Research IndicatorsGraph generated 11 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 11 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (3)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: BACH2 (cancer-related)
Gao F, Yang Y, Wang Z, et al.BRAD4 plays a critical role in germinal center response by regulating Bcl-6 and NF-κB activation.
Cell Immunol. 2015; 294(1):1-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Germinal center (GC) reaction is a T cell-dependent process in which activated B cells undergo clonal expansion and functional maturation to produce high affinity antibodies and differentiate into memory B cells(1). Here we demonstrate a new role of bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) protein BRD4 in GC B cell development. We found that during B cell differentiation stage there was an elevated expression of BRD4 in GC B cells and inhibition of BRD4 by small molecule inhibitors led to the suppression of GC formation and correspondent antibody responses in a Td antigen immunization model. At the molecular level, we found that the effects of BRD4 in primary GC B cell differentiation and B cell lymphoma were mediated through the impaired phosphorylation and translocation of NF-κBp65 and further down-regulation of B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) expression. Thus this study reveals a novel function of BRD4 in controlling the GC B cell development pathway.
UNLABELLED: Using high-throughput RNA sequencing data from 50 common lymphoma cell culture models from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia project, we performed an unbiased global interrogation for the presence of a panel of 740 viruses and strains known to infect human and other mammalian cells. This led to the findings of previously identified infections by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). In addition, we also found a previously unreported infection of one cell line (DEL) with a murine leukemia virus. High expression of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) transcripts was observed in DEL cells, and we identified four transcriptionally active integration sites, one being in the TNFRSF6B gene. We also found low levels of MuLV reads in a number of other cell lines and provided evidence suggesting cross-contamination during sequencing. Analysis of HTLV-1 integrations in two cell lines, HuT 102 and MJ, identified 14 and 66 transcriptionally active integration sites with potentially activating integrations in immune regulatory genes, including interleukin-15 (IL-15), IL-6ST, STAT5B, HIVEP1, and IL-9R. Although KSHV and EBV do not typically integrate into the genome, we investigated a previously identified integration of EBV into the BACH2 locus in Raji cells. This analysis identified a BACH2 disruption mechanism involving splice donor sequestration. Through viral gene expression analysis, we detected expression of stable intronic RNAs from the EBV BamHI W repeats that may be part of long transcripts spanning the repeat region. We also observed transcripts at the EBV vIL-10 locus exclusively in the Hodgkin's lymphoma cell line, Hs 611.T, the expression of which were uncoupled from other lytic genes. Assessment of the KSHV viral transcriptome in BCP-1 cells showed expression of the viral immune regulators, K2/vIL-6, K4/vIL-8-like vCCL1, and K5/E2-ubiquitin ligase 1 that was significantly higher than expression of the latency-associated nuclear antigen. Together, this investigation sheds light into the virus composition across these lymphoma model systems and provides insights into common viral mechanistic principles.
IMPORTANCE: Viruses cause cancer in humans. In lymphomas the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 are major contributors to oncogenesis. We assessed virus-host interactions using a high throughput sequencing method that facilitates the discovery of new virus-host associations and the investigation into how the viruses alter their host environment. We found a previously unknown murine leukemia virus infection in one cell line. We identified cellular genes, including cytokine regulators, that are disrupted by virus integration, and we determined mechanisms through which virus integration causes deregulation of cellular gene expression. Investigation into the KSHV transcriptome in the BCP-1 cell line revealed high-level expression of immune signaling genes. EBV transcriptome analysis showed expression of vIL-10 transcripts in a Hodgkin's lymphoma that was uncoupled from lytic genes. These findings illustrate unique mechanisms of viral gene regulation and to the importance of virus-mediated host immune signaling in lymphomas.
Scholtysik R, Kreuz M, Hummel M, et al.Characterization of genomic imbalances in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma by detailed SNP-chip analysis.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(5):1033-42 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) is only partly understood. We analyzed 148 DLBCL by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-chips to characterize genomic imbalances. Seventy-nine cases were of the germinal center B-cell like (GCB) type of DLBCL, 49 of the activated B-cell like (ABC) subtype and 20 were unclassified DLBCL. Twenty-four regions of recurrent genomic gains and 38 regions of recurrent genomic losses were identified over the whole cohort, with a median of 25 imbalances per case for ABC-DLBCL and 19 per case for GCB-DLBCL. Several recurrent copy number changes showed differential frequencies in the GCB- and ABC-DLBCL subgroups, including gains of HDAC7A predominantly in GCB-DLBCL (38% of cases) and losses of BACH2 and CASP8AP2 predominantly in ABC-DLBCL (35%), hinting at disparate pathogenetic mechanisms in these entities. Correlating gene expression and copy number revealed a strong gene dosage effect in all tumors, with 34% of probesets showing a concordant expression change in affected regions. Two new potential tumor suppressor genes emerging from the analysis, CASP3 and IL5RA, were sequenced in ten and 16 candidate cases, respectively. However, no mutations were found, pointing to a potential haploinsufficiency effect of these genes, considering their reduced expression in cases with deletions. Our study thus describes differences and similarities in the landscape of genomic aberrations in the DLBCL subgroups in a large collection of cases, confirming already known targets, but also discovering novel copy number changes with possible pathogenetic relevance.
Haam K, Kim HJ, Lee KT, et al.Epigenetic silencing of BTB and CNC homology 2 and concerted promoter CpG methylation in gastric cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 351(2):206-14 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BTB and CNC homology 2 (BACH2) is a lymphoid-specific transcription factor with a prominent role in B-cell development. Genetic polymorphisms within a single locus encoding BACH2 are associated with various autoimmune diseases and allergies. In this study, restriction landmark genomic scanning revealed methylation at a NotI site in a CpG island covering the BACH2 promoter in gastric cancer cell lines and primary gastric tumors. Increased methylation of the BACH2 promoter was observed in 52% (43/83) of primary gastric tumors, and BACH2 hypermethylation was significantly associated with decreased gene expression. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or trichostatin. A restored BACH2 expression in BACH2-silenced gastric cancer cell lines, and knockdown of BACH2 using short hairpin RNA (i.e. RNA interference) increased cell proliferation in gastric cancer cells. Clinicopathologic data showed that decreased BACH2 expression occurred significantly more frequently in intestinal-type (27/44, 61%) compared with diffuse-type (13/50, 26%) gastric cancers (P<0.001). Furthermore, BACH2 promoter methylation paralleled that of previously identified targets, such as LRRC3B, LIMS2, PRKD1 and POPDC3, in a given set of gastric tumors. We propose that concerted methylation in many promoters plays a role in accelerating gastric tumor formation and that methylated promoter loci may be targets for therapeutic treatment, such as the recently introduced technique of epigenetic editing.
The unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, a stress-induced signaling cascade emanating from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), regulates the expression and activity of molecules including BiP (HSPA5), IRE1 (ERN1), Blimp-1 (PRDM1), and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1). These molecules are required for terminal differentiation of B cells into plasma cells and expressed at high levels in plasma cell-derived multiple myeloma. Although these molecules have no known role at early stages of B-cell development, here we show that their expression transiently peaks at the pre-B-cell receptor checkpoint. Inducible, Cre-mediated deletion of Hspa5, Prdm1, and Xbp1 consistently induces cellular stress and cell death in normal pre-B cells and in pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) driven by BCR-ABL1- and NRAS(G12D) oncogenes. Mechanistically, expression and activity of the UPR downstream effector XBP1 is regulated positively by STAT5 and negatively by the B-cell-specific transcriptional repressors BACH2 and BCL6. In two clinical trials for children and adults with ALL, high XBP1 mRNA levels at the time of diagnosis predicted poor outcome. A small molecule inhibitor of ERN1-mediated XBP1 activation induced selective cell death of patient-derived pre-B ALL cells in vitro and significantly prolonged survival of transplant recipient mice in vivo. Collectively, these studies reveal that pre-B ALL cells are uniquely vulnerable to ER stress and identify the UPR pathway and its downstream effector XBP1 as novel therapeutic targets to overcome drug resistance in pre-B ALL.
Ichikawa S, Fukuhara N, Katsushima H, et al.Association between BACH2 expression and clinical prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(4):437-44 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACH2, a B cell-specific transcriptional repressor, plays a significant role in B cell maturation. Despite a number of previous studies, the clinicopathological significance of BACH2 expression in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains to be established. The present study was performed to validate the significance of BACH2 expression as a predictor of prognosis in DLBCL. A total of 94 DLBCL cases were included in the present study. All were diagnosed between 2008 and 2011, and thorough clinical and pathological investigations were possible, including immunohistochemical analysis of BACH2. Eighteen cases were selected by positive MYC gene alteration (MYC+ group) according to cytogenetic study. The remaining 76 cases were subclassified into germinal center B cell phenotype (GCB group, 38 cases) or non-GCB phenotype (non-GCB group, 38 cases). There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to clinical characteristics and outcomes. In the GCB group, 21 cases were judged to have high BACH2 expression, with 19 cases in the non-GCB group. In cases with high BACH2 expression in GCB and non-GCB groups, the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was significantly shorter than that with low expression (71.7% vs 91.3%, P = 0.0256). In the MYC+ group, 15 cases had high BACH2 expression levels. Although overall the MYC+ group showed short survival time (3-year OS 35.0%), 3 out of 4 cases with low BACH2 expression are alive without disease relapse at the time of publication of this paper. In conclusion, BACH2 expression level is a promising predictor of prognosis for DLBCL.
At the pre-B cell receptor (BCR) checkpoint, developing pre-B cells are selected for successful rearrangement of V(H)-DJ(H) gene segments and expression of a pre-BCR. Reduced stringency at this checkpoint may obstruct the B cell repertoire with nonfunctional B cell clones. Earlier studies have described that activation of B cell lymphoma/leukemia (BCL)6 by a functional pre-BCR mediates positive selection of pre-B cells that have passed the checkpoint. This concept is now further elaborated by the recent finding that the BTB and CNC homology 1 basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2 (BACH2) induces negative selection and opposes BCL6 function prior to the pre-BCR checkpoint. Here, we discuss the antagonism between BCL6 and BACH2 during early B cell development, as well as its implications in both repertoire selection and counter-selection of premalignant clones for leukemia suppression.
BACH2, a B-cell specific transcription factor, plays a critical role in oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis. Bortezomib (Velcade(TM)) is widely used to treat relapsed mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients despite varying clinical outcomes. As one of the potential mechanisms of action, bortezomib was reported to elicit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress which triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we investigated the redox-sensitive intracellular mechanism that might play a critical role in bortezomib response in MCL cells. We demonstrated that in MCL cells that are sensitive to bortezomib treatments, BACH2 was translocated to the nucleus in response to bortezomib and induced apoptotic responses through the modulation of anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic genes. On the other hand, in bortezomib resistant cells, BACH2 expression was confined in the cytoplasm and no suppression of antiapoptotic or antioxidative genes, Nrf2, Gss, CAT, HO-1 and MCL1, was detected. Importantly, levels of BACH2 were significantly higher in bortezomib sensitive MCL patient cells, indicating that BACH2 levels could be an indicator for clinical bortezomib responses. BACH2 translocation to the cytoplasm after phosphorylation was inhibited by PI3K inhibitors and combinatory regimens of bortezomib and PI3K inhibitors sensitized MCL cells to bortezomib. These data suggest that cellular distribution of BACH2 in response to ROS determines the threshold for the induction of apoptosis. Therapies that inhibit BACH2 phosphorylation could be the key for increasing bortezomib cytotoxic response in patients.
Kikuchi T, Tokunaka M, Kikuti YY, et al.Over-expression of BACH2 is related to ongoing somatic hypermutation of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene variable region of de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Pathol Int. 2013; 63(7):339-44 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) factor BTB, CNC homology 2 (BACH2) is known to have important roles in class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the expression of BACH2 and the status of SHM of the Ig heavy chain gene variable region (IgHV) for SHM in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We examined 20 cases of DLBCL, 13 of which were germinal center B-cell (GCB) DLBCL and 7 were non-GCB DLBCL. Seven cases were negative, 6 were positive (cytoplasmic expression) and 7 were strongly positive (both nuclear and cytoplasmic expression) for BACH2. Confirmed mutation (CM) was identified in 8 cases and the CM index (number of confirmed mutations per 10 subclones) was distributed from 0 to 5. A CM index of 7 strongly positive (over-expression) cases with BACH2 were distributed from 0 to 5, and that of 7 negative and 6 positive cases were distributed from 0 to 1. Over-expression of BACH2 was statistically related to CM index (P = 0.008). In conclusion, over-expression of BACH2 is critical for ongoing SHM of IgHV in DLBCL, and our data suggest that BACH2 may play an essential role for SHM of the Ig gene in B-cell lymphoma.
Kobayashi T, Tsutsumi Y, Sakamoto N, et al.Double-hit lymphomas constitute a highly aggressive subgroup in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas in the era of rituximab.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2012; 42(11):1035-42 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The incorporation of rituximab in immunochemotherapy has improved treatment outcomes for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, but the prognosis for some diffuse large B-cell lymphomas remains dismal. Identification of adverse prognostic subgroups is essential for the choice of appropriate therapeutic strategy.
METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the impact of so-called 'double-hit' cytogenetic abnormalities, i.e. cytogenetic abnormalities involving c-MYC co-existing with other poor prognostic cytogenetic abnormalities involving BCL2, BCL6 or BACH2, on treatment outcomes for 93 consecutive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients.
RESULTS: According to the revised international prognostic index, no patients were cytogenetically diagnosed with double-hit lymphomas in the 'very good' risk group or in the 'good' risk group, while 5 of 33 patients had double-hit lymphomas in the 'poor' risk group. All the double-hit lymphoma patients possessed both nodal and extranodal involvement. The overall complete response rate was 89.3%, overall survival 87.1% and progression-free survival 75.8% over 2 years (median observation period: 644 days). The complete response rates were 93.2% for the non-double-hit lymphoma patients and 40.0% for the double-hit lymphoma patients. Significantly longer progression-free survival and overall survival were observed for the 'very good' and the 'good' risk patients than for the 'poor' risk patients. Moreover, the progression-free survival of double-hit lymphoma was significantly shorter than that of the non-double-hit lymphoma 'poor' risk patients (P = 0.016). In addition, the overall survival of the double-hit lymphoma patients also tended to be shorter than that of the non-double-hit lymphoma 'poor' risk group.
CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of double-hit lymphoma can help discriminate a subgroup of highly aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and indicate the need for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for double-hit lymphoma.
Takata K, Sato Y, Nakamura N, et al.Duodenal follicular lymphoma lacks AID but expresses BACH2 and has memory B-cell characteristics.
Mod Pathol. 2013; 26(1):22-31 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We have reported previously that duodenal follicular lymphoma (FL) is distinct from nodal FL and showed more resemblance to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and that FL frequently involved the duodenal second portion. In the present study, we examined duodenal FLs and gastric/colonic FLs to clarify the clinicopathological and immunological differences between the tumor types. We analyzed 8 samples of gastric FL, 17 of duodenal ones, and 5 of colonic/rectal ones, and characterized them by immunohistochemistry, immunogenotyping, and histology. Gastric and colonic FLs presented in submucosal to subserosal areas, whereas duodenal ones presented in the mucosal to submucosal layers. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that duodenal FLs exhibited the following phenotypes: CD10 (+), B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) (+), BCL-6 (+), activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) (-), BACH2 (+), CD27 (+), MUM-1 (-), Blimp-1 (-), and loose CD21 network (duodenal pattern). Gastric/colonic FLs exhibited the following phenotypes: CD10 (+), BCL-2 (+), BCL-6 (+), AID (+), BACH2 (+), CD27 (-), MUM-1 (-), Blimp-1 (-), and a dense CD21 network (nodal pattern). Expression of AID and CD27 in lymphoma cells and the CD21 network pattern were considerably different between duodenal FLs and gastric/colonic ones. Moreover, in situ hybridization revealed that, in the duodenal FLs, BACH2 was expressed at the periphery of the tumor follicle and tumor villi. The number of immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable domains VH4 and VH5 were higher in duodenal follicular lymphomoas than in gastric FLs. The lymphoma cells of duodenal FLs are different from those of gastric/colonic FLs, and duodenal FL is distinct even within the gastrointestinal tract. Somatic hypermutation in immunoglobulin genes and CD27 expression are hallmarks of memory B cells. We suggest that duodenal FL cells are in the memory B-cell stage, and require BACH2 instead of AID for ongoing mutation.
The processes of somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination introduced by activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AICDA) at the Immunoglobulin (Ig) loci are key steps for creating a pool of diversified antibodies in germinal center B cells (GCBs). Unfortunately, AICDA can also accidentally introduce mutations at bystander loci, particularly within the 5' regulatory regions of proto-oncogenes relevant to diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL). Since current methods for genomewide sequencing such as Exon Capture and RNAseq only target mutations in coding regions, to date non-Ig promoter SHMs have been studied only in a handful genes. We designed a novel approach integrating bioinformatics tools with next generation sequencing technology to identify regulatory loci targeted by SHM genome-wide. We observed increased numbers of SHM associated sequence variant hotspots in lymphoma cells as compared to primary normal germinal center B cells. Many of these SHM hotspots map to genes that have not been reported before as mutated, including BACH2, BTG2, CXCR4, CIITA, EBF1, PIM2, and TCL1A, etc., all of which have potential roles in B cell survival, differentiation, and malignant transformation. In addition, using BCL6 and BACH2 as examples, we demonstrated that SHM sites identified in these 5' regulatory regions greatly altered their transcription activities in a reporter assay. Our approach provides a first cost-efficient, genome-wide method to identify regulatory mutations and non-Ig SHM hotspots.
BACKGROUND: A central question in cancer biology is what changes cause a healthy cell to form a tumor. Gene expression data could provide insight into this question, but it is difficult to distinguish between a gene that causes a change in gene expression from a gene that is affected by this change. Furthermore, the proteins that regulate gene expression are often themselves not regulated at the transcriptional level. Here we propose a Bayesian modeling framework we term RegNetB that uses mechanistic information about the gene regulatory network to distinguish between factors that cause a change in expression and genes that are affected by the change. We test this framework using human gene expression data describing localized prostate cancer progression.
RESULTS: The top regulatory relationships identified by RegNetB include the regulation of RLN1, RLN2, by PAX4, the regulation of ACPP (PAP) by JUN, BACH1 and BACH2, and the co-regulation of PGC and GDF15 by MAZ and TAF8. These target genes are known to participate in tumor progression, but the suggested regulatory roles of PAX4, BACH1, BACH2, MAZ and TAF8 in the process is new.
CONCLUSION: Integrating gene expression data and regulatory topologies can aid in identifying potentially causal mechanisms for observed changes in gene expression.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a molecularly diverse malignancy with a poor prognosis whose largest subgroup is characterized by somatic mutations in NPM1, which encodes nucleophosmin. These mutations, termed NPM1c, result in cytoplasmic dislocation of nucleophosmin and are associated with distinctive transcriptional signatures, yet their role in leukemogenesis remains obscure. Here we report that activation of a humanized Npm1c knock-in allele in mouse hemopoietic stem cells causes Hox gene overexpression, enhanced self renewal and expanded myelopoiesis. One third of mice developed delayed-onset AML, suggesting a requirement for cooperating mutations. We identified such mutations using a Sleeping Beauty transposon, which caused rapid-onset AML in 80% of mice with Npm1c, associated with mutually exclusive integrations in Csf2, Flt3 or Rasgrp1 in 55 of 70 leukemias. We also identified recurrent integrations in known and newly discovered leukemia genes including Nf1, Bach2, Dleu2 and Nup98. Our results provide new pathogenetic insights and identify possible therapeutic targets in NPM1c+ AML.
Türkmen S, Riehn M, Klopocki E, et al.A BACH2-BCL2L1 fusion gene resulting from a t(6;20)(q15;q11.2) chromosomal translocation in the lymphoma cell line BLUE-1.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2011; 50(6):389-96 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Abnormalities of the long arm of chromosome 6 are a common feature in various B-cell malignancies. In most cases, the genes involved have not yet been clearly identified. We have molecularly characterized the recently established Burkitt lymphoma cell line BLUE-1 that carries a t(6;20)(q15;q11.2) rearrangement in addition to the typical t(8;14) with MYC-IGH fusion. To identify the gene loci involved on both chromosomes we applied a sequential BAC clone mapping strategy. By using RT-PCR we were finally able to detect a chimeric mRNA transcript showing a fusion of the first (non-coding) exon of BACH2 (BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2) on 6q15 to the second exon of BCL2L1 (BCL-X) on 20q11. Various fusion transcripts were detected for different BCL2L1 (BCL-XL) isoforms. The fusion ultimately results in strong expression of the BCL2L1 (BCL-XL) anti-apoptosis protein, as demonstrated by immunoblotting. This is the first report that shows the involvement of both BCL2L1 and the transcription factor BACH2 in a chromosomal rearrangement. It points to BACH2 as a possibly important target in lymphomas with 6q aberrations, although other genes on 6q are probably also involved in these cases. Moreover, it suggests that members of the BCL2 anti-apoptosis gene family other than BCL2 itself might also be involved in lymphoma.
Kobayashi S, Taki T, Chinen Y, et al.Identification of IGHCδ-BACH2 fusion transcripts resulting from cryptic chromosomal rearrangements of 14q32 with 6q15 in aggressive B-cell lymphoma/leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2011; 50(4):207-16 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In B-cell malignancies, genes implicated in B-cell differentiation, germinal center formation, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation are juxtaposed to immunoglobulin loci through chromosomal translocations. In this study, we identified the BTB and CNC homology 2 (BACH2) gene as a novel translocation partner of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus in a patient with IGH-MYC-positive, highly aggressive B-cell lymphoma/leukemia carrying der(14)t(8;14) and del(6)(q15). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using an IGH/MYC probe detected an IGH-MYC fusion signal on der(14) and IGH signal on del(6). Genome copy number analysis showed a deletion in the 6q15-25 region and a centromeric breakpoint within the BACH2 gene. cDNA bubble polymerase chain reaction using BACH2 primers revealed that the first exon of Cδ was fused to the 5'-untranslated region of BACH2 exon 2. The Cδ-BACH2 fusion transcript consisted of exon 1 of Cδ and exons 2 to 9 of BACH2, encompassing the entire BACH2 coding region, and the BACH2 was highly expressed in this patient. These results indicate that Cδ-BACH2 fusion may cause constitutive activation of BACH2. Although additional screening of 47 samples of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) patients and 29 cell lines derived from B-cell malignancies by double-color fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis detected a split signal with deletion of centromeric region of BACH2 only in a patient with follicular lymphoma, BACH2 was highly expressed in lymphoma cells of the patient and B-NHL cell lines with IGH-MYC translocation. These findings suggest that BACH2 plays a critical role in B-cell lymphomagenesis, especially related to IGH-MYC translocation in some way.
Gutiérrez NC, Sarasquete ME, Misiewicz-Krzeminska I, et al.Deregulation of microRNA expression in the different genetic subtypes of multiple myeloma and correlation with gene expression profiling.
Leukemia. 2010; 24(3):629-37 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Specific microRNA (miRNA) signatures have been associated with different cytogenetic subtypes in acute leukemias. This finding prompted us to investigate potential associations between genetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma (MM) and singular miRNA expression profiles. Moreover, global gene expression profiling was also analyzed to find correlated miRNA gene expression and select miRNA target genes that show such correlation. For this purpose, we analyzed the expression level of 365 miRNAs and the gene expression profiling in 60 newly diagnosed MM patients, selected to represent the most relevant recurrent genetic abnormalities. Supervised analysis showed significantly deregulated miRNAs in the different cytogenetic subtypes as compared with normal PC. It is interesting to note that miR-1 and miR-133a clustered on the same chromosomal loci, were specifically overexpressed in the cases with t(14;16). The analysis of the relationship between miRNA expression and their respective target genes showed a conserved inverse correlation between several miRNAs deregulated in MM cells and CCND2 expression level. These results illustrate, for the first time, that miRNA expression pattern in MM is associated with genetic abnormalities, and that the correlation of the expression profile of miRNA and their putative mRNA targets is useful to find statistically significant protein-coding genes in MM pathogenesis associated with changes in specific miRNAs.
Middendorp S, Xiao Y, Song JY, et al.Mice deficient for CD137 ligand are predisposed to develop germinal center-derived B-cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2009; 114(11):2280-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In the germinal center (GC), B cells proliferate dramatically and diversify their immunoglobulin genes, which increases the risk of malignant transformation. The GC B-cell reaction relies on crosstalk with follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), to which the costimulatory receptor CD137 on FDCs and its ligand on GC B cells potentially contribute. We report that mice deficient for CD137 ligand (CD137L) are predisposed to develop B-cell lymphoma, with an incidence of approximately 60% at 12 months of age. Lymphoma membrane markers were characteristic of GC B cells. Longitudinal histologic analysis identified the GC as site of oncogenic transformation and classified 85% of the malignancies found in approximately 200 mice as GC-derived B-cell lymphoma. To delineate the mechanism underlying lymphomagenesis, gene expression profiles of wild-type and CD137L-deficient GC B cells were compared. CD137L deficiency was associated with enhanced expression of a limited gene set that included Bcl-10 and the GC response regulators Bcl-6, Spi-B, Elf-1, Bach2, and activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Among these are proto-oncogenes that mediate GC B-cell lymphoma development in humans. We conclude that CD137L ordinarily regulates the GC B-cell response and thereby acts as a tumor suppressor.
BACKGROUND: The Bach2 gene functions as a transcriptional repressor in B-cells, showing high expression level only before the plasma cell stage. Several lines of evidence indicate that Bach2 is a B-cell specific tumor suppressor. We here address patterns of insertional mutagenesis and expression of Bach2 is a murine retroviral model of B-cell lymphoma induction.
RESULTS: We report that the Bach2 gene is a target of proviral integrations in B-cell lymphomas induced by murine leukemia virus. An alternative Bach2 promoter was identified within intron 2 and this promoter was activated in one of the tumors harboring proviral integration. The alternative promoter was active in both normal and tumor tissue and the tissue specificity of the two Bach2 promoters was similar. Three different alternatively used Bach2 terminal exons were identified to be located in intron 4. The inclusion of these exons resulted in the generation of Bach2 mRNA with open reading frames lacking the bZIP DNA binding domain present in the normal Bach2 protein, but retaining a partial BTB protein dimerization domain. Such Bach2 protein was excluded from the cell nucleus.
CONCLUSION: We have identified an alternative promoter and new protein isoforms of Bach2. Our data imply that activation of an alternative promoter by proviral integration serves as a possible mechanism of up-regulation of the Bach2 gene with a potential role in B-cell lymphomagenesis. The finding of novel Bach2 transcripts and protein isoforms will facilitate a better insight into the normal and pathophysiological regulation of the Bach2 gene.
Green M, Gandhi MK, Camilleri E, et al.High levels of BACH2 associated with lower levels of BCL2 transcript abundance in t(14;18)(q21;q34) translocation positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Leuk Res. 2009; 33(5):731-4 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The t(14;18)(q21;q34) BCL2 translocation is a common genetic alteration in follicular and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. However, it is not invariably associated with BCL2 gene overexpression due to undefined mechanisms that regulate expression from the proximal immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) promoter. The BACH2 transcriptional repressor is able to modulate activity of this promoter. Here we have shown that, in tumor samples with BCL2 translocation, those with high levels of BACH2 had significantly lower BCL2 transcript abundance compared to those with low levels of BACH2. This indicates that BACH2 may be partially responsible for regulation of BCL2 expression from the t(14;18)(q21;q34) translocation.
Baik SY, Yun HS, Lee HJ, et al.Identification of stathmin 1 expression induced by Epstein-Barr virus in human B lymphocytes.
Cell Prolif. 2007; 40(2):268-81 [PubMed
] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The Epstein-Barr virus transforms resting B cells into proliferating lymphoblastoid cells, the origin of cell lines.
METHOD AND RESULTS: Our cDNA microarray analyses led to the identification of 232 up-regulated and 112 down-regulated genes with more than a 3-fold difference in lymphoblastoid cell lines compared to resting B cells. The functional classification of these genes exhibited the distinct expression signature for cell proliferation, cell cycle and an immune response. Among them, we verified the differential expression of several oncogenes such as stathmin 1 (STMN1), RAB27A, RAB9A, BACH1 and BACH2 using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions or Western blot analysis. Expression of STMN1 (which is involved in regulation of the microtubule filament system, cell growth and S-phase of cell cycle) was increased in lymphoblastoid cell line as well as in 7-day post-Epstein-Barr virus infection B cells, compared to resting B cells.
CONCLUSION: Thus, this study suggests that Epstein-Barr virus infection induces STMN1 expression, which play a role in cell cycle progression and proliferation in the human B lymphocyte.
Blum R, Elkon R, Yaari S, et al.Gene expression signature of human cancer cell lines treated with the ras inhibitor salirasib (S-farnesylthiosalicylic acid).
Cancer Res. 2007; 67(7):3320-8 [PubMed
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Deregulation of Ras pathways results in complex abnormalities of multiple signaling cascades that contribute to human malignancies. Ras is therefore considered an appropriate target for cancer therapy. In light of the complexity of the deregulated Ras pathway, it is important to decipher at the molecular level the response of cancer cells to Ras inhibitors that would reregulate it. In the present study, we used gene expression profiling as a robust method for the global dissection of gene expression alterations that resulted from treatment with the Ras inhibitor S-farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS; salirasib). Use of a ranking-based procedure, combined with functional analysis and promoter sequence analysis, enabled us to decipher the common and most prominent patterns of the transcriptional response of five different human cancer cell lines to FTS. Remarkably, the analysis identified a distinctive core transcriptional response to FTS that was common to all cancer cell lines tested. This signature fits well to a recently described deregulated Ras pathway signature that predicted sensitivity to FTS. Taken together, these studies provide strong support for the conclusion that FTS specifically reregulates defective Ras pathways in human tumor cells. Ras pathway reregulation by FTS was manifested by repression of E2F-regulated and NF-Y-regulated genes and of the transcription factor FOS (all of which control cell proliferation), repression of survivin expression (which blocks apoptosis), and induction of activating transcription factor-regulated and Bach2-regulated genes (which participate in translation and stress responses). Our results suggest that cancer patients with deregulated Ras pathway tumors might benefit from FTS treatment.
Gutiérrez NC, Ocio EM, de Las Rivas J, et al.Gene expression profiling of B lymphocytes and plasma cells from Waldenström's macroglobulinemia: comparison with expression patterns of the same cell counterparts from chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma and normal individuals.
Leukemia. 2007; 21(3):541-9 [PubMed
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The tumoral clone of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) shows a wide morphological heterogeneity, which ranges from B lymphocytes (BL) to plasma cells (PC). By means of genome-wide expression profiling we have been able to identify genes exclusively deregulated in BL and PC from WM, but with a similar expression pattern in their corresponding cell counterparts from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM), as well as normal individuals. The differentially expressed genes have important functions in B-cell differentiation and oncogenesis. Thus, two of the genes downregulated in WM-BL were IL4R, which plays a relevant role in CLL B-cell survival, and BACH2, which participates in the development of class-switched PC. Interestingly, one of the upregulated genes in WM-BL was IL6. A set of four genes was able to discriminate clonal BL from WM and CLL: LEF1 (WNT/beta-catenin pathway), MARCKS, ATXN1 and FMOD. We also found deregulation of genes involved in plasma cell differentiation such as PAX5, which was overexpressed in WM-PC, and IRF4 and BLIMP1, which were underexpressed. In addition, three of the target genes activated by PAX5 - CD79, BLNK and SYK - were upregulated in WM-PC. In summary, these results indicate that both PC and BL from WM are genetically different from the MM and CLL cell counterpart.
Ono A, Kono K, Ikebe D, et al.Nuclear positioning of the BACH2 gene in BCR-ABL positive leukemic cells.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2007; 46(1):67-74 [PubMed
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BACH2 is a B-cell-specific transcription repressor and is also know as a tumor suppressor in B cell malignancy. Expression of BACH2 is induced in BCR-ABL positive lymphoid cell lines including BV173 by imatinib, a molecular targeting agent for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Here we show that the activity of the BACH2 gene is related to the nuclear positioning of the gene loci. We examined the spatial association of the BACH2 gene with the centromeric heterochromatin, a transcriptionally repressive subnuclear compartment, by comparing cells with low (BV173 and K562) and high (NAMALWA) levels of BACH2 mRNA. The BACH2 gene was located closer to the centromeric heterochromatin in BV173 and K562 cells as compared to NAMALWA cells. In BV173 cells, the BACH2-centromere distance increased after imatinib treatment to levels similar to those in NAMALWA cells. We also found that diethylmaleate, an oxidative stressor, enhanced the antiproliferative effect of imatinib in only BV173 cells. Since BACH2 induces apoptosis by oxidative stress, these observations suggest that down-regulation of the BACH2 gene through the interaction with centromeric heterochromatin would take part in leukomogenesis of BCR-ABL positive lymphoid leukemia.
Motamed-Khorasani A, Jurisica I, Letarte M, et al.Differentially androgen-modulated genes in ovarian epithelial cells from BRCA mutation carriers and control patients predict ovarian cancer survival and disease progression.
Oncogene. 2007; 26(2):198-214 [PubMed
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Epidemiological studies have implicated androgens in the etiology and progression of epithelial ovarian cancer. We previously reported that some androgen responses were dysregulated in malignant ovarian epithelial cells relative to control, non-malignant ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells. Moreover, dysregulated androgen responses were observed in OSE cells derived from patients with germline BRCA-1 or -2 mutations (OSEb), which account for the majority of familial ovarian cancer predisposition, and such altered responses may be involved in ovarian carcinogenesis or progression. In the present study, gene expression profiling using cDNA microarrays identified 17 genes differentially expressed in response to continuous androgen exposure in OSEb cells and ovarian cancer cells as compared to OSE cells derived from control patients. A subset of these differentially affected genes was selected and verified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Six of the gene products mapped to the OPHID protein-protein interaction database, and five were networked within two interacting partners. Basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2 (BACH2) and acetylcholinesterase (ACHE), which were upregulated by androgen in OSEb cells relative to OSE cells, were further investigated using an ovarian cancer tissue microarray from a separate set of 149 clinical samples. Both cytoplasmic ACHE and BACH2 immunostaining were significantly increased in ovarian cancer relative to benign cases. High levels of cytoplasmic ACHE staining correlated with decreased survival, whereas nuclear BACH2 staining correlated with decreased time to disease recurrence. The finding that products of genes differentially responsive to androgen in OSEb cells may predict survival and disease progression supports a role for altered androgen effects in ovarian cancer. In addition to BACH2 and ACHE, this study highlights a set of potentially functionally related genes for further investigation in ovarian cancer.
Sakane-Ishikawa E, Nakatsuka S, Tomita Y, et al.Prognostic significance of BACH2 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a study of the Osaka Lymphoma Study Group.
J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23(31):8012-7 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: BACH2, a B-cell-specific transcription repressor, is abundantly expressed in lymphocytes of B-cell lineage as well as B-cell lymphoma cell lines. BACH2 possesses an inhibitory effect on proliferation of Raji cell lines derived from Burkitt's lymphoma. In this study, the prognostic significance of BACH2 expression was examined in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: BACH2 expression was immunohistochemically examined on the paraffin-embedded sections obtained by biopsy from 108 patients (62 males and 46 females; age range, 23 to 85 years) with DLBCL. Staining intensity in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells was categorized as equal to or stronger (level 1) or weaker (level 2) than that in the endothelial cells in the same specimens.
RESULTS: Level 1 and 2 expression of BACH2 was found in 32.4% and 67.6% of patients, respectively. Patients with level 1 expression showed significantly better disease-free and overall survival rate than those with level 2 expression (both P < .05). Multivariate analysis revealed BACH2 expression level together with performance status, elevated serum level of lactate dehydrogenase, and treatment response to be independent factors for prognosis of the patients.
CONCLUSION: BACH2 expression level is a useful marker to predict disease-free and overall survival of patients with DLBCL.
Zhou P, Kalakonda N, Comenzo RLChanges in gene expression profiles of multiple myeloma cells induced by arsenic trioxide (ATO): possible mechanisms to explain ATO resistance in vivo.
Br J Haematol. 2005; 128(5):636-44 [PubMed
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Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy marked by eventual resistance to therapy. Although arsenic trioxide (ATO) can induce apoptosis in MM cell lines, the in vivo activity of ATO in MM has been disappointing. The existence of ATO resistance mechanisms in MM can be inferred. We sought to generate hypotheses for ATO resistance by studying the gene expression profiles of MM cells that survived in culture with 0.5 micromol/l ATO. Among the 31 genes whose quantitative levels of expression (QLE) significantly increased in ATO were haem oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and metallothionein-2A (MT-2A). Among the 56 genes whose QLE were significantly decreased were genes that modulate cell cycling [BTBD2 and IGFBP7 (mac25)] and sensitivity to reactive oxygen species (ROS) (BACH2). HO-1 exerts an anti-apoptotic effect in ischaemic cells, and MT-2A chelates ATO intracellularly. Inhibition of HO-1 with tin protoporphyrin enhances ROS in MM cells in ATO, and addition of N-acetylcysteine increases MT-2A. Protective antioxidant responses occur in MM cells exposed to ATO, and may occur in stromal cells as well, and act to quench ROS and provide diffusible anti-apoptotic factors. They may also involve cysteine-rich proteins that chelate ATO and modulate redox-sensitive residues on proteins, such as nuclear factor kappa B and p53. A better understanding of ATO resistance will enable ATO to be combined with other agents for MM.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) initially isolated from cultured Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells, is a well-known oncogenic virus. The Raji cell line was established from BL tissue and used for research worldwide. Previous study showed that each Raji cell contains an average of 50-60 EBV genome equivalents, and a significant proportion of the EBV genome is linearly integrated into host genome through BamHI-W close to the BamHI-Y fragment. However, a definitive EBV integration site in the chromosome has not been identified as yet. In this study, direct evidence that EBV DNA is integrated into the host genome was provided through cloning of the fragments containing nucleotide sequence of Raji integration sites. Integrated EBV DNA consisted of the BamHI-W fragment at one end and BamHI-D fragment at another end. Both junction sites were highly guanine/cytosine-rich. The BamHI-W fragment and the adjacent part of chromosome 6 showed 70% homology, while no homology was found between the BamHI-D and adjacent host sequences. EBV was present at intron 1 of the BACH2 gene located on chromosome 6q15. BACH2 was not expressed in the Raji cell line. Because BACH2 is a putative tumor suppressor gene, loss of its expression through EBV integration might contribute to lymphomagenesis.
Vieira SA, Deininger MW, Sorour A, et al.Transcription factor BACH2 is transcriptionally regulated by the BCR/ABL oncogene.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2001; 32(4):353-63 [PubMed
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Expression of BCR/ABL, a constitutively active tyrosine kinase, is a primary event in the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ALL). Inhibition of the BCR/ABL kinase activity in the BV173 CML cell line with STI571 resulted in a significant overexpression of a 10-kb novel mRNA, found to be the human ortholog of the murine Bach2, a B-cell-specific transcription factor. The human BACH2 cDNA is >9,120 bp long and includes an open reading frame of 2,526 bp encoding a protein with a basic leucine zipper (bZip) and a BTB/POZ domain, mediating DNA-binding and heterodimerization. BACH2 was consistently upregulated (2-10-fold) in all 10 Ph+ lymphoid lines tested following BCR/ABL inhibition. In CML myeloid cell lines (n = 8) and BCR/ABL-negative lines (n = 6), BACH2 was either undetectable by Northern blotting or did not change in response to STI571, suggesting that BACH2 repression by BCR/ABL may be specifically relevant to lymphoid transformation. Quantitative RT/PCR revealed a significantly lower level of BACH2 expression in leukocytes from patients with CML (n = 24) as compared to normal individuals (n = 23) (P < 0.0005). Moreover, CD34+ cells treated in vitro with STI571 exhibited a consistent upregulation of BACH2 in 8 of 10 CMLs but in none of the 9 normal individuals tested. Transcription regulation of BACH2 in BCR/ABL-positive cells was exerted via the MEK pathways, as shown by their responses to the U0126-specific inhibitor. Radiation hybrid mapping and FISH revealed that BACH2 is located on chromosome 6, band q15, a region frequently associated with deletions in ALL and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, suggesting its possible role as a tumor suppressor gene. However, no rearrangement or loss of signal was observed by Southern blotting in 34 lymphomas, 10 B-cell ALLs, or seven reactive lymph nodes. The pattern of BACH2 expression in BCR/ABL-positive cells suggests that transcriptional repression by this regulator is impaired in CML and may contribute to the emergence of lymphoid blast crisis.
Sasaki S, Ito E, Toki T, et al.Cloning and expression of human B cell-specific transcription factor BACH2 mapped to chromosome 6q15.
Oncogene. 2000; 19(33):3739-49 [PubMed
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The transcription factor Bach2, a member of the BTB-basic region leucine zipper (bZip) factor family, binds to a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-responsive element and the related Maf-recognition element (MARE) by forming homodimers or heterodimers with Maf-related transcription factors. Bach2 regulates transcription by binding to these elements. To understand the function in hematopoiesis, we isolated a cDNA clone for human Bach2 (BACH2) encoding a protein of 841 amino acid residues with a deduced amino acid sequence having 89.5% identity to mouse homolog. Among human hematopoietic cell lines, BACH2 is expressed abundantly only in some B-lymphocytic cell lines. RT-PCR analysis of hematopoietic cells revealed that BACH2 mRNA is expressed in primary B-cells. Enforced expression of BACH2 in a human Burkitt cell line, RAJI that does not express endogenous BACH2, resulted in marked reduction of clonogenic activity, indicating that BACH2 possesses an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. By fluorescent in situ hybridization, the BACH2 gene was localized to chromosome 6q15. Because deletion of the long arm of chromosome 6 (6q) is one of the commonest chromosomal alterations in human B-cell lymphoma, we examined for the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the BACH2 gene in human B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). Among 25 informative cases, five (20%) showed LOH. These results indicate that BACH2 plays important roles in regulation of B cell development.