Research IndicatorsGraph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (2)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: RNF139 (cancer-related)
Zhao M, Li H, Bu X, et al.Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Cellular Resistance to the Nanoparticle Abraxane.
ACS Nano. 2015; 9(10):10099-112 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Abraxane, an FDA-approved albumin-bound nanoparticle (NP) form of paclitaxel (PTX) to treat breast cancer and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), has been demonstrated to be more effective than the original Taxol, the single molecule form. We have established a cell line from NSCLC A549 cells to be resistant to Abraxane. To further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the NP drug resistance, global protein expression profiles of Abraxane sensitive (A549) and resistant cells (A549/Abr), along with the treatment of Abraxane, have been obtained by a quantitative proteomic approach. The most significantly differentially expressed proteins are associated with lipid metabolism, cell cycle, cytoskeleton, apoptosis pathways and processes, suggesting several mechanisms are working synergistically in A549 Abraxane-resistant cells. Overexpression of proteins in the lipid metabolism processes, such as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF139 (RNF139) and Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS1), have not been reported previously in the study of paclitaxel resistance, suggesting possibly different mechanism between nanoparticle and single molecular drug resistance. In particular, RNF139 is one of the most up-regulated proteins in A549 Abraxane-resistant cell line, but remains no change when the resistant cells were further treated with Abraxane and down-regulated in the sensitive cells after 4 h treatment of Abraxane. This study shows the use of a proteomic strategy to understand the unique response of drug resistant cells to a nanoparticle therapeutic.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the differential expression of RING finger (RNF) proteins in Barrett esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC).
METHODS: The differential expression of RNFs in normal esophagus (NE), BE, and EAC was screened using microarray assay. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), tissue micro-array assay, and Western blot analysis were independently performed to detect the mRNA and protein expression of screened RNFs.
RESULTS: The expression of nine RNFs in the BE or EAC was 2-fold higher than those in NE. Among these proteins, the RNF32 and RNF121 expression in BE was 20.3-fold and 16.4-fold higher, respectively, than that in NE, and the expression of RNF24, RNF130, RNF141, RNF139, RNF11, RNF14, and RNF159 was upregulated more than 2-fold compared with NE. The expression of nine RNFs was not only upregulated in the EAC but was also positively related to the RNF expression in BE. The PCR results also indicated increased expression of these RNFs in BE and EAC compared to NE. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of all RNFs, except for RNF141 in EAC, was dramatically higher than those in the BE. Similar results were also obtained from the Western blot analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: A total of nine RNFs play critical roles in the progression of BE to EAC.
Tung N, Gaughan E, Hacker MR, et al.Outcome of triple negative breast cancer: comparison of sporadic and BRCA1-associated cancers.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 146(1):175-82 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The majority of breast cancers developing in BRCA1 mutation carriers are triple negative breast cancers (TNBC), an aggressive subtype that accounts for 15-20 % of sporadic breast cancer. We compare the clinical outcome and sites of relapse of TNBC in BRCA1 mutation carriers and non-carriers who received adjuvant chemotherapy. Women with stage I-III TNBC who had BRCA1 testing within 36 months of diagnosis and received adjuvant chemotherapy were identified from clinical databases at two academic institutions. Sites of relapse, freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM), and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) were determined. RCA1 carriers (n = 89) were significantly younger at diagnosis (P < 0.0001) than non-carriers (n = 175). FFDM at 5 years was 80.5 % for carriers and 76.9 % for non-carriers; with median follow-up of 55 months, hazard ratio (HR) was 0.90, P = 0.71. Sites of recurrence, including brain, did not differ significantly. BCSS at 5 years was 88.1 % for carriers and 81.4 % for non-carriers; HR 0.60; P = 0.15 at 55 months follow-up. BRCA1 carriers who underwent oophorectomy had a significantly lower rate of death from TNBC, with an adjusted HR of 0.30 (95 % CI 0.10-0.94). Adjusting for age, oophorectomy, and prophylactic mastectomy, BRCA1 mutation status was not an independent predictor of survival (HR 2.1; P = 0.13). BRCA1 mutation carriers with TNBC had similar survival rates and sites of recurrence to non-carriers after treatment with conventional chemotherapy. Carriers who underwent oophorectomy had a significantly lower rate of breast cancer-related death; this finding should be studied further in all women with TNBC.
It has emerged that palindrome-mediated genomic instability generates DNA-based rearrangements. The presence of palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) at the translocation breakpoints suggested a palindrome-mediated mechanism in the generation of several recurrent constitutional rearrangements: the t(11;22), t(17;22), and t(8;22). To date, all reported PATRR-mediated translocations include the PATRR on chromosome 22 (PATRR22) as a translocation partner. Here, the constitutional rearrangement, t(3;8)(p14.2;q24.1), segregating with renal cell carcinoma in two families, is examined. The chromosome 8 breakpoint lies in PATRR8 in the first intron of the RNF139 (TRC8) gene, whereas the chromosome 3 breakpoint is located in an AT-rich palindromic sequence in intron 3 of the FHIT gene (PATRR3). Thus, the t(3;8) is the first PATRR-mediated, recurrent, constitutional translocation that does not involve PATRR22. Furthermore, we detect de novo translocations similar to the t(11;22) and t(8;22), involving PATRR3 in normal sperm. The breakpoint on chromosome 3 is in proximity to FRA3B, the most common fragile site in the human genome and a site of frequent deletions in tumor cells. However, the lack of involvement of PATRR3 sequence in numerous FRA3B-related deletions suggests that there are several different DNA sequence-based etiologies responsible for chromosome 3p14.2 genomic rearrangements.
Ribeiro IP, Marques F, Caramelo F, et al.Genetic gains and losses in oral squamous cell carcinoma: impact on clinical management.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2014; 37(1):29-39 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The identification of genetic markers associated with oral cancer is considered essential to improve the diagnosis, prognosis, early tumor and relapse detection and, ultimately, to delineate individualized therapeutic approaches. Here, we aimed at identifying such markers.
METHODS: Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) analyses encompassing 133 cancer-related genes were performed on a panel of primary oral tumor samples and its corresponding resection margins (macroscopically tumor-free tissue) allowing, in both types of tissue, the detection of a wide arrange of copy number imbalances on various human chromosomes.
RESULTS: We found that in tumor tissue, from the 133 cancer-related genes included in this study, those that most frequently exhibited copy number gains were located on chromosomal arms 3q, 6p, 8q, 11q, 16p, 16q, 17p, 17q and 19q, whereas those most frequently exhibiting copy number losses were located on chromosomal arms 2q, 3p, 4q, 5q, 8p, 9p, 11q and 18q. Several imbalances were highlighted, i.e., losses of ERBB4, CTNNB1, NFKB1, IL2, IL12B, TUSC3, CDKN2A, CASP1, and gains of MME, BCL6, VEGF, PTK2, PTP4A3, RNF139, CCND1, FGF3, CTTN, MVP, CDH1, BRCA1, CDKN2D, BAX, as well as exon 4 of TP53. Comparisons between tumor and matched macroscopically tumor-free tissues allowed us to build a logistic regression model to predict the tissue type (benign versus malignant). In this model, the TUSC3 gene showed statistical significance, indicating that loss of this gene may serve as a good indicator of malignancy.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results point towards relevance of the above mentioned cancer-related genes as putative genetic markers for oral cancer. For practical clinical purposes, these genetic markers should be validated in additional studies.
Cancer is a genomic disease associated with a plethora of gene mutations resulting in a loss of control over vital cellular functions. Among these mutated genes, driver genes are defined as being causally linked to oncogenesis, while passenger genes are thought to be irrelevant for cancer development. With increasing numbers of large-scale genomic datasets available, integrating these genomic data to identify driver genes from aberration regions of cancer genomes becomes an important goal of cancer genome analysis and investigations into mechanisms responsible for cancer development. A computational method, MAXDRIVER, is proposed here to identify potential driver genes on the basis of copy number aberration (CNA) regions of cancer genomes, by integrating publicly available human genomic data. MAXDRIVER employs several optimization strategies to construct a heterogeneous network, by means of combining a fused gene functional similarity network, gene-disease associations and a disease phenotypic similarity network. MAXDRIVER was validated to effectively recall known associations among genes and cancers. Previously identified as well as novel driver genes were detected by scanning CNAs of breast cancer, melanoma and liver carcinoma. Three predicted driver genes (CDKN2A, AKT1, RNF139) were found common in these three cancers by comparative analysis.
Gelsomino G, Corsetto PA, Campia I, et al.Omega 3 fatty acids chemosensitize multidrug resistant colon cancer cells by down-regulating cholesterol synthesis and altering detergent resistant membranes composition.
Mol Cancer. 2013; 12:137 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The activity of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance related protein 1 (MRP1), two membrane transporters involved in multidrug resistance of colon cancer, is increased by high amounts of cholesterol in plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes (DRMs). It has never been investigated whether omega 3 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFAs), which modulate cholesterol homeostasis in dyslipidemic syndromes and have chemopreventive effects in colon cancer, may affect the response to chemotherapy in multidrug resistant (MDR) tumors.
METHODS: We studied the effect of omega 3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in human chemosensitive colon cancer HT29 cells and in their MDR counterpart, HT29-dx cells.
RESULTS: MDR cells, which overexpressed Pgp and MRP1, had a dysregulated cholesterol metabolism, due to the lower expression of ubiquitin E3 ligase Trc8: this produced lower ubiquitination rate of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoAR), higher cholesterol synthesis, higher cholesterol content in MDR cells. We found that DHA and EPA re-activated Trc8 E3 ligase in MDR cells, restored the ubiquitination rate of HMGCoAR to levels comparable with chemosensitive cells, reduced the cholesterol synthesis and incorporation in DRMs. Omega 3 PUFAs were incorporated in whole lipids as well as in DRMs of MDR cells, and altered the lipid composition of these compartments. They reduced the amount of Pgp and MRP1 contained in DRMs, decreased the transporters activity, restored the antitumor effects of different chemotherapeutic drugs, restored a proper tumor-immune system recognition in response to chemotherapy in MDR cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our work describes a new biochemical effect of omega 3 PUFAs, which can be useful to overcome chemoresistance in MDR colon cancer cells.
BACKGROUND: Identifying similarities and differences in the molecular constitutions of various types of cancer is one of the key challenges in cancer research. The appearances of a cancer depend on complex molecular interactions, including gene regulatory networks and gene-environment interactions. This complexity makes it challenging to decipher the molecular origin of the cancer. In recent years, many studies reported methods to uncover heterogeneous depictions of complex cancers, which are often categorized into different subtypes. The challenge is to identify diverse molecular contexts within a cancer, to relate them to different subtypes, and to learn underlying molecular interactions specific to molecular contexts so that we can recommend context-specific treatment to patients.
RESULTS: In this study, we describe a novel method to discern molecular interactions specific to certain molecular contexts. Unlike conventional approaches to build modular networks of individual genes, our focus is to identify cancer-generic and subtype-specific interactions between contextual gene sets, of which each gene set share coherent transcriptional patterns across a subset of samples, termed contextual gene set. We then apply a novel formulation for quantitating the effect of the samples from each subtype on the calculated strength of interactions observed. Two cancer data sets were analyzed to support the validity of condition-specificity of identified interactions. When compared to an existing approach, the proposed method was much more sensitive in identifying condition-specific interactions even in heterogeneous data set. The results also revealed that network components specific to different types of cancer are related to different biological functions than cancer-generic network components. We found not only the results that are consistent with previous studies, but also new hypotheses on the biological mechanisms specific to certain cancer types that warrant further investigations.
CONCLUSIONS: The analysis on the contextual gene sets and characterization of networks of interaction composed of these sets discovered distinct functional differences underlying various types of cancer. The results show that our method successfully reveals many subtype-specific regions in the identified maps of biological contexts, which well represent biological functions that can be connected to specific subtypes.
Drabkin HA, Gemmill RMCholesterol and the development of clear-cell renal carcinoma.
Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2012; 12(6):742-50 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The majority of kidney cancers are clear-cell carcinomas (ccRCC), characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol, cholesterol esters, other neutral lipids and glycogen. Rather than being a passive bystander, the clear-cell phenotype is suggested to be a biomarker of deregulated cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis, which plays an important role in development of the disease. One clue to this relationship has come from the elucidation of the hereditary kidney cancer gene, TRC8, which functions partly to degrade key regulators of endogenous cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis. In addition, deregulation of the mevalonate pathway has been shown to play a key role in cellular transformation and invasion. These findings are supported by considerable epidemiologic data linking obesity and the deregulation of lipid biosynthesis to ccRCC.
Lin PH, Lan WM, Chau LYTRC8 suppresses tumorigenesis through targeting heme oxygenase-1 for ubiquitination and degradation.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(18):2325-34 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The TRC8 gene, which was previously shown to be disrupted by a 3;8 chromosomal translocation in hereditary kidney cancer, encodes for an endoplasmic reticulum-resident E3 ligase. Studies have shown that TRC8 exhibits a tumor-suppressive effect through its E3-ligase activity. Therefore, the identification of its physiological substrates will provide important insights into the molecular mechanism underlying TRC8-mediated tumor suppression. Here we show that TRC8 targets heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an antioxidant enzyme highly expressed in various cancers, for ubiquitination and degradation. Ectopic TRC8 expression suppresses HO-1-induced cancer cell growth and migration/invasion. Conversely, HO-1 depletion reduced the tumorigenic and invasive capacities promoted by TRC8 knockdown. HO-1 downregulation in renal carcinoma cells induces a mitotic delay at G2/M phase by increasing the intracellular reactive oxygen species and the DNA-damage-induced checkpoint activation. These results highlight the tumorigenic role of HO-1 and the importance of TRC8-mediated HO-1 degradation in the control of cancer growth.
Gimelli S, Beri S, Drabkin HA, et al.The tumor suppressor gene TRC8/RNF139 is disrupted by a constitutional balanced translocation t(8;22)(q24.13;q11.21) in a young girl with dysgerminoma.
Mol Cancer. 2009; 8:52 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: RNF139/TRC8 is a potential tumor suppressor gene with similarity to PTCH, a tumor suppressor implicated in basal cell carcinomas and glioblastomas. TRC8 has the potential to act in a novel regulatory relationship linking the cholesterol/lipid biosynthetic pathway with cellular growth control and has been identified in families with hereditary renal (RCC) and thyroid cancers. Haploinsufficiency of TRC8 may facilitate development of clear cell-RCC in association with VHL mutations, and may increase risk for other tumor types. We report a paternally inherited balanced translocation t(8;22) in a proposita with dysgerminoma.
METHODS: The translocation was characterized by FISH and the breakpoints cloned, sequenced, and compared. DNA isolated from normal and tumor cells was checked for abnormalities by array-CGH. Expression of genes TRC8 and TSN was tested both on dysgerminoma and in the proposita and her father.
RESULTS: The breakpoints of the translocation are located within the LCR-B low copy repeat on chromosome 22q11.21, containing the palindromic AT-rich repeat (PATRR) involved in recurrent and non-recurrent translocations, and in an AT-rich sequence inside intron 1 of the TRC8 tumor-suppressor gene at 8q24.13. TRC8 was strongly underexpressed in the dysgerminoma. Translin is underexpressed in the dysgerminoma compared to normal ovary.TRC8 is a target of Translin (TSN), a posttranscriptional regulator of genes transcribed by the transcription factor CREM-tau in postmeiotic male germ cells.
CONCLUSION: A role for TRC8 in dysgerminoma may relate to its interaction with Translin. We propose a model in which one copy of TRC8 is disrupted by a palindrome-mediated translocation followed by complete loss of expression through suppression, possibly mediated by miRNA.
Poland KS, Azim M, Folsom M, et al.A constitutional balanced t(3;8)(p14;q24.1) translocation results in disruption of the TRC8 gene and predisposition to clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2007; 46(9):805-12 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Studying the molecular basis of familial renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has allowed identification of novel RCC genes involved in the pathogenesis of both inherited and sporadic RCC. We describe a constitutional balanced t(3;8)(p14;q24.1) translocation found in a brother and sister with bilateral clear cell RCC (CC-RCC) diagnosed in their forties. Consistent with a prior report, we demonstrated by RT-PCR of RNA from lymphoblastoid cells fusion mRNAs derived from the fragile histidine triad (FHIT) at 3p14 and TRC8 at 8q24.1 in both affected siblings. Cytogenetic analysis of a CC-RCC tumor from the affected sister from short-term tumor cell culture showed both diploid and pseudotetraploid populations containing the translocation and normal appearing chromosomes 3 and 8. Fluorescent in situ hybridization using bacterial artificial chromosomes containing sequences from the FHIT and TRC8 genes demonstrated normal FHIT signals and TRC8 signals on nontranslocated chromosomes in the constitutional blood sample, but the TRC8 signal was absent in a subset of diploid and pseudotetraploid cells from the tumor. The tumor also contained a heterozygous VHL frameshift somatic mutation. These results confirm that balanced translocations disrupting the TRC8 and FHIT genes result in an increased genetic susceptibility for bilateral CC-RCC. The presence of diploid and tetraploid tumor cells with and without TRC8 deletions on the nontranslocated chromosome suggest that loss of the remaining normal allele of TRC8 may contribute to tumor development at later stages.
Brauweiler A, Lorick KL, Lee JP, et al.RING-dependent tumor suppression and G2/M arrest induced by the TRC8 hereditary kidney cancer gene.
Oncogene. 2007; 26(16):2263-71 [PubMed
] Related Publications
TRC8/RNF139 and von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) both encode E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligases mutated in clear-cell renal carcinomas (ccRCC). VHL, inactivated in nearly 70% of ccRCCs, is a tumor suppressor encoding the targeting subunit for a Ub ligase complex that downregulates hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha. TRC8/RNF139 is a putative tumor suppressor containing a sterol-sensing domain and a RING-H2 motif essential for Ub ligase activity. Here we report that human kidney cells are growth inhibited by TRC8. Inhibition is manifested by G2/M arrest, decreased DNA synthesis and increased apoptosis and is dependent upon the Ub ligase activity of the RING domain. Tumor formation in a nude mouse model is inhibited by TRC8 in a RING-dependent manner. Expression of TRC8 represses genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis that are transcriptionally regulated by the sterol response element binding proteins (SREBPs). Expression of activated SREBP-1a partially restores the growth of TRC8-inhibited cells. These data suggest that TRC8 modulation of SREBP activity comprises a novel regulatory link between growth control and the cholesterol/lipid homeostasis pathway.
Gemmill RM, Lee JP, Chamovitz DA, et al.Growth suppression induced by the TRC8 hereditary kidney cancer gene is dependent upon JAB1/CSN5.
Oncogene. 2005; 24(21):3503-11 [PubMed
] Related Publications
TRC8 encodes an E3-ubiquitin ligase disrupted in a family with hereditary renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We previously reported that Drosophila Trc8 (DTrc8) overexpression inhibits growth and that human and fly proteins interact with with the COP9 signalosome (CSN) subunit JAB1/CSN5. However, further mechanistic evidence linking DTrc8 growth suppression to CSN5 was lacking. Here, we show that haploinsufficiency of CSN5, or a T100I point mutation (CSN5(3)), relieved growth suppression by DTrc8, whereas CSN5(1) (E160V) and CSN5(2) (G147D) mutations had no effect. The strength of yeast two-hybrid interactions between DTrc8 and CSN5 were in complete agreement with the observed phenotypes. DTrc8 overexpression resulted in elevated levels of CSN5 and CSN7, but had no effect on NEDD8-modified Cul-1. In contrast to CSN5, heterozygosity for CSN4null had no effect on the DTrc8 phenotype. We also looked for genetic interactions between DTrc8 and other MPN domain proteins in the CSN and 26S proteasome lid. CSN6 haploinsufficiency restored growth, whereas reduction of proteasome subunits RPN8 or RPN11 had no effect. DTrc8 expression increased the level of digitonin-extractable CSN complex, consistent with elevated levels of CSN5 and 7. Our genetic results confirm that DTrc8-induced growth suppression is CSN5 (and CSN6) dependent. While there was no obvious influence on CSN deneddylation activity, the increase in CSN subunits and holocomplex suggests that TRC8 modulates signalosome levels or compartmentalization.
Gemmill RM, Bemis LT, Lee JP, et al.The TRC8 hereditary kidney cancer gene suppresses growth and functions with VHL in a common pathway.
Oncogene. 2002; 21(22):3507-16 [PubMed
] Related Publications
VHL is part of an SCF related E3-ubiquitin ligase complex with 'gatekeeper' function in renal carcinoma. However, no mutations have been identified in VHL interacting proteins in wild type VHL tumors. We previously reported that the TRC8 gene was interrupted by a t(3;8) translocation in a family with hereditary renal and non-medullary thyroid cancer. TRC8 encodes a multi-membrane spanning protein containing a RING-H2 finger with in vitro ubiquitin ligase activity. We isolated the Drosophila homologue, DTrc8, and studied its function by genetic manipulations and a yeast 2-hybrid screen. Human and Drosophila TRC8 proteins localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. Loss of either DTrc8 or DVhl resulted in an identical ventral midline defect. Direct interaction between DTrc8 and DVhl was confirmed by GST-pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. CSN-5/JAB1 is a component of the COP9 signalosome, recently shown to regulate SCF function. We found that DTrc8 physically interacts with CSN-5 and that human JAB1 localization is dependent on VHL mutant status. Lastly, overexpression of DTrc8 inhibited growth consistent with its presumed role as a tumor suppressor gene. Thus, VHL, TRC8, and JAB1 appear to be linked both physically and functionally and all three may participate in the development of kidney cancer.
van Dekken H, Geelen E, Dinjens WN, et al.Comparative genomic hybridization of cancer of the gastroesophageal junction: deletion of 14Q31-32.1 discriminates between esophageal (Barrett's) and gastric cardia adenocarcinomas.
Cancer Res. 1999; 59(3):748-52 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Incidence rates have risen rapidly for esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinomas. These cancers, arising at and around the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ), share a poor prognosis. In contrast, there is no consensus with respect to clinical staging resulting in possible adverse effects on treatment and survival. The goal of this study was to provide more insight into the genetic changes underlying esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinomas. We have used comparative genomic hybridization for a genetic analysis of 28 adenocarcinomas of the GEJ. Eleven tumors were localized in the distal esophagus and related to Barrett's esophagus, and 10 tumors were situated in the gastric cardia. The remaining seven tumors were located at the junction and could not be classified as either Barrett-related, or gastric cardia. We found alterations in all 28 neoplasms. Gains and losses were distinguished in comparable numbers. Frequent loss (> or = 25% of all tumors) was detected, in decreasing order of frequency, on 4pq (54%), 14q (46%), 18q (43%), 5q (36%), 16q (36%), 9p (29%), 17p (29%), and 21q (29%). Frequent gain (> or = 25% of all tumors) was observed, in decreasing order of frequency, on 20pq (86%), 8q (79%), 7p (61%), 13q (46%), 12q (39%), 15q (39%), 1q (36%), 3q (32%), 5p (32%), 6p (32%), 19q (32%), Xpq (32%), 17q (29%), and 18p (25%). Nearly all patients were male, and loss of chromosome Y was frequently noted (64%). Recurrent high-level amplifications (> 10% of all tumors) were seen at 8q23-24.1, 15q25, 17q12-21, and 19q13.1. Minimal overlapping regions could be determined at multiple locations (candidate genes are in parentheses): minimal regions of overlap for deletions were assigned to 3p14 (FHIT, RCA1), 5q14-21 (APC, MCC), 9p21 (MTS1/CDKN2), 14q31-32.1 (TSHR), 16q23, 18q21 (DCC, P15) and 21q21. Minimal overlapping amplified sites could be seen at 5p14 (MLVI2), 6p12-21.1 (NRASL3), 7p12 (EGFR), 8q23-24.1 (MYC), 12q21.1, 15q25 (IGF1R), 17q12-21 (ERBB2/HER2-neu), 19q13.1 (TGFB1, BCL3, AKT2), 20p12 (PCNA), 20q12-13 (MYBL2, PTPN1), and Xq25. The distribution of the imbalances revealed similar genetic patterns in the three GEJ tumor groups. However, loss of 14q31-32.1 occurred significantly more frequent in Barrett-related adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus, than in gastric cardia cancers (P = 0.02). The unclassified, "pure junction" group displayed an intermediate position, suggesting that these may be in part gastric cardia tumors, whereas the others may be related to (short-segment) Barrett's esophagus. In conclusion, this study has, fist, provided a detailed comparative genomic hybridization-map of GEJ adenocarcinomas documenting new genetic changes, as well as candidate genes involved. Second, genetic divergence was revealed in this poorly understood group of cancers.
The 3;8 chromosomal translocation, t(3;8)(p14.2;q24.1), was described in a family with classical features of hereditary renal cell carcinoma. Previous studies demonstrated that the 3p14.2 breakpoint interrupts the fragile histidine triad gene (FHIT) in its 5' noncoding region. However, evidence that FHIT is causally related to renal or other malignancies is controversial. We now show that the 8q24.1 breakpoint region encodes a 664-aa multiple membrane spanning protein, TRC8, with similarity to the hereditary basal cell carcinoma/segment polarity gene, patched. This similarity involves two regions of patched, the putative sterol-sensing domain and the second extracellular loop that participates in the binding of sonic hedgehog. In the 3;8 translocation, TRC8 is fused to FHIT and is disrupted within the sterol-sensing domain. In contrast, the FHIT coding region is maintained and expressed. In a series of sporadic renal carcinomas, an acquired TRC8 mutation was identified. By analogy to patched, TRC8 might function as a signaling receptor and other pathway members, to be defined, are mutation candidates in malignant diseases involving the kidney and thyroid.
The chromosome (p14.2;q24.1) translocation t(3;8) has been associated with hereditary renal cancer in one family. Based on cytogenetic analyses and loss-of-heterozygosity experiments, the 3p14 region has been independently implicated as harboring a tumor suppressor gene critical to kidney and lung cancer development. The 3p14.2 region also contains FRA3B, the most sensitive fragile site induced by aphidicolin. A chromosome 3 probe, R7K145, derived from a radiation-reduced hybrid was positioned between the t(3;8) breakpoint and an aphidicolin-induced 3p14 breakpoint. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig containing R7K145 was developed that crossed the aphidicolin-induced breakpoint on its telomeric side. A subsequent chromosome walk identified a YAC that crossed the 3;8 translocation breakpoint. A lambda sublibrary allowed isolation of clones spanning the rearrangement. Unique and evolutionarily conserved DNA sequences were used to screen a kidney cDNA library. We have identified a gene, referred to as HRCA1 (hereditary renal cancer associated 1), that maps immediately adjacent to the breakpoint. On the basis of its chromosomal position, HRCA1 may be a candidate tumor suppressor gene.