Gene Summary

Gene:TXNRD1; thioredoxin reductase 1
Aliases: TR, TR1, TXNR, TRXR1, GRIM-12
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the family of pyridine nucleotide oxidoreductases. This protein reduces thioredoxins as well as other substrates, and plays a role in selenium metabolism and protection against oxidative stress. The functional enzyme is thought to be a homodimer which uses FAD as a cofactor. Each subunit contains a selenocysteine (Sec) residue which is required for catalytic activity. The selenocysteine is encoded by the UGA codon that normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of selenocysteine-containing genes have a common stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), that is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. Alternative splicing results in several transcript variants encoding the same or different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic
Source:NCBIAccessed: 10 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 10 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TXNRD1 (cancer-related)

Razmkhah F, Soleimani M, Mehrabani D, et al.
Leukemia microvesicles affect healthy hematopoietic stem cells.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317692234 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microvesicles are released by different cell types and shuttle mRNAs and microRNAs which have the possibility to transfer genetic information to a target cell and alter its function. Acute myeloid leukemia is a malignant disorder, and leukemic cells occupy all the bone marrow microenvironment. In this study, we investigate the effect of leukemia microvesicles on healthy umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cells to find evidence of cell information transferring. Leukemia microvesicles were isolated from acute myeloid leukemia patients and were co-incubated with healthy hematopoietic stem cells. After 7 days, cell count, hematopoietic stem cell-specific cluster of differentiation (CD) markers, colony-forming unit assay, and some microRNA gene expressions were assessed. Data showed a higher number of hematopoietic stem cells after being treated with leukemia microvesicles compared with control (treated with no microvesicles) and normal (treated with normal microvesicles) groups. Also, increased levels of microRNA-21 and microRNA-29a genes were observed in this group, while colony-forming ability was still maintained and high ranges of CD34(+), CD34(+)CD38(-), CD90(+), and CD117(+) phenotypes were observed as stemness signs. Our results suggest that leukemia microvesicles are able to induce some effects on healthy hematopoietic stem cells such as promoting cell survival and some microRNAs deregulation, while stemness is maintained.

Moghaddaskho F, Eyvani H, Ghadami M, et al.
Demethylation and alterations in the expression level of the cell cycle-related genes as possible mechanisms in arsenic trioxide-induced cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317692255 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been used clinically as an anti-tumor agent. Its mechanisms are mostly considered to be the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of its anti-cancer action through cell cycle arrest are poorly known. Furthermore, As2O3 has been shown to be a potential DNA methylation inhibitor, inducing DNA hypomethylation. We hypothesize that As2O3 may affect the expression of cell cycle regulatory genes by interfering with DNA methylation patterns. To explore this, we examined promoter methylation status of 24 cell cycle genes in breast cancer cell lines and in a normal breast tissue sample by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and/or restriction enzyme-based methods. Gene expression level and cell cycle distribution were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometric analyses, respectively. Our methylation analysis indicates that only promoters of RBL1 (p107), RASSF1A, and cyclin D2 were aberrantly methylated in studied breast cancer cell lines. As2O3 induced CpG island demethylation in promoter regions of these genes and restores their expression correlated with DNA methyltransferase inhibition. As2O3 also induced alterations in messenger RNA expression of several cell cycle-related genes independent of demethylation. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the cell cycle arrest induced by As2O3 varied depending on cell lines, MCF-7 at G1 phase and both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells at G2/M phase. These changes at transcriptional level of the cell cycle genes by the molecular mechanisms dependent and independent of demethylation are likely to represent the mechanisms of cell cycle redistribution in breast cancer cells, in response to As2O3 treatment.

Chen YL, Huang WC, Yao HL, et al.
Down-regulation of RASA1 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):781-785 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: RASA1 (p120RasGAP), encodes Ras GTPase-activating protein 1 and, is a potent tumor suppressor gene that is frequently inactivated in several human cancer types. However, its precise role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been blurred.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We hypothesized that RASA1 plays a crucial role in tumor pathogenesis and progression of HCC. RASA1 expression levels were analyzed in 226 cases of HCC by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: It was found that 38.68% (41/106) of the high-grade HCC samples and 54.17% (65/120) of the low-grade HCC samples expressed RASA1 protein. The difference between RASA1 expression in high-grade and low-grade HCC was statistically significant (p=0.02). Additionally, RASA1 high expression was inversely associated with larger tumor size (p<0.001). Although RASA1 is known as a tumor suppressor, its role in overall survival (OS) in HCC is unclear. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with low level of RASA1 expression correlated with a significantly poorer survival compared to those with high level of RASA1 expression.
CONCLUSION: These data support that RASA1 could serve as an independent prognostic marker for HCC patients.

Campregher PV, Petroni RC, Muto NH, et al.
A Novel Assay for the Identification of NOTCH1 PEST Domain Mutations in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:4247908 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aims. To develop a fast and robust DNA-based assay to detect insertions and deletions mutations in exon 34 that encodes the PEST domain of NOTCH1 in order to evaluate patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Methods. We designed a multiplexed allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with a fragment analysis assay to detect specifically the mutation c.7544_7545delCT and possibly other insertions and deletions in exon 34 of NOTCH1. Results. We evaluated our assay in peripheral blood samples from two cohorts of patients with CLL. The frequency of NOTCH1 mutations was 8.4% in the first cohort of 71 unselected CLL patients. We then evaluated a second cohort of 26 CLL patients with known cytogenetic abnormalities that were enriched for patients with trisomy 12. NOTCH1 mutations were detected in 43.7% of the patients with trisomy 12. Conclusions. We have developed a fast and robust assay combining allele-specific PCR and fragment analysis able to detect NOTCH1 PEST domain insertions and deletions.

Sagara A, Karasawa T, Igarashi K, et al.
Controlled Secretion of the Anticancer Protein MDA-7 from Engineered Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2017; 40(1):113-117 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been explored as a "live" carrier of cytokines for targeted cancer therapy, but, in earlier reports in the literature, the secretion process of therapeutic cytokines was not regulated. The purpose of this study was to generate MSCs to conditionally secrete the melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7 (MDA-7) tumor-suppressor protein. To control the secretion of MDA-7 from MSCs, a well-established tetracycline-controlled transcriptional activation system was incorporated into MDA-7 plasmid. MDA-7 gene expression was induced in the engineered MSCs only in the presence of doxycycline, as characterized by quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) also revealed that the MDA-7 protein was secreted from the engineered MSCs only after the cells had been exposed to doxycycline. Both recombinant human MDA-7 protein and the conditioned medium from the engineered MSCs in the presence of doxycycline significantly inhibited tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs), indicating that our system could be used for targeted, antiangiogenic therapy. Overall, this study provides useful information on the potential use of engineered MSCs for the controlled secretion of therapeutic proteins, in this case MDA-7, for targeted cancer therapy.

Chang C, Liu T, Huang Y, et al.
MicroRNA-134-3p is a novel potential inhibitor of human ovarian cancer stem cells by targeting RAB27A.
Gene. 2017; 605:99-107 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cluster of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the DLK1-DIO3 genomic imprinted region contains several miRNAs that have a significant regulatory role in tumor proliferation and invasion. One of these miRNAs is miR-134-3p, and its expression changes significantly in human ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs) and in CD44-/CD133- ovarian cancer. The results of a luciferase assay showed that miR-134-3p silenced RAB27A by binding to the 3'-UTR of RAB27A mRNA. Overexpression of miR-134-3p in human OCSCs can not only inhibit the expression of RAB27A but also can effectively downregulate the expression of some tumor proliferation and invasion genes. Overexpression of miR-134-3p can not only inhibit the in vitro proliferation and cell cycle progression of human OCSCs but also can decrease the tumorigenicity in nude mice.

Yano S, Takehara K, Kishimoto H, et al.
Comparison of Tumor Recurrence After Resection of Highly- and Poorly-Metastatic Triple-negative Breast Cancer in Orthotopic Nude-Mouse Models.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(1):57-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), defined by the absence of receptors for estrogen, progesterone and human epithelial receptor 2, is a recalcitrant disease in need of effective therapy. We previously isolated highly-metastatic variants of the human TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231 using serial orthotopic implantation in nude mice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present report, we compared local and metastatic recurrence in lymph nodes in orthotopic nude-mouse models after bright-light surgery (BLS) of tumors from highly-metastatic variants or poorly-metastatic parental MDA-MB-231-RFP cells. Orthotopic tumors from parental MDA-MB-231 or highly-metastatic MDA-MB-231 were resected under bright light similar to an operating room.
RESULTS: After resection of primary tumors, local recurrence from highly-metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells grew more rapidly than did parental MDA-MB-231 cells. Lymph-node metastasis from highly-metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells occurred after primary tumor resection much more extensively than after parental MDA-MB-231 tumors were resected.
CONCLUSION: The results of the present report suggest that conventional surgery under bright light was unable to control highly-metastatic compared with poorly-metastatic MDA-MB-231 TNBC.

Wang YL, Gong WG, Yuan QL
Effects of miR-27a upregulation on thyroid cancer cells migration, invasion, and angiogenesis.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(4) [PubMed] Related Publications
Thyroid cancer is the most common type of endocrine tumor. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in a variety of diseases, especially cancer occurrence and progression. However, the specific mechanism by which miRNAs trigger disease states has not been fully elucidated. This study aims to investigate the role of miR-27a in thyroid cancer cells. A wound healing assay was adopted to examine cell migration. A transwell assay was applied to assess cell invasion. A thyroid cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice. Western blot was performed to quantify iNOS expression. Tumor tissue blood vessel density was evaluated via immunohistochemistry assays. The results indicated that miR-27a downregulation inhibited thyroid cancer cell migration, while upregulation of miR-27a promoted thyroid cancer cell migration (P < 0.05). Furthermore, reduction in miR-27a expression suppressed thyroid cancer cell invasion (P < 0.05). In the nude mouse model of thyroid cancer xenograft, upregulation of miR-27 induced iNOS expression in pathological tumor tissues, whereas miR-27a inhibition resulted in the opposite effect (P < 0.05). CD105 level was also significantly increased during miR-27a upregulation, and was declined when miR-27a was inhibited (P < 0.05). In conclusion, miR-27a upregulation in thyroid cancer cells affects tumor cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesis by targeting downstream genes. Therefore, miR27a may act as a biomarker of thyroid cancer.

Koehler P, Hamprecht A, Bader O, et al.
Epidemiology of invasive aspergillosis and azole resistance in patients with acute leukaemia: the SEPIA Study.
Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2017; 49(2):218-223 [PubMed] Related Publications
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a serious hazard to high-risk haematological patients. There are increasing reports of azole-resistant Aspergillus spp. This study assessed the epidemiology of IA and azole-resistant Aspergillus spp. in patients with acute leukaemia in Germany. A prospective multicentre cohort study was performed in German haematology/oncology centres. The incidence of probable and proven aspergillosis according to the revised EORTC/MSG criteria was assessed for all patients with acute leukaemia [acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL)]. Cases were documented into a web-based case report form, and centres provided data on standards regarding prophylactic and diagnostic measures. Clinical isolates were screened centrally for azole resistance and, if applicable, underlying resistance mechanisms were analysed. Between September 2011 and December 2013, 179 cases of IA [6 proven (3.4%) and 173 probable (96.6%)] were diagnosed in 3067 patients with acute leukaemia. The incidence of IA was 6.4% among 2440 AML patients and 3.8% among 627 ALL patients. Mortality at Day 84 was 33.8% (49/145) and attributable mortality was 26.9% (39/145). At Day 84, 53 patients (29.6%) showed a complete response, 25 (14.0%) a partial response and 17 (9.5%) a deterioration or failure. A total of 77 clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates were collected during the study period. Two episodes of azole-resistant IA (1.1%) were caused by a TR/L98H mutation in the cyp51A gene. With only two cases of IA due to azole-resistant A. fumigatus, a change of antifungal treatment practices in Germany does not appear warranted currently.

Kelley MJ, Jha G, Shoemaker D, et al.
Phase II Study of Dasatinib in Previously Treated Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Cancer Invest. 2017; 35(1):32-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Src pathway in activated in about one-third of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors. Dasatinib has Src-inhibitor activity. We examined the activity of dasatinib in 37 patients with advanced, previously treated NSCLC. Among the 29 patients who underwent pre-treatment biopsy for RNA biomarker analysis, 25 were treated with dasatinib 70 mg twice daily. There were no responses. Five patients discontinued treatment due to toxicity. Three patients had minor biopsy-related pneumothoraces. Given the lack of responses, no biomarkers were analyzed. Dasatinib 70 mg twice daily does not have activity nor is it well tolerated in unselected patients with advanced stage, previously treated NSCLC.

Singh B, Kulawiec M, Owens KM, et al.
Sustained Early Disruption of Mitochondrial Function Contributes to Arsenic-Induced Prostate Tumorigenesis.
Biochemistry (Mosc). 2016; 81(10):1089-1100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen that affects millions of people worldwide, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis are unclear. Several epidemiological studies have suggested increased prostate cancer incidence and mortality due to exposure to arsenic. Due to lack of an animal model of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis, we used a prostate epithelial cell culture model to identify a role for mitochondria in arsenic-induced prostate cancer. Mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential was impacted within a few hours of arsenic exposure of non-neoplastic prostate epithelial cells. Chronic arsenic treatment induced mutations in mitochondrial genes and altered mitochondrial functions. Human non-neoplastic prostate epithelial cells continuously cultured for seven months in the presence of 5 µM arsenite showed tumorigenic properties in vitro and induced tumors in SCID mice, which indicated transformation of these cells. Protein and mRNA expression of subunits of mtOXPHOS complex I were decreased in arsenic-transformed cells. Alterations in complex I, a main site for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as well as increased expression of ROS-producing NOX4 in arsenic-transformed cells suggested a role of oxidative stress in tumorigenic transformation of prostate epithelial cells. Whole genome cGH array analyses of arsenic-transformed prostate cells identified extensive genomic instability. Our study revealed mitochondrial dysfunction induced oxidative stress and decreased expression of p53 in arsenic-transformed cells as an underlying mechanism of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomic instability. These studies suggest that early changes in mitochondrial functions are sustained during prolong arsenic exposure. Overall, our study provides evidence that arsenic disruption of mitochondrial function is an early and key step in tumorigenic transformation of prostate epithelial cells.

Zhou M, Zhang XY, Yu X
Overexpression of the long non-coding RNA SPRY4-IT1 promotes tumor cell proliferation and invasion by activating EZH2 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 85:348-354 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidences have demonstrated that the dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may act as an important role in tumor progression. The long non-coding RNA SPRY4 intronic transcript 1 (SPRY4-IT1) has been reported in some cancer including regulating cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and cancer progression. However, the expression and function of SPRY4-IT1 in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain largely unknown.
METHODS: The lncRNA SPRY4-IT1 was detected by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) in HCC cell lines, CCK8 cell proliferation and transwell invasion assays were performed to detect the GC cell proliferation and invasion abilities. The protein expression of E-cadherin, Vimentin and Twist1 was analyzed by Western blotting assays. Furthermore, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were used to analyze potential molecular mechanism of SPRY4-IT1 in HCC cells.
RESULTS: We found that SPRY4-IT1 was up-regulated in HCC cell lines. Further function analysis demonstrated that knockdown of SPRY4-IT1 significantly inhibited HCC cells proliferation and invasion, but over-expression of SPRY4-IT1 had the opposite effects on HCC cells in vitro. Moreover, our results also indicated that SPRY4-IT1 over-expression significantly promoted the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by up-regulating the transcription factor Twist1 and EMT marker Vimentin and inhibited the E-cadherin expression in MHCC97L cell. Whereas, knockdown of SPRY4-IT1 suppressed the transcription factor Twist1 and EMT marker Vimentin and increased the E-cadherin expression in MHCC97H cells. Mechanisms investigations showed that SPRY4-IT1 interacted with the EZH2 and epigenetically repressed the E-cadherin expression. In vivo, we also demonstrated that the tumor growth was inhibited in SPRY4-IT1 knockdown group compared with the control group.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that lncRNA SPRY4-IT1 might be considered as a therapeutic target in HCC.

Huang R, Wang X, Zhang W, et al.
Down-Regulation of LncRNA DGCR5 Correlates with Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 40(3-4):707-715 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play pivotal roles in multiple tumors and can act as tumor biomarkers. In this study, we explored the association of the expression of an lncRNA, DGCR5 with clinicopathological features and prognosis in HCC.
METHODS: Expression levels of DGCR5 were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the clinical data was obtained, including basic information, data of clinicopathology and cancer specific survival rate. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, Kaplan-Meier methods and multivariable Cox regression models were used to analyze predictive efficiency, long-term survival outcomes and risk factors.
RESULTS: DGCR5 was found down-regulated in HCC tissues (P<0.001) and serum (P = 0.0035) and low expression of DGCR5 was correlated with a poor cancer specific survival (CSS) (P = 0.0019), as the overall 5-year CSS rates were 10.3% (low expression group) and 36.6% (high expression group), respectively. A stratified analysis demonstrated that low DGCR5 expression was an independent negative prognostic factor for HCC. In addition, the area under the ROC curve was 0.782 with a sensitivity of 0.633 and a specificity of 0.833.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that DGCR5 may be a participator in HCC and can serve as potential biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis in HCC.

Zhang L, He T, Yan Y, et al.
Expression and Clinical Significance of the Novel Long Noncoding RNA ZNF674-AS1 in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:3608914 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles in cancer occurrence and progression. However, the relationship between the expression levels of lncRNAs and the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) process is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the expression level of ZNF674-AS1, a newly found lncRNA, in HCC and its clinical association. The expression of ZNF674-AS1 in 137 pairs of tumorous and adjacent normal tissues from patients with HCC was detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, the potential associations between its level in HCC tissue and clinicopathological features were analyzed. The expression of ZNF674-AS1 in the HCC cell lines HepG2, HCCLM3, SK-Hep1, HuH7, Hep3B, and MHCC97H was significantly downregulated compared with that in the normal liver cell line QSG-7701. The expression of ZNF674-AS1 was downregulated in 72% (99/137) of HCC tissues compared with that in paired adjacent normal tissues (p < 0.01). The results showed that the ZNF674-AS1 expression level was significantly correlated with metastasis (p = 0.041), clinical stage (p = 0.039), and histopathologic grading (p = 0.045). In addition, the Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that low ZNF674-AS1 expression was associated with poor prognosis in patients with HCC. Our data suggest that ZNF674-AS1 may play some role during cancer occurrence and progression and may be a new biomarker for HCC.

Lee CW, Choi SI, Lee SJ, et al.
The Effectiveness of Ferritin as a Contrast Agent for Cell Tracking MRI in Mouse Cancer Models.
Yonsei Med J. 2017; 58(1):51-58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of ferritin as a contrast agent and a potential reporter gene for tracking tumor cells or macrophages in mouse cancer models.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adenoviral human ferritin heavy chain (Ad-hFTH) was administrated to orthotopic glioma models and subcutaneous colon cancer mouse models using U87MG and HCT116 cells, respectively. Brain MR images were acquired before and daily for up to 6 days after the intracranial injection of Ad-hFTH. In the HCT116 tumor model, MR examinations were performed before and at 6, 24, and 48 h after intratumoral injection of Ad-hFTH, as well as before and every two days after intravenous injection of ferritin-labeled macrophages. The contrast effect of ferritin in vitro was measured by MR imaging of cell pellets. MRI examinations using a 7T MR scanner comprised a T1-weighted (T1w) spin-echo sequence, T2-weighted (T2w) relaxation enhancement sequence, and T2*-weighted (T2*w) fast low angle shot sequence.
RESULTS: Cell pellet imaging of Ad-hFTH in vitro showed a strong negatively enhanced contrast in T2w and T2*w images, presenting with darker signal intensity in high concentrations of Fe. T2w images of glioma and subcutaneous HCT116 tumor models showed a dark signal intensity around or within the Ad-hFTH tumor, which was distinct with time and apparent in T2*w images. After injection of ferritin-labeled macrophages, negative contrast enhancement was identified within the tumor.
CONCLUSION: Ferritin could be a good candidate as an endogenous MR contrast agent and a potential reporter gene that is capable of maintaining cell labeling stability and cellular safety.

Sung HY, Yang SD, Park AK, et al.
Aberrant Hypomethylation of Solute Carrier Family 6 Member 12 Promoter Induces Metastasis of Ovarian Cancer.
Yonsei Med J. 2017; 58(1):27-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most fatal of gynecological malignancies with a high rate of recurrence. We aimed to evaluate the expression of solute carrier family 6, member 12 (SLC6A12) and methylation of its promoter CpG sites in a xenograft mouse model of metastatic OC, and to investigate the regulatory mechanisms that promote aggressive properties during OC progression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of SLC6A12 mRNA was determined by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and DNA methylation status of its promoter CpGs was detected by quantitative methylation-specific PCR. The metastatic potential of SLC6A12 was evaluated by in vitro migration/invasion transwell assays. Gene expression and DNA methylation of SLC6A12 and clinical outcomes were further investigated from publicly available databases from curatedOvarianData and The Cancer Genome Atlas.
RESULTS: SLC6A12 expression was 8.1-14.0-fold upregulated and its DNA methylation of promoter CpG sites was 41-62% decreased in tumor metastases. After treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor, the expression of SLC6A12 was profoundly enhanced (~8.0-fold), strongly supporting DNA methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation of SLC6A12. Overexpression of SLC6A12 led to increased migration and invasion of ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro, approximately 2.0-fold and 3.3-fold, respectively. The meta-analysis showed that high expression of SLC6A12 was significantly associated with poor overall survival [hazard ratio (HR)=1.07, p value=0.016] and that low DNA methylation levels of SLC6A12 at specific promoter CpG site negatively affected patient survival.
CONCLUSION: Our findings provide novel evidence for the biological and clinical significance of SLC6A12 as a metastasis-promoting gene.

Badar T, Srour S, Bashir Q, et al.
Predictors of inferior clinical outcome in patients with standard-risk multiple myeloma.
Eur J Haematol. 2017; 98(3):263-268 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Outcome of patients with standard-risk (SR) multiple myeloma (MM) has improved; however, subsets of patients do worse than expected. We sought to identify the factors associated with inferior outcome.
METHODS: We evaluated 51 patients with SR MM that received upfront autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) after induction and had a progression-free survival (PFS) of ≤18 months.
RESULTS: The median age of patients was 61 yr. Forty-one (80%) patients received induction with immunomodulatory drugs, proteosome inhibitors, or combination of both. The overall response rate (ORR) after auto-HCT was 96% (stringent complete response 23%, complete response 10%, very good partial response 22%, and partial response 39%). The median PFS was 7.8, and median overall survival (OS) was 56.3 months. On univariate analysis, concurrent light-chain amyloidosis (AL) was associated with inferior PFS [hematological response (HR); 2.51, 95% CI; 0.64-10.58, P = 0.03] and occurrence of soft tissue plasmacytoma was associated with a significantly shorter OS (HR: 3.05, 95% CI: 0.57-16.29, P = 0.02).
CONCLUSION: Our analysis suggests that concurrent AL and soft tissue plasmacytoma were associated with shorter PFS and OS, respectively. Heterogeneity in clinical outcome of SR MM merits better tools for prognostication, such as gene expression profiling and minimal residual disease assessment to identify high-risk patients.

Demiroglu-Zergeroglu A, Candemir G, Turhanlar E, et al.
EGFR-dependent signalling reduced and p38 dependent apoptosis required by Gallic acid in Malignant Mesothelioma cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:2000-2007 [PubMed] Related Publications
The unrestrained EGFR signalling contributes to malignant phenotype in a number of cancers including Malignant Mesotheliomas. Present study was designed to evaluate EGFR-dependent anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Gallic acid in transformed Mesothelial (MeT-5A) and Malignant Mesothelioma (SPC212) cells. Gallic acid reduced the viability of Malignant Mesothelioma cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. However, viability of mesothelial cells reduced only at high concentration and longer time periods. Gallic acid restrained the activation of EGFR, ERK1/2 and AKT proteins and down regulated expression of Cyclin D and Bcl-2 genes, but upregulated the expression of p21 gene in EGF-induced SPC212 cells. GA-induced transitory G1 arrest and triggered mitochondrial and death receptor mediated apoptosis, which requires p38MAPK activation. The data provided here indicate that GA is able to inhibit EGFR dependent proliferation and survival signals and induces p38 pathway dependent apoptosis in Malignant Mesothelioma cells. On the basis of these experimental findings it is worthwhile to investigate further the biological activity of Gallic acid on other Mesothelioma cell lines harbouring aberrant EGFR signals.

Haslam K, Langabeer SE
Monitoring Minimal Residual Disease in the Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Current Applications and Emerging Approaches.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:7241591 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The presence of acquired mutations within the JAK2, CALR, and MPL genes in the majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) affords the opportunity to utilise these mutations as markers of minimal residual disease (MRD). Reduction of the mutated allele burden has been reported in response to a number of therapeutic modalities including interferon, JAK inhibitors, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation; novel therapies in development will also require assessment of efficacy. Real-time quantitative PCR has been widely adopted for recurrent point mutations with assays demonstrating the specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility required for clinical utility. More recently, approaches such as digital PCR have demonstrated comparable, if not improved, assay characteristics and are likely to play an increasing role in MRD monitoring. While next-generation sequencing is increasingly valuable as a tool for diagnosis of MPN, its role in the assessment of MRD requires further evaluation.

Yilmaz UC, Bagca BG, Karaca E, et al.
Evaluation of the miRNA profiling and effectiveness of the propolis on B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1266-1273 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most frequent causes of death from cancer. Since the discovery of chemotherapeutic agents, ALL has become a model for improvement of survival. In parallel to this, serious side effects were observed and new natural therapeutic options has been discussed. One of these substances is called propolis which is a resinous substance gathered by honeybees. In the molecular era, miRNAs have been shown to play crucial roles in the development of many clinical conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Aydın propolis on 81 human miRNA activity in CCRF-SB leukemia cell line. Apoptotic effects of propolis on cell lines were also evaluated and apoptosis were found to be induced 1.5 fold in B-cell leukemia cells. The expression of 63 miRNAs (46 miRNAs were downregulated, 19 miRNAs were upregulated) in propolis treated leukemia cells have changed significantly (p<0.05). In conclusion propolis has changed expression of miRNAs which have epigenetic effects on leukemic cells. It is thought that it can be a promising agent for ALL treatment for future studies.

Ding D, Zhang Y, Yang R, et al.
miR-940 Suppresses Tumor Cell Invasion and Migration via Regulation of CXCR2 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:7618342 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aim. To investigate the expression of miR-940 in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its impact on function and biological mechanism in the HCC cells. Methods. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to quantify miR-940 expression in 46 cases of tissues and cells. Transfection of HCC cell lines was performed by miR-940 mimics; the abilities of invasion and migration were assessed through Transwell array. Western blot represents the alteration in expression of CXCR2 by miR-940 mimics. Results. miR-940 expression was decreased significantly in the HCC tissues and the relevant cell lines. miR-940 upregulation suppressed the invasion and migration of HCC cells in vitro. Furthermore, the CXCR2 was downregulated to suppress invasion and migration after miR-940 mimics. Moreover, decreased miR-940 expression was negatively correlated with Edmondson grade (P = 0.008), tumor microsatellite or multiple tumors (P = 0.04), vascular invasion (P = 0.035), and recurrence and metastasis (P = 0.038). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that decreased miR-940 expression contributed to poor overall survival (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Our findings present that miR-940 acts as a pivotal adaptor of CXCR2 and its transcription downregulated CXCR2 expression to decrease HCC invasion and migration in vitro. Our study suggests that miR-940 may be a novel poor prognostic biomarker for HCC.

Luo Y, Wu JY, Lu MH, et al.
Carvacrol Alleviates Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion through Regulation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK Signaling Pathways.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016; 2016:1469693 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TRPM7 is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of nonselective TRPM7 inhibitor carvacrol on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cells. Our results showed that carvacrol blocked TRPM7-like currents in PC-3 and DU145 cells and reduced their proliferation, migration, and invasion. Moreover, carvacrol treatment significantly decreased MMP-2, p-Akt, and p-ERK1/2 protein expression and inhibited F-actin reorganization. Furthermore, consistently, TRPM7 knockdown reduced prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion as well. Our study suggests that carvacrol may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of prostate cancer through its inhibition of TRPM7 channels and suppression of PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways.

Cecene G, Ak S, Eskiler GG, et al.
Circulating miR-195 as a Therapeutic Biomarker in Turkish Breast Cancer Patients.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(9):4241-4246 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of miRNA expression may be used as a biomarker for specific tumours because it may contribute to development of cancer. Circulating miRNA profiles have been highlighted for their potential as predictive markers in heterogeneous diseases such as breast cancer. In the literature, there is evidence that miR-195 levels are differentially expressed pre- and post-operative periods in breast cancer patients. At the same time, miRNA expression levels may vary because of ethnic origins. This study aimed to determine expression levels and potential roles of miR-195 in Turkish breast cancer patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression patterns of miR-195 were initially examined in breast cancer tissues (luminal A and B type) (n=96). Subsequently, blood samples were prospectively collected from preoperative and postoperative Turkish breast cancer patients and disease free controls. Total RNA was isolated, and the expression level of miR-195 was quantified by real-time PCR.
RESULTS: We found that miR-195 level was altered in Turkish breast cancer patients, with down-regulation evident in breast cancer tissues compared to normal adjacent specimens. Furthermore, circulating levels of miR- 195 was significantly decreased in post-operative blood samples compared with pre-operative levels (p=0.01 and <0.05). However, miR-195 was significantly increased in pre-operative blood samples of the luminal B type (p= 0.04 and <0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the first report of a miR-195 expression profile in Turkish breast cancer patients. Our data suggests that miR-195 levels might be a clinically useful biomarker in the earliest stage of Turkish breast cancer patients.

Mineishi S
Update on stem cell transplantation for acute leukemias.
Rinsho Ketsueki. 2016; 57(10):2218-2223 [PubMed] Related Publications
The treatment strategies for acute leukemia are undergoing very rapid change. Particularly for last 10 years, due to the rapid development of molecular targeted therapy and cell/gene therapies, the role of HSCT in the treatment scheme of acute leukemia has been changing. In the author's view, these recent changes should secure the role of HSCT in the comprehensive treatment scheme of acute leukemia. By appropriately combining the new agents with HSCT, therapy for acute leukemia is anticipated to become more effective. HSCT will provide the centerpiece for the treatment scheme, by setting up the "platform" for further interventions. Keeping these changes in mind, transplant physicians should now be exploring new areas of research such as interactions between these new agents and GVHD/GVL.

Kaneda MM, Messer KS, Ralainirina N, et al.
PI3Kγ is a molecular switch that controls immune suppression.
Nature. 2016; 539(7629):437-442 [PubMed] Related Publications
Macrophages play critical, but opposite, roles in acute and chronic inflammation and cancer. In response to pathogens or injury, inflammatory macrophages express cytokines that stimulate cytotoxic T cells, whereas macrophages in neoplastic and parasitic diseases express anti-inflammatory cytokines that induce immune suppression and may promote resistance to T cell checkpoint inhibitors. Here we show that macrophage PI 3-kinase γ controls a critical switch between immune stimulation and suppression during inflammation and cancer. PI3Kγ signalling through Akt and mTor inhibits NFκB activation while stimulating C/EBPβ activation, thereby inducing a transcriptional program that promotes immune suppression during inflammation and tumour growth. By contrast, selective inactivation of macrophage PI3Kγ stimulates and prolongs NFκB activation and inhibits C/EBPβ activation, thus promoting an immunostimulatory transcriptional program that restores CD8(+) T cell activation and cytotoxicity. PI3Kγ synergizes with checkpoint inhibitor therapy to promote tumour regression and increased survival in mouse models of cancer. In addition, PI3Kγ-directed, anti-inflammatory gene expression can predict survival probability in cancer patients. Our work thus demonstrates that therapeutic targeting of intracellular signalling pathways that regulate the switch between macrophage polarization states can control immune suppression in cancer and other disorders.

Ohtsuka M, Ling H, Ivan C, et al.
H19 Noncoding RNA, an Independent Prognostic Factor, Regulates Essential Rb-E2F and CDK8-β-Catenin Signaling in Colorectal Cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 13:113-124 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The clinical significance of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely unexplored. Here, we analyzed a large panel of lncRNA candidates with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) CRC dataset, and identified H19 as the most significant lncRNA associated with CRC patient survival. We further validated such association in two independent CRC cohorts. H19 silencing blocked G1-S transition, reduced cell proliferation, and inhibited cell migration. We profiled gene expression changes to gain mechanism insight of H19 function. Transcriptome data analysis revealed not only previously identified mechanisms such as Let-7 regulation by H19, but also RB1-E2F1 function and β-catenin activity as essential upstream regulators mediating H19 function. Our experimental data showed that H19 affects phosphorylation of RB1 protein by regulating gene expression of CDK4 and CCND1. We further demonstrated that reduced CDK8 expression underlies changes of β-catenin activity, and identified that H19 interacts with macroH2A, an essential regulator of CDK8 gene transcription. However, the relevance of H19-macroH2A interaction in CDK8 regulation remains to be experimentally determined. We further explored the clinical relevance of above mechanisms in clinical samples, and showed that combined analysis of H19 with its targets improved prognostic value of H19 in CRC.

He T, Surdez D, Rantala JK, et al.
High-throughput RNAi screen in Ewing sarcoma cells identifies leucine rich repeats and WD repeat domain containing 1 (LRWD1) as a regulator of EWS-FLI1 driven cell viability.
Gene. 2017; 596:137-146 [PubMed] Related Publications
A translocation leading to the formation of an oncogenic EWS-ETS fusion protein defines Ewing sarcoma. The most frequent gene fusion, present in 85 percent of Ewing sarcomas, is EWS-FLI1. Here, a high-throughput RNA interference screen was performed to identify genes whose function is critical for EWS-FLI1 driven cell viability. In total, 6781 genes were targeted by siRNA molecules and the screen was performed both in presence and absence of doxycycline-inducible expression of the EWS-FLI1 shRNA in A673/TR/shEF Ewing sarcoma cells. The Leucine rich repeats and WD repeat Domain containing 1 (LRWD1) targeting siRNA pool was the strongest hit reducing cell viability only in EWS-FLI1 expressing Ewing sarcoma cells. LRWD1 had been previously described as a testis specific gene with only limited information on its function. Analysis of LRWD1 mRNA levels in patient samples indicated that high expression associated with poor overall survival in Ewing sarcoma. Gene ontology analysis of LRWD1 co-expressed genes in Ewing tumors revealed association with DNA replication and analysis of differentially expressed genes in LRWD1 depleted Ewing sarcoma cells indicated a role in connective tissue development and cellular morphogenesis. Moreover, EWS-FLI1 repressed genes with repressive H3K27me3 chromatin marks were highly enriched among LRWD1 target genes in A673/TR/shEF Ewing sarcoma cells, suggesting that LRWD1 contributes to EWS-FLI1 driven transcriptional regulation. Taken together, we have identified LRWD1 as a novel regulator of EWS-FLI1 driven cell viability in A673/TR/shEF Ewing sarcoma cells, shown association between high LRWD1 mRNA expression and aggressive disease and identified processes by which LRWD1 may promote oncogenesis in Ewing sarcoma.

Fukushima N, Minami Y, Kakiuchi S, et al.
Small-molecule Hedgehog inhibitor attenuates the leukemia-initiation potential of acute myeloid leukemia cells.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(10):1422-1429 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog signaling pathway has been implicated in the maintenance of leukemia stem cell populations in several model systems. PF-04449913 (PF-913) is a selective, small-molecule inhibitor of Smoothened, a membrane protein that regulates the Hedgehog pathway. However, details of the proof-of-concept and mechanism of action of PF-913 following administration to patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are unclear. This study examined the role of the Hedgehog signaling pathway in AML cells, and evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects of the Smoothened inhibitor PF-913. In primary AML cells, activation of the Hedgehog signaling pathway was more pronounced in CD34(+) cells than CD34(-) cells. In vitro treatment with PF-913 induced a decrease in the quiescent cell population accompanied by minimal cell death. In vivo treatment with PF-913 attenuated the leukemia-initiation potential of AML cells in a serial transplantation mouse model, while limiting reduction of tumor burden in a primary xenotransplant system. Comprehensive gene set enrichment analysis revealed that PF-913 modulated self-renewal signatures and cell cycle progression. Furthermore, PF-913 sensitized AML cells to cytosine arabinoside, and abrogated resistance to cytosine arabinoside in AML cells cocultured with HS-5 stromal cells. These findings imply that pharmacologic inhibition of Hedgehog signaling attenuates the leukemia-initiation potential, and also enhanced AML therapy by sensitizing dormant leukemia stem cells to chemotherapy and overcoming resistance in the bone marrow microenvironment.

Chekhonin IV, Gurina OI, Cherepanov SA, et al.
Pulsed Dendritic Cells for the Therapy of Experimental Glioma.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2016; 161(6):792-796 [PubMed] Related Publications
We obtained the morphologically, cytofluorometrically, and functionally mature dendritic cells from rats that were pulsed with antigens of the C6 glioma tissue extract. The concentrations of angiogenesis antigens (VEGF, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2) and periglioma zone proteins (GFAP, connexin 43, and BSAT1) in the pulsing extract were measured by ELISA. Our results drove us to a conclusion that despite mature phenotype of pulsed dendritic cell, the antigenic composition of glioma tissue extracts should be modified.

Wei S, Wang L, Zhang L, et al.
ZNF143 enhances metastasis of gastric cancer by promoting the process of EMT through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12813-12821 [PubMed] Related Publications
The zinc finger protein 143 (ZNF143) is a transcription factor, which regulates many cell cycle-associated genes. ZNF143 expressed strongly in multiple solid tumors. However, the influence of ZNF143 on gastric cancer (GC) remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the ZNF143 mRNA level in GC tissues and cells by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The protein expression of ZNF143 in GC cells, and the signaling pathway proteins were detected by Western blotting. Transwell assay and wound healing assay were performed to explore the effects of ZNF143 for the migration ability of GC cells in vitro. We also performed the tail vein injection in nude mice with GC cells to explore the impact of ZNF143 on GC metastasis in vivo. ZNF143 was overexpressed in specimens of GC compared with adjacent normal tissues and increased more significantly in GC tissues of patients who had lymph node metastasis. Ectopic overexpression of ZNF143 enhanced GC migration, whereas ZNF143 knockdown suppressed this effect in vitro. In vivo, ZNF143 knockdown reduced distant metastasis of GC cells in nude mice. In addition, overexpression of ZNF143 reduced the expression of epithelial cell marker (E-cadherin) and induced the expression of mesenchymal cell marker (N-cadherin,Vimentin), Snail and Slug. We also found that ZNF143 enhanced GC cell migration by promoting the process of EMT through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In general, our findings show that ZNF143 expressed strongly in GC and enhanced migration of GC cells in vitro and in vivo. It is conceivable that ZNF143 could be a therapeutic genetic target for GC treatment.

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