Gene Summary

Gene:SCLC1; small cell cancer of the lung
Aliases: SCCL, SCLC
Databases:OMIM, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Staging
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Zinc Finger E-box-Binding Homeobox 1
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Stomatitis
  • Drug Resistance
  • Lung Cancer
  • Disease Progression
  • Quinazolines
  • thyroid nuclear factor 1
  • Smokers
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • ErbB Receptors
  • Piperazines
  • Apoptosis
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Tertiary Care Centers
  • Withholding Treatment
  • Cell Proliferation
  • SUMO-1 Protein
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Adenocarcinoma of Lung
  • Transcription Factors
  • X-Ray Computed Tomography
  • Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Progression-Free Survival
  • Chromosome 3
  • Long Noncoding RNA
  • A549 Cells
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Down-Regulation
  • Whole Exome Sequencing
  • Thoracoscopy
  • IGF1R
  • Mutation
  • Cell Movement
  • Risk Factors
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SCLC1 (cancer-related)

Buentzel J, Yao S, Elakad O, et al.
Expression and prognostic impact of alpha thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked and death domain-associated protein in human lung cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(31):e16712 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular characterization of lung cancer specimens after radical surgery offers additional prognostic information and may help to guide adjuvant therapeutic procedures. The transcriptional regulators alpha thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked (ATRX) and death domain-associated protein (DAXX) have recently been described in different cancer entities as a useful prognostic biomarker. This study was initiated to explore their protein expression patterns and prognostic value in patients with operable lung cancer disease.The protein abundance (in the following text also named protein expression) of ATRX and DAXX were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 194 samples of squamous cell lung carcinoma (SQCLC), 111 samples of pulmonary adenocarcinoma (AC) and 40 samples of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The protein levels of ATRX and DAXX were correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and patient outcome.ATRX showed strong protein expression in 16.2% of AC, 11.9% of SQCLC, and 42.5% of SCLC. DAXX was highly expressed in 54.9% of AC, 76.2% of SQCLC, and 82.5% of SCLC. Immunostaining of both ATRX and DAXX were seen in 14.4% of AC, 11.3% of SQCLC, and 42.5% of SCLC. High protein expression of ATRX was a favorable prognostic marker for patients with AC (hazard ratio 0.38, P = .02). Sub-group analyses showed a significant correlation between ATRX and the clinical stage of SQCLC and SCLC. Histological grading and ATRX were also significantly associated in cases of SQCLC.The presence of ATRX and DAXX are correlated with lung cancer histology. Strong ATRX protein expression is associated with a significantly longer overall survival in patients with AC.

Matsunaga N, Wakasaki T, Yasumatsu R, Kotake Y
Long Noncoding RNA,
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4073-4077 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: ANRIL is a long noncoding RNA located on INK4 locus, which encodes p15 and p16 that cause G
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells were transfected with siRNA oligonucleotides targeting ANRIL. Transfected cells were subjected to cell-cycle and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis.
RESULTS: Depletion of ANRIL increased p15 mRNA in FaDu cells, and p15 and p16 mRNA in CAL27 cells and inhibited proliferation of these cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that depletion of ANRIL caused arrest at the G

Xu L, Wu Q, Zhou X, et al.
TRIM13 inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis by regulating NF-κB pathway in non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells.
Gene. 2019; 715:144015 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tripartite Motif Containing 13 (TRIM13), a member of TRIM proteins, is deleted in multiple tumor types, especially in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma. The present study explored the expression and potential role of TRIM13 in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We found that TRIM13 mRNA and protein expression was reduced in NSCLC tissues and cell lines in comparison to paired non-cancerous tissues and a human normal bronchial epithelial cell line, respectively. Overexpression of TRIM13 in NCI-H1975 and SPC-A-1 cells hampered cell proliferation. Additionally, TRIM13 overexpression increased the levels of cleaved caspase-3. TRIM13-induced NSCLC cell apoptosis was attenuated by a caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO, suggesting that TRIM13 induced cell apoptosis partially through a caspase-3-dependent pathway. Moreover, it has been reported that TRIM13 can regulate nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) activity. Our data showed that TRIM13 overexpression inactivated NF-κB as indicated by the increased cytosolic NF-κB and decreased nuclear NF-κB. Exposure to an NF-κB inhibitor PDTC significantly blocked the impact of TRIM13 knockdown on cell proliferation and apoptosis, indicating the functions of TRIM13 in NSCLC cells were mediated by the NF-κB pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that TRIM13 overexpression suppressed tumor growth and induced cell apoptosis in vivo by using a xenograft mouse model. Collectively, our results indicate that TRIM13 behaves as a tumor suppressor in NSCLC through regulating NF-κB pathway. Our findings may offer a promising therapeutic target for NSCLC.

Sun Y, Ling C
Analysis of the long non-coding RNA LINC01614 in non-small cell lung cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(30):e16437 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was toexplore the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression pattern of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) on a genome-wide scale and investigate their potential biological function in NSCLC.LncRNAs were investigated in 6 pairs of NSCLC and matched adjacent non-tumor lung tissues (NTL) by microarray. A validation cohort was obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and the effect of LINC01614 on diagnosis and prognosis in NSCLC was analyzed. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to predict the potential molecular mechanism of LINC01614, one identified lncRNA.A total of 1392 differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified. LINC01614 was the most aberrantly expressed lncRNA in NSCLC compared with NTL. We confirmed the significantly upregulated LINC01614 in NSCLC patients from TCGA database. Furthermore, in TCGA database, LINC01614 was significantly upregulated in both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. And high expression of LINC01614 indicated poor overall survival of NSCLC patients. A sensitivity of 93% was calculated conditional on a high specificity of 95% for the discrimination of NSCLC tissues from normal tissues. Furthermore, the expression levels of LINC01614 were associated with the stage of tumor, but had no relationship with age and sex. Additionally, GSEA found that LINC01614 might be involved in TGF-β-, P53-, IGF-IR-mediated, Wnt and RTK/Ras/MAPK signaling pathways.lncRNAs may play key roles in the development of NSCLC. LINC01614 is the most aberrantly expressed lncRNA in NSCLC tissues in our experiment and is also significantly differentially expressed in NSCLC patients from TCGA database. LINC01614 could be a prognostic indicator and has the potential to be a diagnostic biomarker of NSCLC.

Lv P, Yang S, Wu F, et al.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs342275, rs342293, rs7694379, rs11789898, and rs17824620) showed significant association with lobaplatin-induced thrombocytopenia.
Gene. 2019; 713:143964 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to investigate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with lobaplatin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients with advanced lung cancer in China. Thirty-nine patients who received lobaplatin-based chemotherapy in the 307 Hospitals of Chinese People's Liberation Army from April 2017 to March 2018 were enrolled as study subjects. Peripheral blood DNA was extracted, and 79 candidate SNP positions were selected. A Sanger sequencing platform was employed to measure genotypes for locating the SNP positions associated with lobaplatin-induced thrombocytopenia. Of the 79 candidate genes, SNPs rs342275 and rs7694379 were significantly associated with lobaplatin-induced decrease in platelet (PLT) count (P < 0.05). SNPs rs342275, rs342293, rs11789898, and rs17824620 showed significant association with lobaplatin-induced lowest PLT counts (P < 0.05). SNPs rs342275, rs342293, rs11789898, rs17824620, and rs7694379 can be used as predictors of thrombocytopenia induced by lobaplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced lung cancer in China.

Jiang Q, Zhang NL, Ma DY, et al.
Efficacy and safety of apatinib plus docetaxel as the second or above line treatment in advanced nonsquamous NSCLC: A multi center prospective study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(26):e16065 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Apatinib is an oral small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). Some clinical trials have demonstrated that apatinib is efficacious against advanced nonsquamous NSCLC.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to probe efficacy and safety of apatinib plus docetaxel, as the second or above line treatment, in advanced nonsquamous NSCLC.
DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective, single arm study.
SETTING: Three teaching hospitals centers in the Sichuan.
PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen patients with stage IVA/B nonsquamous NSCLC had previously received at least 1 platinum-based chemotherapy regimen.
INTERVENTION: Patients who were enrolled between November 2016 and January 2018 were given docetaxel (75 mg/m, i.v., d1) plus oral apatinib (250 mg/d), 4 weeks as one cycle, until disease progression or intolerance to adverse events (AE).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints comprised objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), and AE incidence rate.
RESULTS: All patients carried adenocarcinoma by pathological type. The median follow-up duration was 9.76 months. Out of 14 cases, 12 were evaluable, showing ORR of 33.33%, DCR of 66.67%, DCR of 50% in cases with brain metastasis, median PFS of 2.92 months (95% CI: 1.38-4.48), and 6-month OS of 80%. Primary AEs encompassed: leukopenia in 7 cases (58.33%), hand-foot skin reaction in 5 cases (41.67%), and diarrhea in 4 cases (33.33%). Among them, grade 3 AEs were: leukopenia in 4 cases (33.33%), and hand-foot skin reaction in 1 case (8.33%). No grade 4/5 AEs were reported. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted respectively for PFS and OS. These factors encompassed: gender, age, gene mutations, clinical stage, ECOG scores, quantity of metastatic foci, brain metastasis, and hand-foot skin reaction. Results demonstrated zero risk factors for PFS or OS.
CONCLUSION: Apatinib plus docetaxel, as the second or above line treatment, is effective and safe against advanced nonsquamous NSCLC, with good tolerance profile.

Alvur O, Tokgun O, Baygu Y, et al.
The triazole linked galactose substituted dicyano compound can induce autophagy in NSCLC cell lines.
Gene. 2019; 712:143935 [PubMed] Related Publications
As seen in other types of cancer, development of drug resistance in NSCLC treatment causes adverse effects on disease fighting process. Recent studies have shown that one of the drug resistance development mechanisms is that cancer cells may acquire the ability to escape from cell death. Therefore, development of anticancer drugs which have the strategy to redirect cancer cells to any cell death pathways may provide positive results for cancer treatments. Autophagy may be a target mechanism of alternative cancer treatment strategy in cases of blocked apoptosis. There is also a complex molecular link between autophagy and apoptosis, has not been fully understood yet. The dicyano compound which we used in our study caused cell death in NSCLC cell lines. When we analyzed the cells which were treated with dicyano compound by transmission electron microscope, we observed autophagosome structures. Upon this result, we investigated expression levels of autophagic proteins in the dicyano compound-treated cells by immunoblotting and observed that expression levels of autophagic proteins were increased significantly. The TUNEL assay and qRT-PCR for pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic gene expression, which we performed to assess apoptosis in the dicyano compound-treated cells, showed that the cell death does not occur through apoptotic pathway. We showed that the dicyano compound, which was developed in our laboratories, may play a role in molecular link between apoptosis and autophagy and may shed light on development of new anticancer treatment strategies.

Qian Z, Yang J, Liu H, et al.
The miR-1204 regulates apoptosis in NSCLC cells by targeting DEK.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2019; 57(2):64-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: This study endeavors to analyze the effects of miR-1204 on the expression of DEK oncogene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and to study the molecular mechanisms of these effects.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The miR-1204 mimics and inhibitors were transfected into the (A549 and SPC) NSCLC cells. Then the mRNA levels, cell viability, apoptosis rate, morphology and caspase activity were determined. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax was also analyzed.
RESULTS: In NSCLC cell lines (A549 and SPC), DEK mRNA levels were down-regulated in miR-1204 overex-pression group. In miR-1204 inhibition group, the expression of DEK mRNA showed an opposite trend. The overexpression of miR-1204 increases the apoptosis rate in NSCLC cells. The Bcl-2 levels in the miR-1204 over-expression group were decreased, while the Bax level was increased. In the miR-1204 inhibition group, expression of Bcl-2 and Bax showed opposite trends. Cell staining revealed cell's morphological changes; the apoptosis in the miR-1204 overexpression group revealed significant morphological features, such as brighter nuclei and nu-clear condensation. Results indicated a typical characteristic of apoptosis in the miR-1204 overexpression group. Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 were involved in the apoptosis pathway, which was mediated by miR-1204 and DEK.
CONCLUSIONS: The miR-1204 induces apoptosis of NSCLC cells by inhibiting the expression of DEK. The mech-anism of apoptosis involves down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax expression. Moreover, the apoptosis was mediated by mitochondria-related caspase 9/3 pathway.

Song Y, Park IS, Kim J, Seo HR
Actinomycin D inhibits the expression of the cystine/glutamate transporter xCT via attenuation of CD133 synthesis in CD133
Chem Biol Interact. 2019; 309:108713 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liver cancer is one of the most frequently occurring types of cancer with high mortality rate. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently metastasizes to lung, portal vein, and portal lymph nodes and most HCCs show strong resistance to conventional anticancer drugs. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be responsible for resistance to therapies. Hence, recent advancements in the use of liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) are rapidly gaining recognition as an efficient and organized means for developing antitumor agents. We aimed to use a non-target-based high-throughput screening (HTS) approach to specifically target α-fetoprotein (AFP)

Chen H, Chong W, Teng C, et al.
The immune response-related mutational signatures and driver genes in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(8):2348-2356 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy has achieved remarkable clinical benefit in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but our understanding of biomarkers that predict the response to ICB remain obscure. Here we integrated somatic mutational profile and clinicopathologic information from 113 NSCLC patients treated by ICB (CTLA-4/PD-1). High tumor mutation burden (TMB) and neoantigen burden were identified significantly associated with improved efficacy in NSCLC immunotherapy. Furthermore, we identified apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) mutational signature was markedly associated with responding of ICB therapy (log-rank test, P = .001; odds ratio (OR), 0.18 [95% CI, 0.06-0.50], P < .001). The association with progression-free survival remained statistically significant after controlling for age, sex, histological type, smoking, PD-L1 expression, hypermutation, smoking signature and mismatch repair (MMR) (HR, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.12-0.75], P = .010). Combined high TMB with APOBEC signature preferably predict immunotherapy responders in NSCLC cohort. The CIBERSORT algorithm revealed that high APOBEC mutational activity samples were associated with increased infiltration of CD4 memory activated T cells, CD8

Bouras E, Karakioulaki M, Bougioukas KI, et al.
Gene promoter methylation and cancer: An umbrella review.
Gene. 2019; 710:333-340 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene promoter methylation is a common epigenetic event, taking place in the early phase of tumorigenesis, which has a great potential as a diagnostic and prognostic cancer biomarker. In this umbrella review, we provide an overview on the association between gene-promoter methylation of protein-coding genes and cancer risk based on currently available meta-analyses data on gene promoter methylation. We searched MEDLINE via PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for meta-analyses that examine the association between gene-promoter methylation and cancer, published until January 2019 in English. We used AMSTAR to assess the quality of the included studies and applied a set of pre-specified criteria to evaluate the magnitude of each association. We provide a comprehensive overview of 80 unique combinations between 22 different genes and 18 cancer outcomes, all of which indicated a positive association between promoter hypermethylation and cancer. In total, the 70 meta-analyses produced significant results under a random-effects model with odds ratios that ranged from 1.94 to 26.60, with the summary effect being in favor of the unmethylated group in all cases. Three of the strong evidence associations involve RASSF1 methylation on bladder cancer risk (OR = 18.46; 95% CI: 12.69-26.85; I

Chaszczewska-Markowska M, Kosacka M, Chryplewicz A, et al.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(6):3269-3272 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Although genetic factors are presumed to account only for a part of the inter-individual variation in lung cancer susceptibility, the results are conflicting and there are no data available regarding the Polish population. We, therefore, performed a case-control study to investigate the association of seven selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in genes coding for excision repair cross-complimentary group 1 (ERCC1: rs11615, rs3212986, rs2298881), nuclear factor ĸB (NFKB2: rs7897947, rs12769316), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4: rs1957860), complement receptor 1 (CR1: rs7525160) and del/ins polymorphism in the family hypoxia inducible factor 2 gene (EGLN2: rs10680577), with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time PCR with melting curve analysis was used for genotyping of NSCLC patients and healthy individuals of Polish origin.
RESULTS: The ERCC1 rs11615 T allele and rs3212986 GG homozygosity were found to be associated with a higher risk of developing NSCLC. In addition, NFKB2 rs12769316 GG homozygosity was more frequently detected among male patients than controls, while no significant differences were found between the five polymorphisms.
CONCLUSION: ERCC1 polymorphisms may affect NSCLC risk in the Polish population, while the NFKB2 variant may be a possible marker of the disease in males.

Mai L, Luo M, Wu JJ, et al.
The combination therapy of HIF1α inhibitor LW6 and cisplatin plays an effective role on anti-tumor function in A549 cells.
Neoplasma. 2019; 2019 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) has been demonstrated to be involved in the resistance of various human cancer cells to chemotherapies. However, the correlation between HIF1α and the sensitivity of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to cisplatin has not been illuminated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of HIF1α on drug resistance in NSCLC cells. A549 cells were incubated in 21% or 0.5% O2 followed by the assessment of the level of HIF1α with qRT-PCR and western blot and ROS level by DCFH-DA assays. Effects of hypoxia or HIF1α inhibitor LW6 on the proliferation and apoptosis of A549 cells were evaluated via CCK-8 and flow cytometry assays. IC50 of A549 cells to cisplatin was determined by MTT assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured via JC-1 staining. Moreover, the expression of apoptosis related protein (Bcl-2, Bax) and drug resistance related proteins (MDR1, MRP1) were measured by western blotting. Exposure of A549 cells to 1% O2 significantly up-regulated HIF1α expression, maintained cell viability to cisplatin but decreased the ROS level, which promoted chemoresistance to cisplatin. LW6-treated A549 cells showed an increase in ROS level that blocked the hypoxia induced resistance to cisplatin and in addition, decreased expression of MDR1 and MRP1 in cisplatin-treated cells. This study revealed that hypoxia-improved cisplatin chemoresistance of NSCLC cells by regulated MDR1 and MRP1 expression via HIF1α/ROS pathway is reversed by LW6, suggesting that LW6 may act as effective sensitizer in chemotherapy for NSCLC.

Yang Y, Xue B, Shi K, et al.
Synthesis and Application of a Novel Gene Delivery Vector for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Therapy.
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2019; 15(3):431-442 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (hWIF-1), as an anti-oncogene, holds great promise for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapy. However, the clinical application of hWIF-1 in cancer therapy is limited by elimination and degradation of free hWIF-1

Lu G, Zhang Y
MicroRNA-340-5p suppresses non-small cell lung cancer cell growth and metastasis by targeting ZNF503.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play crucial roles in cancer cell processes, including proliferation, metastasis and cell cycle progression. We aimed to identify miRNAs that could act as suppressors of cell growth and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Methods: Fifteen paired NSCLC tissue samples and pericarcinomatous normal tissues were collected and preserved in liquid nitrogen. The expression levels of miR-340-5p and ZNF503 mRNA were detected using a qPCR assay. The transfection of plasmids was conducted using Lipofectamine 3000 according to the manufacturer's protocol. Cell proliferation was determined using a CCK-8 assay. The protein levels of endothelial-mesenchymal transition markers were measured using a western blot assay. Cell invasive ability was evaluated using a transwell assay. TargetScan was used to predict targets of miR-340. A dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to confirm a potential direct interaction between miR-340-5p and ZNF503.
Results: The expression level of miR-340-5p was frequently found to be lower in NSCLC tissues than in matched pericarcinomatous normal tissues. Overexpression of miR-340-5p significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion NCI-H1650 (a NSCLC cell line), while inhibition of miR-340-5p stimulated cell growth. Using TargetScan, we predicted that ZNF503 could be a target of miR-340-5p. Further mechanistic studies demonstrated that the forced expression of ZNF503 could partially abrogate the miR-340-5p-mediated decrease in NCI-H1650 cell viability and invasion, suggesting that miR-340-5p suppressed cell growth and invasion in a ZNF503-dependent manner.
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that miR-340-5p inhibits NCI-H1650 cell proliferation and invasion by directly targeting ZNF503 and that miR-340-5p can serve as a potential therapeutic target for treating NSCLC.

Wei W, Dong Z, Gao H, et al.
MicroRNA-9 enhanced radiosensitivity and its mechanism of DNA methylation in non-small cell lung cancer.
Gene. 2019; 710:178-185 [PubMed] Related Publications
In order to improve the therapeutic effect of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it is critical to combine radiation and gene therapy. Our study found that the activation of microRNA-9 (miR-9) conferred ionizing radiation (IR) sensitivity in cancer cells. Furthermore, increased microRNA-9 promoter methylation level was observed after IR. Our study combined the IR and microRNA-9 overexpression treatment which leads to a significant enhancement in the therapeutic efficiency in lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, it is plausible that microRNA-9 can be used as a novel therapeutic strategy of NSCLC. MTT assay was performed to detect the effect of microRNA-9 on the survival and growth of NSCLC cells. Flow cytometry results showed that microRNA-9 enhanced the apoptosis of NSCLC cells. Wound healing assay found that microRNA-9 can inhibit the migration of NSCLC cells and enhance the effect of radiation on the migration of NSCLC cells. In addition, bisulfate sequencing PCR was performed to analyze the methylation status of the microRNA-9 promoter. In order to determine the effect of microRNA-9 and its promoter methylation status on proliferation and radio-sensitivity in vivo, a subcutaneous tumor formation assay in nude mice was performed. Results have shown that microRNA-9 overexpression increased the radiosensitivity of A549 cells by inhibiting cell activity and migration, and by increasing apoptosis. In addition, the promoter methylation status of the microRNA-9 gene increased in response to ionizing radiation. Our study demonstrated that microRNA-9 enhanced radiosensitivity in NSCLC and this effect is highly regulated by its promoter methylation status. These results will help to clarify regulatory mechanisms of radiation resistance thus stimulate new methods for improving radiotherapy for NSCLC.

Kim Y, Shiba-Ishii A, Ramirez K, et al.
Carcinogen-induced tumors in SFN-transgenic mice harbor a characteristic mutation spectrum of human lung adenocarcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(8):2431-2441 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The landscape of genetic alterations in disease models such as transgenic mice or mice with carcinogen-induced tumors has provided a huge amount of information that has shed light on the process of tumorigenesis in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We have previously identified stratifin (SFN) as a potent oncogene, and generated SFN-transgenic (Tg-SPC-SFN

Prabavathy D, Ramadoss N
Heterogeneity of Small Cell Lung Cancer Stem Cells.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019; 1139:41-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
Small cell lung cancer, a subtype of lung cancer is an extremely malignant disease due to its metastases and recurrence. Patients with SCLC develop resistance to chemotherapy and the disease relapses. This relapse and resistance are attributed to the heterogeneity of SCLC. Various factors such as recurrent mutations in key regulatory genes such as TP53, RB1, and myc, epigenetic changes, and cancer stem cells contribute to the observed heterogeneity. Cancer stem cell models predict neuroendocrine origin of SCLC. Though an unambiguous established CSC marker has not been assigned, markers CD133, CD44 have been found associated with SCLC. Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) allow the validation of driver mutations and are necessary for design of targeted therapy. This chapter outlines the factors contributing to SCLC heterogeneity, detection methods, and the current therapy trials.

Zhu D, Zhou J, Liu Y, et al.
LncRNA TP73-AS1 is upregulated in non-small cell lung cancer and predicts poor survival.
Gene. 2019; 710:98-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study was carried out to investigate the role of lncRNA TP73-AS1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We found that TP73-AS1 was upregulated in tumor tissues than in non-tumor tissues of NSCLC patients, and high expression levels of TP73-AS1 predicted poor survival. MiR-21 was also upregulated in tumor tissues and positively correlated with TP73-AS1. TP73-AS1 overexpression led to miR-21 upregulation, while miR-21 overexpression failed to affect TP73-AS1. TP73-AS1 and miR-21 overexpression caused the accelerated invasion and migration of NSCLC cells. However, TP73-AS1 overexpression failed to affect cell proliferation. Therefore, TP73-AS1 may upregulate miR-21 to promote NSCLC cell migration and invasion.

Herreño AM, Ramírez AC, Chaparro VP, et al.
Role of RUNX2 transcription factor in epithelial mesenchymal transition in non-small cell lung cancer lung cancer: Epigenetic control of the RUNX2 P1 promoter.
Tumour Biol. 2019; 41(5):1010428319851014 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer has a high mortality rate in men and women worldwide. Approximately 15% of diagnosed patients with this type of cancer do not exceed the 5-year survival rate. Unfortunately, diagnosis is established in advanced stages, where other tissues or organs can be affected. In recent years, lineage-specific transcription factors have been associated with a variety of cancers. One such transcription factor possibly regulating cancer is RUNX2, the master gene of early and late osteogenesis. In thyroid and prostate cancer, it has been reported that RUNX2 regulates expression of genes important in tumor cell migration and invasion. In this study, we report on RUNX2/ p57 overexpression in 16 patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer and/or metastatic lung cancer associated with H3K27Ac at P1 gene promoter region. In some patients, H3K4Me3 enrichment was also detected, in addition to WDR5, MLL2, MLL4, and UTX enzyme recruitment, members of the COMPASS-LIKE complex. Moreover, transforming growth factor-β induced RUNX2/ p57 overexpression and specific RUNX2 knockdown supported a role for RUNX2 in epithelial mesenchymal transition, which was demonstrated through loss of function assays in adenocarcinoma A549 lung cancer cell line. Furthermore, RUNX2 increased expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition genes VIMENTIN, TWIST1, and SNAIL1, which reflected increased migratory capacity in lung adenocarcinoma cells.

Ma G, Ji D, Qu X, et al.
Mining and validating the expression pattern and prognostic value of acetylcholine receptors in non-small cell lung cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(20):e15555 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), are highly expressed in bronchial epithelial cells.We used The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data set to evaluate the expression pattern and prognostic value of the AChR gene family in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The mined data was validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC).The survival analysis of TCGA data set showed that only CHRNA7 in the AChR gene family affected prognosis in both lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore, qRT-PCR proved that CHRNA7 was significantly upregulated in tumor tissues compared with matched normal tissues at mRNA level (P = .001). The expression level of α7 nAChR (encoded by CHRNA7) in 141 patients was measured by IHC and a high expression of α7 nAChR was associated with unfavorable prognosis (P = .008). Multivariate analysis showed that α7 nAChR was an independent prognostic factor (HR = 2.041; 95% CI 1.188-3.506; P = .007).α7 nAChR was upregulated in NSCLC and was associated with unfavorable prognosis. This gene may be a potential target for lung cancer treatment.

Yang MH, Chang KJ, Li B, Chen WS
Arsenic Trioxide Suppresses Tumor Growth through Antiangiogenesis via Notch Signaling Blockade in Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:4647252 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant type of lung cancer with no effective second-line chemotherapy drugs. Arsenic trioxide (As

Kawachi H, Fujimoto D, Yamashita D, et al.
Association Between Formalin Fixation Time and Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 Expression in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2561-2567 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) may be associated with tissue formalin fixation time in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples. We investigated the association between the PD-L1 expression and formalin fixation time, and clarified the optimal duration of fixation for accurate PD-L1 evaluation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected 55 tumor specimens from resected NSCLC patients. The samples were halved and immediately fixed in 10% buffered formalin for 12-24 h (normal fixation), or 96-120 h (prolonged fixation). Each specimen was stained using two assay systems (22C3 and SP263) for PD-L1.
RESULTS: The mean PD-L1 tumor proportion score was not significantly different between normal and prolonged fixation groups for either 22C3 or SP263 (normal fixation: 18.8%; prolonged fixation: 16.3%, p=0.277; normal fixation: 16.2%; prolonged fixation: 17.6%, p=0.560, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Formalin fixation duration for up to 120 h does not affect PD-L1 IHC expression. PD-L1 tumor proportion score of tumor specimens can be evaluated by IHC even if these have been fixed in formalin outside the recommended duration in clinical practice.

Ercan S, Arinc S, Yilmaz SG, et al.
Investigation of Caspase 9 Gene Polymorphism in Patients With Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2437-2441 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most common forms of lung cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Caspase 9 (CASP9) plays a central role in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of caspase 9 gene polymorphism in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 96 NSCLC cases and 67 controls. CASP9 Ex5+32 G>A polymorphism was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the groups in the frequency of CASP9 genotypes (p=0.008). The number of the carriers of the ancestral GG genotype, was significantly higher in the NSCLC group than in the control (p=0.009). The heterozygote GA genotype and mutant A allele frequency were significantly higher in the control group compared to the NSCLC group (p=0.005, p=0.009, respectively). Serum CASP9 levels were significantly lower in the patients group than in the control group (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSION: CASP9 Ex5+32 GG genotype was a risk factor whereas the variant A allele could be a risk-reducing factor for NSCLC.

Zhang T, Song X, Liao X, et al.
Distinct Prognostic Values of Phospholipase C Beta Family Members for Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:4256524 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a main cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The relationships of the phospholipase C beta (PLCB) enzymes, which are encoded by the genes PLCB1, PLCB2, PLCB3, and PLCB4, with NSCLC have not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify any correlations between NSCLC prognosis and the expression patterns of PLCB family members.
Materials and Methods: The prognostic values of the PLCB gene family members in NSCLC patients were evaluated using the "Kaplan-Meier plotter" database, which includes updated gene expression data and survival information of a total of 1,926 NSCLC patients. The GeneMANIA plugin of Cytoscape software was used to evaluate the relationships of the four PLCB family members at the gene and protein levels. Gene ontology enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis were performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery.
Results: High mRNA expression levels of PLCB1, PLCB2, and PLCB3 were significantly associated with poor overall survival (OS) of all NSCLC patients and significantly associated with poor prognosis of adenocarcinoma. In contrast, high mRNA expression of PLCB4 was associated with better OS of adenocarcinoma patients. In addition, the expression levels of the PLCB family members were correlated to smoking status, clinical stage, and patient sex but not radiotherapy and chemotherapy outcomes.
Conclusions: PLCB1, PLCB2, PLCB3, and PLCB4 appear to be potential biomarkers for the prognosis of patients with NSCLC. The prognostic values of the PLCB genes require further investigations.

Wang Z, Yip LY, Lee JHJ, et al.
Methionine is a metabolic dependency of tumor-initiating cells.
Nat Med. 2019; 25(5):825-837 [PubMed] Related Publications
Understanding cellular metabolism holds immense potential for developing new classes of therapeutics that target metabolic pathways in cancer. Metabolic pathways are altered in bulk neoplastic cells in comparison to normal tissues. However, carcinoma cells within tumors are heterogeneous, and tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are important therapeutic targets that have remained metabolically uncharacterized. To understand their metabolic alterations, we performed metabolomics and metabolite tracing analyses, which revealed that TICs have highly elevated methionine cycle activity and transmethylation rates that are driven by MAT2A. High methionine cycle activity causes methionine consumption to far outstrip its regeneration, leading to addiction to exogenous methionine. Pharmacological inhibition of the methionine cycle, even transiently, is sufficient to cripple the tumor-initiating capability of these cells. Methionine cycle flux specifically influences the epigenetic state of cancer cells and drives tumor initiation. Methionine cycle enzymes are also enriched in other tumor types, and MAT2A expression impinges upon the sensitivity of certain cancer cells to therapeutic inhibition.

Del Re M, Rofi E, Cappelli C, et al.
The increase in activating EGFR mutation in plasma is an early biomarker to monitor response to osimertinib: a case report.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):410 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Systemic treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has changed dramatically since the introduction of targeted therapies. The analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a valuable approach to monitor the clonal evolution of tumors during treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and to detect resistance mutations.
CASE PRESENTATION: A NSCLC patient with exon 19 deletion (ex19del) of EGFR was treated with osimertinib after multiple lines of treatment and obtained a partial response that lasted over 26 months. Blood was collected at each visit and ctDNA was extracted to monitor ex19del by digital droplet PCR. Within a few weeks from the beginning of osimertinib, ex19del disappeared from plasma but appeared again and steadily increased a few months later anticipating tumor progression. Interestingly, the change in ex19del was much more pronounced than other mutations, since T790M appeared 3 months after the increase of ex19del, and C797S was detectable a few weeks before clinical disease progression. Then the patient received cytotoxic chemotherapy, which was associated with a decrease in ex19del and disappearance of T790M and C797S; however, at disease progression, all EGFR mutations increased again in plasma together with MET amplification which was detected by NGS.
CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of ex19del changes in ctDNA is a simple and sensitive approach to monitor clinical outcome to osimertinib and, potentially, to other therapeutic interventions.

Wang M, Cao Y, Xia M, et al.
Virulence and antifungal susceptibility of microsatellite genotypes of Candida albicans from superficial and deep locations.
Yeast. 2019; 36(5):363-373 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A set of 185 strains of Candida albicans from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and from non-VVC clinical sources in southwest China was analysed. Strains were subjected to genotyping using CAI microsatellite typing and amplification of an intron-containing region of the 25S rRNA gene. Microsatellite genotypes of strains from non-VVC sources showed high polymorphism, whereas those of VVC were dominated by few, closely similar genotypes. However, among non-VVC strains, two genotypes were particularly prevalent in patients with lung cancer. 25S rDNA genotype A was dominant in VVC sources (86.7%), whereas genotypes A, B, and C were rather evenly distributed among non-VVC sources; known genotypes D and E were not found. In an experimental mouse model, isolates from lung cancer and AIDS patients proved to have higher virulence than VVC strains. Among 156 mice infected with C. albicans, 19 developed non-invasive urothelial carcinoma. No correlation could be established between parameters of virulence, source of infection, and incidence of carcinoma. C. albicans strains from VVC were less susceptible to itraconazole than the strains from non-VVC sources, whereas there was small difference in antifungal susceptibility between different 25S rDNA genotypes of C. albicans tested against amphotericin B, itraconazole, fluconazole, and flucytosine.

Liang W, Guo M, Pan Z, et al.
Association between certain non-small cell lung cancer driver mutations and predictive markers for chemotherapy or programmed death-ligand 1 inhibition.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(6):2014-2021 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study aimed to analyze the association between driver mutations and predictive markers for some anti-tumor agents in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A cohort of 785 Chinese patients with NSCLC who underwent resection from March 2016 to November 2017 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University was investigated. The specimens were subjected to hybridization capture and sequence of 8 important NSCLC-related driver genes. In addition, the slides were tested for PD-L1, excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1), ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1), thymidylate synthase (TS) and β-tubulin III by immunohistochemical staining. A total of 498 (63.4%) patients had at least 1 driver gene alteration. Wild-type, EGFR rare mutation (mut), ALK fusion (fus), RAS mut, RET fus and MET mut had relatively higher proportions of lower ERCC1 expression. EGFR 19del, EGFR L858R, EGFR rare mut, ALK fus, HER2 mut, ROS1 fus and MET mut were more likely to have TS low expression. Wild-type, EGFR L858R, EGFR rare mut and BRAF mut were associated with lower β-tubulin III expression. In addition, wild-type, RAS mut, ROS1 fus, BRAF and MET mut had higher proportion of PD-L1 high expression. As a pilot validation, 21 wild-type patients with advanced NSCLC showed better depth of response and response rate to taxanes compared with pemetrexed/gemcitabine (31.2%/60.0% vs 26.6%/45.5%). Our study may aid in selecting the optimal salvage regimen after targeted therapy failure, or the chemo-regimen where targeted therapy has not been a routine option. Further validation is warranted.

Chen B, Shen Z, Wu D, et al.
Glutathione Peroxidase 1 Promotes NSCLC Resistance to Cisplatin via ROS-Induced Activation of PI3K/AKT Pathway.
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:7640547 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Purpose: Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cytotoxicity is an important mechanism by which cisplatin kills tumor cells. Glutathione peroxidase family (GPXs) is an important member of antioxidant system which metabolizes intracellular ROS and maintains homeostasis of cells. Altered expressions of GPXs enzymes, especially GPX1, have been described in a variety of human cancers. However, their functional roles in cisplatin-based chemoresistance in human malignancies including non-small cell lung cancer have never been explored.
Methods: A panel of NSCLC cell lines were selected for this study. GPX1 expression was detected using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. Cisplatin-induced cell killing was analyzed by CCK8 assay. Intracellular ROS levels were detected by fluorescence-based flow cytometry analysis. In vitro overexpression and knockdown of GPX1 expression were performed using GPX1 expression vector and siRNA approaches. Protein levels of PTEN, NF-
Results: GPX1 expression was upregulated in a subset of NSCLC cell lines resistant to cisplatin treatment. Expression vector-mediated forced overexpression of GPX1 significantly increased cisplatin resistance in NSCLC cell lines, whereas RNA inference-mediated downregulation of GPX1 could restore sensitivity to cisplatin. Overexpression of GPX1 significantly suppressed elevation of intracellular ROS and activation of AKT pathway when NSCLC cell lines were exposed to different concentrations of cisplatin. Activation of the AKT pathway inhibited proapoptotic cascade and subsequently led to cisplatin resistance in NSCLC cells. Inhibition of NF-
Conclusions: Our findings suggested that overexpression of GPX1 is a novel molecular mechanism for cisplatin-based chemoresistance in NSCLC. GPX1 overexpression blocks cisplatin-induced ROS intracellular accumulation, activates PI3K-AKT pathway by increased AKT phosphorylation, and further leads to cisplatin resistance in NSCLC cells. Inhibition of NF-

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