Gene Summary

Gene:SCLC1; small cell cancer of the lung
Aliases: SCCL, SCLC
Databases:OMIM, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Down-Regulation
  • rab GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Chromosome 3
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Disease Progression
  • Messenger RNA
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • DNA Methylation
  • Cell Movement
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Staging
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Apoptosis
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Genotype
  • Transcriptome
  • Lung Cancer
  • Lung
  • Mutation
  • Drug Resistance
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Cisplatin
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Quinazolines
  • Notch Receptors
Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SCLC1 (cancer-related)

Sequist LV, Soria JC, Goldman JW, et al.
Rociletinib in EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2015; 372(18):1700-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a mutation in the gene encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is sensitive to approved EGFR inhibitors, but resistance develops, mediated by the T790M EGFR mutation in most cases. Rociletinib (CO-1686) is an EGFR inhibitor active in preclinical models of EGFR-mutated NSCLC with or without T790M.
METHODS: In this phase 1-2 study, we administered rociletinib to patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC who had disease progression during previous treatment with an existing EGFR inhibitor. In the expansion (phase 2) part of the study, patients with T790M-positive disease received rociletinib at a dose of 500 mg twice daily, 625 mg twice daily, or 750 mg twice daily. Key objectives were assessment of safety, side-effect profile, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary antitumor activity of rociletinib. Tumor biopsies to identify T790M were performed during screening. Treatment was administered in continuous 21-day cycles.
RESULTS: A total of 130 patients were enrolled. The first 57 patients to be enrolled received the free-base form of rociletinib (150 mg once daily to 900 mg twice daily). The remaining patients received the hydrogen bromide salt (HBr) form (500 mg twice daily to 1000 mg twice daily). A maximum tolerated dose (the highest dose associated with a rate of dose-limiting toxic effects of less than 33%) was not identified. The only common dose-limiting adverse event was hyperglycemia. In an efficacy analysis that included patients who received free-base rociletinib at a dose of 900 mg twice daily or the HBr form at any dose, the objective response rate among the 46 patients with T790M-positive disease who could be evaluated was 59% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45 to 73), and the rate among the 17 patients with T790M-negative disease who could be evaluated was 29% (95% CI, 8 to 51).
CONCLUSIONS: Rociletinib was active in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC associated with the T790M resistance mutation. (Funded by Clovis Oncology; number, NCT01526928.).

Svaton M, Pesek M, Chudacek Z, Vosmiková H
Current two EGFR mutations in lung adenocarcinoma -  case report.
Klin Onkol. 2015; 28(2):134-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nowadays, EGFR TKIs (epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors) targeted therapy is well established treatment for patients with the so-called EGFR common mutations with advanced or metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer. The efficacy for the so-called rare and especially for the very rare complex EGFR mutations is not clear. We describe a case of a 63- year-old female with metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer with complex EGFR mutation (G719X + S768I) who had been treated by gefitinib. She achieved progression free survival within eight months. Then, we discuss our case with other literature case reports. Together, it seems that described complex EGFR mutation has a relatively good sensitivity for EGFR TKIs treatment.Key words: nonsmall cell lung cancer -  EGFR gene -  EGFR protein -  complex mutations -  rare EGFR mutations -  EGFR TKIs.

Sugita S, Ito K, Yamashiro Y, et al.
EGFR-independent autophagy induction with gefitinib and enhancement of its cytotoxic effect by targeting autophagy with clarithromycin in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 461(1):28-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gefitinib (GEF), an inhibitor for EGFR tyrosine kinase, potently induces autophagy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines such as PC-9 cells expressing constitutively activated EGFR kinase by EGFR gene mutation as well as A549 and H226 cells with wild-type EGFR. Unexpectedly, GEF-induced autophagy was also observed in non-NSCLC cells such as murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and leukemia cell lines K562 and HL-60 without EGFR expression. Knockout of EGFR gene in A549 cells by CRISPR/Cas9 system still exhibited autophagy induction after treatment with GEF, indicating that the autophagy induction by GEF is not mediated through inhibiting EGFR kinase activity. Combined treatment with GEF and clarithromycin (CAM), a macrolide antibiotic having the effect of inhibiting autophagy flux, enhances the cytotoxic effect in NSCLC cell lines, although treatment with CAM alone exhibits no cytotoxicity. GEF treatment induced up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress related genes such as CHOP/GADD153 and GRP78. Knockdown of CHOP in PC-9 cells and Chop-knockout MEF both exhibited less sensitivity to GEF than controls. Addition of CAM in culture medium resulted in further pronounced GEF-induced ER stress loading, while CAM alone exhibited no effect. These data suggest that GEF-induced autophagy functions as cytoprotective and indicates the potential therapeutic possibility of using CAM for GEF therapy. Furthermore, it is suggested that the intracellular signaling for autophagy initiation in response to GEF can be completely dissociated from EGFR, but unknown target molecule(s) of GEF for autophagy induction might exist.

Bhang HE, Ruddy DA, Krishnamurthy Radhakrishna V, et al.
Studying clonal dynamics in response to cancer therapy using high-complexity barcoding.
Nat Med. 2015; 21(5):440-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resistance to cancer therapies presents a significant clinical challenge. Recent studies have revealed intratumoral heterogeneity as a source of therapeutic resistance. However, it is unclear whether resistance is driven predominantly by pre-existing or de novo alterations, in part because of the resolution limits of next-generation sequencing. To address this, we developed a high-complexity barcode library, ClonTracer, which enables the high-resolution tracking of more than 1 million cancer cells under drug treatment. In two clinically relevant models, ClonTracer studies showed that the majority of resistant clones were part of small, pre-existing subpopulations that selectively escaped under therapeutic challenge. Moreover, the ClonTracer approach enabled quantitative assessment of the ability of combination treatments to suppress resistant clones. These findings suggest that resistant clones are present before treatment, which would make up-front therapeutic combinations that target non-overlapping resistance a preferred approach. Thus, ClonTracer barcoding may be a valuable tool for optimizing therapeutic regimens with the goal of curative combination therapies for cancer.

Sheng H, Ying L, Zheng L, et al.
Down Expression of FBP1 Is a Negative Prognostic Factor for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
Cancer Invest. 2015; 33(5):197-204 [PubMed] Related Publications
Downregulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatse-1 (FBP1) was observed in several cancers but its role in the lung cancer still remains unknown. We examined the cancer tissues from 140 patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer patients and found that the relative gene expression of FBP1 was significantly lower in lung cancer tissues as compared to incisal marginal tissues and normal tissues. The patients with higher level of FBP1 RNA expression have significantly longer disease free survival and overall survival as compared to the lower expression groups. There was a negative correlation with the level of FBP1 and recurrence of the lung cancer.

Chen D, Guo W, Qiu Z, et al.
MicroRNA-30d-5p inhibits tumour cell proliferation and motility by directly targeting CCNE2 in non-small cell lung cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 362(2):208-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, single-stranded, non-coding RNA molecules that are dysregulated in many types of human cancers, although their precise functions in driving non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are incompletely understood. In the present study, we found that miR-30d-5p, often downregulated in NSCLC tissues, significantly inhibited the growth, cell cycle distribution, and motility of NSCLC cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that cyclin E2 (CCNE2), which was often upregulated in NSCLC tissues, was a direct target of miR-30d-5p. CCNE2 expression promoted the proliferation, invasion, and migration of NSCLC cells. In addition, the re-introduction of CCNE2 expression antagonised the inhibitory effects of miR-30d-5p on the capacity of NSCLC cells for proliferation and motility. Together, these results suggest that the miR-30d-5p/CCNE2 axis may contribute to NSCLC cell proliferation and motility, indicating miR-30d-5p as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of NSCLC.

Califano R, Abidin A, Tariq NU, et al.
Beyond EGFR and ALK inhibition: unravelling and exploiting novel genetic alterations in advanced non small-cell lung cancer.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2015; 41(5):401-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
During the last decade, thoracic oncology has witnessed an unprecedented outburst of knowledge regarding molecular biology of non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The implementation of high-throughput sequencing analysis and genomic technologies has led to the identification of novel molecular events that characterize NSCLC transformation and may represent critical oncogenic drivers amenable to targeted therapy. Among these, the presence of activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene and of chromosomic rearrangements in the anaplastic-lymphoma kinase (ALK) proto-oncogene, have been the first well characterized genetic alterations with corresponding targeted agents to enter the clinical arena. Nevertheless, in the recent years a number of other oncogenic drivers beyond EGFR and ALK inhibition have emerged as novel molecular targets with potential therapeutic implications, including mutations in the genes KRAS, BRAF, HER2, PI3KCA and DDR2, as well as ROS1 and RET rearrangements and MET, HER2 and FGFR1 gene amplifications. The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information on the novel therapeutic targets identified by recent preclinical evidence and to discuss developments in molecular treatments targeting these oncogenic drivers or actionable mutations beyond EGFR and ALK in advanced NSCLC.

Zhang J, Zhang C, Hu L, et al.
Abnormal Expression of miR-21 and miR-95 in Cancer Stem-Like Cells is Associated with Radioresistance of Lung Cancer.
Cancer Invest. 2015; 33(5):165-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study demonstrated that miR-21 and miR-95 expression were significantly higher in the ALDH1(+)CD133(+)subpopulation than in the ALDH1(-)CD133(-) subpopulation of lung cancer cells. Combined delivery of anti-miR-21 and anti-miR-95 by calcium phosphate nanoparticles significantly inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model and sensitized radiotherapy. The anti-miRNAs significantly reduced miR-21 and miR-95 levels, increased PTEN, SNX1, and SGPP1 protein expression, but reduced Akt Ser(473) and Thr(308) phosphorylation. ALDH1(+)CD133(+) subpopulation of NSCLC tumor cells confers radioresistance due to high expression of miR-21 and miR-95. Targeting inhibition of miR-21 and miR-95 can inhibit tumor growth through elevating PTEN, SNX1, and SGPP1 expression and inhibiting Akt phosphorylation.

Harada H, Miyamoto K, Yamashita Y, et al.
Methylated DLX4 Predicts Response to Pathologic Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Resection.
Ann Thorac Surg. 2015; 99(5):1746-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Surgery with curative intent is the standard treatment for patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Even after curative resection, however, many patients have recurrent disease. Thus, there is a need to identify molecular biomarkers for the biological characteristics and prognosis of tumors.
METHODS: Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed for the distal-less homeobox 4 (DLX4) gene in cancer tissues from 109 patients who underwent curative resection for pathologic stage I NSCLC from June 2005 to November 2011. We investigated possible correlations between DLX4 methylation status and disease outcome.
RESULTS: Methylated DLX4 was detected in 54 of 109 patients (49.5%). No significant relationship between DLX4 methylation status and clinicopathologic features was found. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that DLX4 methylation was an independent risk factor for recurrence (p < 0.0001). Patients with DLX4 methylation showed significantly poorer recurrence-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival than patients without DLX4 methylation (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0001, p = 0.0004, respectively). Cox's proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that DLX4 methylation was an independent risk factor for poor prognosis regarding recurrence-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0005, p = 0.0018, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Methylated DLX4 is a potential biomarker that predicts poor prognosis after curative resection of pathologic stage I NSCLC. Identification of patients with methylated DLX4 may assist stratification for appropriate adjuvant treatment strategies.

Iyevleva AG, Raskin GA, Tiurin VI, et al.
Novel ALK fusion partners in lung cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 362(1):116-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Detection of ALK rearrangements in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) presents a significant technical challenge due to the existence of multiple translocation partners and break-points. To improve the performance of PCR-based tests, we utilized the combination of 2 assays, i.e. the variant-specific PCR for the 5 most common ALK rearrangements and the test for unbalanced 5'/3'-end ALK expression. Overall, convincing evidence for the presence of ALK translocation was obtained for 34/400 (8.5%) cases, including 14 EML4ex13/ALKex20, 12 EML4ex6/ALKex20, 3 EML4ex18/ALKex20, 2 EML4ex20/ALKex20 variants and 3 tumors with novel translocation partners. 386 (96.5%) out of 400 EGFR mutation-negative NSCLCs were concordant for both tests, being either positive (n = 26) or negative (n = 360) for ALK translocation; 49 of these samples (6 ALK+, 43 ALK-) were further evaluated by FISH, and there were no instances of disagreement. Among the 14 (3.5%) "discordant" tumors, 5 demonstrated ALK translocation by the first but not by the second PCR assay, and 9 had unbalanced ALK expression in the absence of known ALK fusion variants. 5 samples from the latter group were subjected to FISH, and the presence of translocation was confirmed in 2 cases. Next generation sequencing analysis of these 2 samples identified novel translocation partners, DCTN1 and SQSTM1; furthermore, the DCTN1/ALK fusion was also found in another NSCLC sample with unbalanced 5'/3'-end ALK expression, indicating a recurrent nature of this translocation. We conclude that the combination of 2 different PCR tests is a viable approach for the diagnostics of ALK rearrangements. Systematic typing of ALK fusions is likely to reveal new NSCLC-specific ALK partners.

Flacco A, Ludovini V, Bianconi F, et al.
MYC and human telomerase gene (TERC) copy number gain in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.
Am J Clin Oncol. 2015; 38(2):152-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the frequency of MYC and TERC increased gene copy number (GCN) in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and evaluated the correlation of these genomic imbalances with clinicopathologic parameters and outcome.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor tissues were obtained from 113 resected NSCLCs. MYC and TERC GCNs were tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) according to the University of Colorado Cancer Center (UCCC) criteria and based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) classification.
RESULTS: When UCCC criteria were applied, 41 (36%) cases for MYC and 41 (36%) cases for TERC were considered FISH-positive. MYC and TERC concurrent FISH-positive was observed in 12 cases (11%): 2 (17%) cases with gene amplification and 10 (83%) with high polysomy. By using the ROC analysis, high MYC (mean ≥ 2.83 copies/cell) and TERC (mean ≥ 2.65 copies/cell) GCNs were observed in 60 (53.1%) cases and 58 (51.3%) cases, respectively. High TERC GCN was associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) histology (P=0.001). In univariate analysis, increased MYC GCN was associated with shorter overall survival (P=0.032 [UCCC criteria] or P=0.02 [ROC classification]), whereas high TERC GCN showed no association. In multivariate analysis including stage and age, high MYC GCN remained significantly associated with worse overall survival using both the UCCC criteria (P=0.02) and the ROC classification (P=0.008).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm MYC as frequently amplified in early-stage NSCLC and increased MYC GCN as a strong predictor of worse survival. Increased TERC GCN does not have prognostic impact but has strong association with squamous histology.

Hinrichs JW, van Blokland WT, Moons MJ, et al.
Comparison of next-generation sequencing and mutation-specific platforms in clinical practice.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2015; 143(4):573-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To compare next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms with mutation-specific analysis platforms in a clinical setting, in terms of sensitivity, mutation specificity, costs, capacity, and ease of use.
METHODS: We analyzed 25 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung cancer samples of different size and tumor percentage for known KRAS and EGFR hotspot mutations with two dedicated genotyping platforms (cobas [Roche Diagnostics, Almere, The Netherlands] and Rotor-Gene [QIAGEN, Venlo, The Netherlands]) and two NGS platforms (454 Genome Sequencer [GS] junior [Roche Diagnostics] and Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine [Life Technologies, Bleiswijk, The Netherlands]).
RESULTS: All platforms, except the 454 GS junior, detected the mutations originally detected by Sanger sequencing and high-resolution melting prescreening and detected an additional KRAS mutation. The dedicated genotyping platforms outperformed the NGS platforms in speed and ease of use. The large sequencing capacity of the NGS platforms enabled them to deliver all mutation information for all samples at once.
CONCLUSIONS: Sensitivity for detecting mutations was highly comparable among all platforms. The choice for either a dedicated genotyping platform or an NGS platform is basically a trade-off between speed and genetic information.

Xu H, Sun W, Zhang G, Cheng Y
Detection of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in non-small-cell lung carcinoma using cytological and histological specimens.
J BUON. 2015 Jan-Feb; 20(1):142-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are prerequisites for the targeted therapy with anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). In patients with advanced-stage NSCLC, sometimes cytological specimens, including those from fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and pleural effusion, are the only materials for mutation analysis. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of EGFR mutation detection from cytological specimens and histological samples and to evaluate the difference between them, therefore to assess if cell block is a valid source for detection of EGFR mutation.
METHODS: Forty-seven samples from advanced-stage NSCLCs were obtained with individually matched cell blocks (CBs) from FNAC (29 cases) or pleural fluid (18 cases), and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks from biopsy (34 cases) or surgical excision (13 cases). CBs and FFPE blocks were simultaneously tested for EGFR hot mutations in exons 18, 19, 20 and 21 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-direct sequencing and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR.
RESULTS: EGFR mutations were identified in 18/47 (38.3%) or 21/47 (44.7%) cases using CBs and 16/47 (34.0%) or 19/47 (40.4%) using FPPE blocks by PCR-direct sequencing or ARMS-PCR, respectively. The incidence of EGFR mutation was not statistically significant between CBs and FFPE blocks using PCR-direct sequencing or ARMS-PCR (p=0.668 or p=0.677, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that cytological specimens are optimal for advanced NSCLC. The successful use of these non-invasive specimens in molecular pathology is beneficial for patients requiring targeted therapy.

van Roosmalen W, Le Dévédec SE, Golani O, et al.
Tumor cell migration screen identifies SRPK1 as breast cancer metastasis determinant.
J Clin Invest. 2015; 125(4):1648-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor cell migration is a key process for cancer cell dissemination and metastasis that is controlled by signal-mediated cytoskeletal and cell matrix adhesion remodeling. Using a phagokinetic track assay with migratory H1299 cells, we performed an siRNA screen of almost 1,500 genes encoding kinases/phosphatases and adhesome- and migration-related proteins to identify genes that affect tumor cell migration speed and persistence. Thirty candidate genes that altered cell migration were validated in live tumor cell migration assays. Eight were associated with metastasis-free survival in breast cancer patients, with integrin β3-binding protein (ITGB3BP), MAP3K8, NIMA-related kinase (NEK2), and SHC-transforming protein 1 (SHC1) being the most predictive. Examination of genes that modulate migration indicated that SRPK1, encoding the splicing factor kinase SRSF protein kinase 1, is relevant to breast cancer outcomes, as it was highly expressed in basal breast cancer. Furthermore, high SRPK1 expression correlated with poor breast cancer disease outcome and preferential metastasis to the lungs and brain. In 2 independent murine models of breast tumor metastasis, stable shRNA-based SRPK1 knockdown suppressed metastasis to distant organs, including lung, liver, and spleen, and inhibited focal adhesion reorganization. Our study provides comprehensive information on the molecular determinants of tumor cell migration and suggests that SRPK1 has potential as a drug target for limiting breast cancer metastasis.

Yu X, Wei F, Yu J, et al.
Matrix metalloproteinase 13: a potential intermediate between low expression of microRNA-125b and increasing metastatic potential of non-small cell lung cancer.
Cancer Genet. 2015; 208(3):76-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent findings have suggested that microRNAs may be involved in the regulation of metastasis in malignant cancers such as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aimed to determine the relationship between expression of miR-125b and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (encoded by MMP-13) and the metastatic potential of cancer cells in NSCLC. Expression levels of miR-125b transcripts and MMP-13 proteins were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in tumor tissues and adjacent nontumor tissues from 42 patients with NSCLC. The interaction between miR-125b and MMP-13 expression and the associations between miR-125b and clinicopathologic data were analyzed. MiR-125 b expression levels were decreased in NSCLC tumor tissue samples, which correlated with an increased incidence of lymph node metastases, increased pathologic stage, increased MMP-13 expression levels, and decreased early progression-free survival. Additionally, we have demonstrated that increased levels of miR-125b can directly downregulate MMP-13 protein expression and inhibit the invasive capabilities of cancer cells. Expression levels of miR-125b were negatively correlated with metastatic potential of NSCLC tumors, which may function through regulation of MMP-13.

Su W, Luo L, Wu F, et al.
Low expression of olfactomedin 4 correlates with poor prognosis in smoking patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(5):732-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) has been demonstrated to serve an important function in tumor progression. This study aims to analyze the correlation between OLFM4 expression and clinicopathological features and the prognostic significance of OLFM4 in the context of smoking status of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. A total of 218 NSCLC patients, who were histopathologically diagnosed from 2001 to 2013, were reviewed in the study. OLFM4 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining of tissue samples. The association of OLFM4 with clinicopathological parameters was evaluated. Overall survival and disease-specific survival were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that OLFM4 was highly expressed in 64.2% of NSCLC patients. OLFM4 expression level in NSCLC lesions was strongly correlated with pathologic grade (P = .017), lymph node metastasis (P = .012), peritumor intravascular cancer emboli (P = .03), and smoking status (P < .001). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that, among smoking patients, those with low OLFM4 expression had shorter survival time (overall survival and disease-specific survival) than those with high OLFM4 (P < .05). Conclusively, although low OLFM4 expression is not an independent prognostic biomarker, it might indicate worse prognosis for smoking patients with NSCLC, thereby identifying patients who might benefit from targeting OLFM4 therapy.

Feng B, Zhang K, Wang R, Chen L
Non-small-cell lung cancer and miRNAs: novel biomarkers and promising tools for treatment.
Clin Sci (Lond). 2015; 128(10):619-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with approximately 80-85% of cases being non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level by either degradation or inhibition of the translation of target genes. Evidence is mounting that miRNAs exert pivotal effects in the development and progression of human malignancies, including NSCLC. A better understanding of the role that miRNAs play in the disease will contribute to the development of new diagnostic biomarkers and individualized therapeutic tools. In the present review, we briefly describe the role of miRNAs in NSCLC as well as the possible future of these discoveries in clinical applications.

Wilson FH, Johannessen CM, Piccioni F, et al.
A functional landscape of resistance to ALK inhibition in lung cancer.
Cancer Cell. 2015; 27(3):397-408 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/03/2016 Related Publications
We conducted a large-scale functional genetic study to characterize mechanisms of resistance to ALK inhibition in ALK-dependent lung cancer cells. We identify members of known resistance pathways and additional putative resistance drivers. Among the latter were members of the P2Y purinergic receptor family of G-protein-coupled receptors (P2Y1, P2Y2, and P2Y6). P2Y receptors mediated resistance in part through a protein-kinase-C (PKC)-dependent mechanism. Moreover, PKC activation alone was sufficient to confer resistance to ALK inhibitors, whereas combined ALK and PKC inhibition restored sensitivity. We observed enrichment of gene signatures associated with several resistance drivers (including P2Y receptors) in crizotinib-resistant ALK-rearranged lung tumors compared to treatment-naive controls, supporting a role for these identified mechanisms in clinical ALK inhibitor resistance.

Morodomi Y, Okamoto T, Kohno M, et al.
Associations between driver gene mutations and cytotoxic chemosensitivity in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(3):1791-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations or echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) rearrangement often have a better prognosis when they are treated with specific inhibitors than when treated with cytotoxic agents. However, the associations between gene mutations and cytotoxic chemosensitivity are still unclear. The objective of the present study was to identify which clinicopathological factors, including genetic mutations, influence chemosensitivity, determined using the succinate dehydrogenase inhibition (SDI) test in patients with NSCLC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemosensitivity of tumor tissues from 96 patients with NSCLC who underwent surgical resection was evaluated using the SDI test.
RESULTS: In patients with adenocarcinoma, tumors with EGFR gene mutations were significantly more sensitive to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) than tumors without EGFR gene mutations (p<0.0149).
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that patients with adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR gene mutations may be susceptible to 5-FU.

Veit JA, Scheckenbach K, Schuler PJ, et al.
MicroRNA expression in differentially metastasizing tumors of the head and neck: adenoid cystic versus squamous cell carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(3):1271-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Head and neck adenoid cystic carcinoma (HNACC) is a rare malignancy of the salivary glands with a tendency to metastasize in lung or liver without lymph node involvement, whereas squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) preferentially metastasizes to locoregional lymph nodes. The expression patterns of microRNA, a class of small non-coding RNA transcripts, involved in gene regulation and various developmental processes, could be of influence during the metastatic process. The aim of the present study was to compare mircoRNA expression patterns of HNACC and HNSCC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a total of 21 tissue samples, a genome-wide screening for microRNAs was performed. A microRNA array platform was used for the identification of target microRNA.
RESULTS: Five microRNAs, hsa-MiR-214, hsa-MiR-125a-5p, hsa-MiR-574-3p, hsa-MiR-199a-3p/199b-3p and hsa-miR-199a-5p were identified to be over-expressed in HNACC compared to HNSCC, whereas hsa-MiR-452 showed a lower expression level.
CONCLUSION: Our data showed significantly different expression patterns of mircoRNA in HNACC and HNSCC supporting the theory of tumor-specific expression and giving hints for different clinical behavior.

Chen S, Sanjana NE, Zheng K, et al.
Genome-wide CRISPR screen in a mouse model of tumor growth and metastasis.
Cell. 2015; 160(6):1246-60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/03/2016 Related Publications
Genetic screens are powerful tools for identifying genes responsible for diverse phenotypes. Here we describe a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss-of-function screen in tumor growth and metastasis. We mutagenized a non-metastatic mouse cancer cell line using a genome-scale library with 67,405 single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs). The mutant cell pool rapidly generates metastases when transplanted into immunocompromised mice. Enriched sgRNAs in lung metastases and late-stage primary tumors were found to target a small set of genes, suggesting that specific loss-of-function mutations drive tumor growth and metastasis. Individual sgRNAs and a small pool of 624 sgRNAs targeting the top-scoring genes from the primary screen dramatically accelerate metastasis. In all of these experiments, the effect of mutations on primary tumor growth positively correlates with the development of metastases. Our study demonstrates Cas9-based screening as a robust method to systematically assay gene phenotypes in cancer evolution in vivo.

Zajkowicz A, Butkiewicz D, Drosik A, et al.
Truncating mutations of PPM1D are found in blood DNA samples of lung cancer patients.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(6):1114-20 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: PPM1D (WIP1) negatively regulates by dephosphorylation many proteins including p53 tumour suppressor. The truncating mutations (nonsense and frameshift) in exon 6 of PPM1D were found recently in blood cells of patients with breast, ovarian or colorectal cancer. These mutants code for gain-of-function PPM1D with retained phosphatase activity. Their significance in carcinogenesis is unknown.
METHODS: The exon 6 of PPM1D was sequenced in blood DNA of 543 non-small-cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC). The functional significance of selected PPM1D alterations (Arg458X, Lys469Glu) was compared with the wild-type gene and examined by recombinant DNA techniques, immunoblotting and luciferase reporter assays.
RESULTS: The frameshift mutations were found in five NSCLC patients (5/543; 0.92%), all of them had squamous cell carcinomas (5/328; 1.5%). All patients with the mutations were exposed, before the blood collection, to the DNA damaging agents as a part of chemotherapeutic regimen. Functional tests demonstrated that truncating mutation Arg458X causes enhancement of dephosphorylation activity of PPM1D toward serine 15 of p53, whereas Lys469Glu version is equivalent to the wild-type. Neither version of PPM1D (wild-type, Arg458X, Lys469Glu) significantly modulated the ability of p53 to transactivate promoters of the examined p53-target genes (BAX and MDM2).
CONCLUSIONS: The truncating mutations of PPM1D are present in blood DNA of NSCLC patients at frequency similar to percentage determined for ovarian cancer patients. Our findings raise a question if the detected lesions are a result of chemotherapy.

Richards MW, O'Regan L, Roth D, et al.
Microtubule association of EML proteins and the EML4-ALK variant 3 oncoprotein require an N-terminal trimerization domain.
Biochem J. 2015; 467(3):529-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Proteins of the echinoderm microtubule (MT)-associated protein (EMAP)-like (EML) family contribute to formation of the mitotic spindle and interphase MT network. EML1-4 consist of Trp-Asp 40 (WD40) repeats and an N-terminal region containing a putative coiled-coil. Recurrent gene rearrangements in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) fuse EML4 to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) causing expression of several oncogenic fusion variants. The fusions have constitutive ALK activity due to self-association through the EML4 coiled-coil. We have determined crystal structures of the coiled-coils from EML2 and EML4, which describe the structural basis of both EML self-association and oncogenic EML4-ALK activation. The structures reveal a trimeric oligomerization state directed by a conserved pattern of hydrophobic residues and salt bridges. We show that the trimerization domain (TD) of EML1 is necessary and sufficient for self-association. The TD is also essential for MT binding; however, this property requires an adjacent basic region. These observations prompted us to investigate MT association of EML4-ALK and EML1-ABL1 (Abelson 1) fusions in which variable portions of the EML component are present. Uniquely, EML4-ALK variant 3, which includes the TD and basic region of EML4 but none of the WD40 repeats, was localized to MTs, both when expressed recombinantly and when expressed in a patient-derived NSCLC cell line (H2228). This raises the question of whether the mislocalization of ALK activity to MTs might influence downstream signalling and malignant properties of cells. Furthermore, the structure of EML4 TD may enable the development of protein-protein interaction inhibitors targeting the trimerization interface, providing a possible avenue towards therapeutic intervention in EML4-ALK NSCLC.

Faber AC, Farago AF, Costa C, et al.
Assessment of ABT-263 activity across a cancer cell line collection leads to a potent combination therapy for small-cell lung cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(11):E1288-96 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/09/2015 Related Publications
BH3 mimetics such as ABT-263 induce apoptosis in a subset of cancer models. However, these drugs have shown limited clinical efficacy as single agents in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and other solid tumor malignancies, and rational combination strategies remain underexplored. To develop a novel therapeutic approach, we examined the efficacy of ABT-263 across >500 cancer cell lines, including 311 for which we had matched expression data for select genes. We found that high expression of the proapoptotic gene Bcl2-interacting mediator of cell death (BIM) predicts sensitivity to ABT-263. In particular, SCLC cell lines possessed greater BIM transcript levels than most other solid tumors and are among the most sensitive to ABT-263. However, a subset of relatively resistant SCLC cell lines has concomitant high expression of the antiapoptotic myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1). Whereas ABT-263 released BIM from complexes with BCL-2 and BCL-XL, high expression of MCL-1 sequestered BIM released from BCL-2 and BCL-XL, thereby abrogating apoptosis. We found that SCLCs were sensitized to ABT-263 via TORC1/2 inhibition, which led to reduced MCL-1 protein levels, thereby facilitating BIM-mediated apoptosis. AZD8055 and ABT-263 together induced marked apoptosis in vitro, as well as tumor regressions in multiple SCLC xenograft models. In a Tp53; Rb1 deletion genetically engineered mouse model of SCLC, the combination of ABT-263 and AZD8055 significantly repressed tumor growth and induced tumor regressions compared with either drug alone. Furthermore, in a SCLC patient-derived xenograft model that was resistant to ABT-263 alone, the addition of AZD8055 induced potent tumor regression. Therefore, addition of a TORC1/2 inhibitor offers a therapeutic strategy to markedly improve ABT-263 activity in SCLC.

Guo F, Liu X, Qing Q, et al.
EML4-ALK induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition consistent with cancer stem cell properties in H1299 non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 459(3):398-404 [PubMed] Related Publications
The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4(EML4)--anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene has been identified as a driver mutation in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the role of EML4-ALK in malignant transformation is not entirely clear. Here, for the first time, we showed that H1299 NSCLC cells stably expressing EML4-ALK acquire EMT phenotype, associated with enhanced invasive migration and increased expression of EMT-inducing transcription factors. H1299-EML4-ALK cells also displayed cancer stem cell-like properties with a concomitant up-regulation of CD133 and enhanced ability of mammospheres formation. Moreover, we found that inhibition of ERK1/2 reversed EMT induced by EML4-ALK in H1299 cells. Taken together, these results suggested that EML4-ALK induced ERK activation is mechanistically associated with EMT phenotype. Thus, inhibition of ERK signaling pathway could be a potential strategy in treatment of NSCLC patients with EML4-ALK translocation.

Qian J, Hassanein M, Hoeksema MD, et al.
The RNA binding protein FXR1 is a new driver in the 3q26-29 amplicon and predicts poor prognosis in human cancers.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(11):3469-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/09/2015 Related Publications
Aberrant expression of RNA-binding proteins has profound implications for cellular physiology and the pathogenesis of human diseases such as cancer. We previously identified the Fragile X-Related 1 gene (FXR1) as one amplified candidate driver gene at 3q26-29 in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). FXR1 is an autosomal paralog of Fragile X mental retardation 1 and has not been directly linked to human cancers. Here we demonstrate that FXR1 is a key regulator of tumor progression and its overexpression is critical for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell growth in vitro and in vivo. We identified the mechanisms by which FXR1 executes its regulatory function by forming a novel complex with two other oncogenes, protein kinase C, iota and epithelial cell transforming 2, located in the same amplicon via distinct binding mechanisms. FXR1 expression is a candidate biomarker predictive of poor survival in multiple solid tumors including NSCLCs. Because FXR1 is overexpressed and associated with poor clinical outcomes in multiple cancers, these results have implications for other solid malignancies.

Shi WH, Wu QQ, Li SQ, et al.
Upregulation of the long noncoding RNA PCAT-1 correlates with advanced clinical stage and poor prognosis in esophageal squamous carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2501-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies reveal that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical regulatory roles in cancer biology. Prostate cancer-associated ncRNA transcript 1 (PCAT-1) is one of the lncRNAs involved in cell apoptosis and proliferation of prostate cancer. This study aimed to assess the potential role of PCAT-1 specifically in the pathogenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression level of PCAT-1 in matched cancerous tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues from 130 patients with ESCC, 34 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and 30 patients with gastric carcinoma (GC). The correlation of PCAT-1 with clinicopathological features and prognosis were also analyzed. The expression of PCAT-1 was significantly higher in human ESCC compared with the adjacent noncancerous tissues (70.8%, p < 0.01), and the high level of PCAT-1 expression was significantly correlated with invasion of the tumor (p = 0.024), advanced clinical stage (p = 0.003), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.032), and poor prognosis. However, PCAT-1 mRNA expression had no significant difference between paired primary cancerous tissues and the adjacent noncancerous tissues in 34 cases of NSCLC (p = 0.293) and 30 cases of GC (p = 0.125). High expression of PCAT-1 was specifically correlated with invasion of cancer tissues, metastasis of lymph node, and advanced tumor stage of ESCC. High expression of PCAT-1 might reflect poor prognosis of ESCC and indicate a potential diagnostic target in ESCC patients. Adjuvant therapy targeting PCAT-1 molecule might be effective in treatment of ESCC.

Wang H, Yan C, Shi X, et al.
MicroRNA-575 targets BLID to promote growth and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer cells.
FEBS Lett. 2015; 589(7):805-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was designed to detect miR-575 expression and function in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A higher expression of miR-575 in NSCLC tissues was observed compared with adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. Furthermore, re-introduction of miR-575 significantly promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in the NSCLC line. Moreover, we showed that BLID is negatively regulated by miR-575 at the posttranscriptional level, via a specific target site within the 3'UTR. Overexpression of BLID counteracted miR-575-induced proliferation and invasion in NSCLC cells. The expression of BLID is frequently downregulated in NSCLC tumors and cell lines and inversely correlates with miR-575 expression. The findings of this study contribute to the current understanding of the functions of miR-575 in NSCLC.

Li Y, Sun BS, Pei B, et al.
Osteopontin-expressing macrophages in non-small cell lung cancer predict survival.
Ann Thorac Surg. 2015; 99(4):1140-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major component of leukocyte infiltration in the tumor microenvironment. Osteopontin is related to tumor metastasis and proliferation. Osteopontin is expressed not only by tumor cells but also by TAMs. The purpose of the current study was to assess the prognostic significance of osteopontin expressed by TAMs (TOPN) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
METHODS: Tissue microarray was used to detect the expression of TOPN, TAMs, and microvascular density in 159 patients with non-small cell lung cancer undergoing complete pulmonary resection in our hospital between 2003 and 2006. The correlations between TOPN, TAMs, and clinicopathologic data were analyzed with χ(2) tests. Quantitation of TAMs or TOPN and microvascular density analyses was performed using Bonferroni correction and the Student's t test. The prognostic value of TOPN was evaluated by univariate Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis.
RESULTS: In the recurrence and metastasis group, microvascular density was higher than that in the control group (14.4 ± 1.06 versus 8.9 ± 1.02; p = 0.0002). In the TOPN-positive group, microvascular density was increased compared with that in the TOPN-negative group (14.3 ± 1.37 versus 10.7 ± 0.91; p = 0.0273). Osteopontin expressed by TAMs was an independent predictor for overall survival (p = 0.017) and disease-free survival (p < 0.001), especially for stage I non-small cell lung cancer. The 6-year overall and disease-free survival rates in TOPN-positive patients were 22.64% and 16.98%, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of TOPN-negative patients (50.00% and 39.62%, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Osteopontin expressed by TAMs is a valuable independent predictor of tumor recurrence and survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

Djenidi F, Adam J, Goubar A, et al.
CD8+CD103+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are tumor-specific tissue-resident memory T cells and a prognostic factor for survival in lung cancer patients.
J Immunol. 2015; 194(7):3475-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
We had previously demonstrated the role of CD103 integrin on lung tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) clones in promoting specific TCR-mediated epithelial tumor cell cytotoxicity. However, the contribution of CD103 on intratumoral T cell distribution and functions and the prognosis significance of TIL subpopulations in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) have thus far not been systematically addressed. In this study, we show that an enhanced CD103(+) TIL subset correlates with improved early stage NSCLC patient survival and increased intraepithelial lymphocyte infiltration. Moreover, our results indicate that CD8(+)CD103(+) TIL, freshly isolated from NSCLC specimens, display transcriptomic and phenotypic signatures characteristic of tissue-resident memory T cells and frequently express PD-1 and Tim-3 checkpoint receptors. This TIL subset also displays increased activation-induced cell death and mediates specific cytolytic activity toward autologous tumor cells upon blockade of the PD-1-PD-L1 interaction. These findings emphasize the role of CD8(+)CD103(+) tissue-resident memory T cells in promoting intratumoral CTL responses and support the rationale for using anti-PD-1 blocking Ab to reverse tumor-induced T cell exhaustion in NSCLC patients.

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