atypical ERMS.

Gryder BE, Yohe ME, Chou HC, et al.
PAX3-FOXO1 Establishes Myogenic Super Enhancers and Confers BET Bromodomain Vulnerability.
Cancer Discov. 2017; 7(8):884-899 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is a life-threatening myogenic cancer of children and adolescent young adults, driven primarily by the chimeric transcription factor PAX3-FOXO1. The mechanisms by which PAX3-FOXO1 dysregulates chromatin are unknown. We find PAX3-FOXO1 reprograms the

Camperi A, Pin F, Costamagna D, et al.
Vitamin D and VDR in cancer cachexia and muscle regeneration.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(13):21778-21793 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Low circulating levels of vitamin D were associated with decreased muscle strength and physical performance. Along this line, the present study was aimed to investigate: i) the therapeutic potential of vitamin D in cancer-induced muscle wasting; ii) the mechanisms by which vitamin D affects muscle phenotype in tumor-bearing animals.Rats bearing the AH130 hepatoma showed decreased circulating vitamin D compared to control rats, while muscle vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA was up-regulated. Both circulating vitamin D and muscle VDR expression increased after vitamin D administration, without exerting appreciable effects on body weight and muscle mass.The effects of vitamin D on muscle cells were studied in C2C12 myocytes. Vitamin D-treated myoblasts did not differentiate properly, fusing only partially and forming multinucleated structures with aberrant shape and low myosin heavy chain content. Vitamin D treatment resulted in VDR overexpression and myogenin down-regulation. Silencing VDR expression in C2C12 cultures abrogated the inhibition of differentiation exerted by vitamin D treatment.These data suggest that VDR overexpression in tumor-bearing animals contributes to muscle wasting by impairing muscle regenerative program. In this regard, attention should be paid when considering vitamin D supplementation to patients affected by chronic pathologies where muscle regeneration may be involved.

Antonescu CR, Sung YS, Zhang L, et al.
Recurrent SRF-RELA Fusions Define a Novel Subset of Cellular Myofibroma/Myopericytoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall With Sarcomas With Myogenic Differentiation.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2017; 41(5):677-684 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cellular myofibroblastic tumors other than desmoid-type fibromatosis are often diagnostically challenging due to their relative rarity, lack of known genetic abnormalities, and expression of muscle markers which may be confused with sarcomas with myogenic differentiation. In this study we investigate the molecular alterations of a group of cellular myofibroblastic lesions with in the myofibroma and myopericytoma spectrum for better subclassification. Two index cases were studied by paired-end RNA sequencing for potential fusion gene discovery. One chest wall soft tissue tumor in a 3-month-old girl case showed a SRF-C3orf62 fusion, while the other, a forearm lesion in an 8-year-old girl, showed a SRF-RELA fusion. Further screening of 42 cellular examples of myofibroma/myopericytoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization identified additional 8 cases with recurrent SRF gene rearrangements, 6 of them showing identical SRF-RELA fusions. The cohort was composed of 7 females and 3 males, with a wide age range of 3 months to 63 years (mean=17). All tumors showed a densely packed growth of oval to spindle cells with fibrillary eosinophilic cytoplasm, arranged either in intersecting fascicles or with a distinct nested pattern around a rich vascular network. Despite the dense cellularity and variable mitotic activity none of the lesions displayed nuclear pleomorphism or necrosis. All tumors showed coexpression for SMA and desmin, in most cases with a strong and diffuse pattern of staining, while myogenin was consistently negative. No distant metastases were seen in the few cases with follow-up information. A control group of 34 well-characterized myofibroblastic and perivascular tumors, including 10 typical myofibromas and 3 myopericytomas, were also investigated for SRF gene abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridization and were negative. In summary, we report a subset of cellular variants of myofibroma and myopericytoma showing a smooth muscle-like immunophenotype and harboring recurrent SRF-RELA gene fusions, which mimic sarcomas with myogenic differentiation.

Megiorni F, Camero S, Ceccarelli S, et al.
DNMT3B in vitro knocking-down is able to reverse embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cell phenotype through inhibition of proliferation and induction of myogenic differentiation.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(48):79342-79356 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant DNA methylation has been frequently observed in many human cancers, including rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. To date, the expression and function of the de novo DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3B in RMS have not yet been investigated. Our study show for the first time a significant up-regulation of DNMT3B levels in 14 RMS tumour samples and 4 RMS cell lines in comparison to normal skeletal muscle. Transfection of RD and TE671 cells, two in vitro models of embryonal RMS (ERMS), with a synthetic DNMT3B siRNA decreased cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G1 phase, as demonstrated by the reduced expression of Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E2, and by the concomitant up-regulation of the checkpoint regulators p21 and p27. DNMT3B depletion also impaired RB phosphorylation status and decreased migratory capacity and clonogenic potential. Interestingly, DNMT3B knock-down was able to commit ERMS cells towards myogenic terminal differentiation, as confirmed by the acquisition of a myogenic-like phenotype and by the increased expression of the myogenic markers MYOD1, Myogenin and MyHC. Finally, inhibition of MEK/ERK signalling by U0126 resulted in a reduction of DNMT3B protein, giving evidence that DNMT3B is a down-stream molecule of this oncogenic pathway.Taken together, our data indicate that altered expression of DNMT3B plays a key role in ERMS development since its silencing is able to reverse cell cancer phenotype by rescuing myogenic program. Epigenetic therapy, by targeting the DNA methylation machinery, may represent a novel therapeutic strategy against RMS.

McInturff M, Adamson A, Donaldson C, Nelson BL
Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Oral Cavity.
Head Neck Pathol. 2017; 11(3):385-388 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A 19 year old female presents to the emergency room with right facial enlargement. Clinical examination revealed a soft tissue mass of the right buccal mucosa. Treated initially as infection, the patient later turned to clinic with now rapidly enlarging and intermittently painful mass. Computed tomography with contrast showed a low attenuated buccal mass with mild enhancement lateral to the right caudal maxilla and superior mandible. Biopsy was performed and microscopic examination showed cells with moderate pleomorphism with numerous atypical mitotic figures and occasional elongated "strap" cells with eccentric nuclei. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed no rearrangement of the FKHR gene. The diagnosis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma was rendered. The patient was referred to the local children's hospital for definitive treatment.

Saeger W, Mohren W, Behrend M, et al.
Sarcomatoid Adrenal Carcinoma: Case Report with Contribution to Pathogenesis.
Endocr Pathol. 2017; 28(2):139-145 [PubMed] Related Publications
A tumor in the adrenal region with two metastases in the liver was classified as poorly differentiated sarcoma on the base of extensive immunostainings (expression of vimentin, desmin, myogenin, and CD31, no expression of inhibin, melan A). Four years later in a second examination with molecular methods for a study of adrenal sarcomas, this diagnosis must be revised due to the lack of MDM-2 gene amplification and FKHR translocation which exclude sarcoma. Further immunostainings of many other parts of the tumor showed in one area more mature tumor tissue expressing synaptophysin, SF-1, and melan A. From these findings we classified an adrenal cortical cancer with predominant dedifferentiation into a sarcomatoid adrenal carcinoma. The properties of this very rare cancer type are presented and discussed.

Charville GW, Varma S, Forgó E, et al.
PAX7 Expression in Rhabdomyosarcoma, Related Soft Tissue Tumors, and Small Round Blue Cell Neoplasms.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2016; 40(10):1305-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rhabdomyosarcoma, the most common soft tissue malignancy of childhood, is a morphologically variable tumor defined by its phenotype of skeletal muscle differentiation. The diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma often relies in part on the identification of myogenic gene expression using immunohistochemical or molecular techniques. However, these techniques show imperfect sensitivity and specificity, particularly in scant tissue biopsies. Here, we expand the toolkit for rhabdomyosarcoma diagnosis by studying the expression of PAX7, a transcriptional regulator of mammalian muscle progenitor cells implicated in the pathogenesis of rhabdomyosarcoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays using a monoclonal anti-PAX7 antibody was used to characterize PAX7 expression in 25 non-neoplastic tissues, 109 rhabdomyosarcomas, and 697 small round blue cell or other soft tissue tumors. Among non-neoplastic tissues, PAX7 was specifically expressed in adult muscle progenitor cells (satellite cells). In embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, PAX7 expression was positive in 52 of 63 cases (83%), negative in 9 of 63 cases (14%), and focal in 2 of 63 cases (3%). PAX7-positive embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cases included several showing focal or negative myogenin expression. PAX7 expression in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was positive in 6 of 31 cases (19%), negative in 14 of 31 cases (45%), and focal in 11 of 31 cases (36%). In addition, PAX7 was expressed in 5 of 7 pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcomas (71%) and 6 of 8 spindle cell rhabdomyosarcomas (75%). Among histologic mimics, only Ewing sarcoma showed PAX7 expression (7/7 cases, 100%). In contrast, expression of PAX7 was not seen in the large majority (688/690, 99.7%) of examined cases of other soft tissue tumors, small round blue cell neoplasms, and leukemias/lymphomas. In summary, immunohistochemical analysis of PAX7 expression may be a useful diagnostic tool in the assessment of skeletal muscle differentiation in human tumors.

Brzeszczyńska J, Johns N, Schilb A, et al.
Loss of oxidative defense and potential blockade of satellite cell maturation in the skeletal muscle of patients with cancer but not in the healthy elderly.
Aging (Albany NY). 2016; 8(8):1690-702 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Muscle wasting in old age or cancer may result from failed myofiber regeneration and/or accelerated atrophy. This study aimed to determine from transcriptomic analysis of human muscle the integrity of the cellular stress response system in relation to satellite cell differentiation or apoptosis in patients with cancer (weight-stable (CWS) or weight-losing (CWL)) or healthy elderly (HE) when compared with healthy middle-aged controls (HMA). 28 patients with cancer (CWS: 18 and CWL: 10), HE: 21 and HMA: 20 underwent biopsy of quadriceps muscle. The expression of transcription factors for muscle regeneration (Pax3, Pax7 and MyoD) was increased in CWS and HE compared with HMA (p≤0.001). In contrast, the expression of the late myogenic differentiation marker MyoG was reduced in CWS and CWL but increased in HE (p≤0.0001). Bax was significantly increased in CWS, CWL and HE (p≤0.0001). Expression of the oxidative defense genes SOD2, GCLM, and Nrf2 was decreased in CWS and CWL but increased in HE (p≤0.0001). There is evidence for blockade of satellite cell maturation, upregulation of apoptosis and reduced oxidative defense in the muscle of cancer patients. In the healthy elderly the potential for differentiation and oxidative defense is maintained.

Rooper LM, Huang SC, Antonescu CR, et al.
Biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma: an expanded immunoprofile including consistent nuclear β-catenin positivity and absence of SOX10 expression.
Hum Pathol. 2016; 55:44-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma (BSNS) is a recently recognized low-grade sarcoma that exhibits both neural and myogenic differentiation. This unique dual phenotype stems from recurrent rearrangements in PAX3, a transcription factor that promotes commitment along both lineages. While identification of PAX3 rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can confirm a BSNS diagnosis, this assay is not widely available. This study evaluates whether an expanded immunohistochemical panel can facilitate recognition of BSNS without molecular analysis. Eleven cases of BSNS were identified from the surgical pathology archives of two academic medical centers. In 8 cases, the diagnosis was confirmed by FISH using custom probes for PAX3. In 3 cases, FISH failed but histologic and immunophenotypic findings were diagnostic for BSNS. All 11 BSNS (100%) were at least focally positive for S100 as well as calponin and/or smooth muscle actin. In addition, 10 (91%) of 11 expressed nuclear β-catenin, 8 (80%) of 10 expressed factor XIIIa, 4 (36%) of 11 expressed desmin, and 3 (30%) of 10 expressed myogenin. All 11 tumors were negative for SOX10. While no single marker resolves immunohistochemical overlap between BSNS and its histologic mimickers such as nerve sheath tumors, an extended immunohistochemical panel that includes β-catenin and SOX10 helps to support the diagnosis of BSNS without the need for gene rearrangement studies.

Kaspar P, Zikova M, Bartunek P, et al.
The Expression of c-Myb Correlates with the Levels of Rhabdomyosarcoma-specific Marker Myogenin.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:15090 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcription factor c-Myb is required for modulation of progenitor cells in several tissues, including skeletal muscle and its upregulation is observed in many human malignancies. Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) are a heterogeneous group of mesodermal tumors with features of developing skeletal muscle. Several miRNAs are downregulated in RMS, including miR-150, a negative regulator of c-Myb expression. Using the C2C12 myoblast cell line, a cellular model of skeletal muscle differentiation, we showed that miR-150 controls c-Myb expression mainly at the level of translation. We hypothesized that a similar mechanism of c-Myb regulation operates in RMS tumors. We examined expression of c-Myb by immunohistochemistry and revealed c-Myb positivity in alveolar and embryonal tumors, the two most common subgroups of RMS. Furthermore, we showed direct correlation between c-Myb production and myogenin expression. Interestingly, high myogenin levels indicate poor prognosis in RMS patients. c-Myb could, therefore, contribute to the tumor phenotype by executing its inhibitory role in skeletal muscle differentiation. We also showed that c-Myb protein is abundant in migratory C2C12 myoblasts and its ectopic expression potentiates cell motility. In summary, our results implicate that metastatic properties of some RMS subtypes might be linked to c-Myb function.

Faggi F, Codenotti S, Poliani PL, et al.
MURC/cavin-4 Is Co-Expressed with Caveolin-3 in Rhabdomyosarcoma Tumors and Its Silencing Prevents Myogenic Differentiation in the Human Embryonal RD Cell Line.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0130287 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MURC/cavin-4, a plasma membrane and Z-line associated protein exhibiting an overlapping distribution with Caveolin-3 (Cav-3) in heart and muscle tissues, may be expressed and play a role in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), an aggressive myogenic tumor affecting childhood. We found MURC/cavin-4 to be expressed, often concurrently with Cav-3, in mouse and human RMS, as demonstrated through in silico analysis of gene datasets and immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples. In vitro expression studies carried out using human cell lines and primary mouse tumor cultures showed that expression levels of both MURC/cavin-4 and Cav-3, while being low or undetectable during cell proliferation, became robustly increased during myogenic differentiation, as detected via semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis. Furthermore, confocal microscopy analysis performed on human RD and RH30 cell lines confirmed that MURC/cavin-4 mostly marks differentiated cell elements, colocalizing at the cell surface with Cav-3 and labeling myosin heavy chain (MHC) expressing cells. Finally, MURC/cavin-4 silencing prevented the differentiation in the RD cell line, leading to morphological cell impairment characterized by depletion of myogenin, Cav-3 and MHC protein levels. Overall, our data suggest that MURC/cavin-4, especially in combination with Cav-3, may play a consistent role in the differentiation process of RMS.

McKinnon T, Venier R, Dickson BC, et al.
Kras activation in p53-deficient myoblasts results in high-grade sarcoma formation with impaired myogenic differentiation.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(16):14220-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
While genomic studies have improved our ability to classify sarcomas, the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation and progression of many sarcoma subtypes are unknown. To better understand developmental origins and genetic drivers involved in rhabdomyosarcomagenesis, we describe a novel sarcoma model system employing primary murine p53-deficient myoblasts that were isolated and lentivirally transduced with KrasG12D. Myoblast cell lines were characterized and subjected to proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and differentiation assays to assess the effects of transgenic KrasG12D expression. KrasG12D overexpression transformed p53-/- myoblasts as demonstrated by an increased anchorage-independent growth. Induction of differentiation in parental myoblasts resulted in activation of key myogenic regulators. In contrast, Kras-transduced myoblasts had impaired terminal differentiation. p53-/- myoblasts transformed by KrasG12D overexpression resulted in rapid, reproducible tumor formation following orthotopic injection into syngeneic host hindlimbs. Pathological analysis revealed high-grade sarcomas with myogenic differentiation based on the expression of muscle-specific markers, such as Myod1 and Myog. Gene expression patterns of murine sarcomas shared biological pathways with RMS gene sets as determined by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and were 61% similar to human RMS as determined by metagene analysis. Thus, our novel model system is an effective means to model high-grade sarcomas along the RMS spectrum.

Magro G, Salvatorelli L, Puzzo L, et al.
Oncofetal expression of Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) protein in human fetal, adult and neoplastic skeletal muscle tissues.
Acta Histochem. 2015 May-Jun; 117(4-5):492-504 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is increasing evidence that WT1 protein expression is found not only at nuclear, but also at cytoplasmic, level in several developing and neoplastic tissues. In order to better understand the possible role of WT1 protein in human skeletal myogenesis and oncogenesis of rhabdomyosarcoma, we assessed immunohistochemically its comparative expression in a large series of human developing, adult and neoplastic skeletal muscle tissues. The present study shows that WT1 protein is developmentally expressed in the cytoplasm of human myoblasts from the 6 weeks of gestational age. This expression was maintained in the myotubes of developing muscles of the trunk, head, neck, and extremities, while it was down-regulated in fetal skeletal fibers from 20 weeks of gestational age as well as in adult normal skeletal muscle. Notably, WT1 immunostaining disappeared from rhabdomyomas, whereas it was strongly and diffusely re-expressed in all cases (27/27) of embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. The comparative evaluation of the immunohistochemical findings revealed that WT1 cytoplasmic expression in rhabdomyosarcoma may represent an ontogenetic reversal, and this nuclear transcription factor can also be considered an oncofetal protein which can be exploitable as an additional, highly sensitive immunomarker, together with desmin, myogenin and MyoD1, of this tumor. Moreover, our observations support the rationale for the use of WT1 protein-based target therapy in high risk rhabdomyosarcomas in children and adolescents.

Berkholz J, Kuzyniak W, Hoepfner M, Munz B
Overexpression of the skNAC gene in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells enhances their differentiation potential and inhibits tumor cell growth and spreading.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2014; 31(8):869-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Skeletal and heart muscle-specific variant of the alpha subunit of nascent polypeptide complex (skNAC) is exclusively present in striated muscle cells. During skeletal muscle cell differentiation, skNAC expression is strongly induced, suggesting that the protein might be a regulator of the differentiation process. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a tumor of skeletal muscle origin. Since there is a strong inverse correlation between rhabdomyosarcoma cell differentiation status and metastatic potential, we analyzed skNAC expression patterns in a set of rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines: Whereas RD/12 and RD/18 cells showed a marked induction of skNAC gene expression upon the induction of differentiation-similarly as the one seen in nontransformed myoblasts-skNAC was not induced in CCA or Rh30 cells. Overexpressing skNAC in CCA and Rh30 cells led to a reduction in cell cycle progression and cell proliferation accompanied by an upregulation of specific myogenic differentiation markers, such as Myogenin or Myosin Heavy Chain. Furthermore, in contrast to vector-transfected controls, a high percentage of the cells formed long, Myosin Heavy Chain-positive, multinucleate myotubes. Consistently, soft agar assays revealed a drop in the metastatic potential of skNAC-overexpressing cells. Taken together, these data indicate that reconstitution of skNAC expression can enhance the differentiation potential of rhabdomyosarcoma cells and reduces their metastatic potential, a finding which might have important therapeutic implications.

Almazán-Moga A, Roma J, Molist C, et al.
Optimization of rhabdomyosarcoma disseminated disease assessment by flow cytometry.
Cytometry A. 2014; 85(12):1020-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma in children. Circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood or disseminated to bone marrow, a concept commonly referred to as minimal residual disease (MRD), are thought to be key to the prediction of metastasis and treatment efficacy. To date, two MRD markers, MYOD and MYOGENIN, have been tested; however, MRD detection continues to be challenging mainly owing to the closeness of the detection limit and the discordance of both markers in some samples. Therefore, the addition of a third marker could be useful for more accurate MRD assessment. The PAX3 gene is expressed during embryo development in all myogenic precursor cells in the dermomyotome. As RMS cells are thought to originate from these muscle precursor cells, they are expected to be positive for PAX3. In this study, PAX3 expression was characterized in cancer cell lines and tumors, showing wide expression in RMS. Detection sensitivities by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of the previously proposed markers, MYOD and MYOGENIN, were similar to that of PAX3, thereby indicating the feasibility of its detection. Interestingly, the flow cytometry experiments supported the usefulness of this technique in the quantification of MRD in RMS using PAX3 as a marker. These results indicate that flow cytometry, albeit in some cases slightly less sensitive, can be considered a good approach for MRD assessment in RMS and more consistent than qPCR, especially owing to its greater specificity. Furthermore, fluorescence-activated cell sorting permits the recovery of cells, thereby providing material for further characterization of circulating or disseminated cancer cells.

Shimada C, Todo Y, Okamoto K, et al.
Central type primitive neuroectodermal tumor/neuroblastoma of the uterus: a case report.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2014; 40(10):2118-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
We encountered a 63-year-old woman who had a uterine tumor with peritoneal dissemination and para-aortic lymph node metastasis. Microscopic specimens of the tumor showed a small blue round-cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed cells to be negative for cytokeratin AE1/3, desmin, myogenin, CD10, CD34, and CD99, focal positive for vimentin, and positive for muscle-specific actin (HHF-35), neurofilament, synaptophysin and CD56. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed no split signal showing Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 gene translocation. Deletion of 1p36 was identified in 30% of the tumor cells. These findings are thought to be equivalent to central type primitive neuroectodermal tumors/neuroblastoma. Cytoreductive debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy, including cyclophosphamide, vincristine and adriamycin, resulted in complete remission. She has no evidence of disease at 24 months after surgery.

Chiappalupi S, Riuzzi F, Fulle S, et al.
Defective RAGE activity in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cells results in high PAX7 levels that sustain migration and invasiveness.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(10):2382-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rhabdomyosarcoma is a muscle-derived malignant tumor mainly affecting children. The most frequent variant, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) is characterized by overexpression of the transcription factor, PAX7 which prevents ERMS cells from exiting the cell cycle and terminally differentiating. However, a role for PAX7 in the invasive properties of ERMS cells has not been investigated in detail thus far. Here we show that ectopic expression of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) in human ERMS cells results in the activation of a RAGE/myogenin axis which downregulates PAX7 by transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms, as in normal myoblasts, and reduces metastasis formation. High PAX7 sustains migration and invasiveness in ERMS cells by upregulating EPHA3 and EFNA1 and downregulating NCAM1 thus decreasing the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)/polysialylated-NCAM ratio. Microarray gene expression analysis shows that compared with the RAGE(-ve) TE671/WT cells and similarly to primary human myoblasts, TE671/RAGE cells show upregulation of genes involved in muscle differentiation and cell adhesion, and downregulation of cell migration related and major histocompatibility complex class I genes. Our data reveal a link between PAX7 and metastasis occurrence in ERMSs, and support a role for the RAGE/myogenin axis in metastasis suppression. Thus, low RAGE expression in ERMS primary tumors may be predictive of metastatic behavior.

Warner BM, Griffith CC, Taylor WD, Seethala RR
Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma: presentation of a rare sarcoma mimicking myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland and review of the literature.
Head Neck Pathol. 2015; 9(1):147-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma (SRMS), a recently characterized variant of rhabdomyosarcoma, can pose a significant diagnostic challenge given its rarity and its histological similarity to other malignancies. SRMS is characterized by dense hyalinized or sclerosing collagenous matrix and a pseudovascular pattern of growth. SRMS shares histologic similarities with several mesenchymal tumors including: leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, angiosarcoma, and sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma. We herein report a case of SRMS mimicking a myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland. The tumor contained small, spindled, and epithelioid tumor cells lining pseudovascular spaces within a dense hyalinized stroma. Initial stains for keratins, S100 and p63 were negative. However the tumor cells showed desmin and myogenin positivity. The tumor was negative for FKHR gene rearrangements and showed no MDM2 gene amplification. This is the second case of SRMS to be diagnosed in the parotid gland highlighting the potential for misdiagnosis as a primary salivary gland epithelial malignancy.

Rudzinski ER, Anderson JR, Lyden ER, et al.
Myogenin, AP2β, NOS-1, and HMGA2 are surrogate markers of fusion status in rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the soft tissue sarcoma committee of the children's oncology group.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(5):654-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is traditionally classified on the basis of the histologic appearance into alveolar (ARMS) and embryonal (ERMS) subtypes. The majority of ARMS contain a PAX3-FOXO1 or PAX7-FOXO1 gene fusion, but about 20% do not. Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study stage-matched and group-matched ARMS typically behaves more aggressively than ERMS, but recent studies have shown that it is, in fact, the fusion status that drives the outcome for RMS. Gene expression microarray data indicate that several genes discriminate between fusion-positive and fusion-negative RMS with high specificity. Using tissue microarrays containing a series of both ARMS and ERMS, we identified a panel of 4 immunohistochemical markers-myogenin, AP2β, NOS-1, and HMGA2-which can be used as surrogate markers of fusion status in RMS. These antibodies provide an alternative to molecular methods for identification of fusion-positive RMS, particularly in cases in which there is scant or poor-quality material. In addition, these antibodies may be useful in fusion-negative ARMS as an indicator that a variant gene fusion may be present.

Ciarapica R, Carcarino E, Adesso L, et al.
Pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 as a promising differentiation therapy in embryonal RMS.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:139 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric soft-tissue sarcoma derived from myogenic precursors that is characterized by a good prognosis in patients with localized disease. Conversely, metastatic tumors often relapse, leading to a dismal outcome. The histone methyltransferase EZH2 epigenetically suppresses skeletal muscle differentiation by repressing the transcription of myogenic genes. Moreover, de-regulated EZH2 expression has been extensively implied in human cancers. We have previously shown that EZH2 is aberrantly over-expressed in RMS primary tumors and cell lines. Moreover, it has been recently reported that EZH2 silencing in RD cells, a recurrence-derived embryonal RMS cell line, favors myofiber-like structures formation in a pro-differentiation context. Here we evaluate whether similar effects can be obtained also in the presence of growth factor-supplemented medium (GM), that mimics a pro-proliferative microenvironment, and by pharmacological targeting of EZH2 in RD cells and in RD tumor xenografts.
METHODS: Embryonal RMS RD cells were cultured in GM and silenced for EZH2 or treated with either the S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitor 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) that induces EZH2 degradation, or with a new class of catalytic EZH2 inhibitors, MC1948 and MC1945, which block the catalytic activity of EZH2. RD cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: Here we show that EZH2 protein was abnormally expressed in 19 out of 19 (100%) embryonal RMS primary tumors and cell lines compared to their normal counterparts. Genetic down-regulation of EZH2 by silencing in GM condition reduced RD cell proliferation up-regulating p21Cip1. It also resulted in myogenic-like differentiation testified by the up-regulation of myogenic markers Myogenin, MCK and MHC. These effects were reverted by enforced over-expression of a murine Ezh2, highlighting an EZH2-specific effect. Pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 using either DZNep or MC inhibitors phenocopied the genetic knockdown of EZH2 preventing cell proliferation and restoring myogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: These results provide evidence that EZH2 function can be counteracted by pharmacological inhibition in embryonal RMS blocking proliferation even in a pro-proliferative context. They also suggest that this approach could be exploited as a differentiation therapy in adjuvant therapeutic intervention for embryonal RMS.

Riuzzi F, Sorci G, Sagheddu R, et al.
RAGE signaling deficiency in rhabdomyosarcoma cells causes upregulation of PAX7 and uncontrolled proliferation.
J Cell Sci. 2014; 127(Pt 8):1699-711 [PubMed] Related Publications
Embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas (ERMSs) show elevated levels of PAX7, a transcription factor that marks quiescent adult muscle stem (satellite) cells and is important for proliferation and survival of activated satellite cells and whose timely repression is required for myogenic differentiation. However, the mechanism of PAX7 accumulation in ERMSs and whether high PAX7 causes uncontrolled proliferation in ERMS remains to be elucidated. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE, encoded by AGER) transduces a myogenic and anti-proliferative signal in myoblasts, and stable transfection of the ERMS cell line TE671, which does not express RAGE, with AGER results in reduced proliferation and formation of tumor masses in vivo, and enhanced apoptosis and myogenic differentiation. Herein, we show that RAGE expression is low or absent in human ERMSs. We also show that in ERMS cells (1) PAX7 accumulates owing to absent or low RAGE signaling; (2) elevated PAX7 levels reduce RAGE expression and levels of MyoD and myogenin, muscle-specific transcription factors required for myoblast proliferation arrest and differentiation, respectively; (3) PAX7 supports myoblast proliferation by reducing the levels of MyoD, primarily by promoting its degradation; and (4), when ectopically expressed in ERMS cells, that RAGE upregulates myogenin which upregulates MyoD and downregulates PAX7, with consequent inhibition of proliferation and stimulation of differentiation. Thus, failure to express RAGE and, hence, MyoD and myogenin above a critical level in ERMS cells might result in deregulated PAX7 expression leading to uncontrolled proliferation and, potentially, to rhabdomyosarcomagenesis.

Zhu B, Zhang M, Byrum SD, et al.
TBX2 blocks myogenesis and promotes proliferation in rhabdomyosarcoma cells.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(4):785-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMSs) are the most frequent soft tissue sarcomas in children that share many features of developing skeletal muscle. We have discovered that a T-box family member, TBX2, is highly upregulated in tumor cells of both major RMS subtypes. TBX2 is a repressor that is often overexpressed in cancer cells and is thought to function in bypassing cell growth control, including repression of p14 and p21. The cell cycle regulator p21 is required for the terminal differentiation of skeletal muscle cells and is silenced in RMS cells. We have found that TBX2 interacts with the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD and myogenin and inhibits the activity of these factors. TBX2 is expressed in primary myoblasts and C2C12 cells, but is strongly downregulated upon differentiation. TBX2 recruits the histone deacetylase HDAC1 and is a potent inhibitor of the expression of muscle-specific genes and the cell cycle regulators, p21 and p14. TBX2 promotes the proliferation of RMS cells and either depletions of TBX2 or dominant negative TBX2 upregulate p21- and muscle-specific genes. Significantly, depletion or interference with TBX2 completely inhibits tumor growth in a xenograft assay, highlighting the oncogenic role of TBX2 in RMS cells. Thus, the data demonstrate that elevated expression of TBX2 contributes to the pathology of RMS cells by promoting proliferation and repressing differentiation-specific gene expression. These results show that deregulated TBX2 serves as an oncogene in RMS, suggesting that TBX2 may serve as a new diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for RMS tumors.

Win KT, Lee MY, Tan TD, et al.
Nasopharyngeal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma expressing CD56: a mimicker of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(1):451-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is remarkably rare in adults older than 45 years. Histologically, the tumor is composed of blue round cells with frequent expression of CD56 in addition to myogenic markers. Recent studies of ARMS have shown two specific recurrent translocations: PAX3-FKHR [t(2;13)(q35;q14)] or PAX7-FKHR [t(1;13)(p36;q14)]. Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) occurs most frequently in the upper aerodigestive tract with a male preference in East Asia and Central and South Americas with neoplastic cells frequently expressing CD56. We report a 53-year-old Taiwanese man presenting with a nasopharyngeal mass, cervical lymphadenopathy, and multiple bone metastases. Histologically, the nasopharyngeal biopsy revealed diffuse sheets of small blue round tumor cells without obvious alveolar pattern, angioinvasion or tumor necrosis. An initial erroneous diagnosis of ENKTL was made due to CD56 expression using fresh tumor tissue with flow cytometric analysis and the patient was treated accordingly. Retrospective study showed that the tumor cells expressed CD56, desmin, and myogenin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the tumor cells were positive for FKHR gene rearrangement, confirming the diagnosis of ARMS. Our case illustrates that a diagnosis of ENKTL based solely on CD56 expression can be misleading for a nasopharyngeal small blue round cell tumor. ARMS should be included as a differential diagnosis, and a correct diagnosis can be reached only after a high index of suspicion and a thorough histological examination with the aid of ancillary studies.

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