Gene Summary

Gene:ACPP; acid phosphatase, prostate
Aliases: ACP3, 5'-NT, ACP-3, TM-PAP
Summary:This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of orthophosphoric monoester to alcohol and orthophosphate. It is synthesized under androgen regulation and is secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. An alternatively spliced transcript variant encoding a longer isoform has been found for this gene. This isoform contains a transmembrane domain and is localized in the plasma membrane-endosomal-lysosomal pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:prostatic acid phosphatase
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (16)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (2)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transcription Factors
  • Choroid Plexus Neoplasms
  • Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • Transfection
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Infant
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Adolescents
  • ACPP
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Signal Transduction
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Base Sequence
  • Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Chromosome 3
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia
  • Carcinoma
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Risk Factors
  • Acid Phosphatase
  • p53 Protein
  • Hybrid Cells
  • Genotype
  • Prostate
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Chromosome Banding
  • Staging
  • Tumor Antigens
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Alleles
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Expression
  • DNA Probes
  • Genes, Neoplasm
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ACPP (cancer-related)

Wang G, Fu S, Li D, Chen Y
Expression and clinical significance of serum NT5E protein in patients with colorectal cancer.
Cancer Biomark. 2019; 24(4):461-468 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the expression level and clinical significance of serum NT5E protein (ecto-5'-nucleotidase) in patients with colorectal cancer.
METHODS: The expression level of serum NT5E protein in 232 patients with colorectal cancer and 158 normal controls was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, the relationship between the expression level of serum NT5E and the clinicopathological features of colorectal cancer was analyzed.
RESULTS: The expression level of serum NT5E in patients with colorectal cancer was significantly higher compared with that in normal controls (P< 0.05). The expression level of serum NT5E in patients with colorectal cancer closely correlated with the family history of tumors (P= 0.001), expression level of CA19-9 (P= 0.031), lymph node metastasis (P= 0.001), distant metastasis (P= 0.010), nerve invasion (P= 0.049), degree of differentiation (P= 0.013), and TNM staging (P= 0.001), but not with gender, age, smoking and drinking histories, expression level of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tumor locations, vascular tumor thrombus, cancer nodules, and pathological type (P> 0.05). Moreover, the overall survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer was significantly lower in the NT5E high-expression group, with statistical significance (χ2= 11.184, P= 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The expression level of serum NT5E increased in patients with colorectal cancer, and closely correlated with the malignant evolution and clinical prognosis of colorectal cancer. NT5E might serve as a serological indicator for molecular diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal cancer clinically.

Patzak MS, Kari V, Patil S, et al.
Cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase 1A is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and mediates gemcitabine resistance by reducing intracellular gemcitabine metabolites.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 40:394-405 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase 1A (NT5C1A) dephosphorylates non-cyclic nucleoside monophosphates to produce nucleosides and inorganic phosphates. Here, we investigate NT5C1A expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its impact on gemcitabine metabolism and therapeutic efficacy.
METHODS: NT5C1A expression was determined by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. Gemcitabine metabolites and response were assessed in several human and murine PDAC cell lines using crystal violet assays, Western blot, viability assays, and liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).
FINDINGS: NT5C1A was strongly expressed in tumor cells of a large subgroup of resected PDAC patients in two independent patient cohorts (44-56% score 2 and 8-26% score 3, n = 414). In contrast, NT5C1A was expressed at very low levels in the tumor stroma, and neither stromal nor tumoral expression was a prognostic marker for postoperative survival. In vitro, NT5C1A overexpression increased gemcitabine resistance by reducing apoptosis levels and significantly decreased intracellular amounts of cytotoxic dFdCTP in +NT5C1A tumor cells. Co-culture experiments with conditioned media from +NT5C1A PSCs improved gemcitabine efficacy in tumor cells. In vivo, therapeutic efficacy of gemcitabine was significantly decreased and serum levels of the inactive gemcitabine metabolite dFdU significantly increased in mice bearing NT5C1A overexpressing tumors.
INTERPRETATION: NT5C1A is robustly expressed in tumor cells of resected PDAC patients. Moreover, NT5C1A mediates gemcitabine resistance by decreasing the amount of intracellular dFdCTP, leading to reduced tumor cell apoptosis and larger pancreatic tumors in mice. Further studies should clarify the role of NT5C1A as novel predictor for gemcitabine treatment response in patients with PDAC.

Numakura S, Uozaki H, Kikuchi Y, et al.
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Marker Expression in Gastric Cancer Stroma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(1):387-393 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Spindle-shaped stromal cells of tumors are derived from various cellular origins, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs express CD73, CD90 and CD105 antigens. Herein, the aim was to investigate the association between the expression of specific MSC markers in gastric cancer stromal cells and the clinicopathological features of the disease.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of CD73, CD90 and CD105 in spindle-shaped cancer stromal cells was studied by immunohistochemistry in tissue arrays containing 546 gastric cancer cases. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the association of MSC marker expression with clinicopathological variables.
RESULTS: Spindle-shaped cancer stromal cells expressing the MSC markers CD73, CD90 or CD105 were associated with larger tumor size, advanced cancer, venous infiltration, lymphatic infiltration, and lymph node metastasis. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the presence of CD105-positive spindle cells was an independent prognostic factor of advanced cancer, lymph node metastasis and EBV infection in multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSION: Spindle-shaped gastric cancer stromal cells expressing CD73, CD90 or CD105 are involved in disease progression, and among them, CD105-positive cells are strongly associated with poor prognosis.

Black KL, Naqvi AS, Asnani M, et al.
Aberrant splicing in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(21):11357-11369 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant splicing is a hallmark of leukemias with mutations in splicing factor (SF)-encoding genes. Here we investigated its prevalence in pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (B-ALL), where SFs are not mutated. By comparing these samples to normal pro-B cells, we found thousands of aberrant local splice variations (LSVs) per sample, with 279 LSVs in 241 genes present in every comparison. These genes were enriched in RNA processing pathways and encoded ∼100 SFs, e.g. hnRNPA1. HNRNPA1 3'UTR was most pervasively mis-spliced, yielding the transcript subject to nonsense-mediated decay. To mimic this event, we knocked it down in B-lymphoblastoid cells and identified 213 hnRNPA1-regulated exon usage events comprising the hnRNPA1 splicing signature in pediatric leukemia. Some of its elements were LSVs in DICER1 and NT5C2, known cancer drivers. We searched for LSVs in other leukemia and lymphoma drivers and discovered 81 LSVs in 41 additional genes. Seventy-seven LSVs out of 81 were confirmed using two large independent B-ALL RNA-seq datasets, and the twenty most common B-ALL drivers, including NT5C2, showed higher prevalence of aberrant splicing than of somatic mutations. Thus, post-transcriptional deregulation of SF can drive widespread changes in B-ALL splicing and likely contributes to disease pathogenesis.

Tulstrup M, Grosjean M, Nielsen SN, et al.
NT5C2 germline variants alter thiopurine metabolism and are associated with acquired NT5C2 relapse mutations in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(12):2527-2535 [PubMed] Related Publications
The antileukaemic drug 6-mercaptopurine is converted into thioguanine nucleotides (TGN) and incorporated into DNA (DNA-TG), the active end metabolite. In a series of genome-wide association studies, we analysed time-weighted means (

Bertoni APS, Bracco PA, de Campos RP, et al.
Activity of ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E/CD73) is increased in papillary thyroid carcinoma and its expression is associated with metastatic lymph nodes.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2019; 479:54-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been increasing, which raised the interest in its molecular pathways. Although the high expression of ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E) gene expression and NT5E enzymatic activity in several types of cancer is associated with tumor progression, its role in PTC remains unknown. Here, we investigated the AMP hydrolysis in human normal thyroid cells and PTC cells, in primary culture, and the association of NT5E expression with clinical aspects of PTC patients. AMPase activity was higher in thyroid cells isolated from PTC, as compared to normal thyroid (P = 0.0063). Significant correlation was observed between AMPase activity and NT5E levels in primary thyroid cell cultures (r = 0.655, P = 0.029). NT5E expression was higher in PTC than in the adjacent non-malignant thyroid tissue (P = 0.0065) and were positively associated with metastatic lymph nodes (P = 0.0007), risk of recurrence (P = 0.0033), tumor size (P = 0.049), and nodular hyperplasia in the adjacent thyroid parenchyma, when compared to normal thyroid or lymphocytic thyroiditis (P = 0.0146). After adjusting for potential confounders, the malignant/non-malignant paired expression ratio of NT5E mRNA was independently associated with metastatic lymph nodes (P = 0.0005), and tumor size (P=0.0005). In addition, the analysis of PTC described in the TCGA database also showed an association between higher expression of NT5E and metastatic lymph nodes, and tumor microinvasion. These results support the hypothesis that NT5E have a role in PTC microenvironment and might be a potential target for PTC therapy.

Azambuja JH, Gelsleichter NE, Beckenkamp LR, et al.
CD73 Downregulation Decreases In Vitro and In Vivo Glioblastoma Growth.
Mol Neurobiol. 2019; 56(5):3260-3279 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma is the worst and most common primary brain tumor. Here, we demonstrated the role of CD73, an enzyme responsible for adenosine (ADO) production, in glioblastoma progression. ADO increased glioma cell viability via A1 receptor sensitization. CD73 downregulation decreased glioma cell migration and invasion by reducing metalloproteinase-2 and vimentin expression and reduced cell proliferation by 40%, which was related to necrosis and sub-G1 phase blockage of cell cycle. Those effects also involved the stimulation of Akt/NF-kB pathways. Additionally, CD73 knockdown or enzyme inhibition potentiated temozolomide cytotoxic effect on glioma cells by decreasing the IC

Milosevic M, Lazarevic M, Toljic B, et al.
Characterization of stem-like cancer cells in basal cell carcinoma and its surgical margins.
Exp Dermatol. 2018; 27(10):1160-1165 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Understanding the pathogenesis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and identifying the cells responsible for propagation and recurrence are crucial for the development of new treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to characterize the cells isolated from BCC and its margin.
METHODS: Primary cultures were established from 10 BCCs, their respective close resection margins (3 mm) and 10 control tissues. Stem cell markers analysis was carried out by real-time PCR and/or flow cytometry. Spheroid formation and MTT assays were also performed.
RESULTS: Real-time PCR showed a higher expression of embryonic (Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog) and mesenchymal (CD44 and CD73) stem cell markers in tumors compared to margins and controls (P < 0.05). Bmi-1 and GPR49 were also upregulated in tumors in comparison with margins. Both tumor and margin cells, but not normal, had the capacity to form spheroids. During passages, the number of spheres increased, while the diameter decreased. Tumor cells showed higher chemo-resistance compared to margin and control cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Basal cell carcinomas expressed stem cell markers, pointing to the existence of a cancer cell side population with stemness characteristics. Margin also appeared to harbour a small number of cancer-initiating cells.

Dieck CL, Tzoneva G, Forouhar F, et al.
Structure and Mechanisms of NT5C2 Mutations Driving Thiopurine Resistance in Relapsed Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Cancer Cell. 2018; 34(1):136-147.e6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Activating mutations in the cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase II gene NT5C2 drive resistance to 6-mercaptopurine in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Here we demonstrate that constitutively active NT5C2 mutations K359Q and L375F reconfigure the catalytic center for substrate access and catalysis in the absence of allosteric activator. In contrast, most relapse-associated mutations, which involve the arm segment and residues along the surface of the inter-monomeric cavity, disrupt a built-in switch-off mechanism responsible for turning off NT5C2. In addition, we show that the C-terminal acidic tail lost in the Q523X mutation functions to restrain NT5C2 activation. These results uncover dynamic mechanisms of enzyme regulation targeted by chemotherapy resistance-driving NT5C2 mutations, with important implications for the development of NT5C2 inhibitor therapies.

Song Y, Song C, Yang S
Tumor-Suppressive Function of miR-30d-5p in Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation and Migration by Targeting NT5E.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2018; 33(5):203-211 [PubMed] Related Publications
MiR-30d-5p, a member of the microRNA family, was recently reported to regulate androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer (PCa). Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E/CD73) is a pivotal regulator of tumor migration and has angiogenetic properties. However, the undiscovered function of miR-30d-5p and whether it targeted NT5E in PCa remain uncertain. In this study, the authors observed miR-30d-5p was significantly downregulated in PCa tissues and cell lines compared with the adjacent normal tissues and normal prostate cells, respectively. The lower expression of miR-30d-5p was found to be inversely correlated with the NT5E expression in PCa tissues. Subsequently, the biological function of miR-30d-5p was evaluated in PCa in vitro. The results indicated that miR-30d-5p overexpression inhibited PCa cell growth and invasion by MTT, Transwell assays, respectively, as well as induced cell cycle G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis using flow cytometry analysis. In addition, miR-30d-5p directly bound to the 3'UTR (3' untranslated region) of NT5E in DU-145 and PC-3 cells by luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, enforced NT5E expression alleviated miR-30d-5p inhibition of PCa cell growth and invasion in DU145 cells. Taken together, these data indicated that miR-30d-5p may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of PCa by serving as a tumor suppressor, by negatively regulating NT5E.

Kordaß T, Osen W, Eichmüller SB
Controlling the Immune Suppressor: Transcription Factors and MicroRNAs Regulating CD73/NT5E.
Front Immunol. 2018; 9:813 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The NT5E (CD73) molecule represents an ecto-5'-nucleotidase expressed on the cell surface of various cell types. Hydrolyzing extracellular adenosine monophosphate into adenosine and inorganic phosphate, NT5E performs numerous homeostatic functions in healthy organs and tissues. Importantly, NT5E can act as inhibitory immune checkpoint molecule, since free adenosine generated by NT5E inhibits cellular immune responses, thereby promoting immune escape of tumor cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules regulating gene expression on posttranscriptional level through binding to mRNAs, resulting in translational repression or degradation of the targeted mRNA molecule. In tumor cells, miRNA expression patterns are often altered which in turn might affect NT5E surface expression and eventually influence the efficacy of antitumor immune responses. This review describes the diverse roles of NT5E, summarizes current knowledge about transcription factors controlling NT5E expression, and highlights the significance of miRNAs involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of NT5E expression.

Zhu Q, Yan L, Liu Q, et al.
Exome chip analyses identify genes affecting mortality after HLA-matched unrelated-donor blood and marrow transplantation.
Blood. 2018; 131(22):2490-2499 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although survival outcomes have significantly improved, up to 40% of patients die within 1 year of HLA-matched unrelated-donor blood and marrow transplantation (BMT). To identify non-HLA genetic contributors to mortality after BMT, we performed the first exome-wide association study in the DISCOVeRY-BMT cohorts using the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. This study includes 2473 patients with acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome and 2221 10/10 HLA-matched donors treated from 2000 to 2011. Single-variant and gene-level analyses were performed on overall survival (OS), transplantation-related mortality (TRM), and disease-related mortality (DRM). Genotype mismatches between recipients and donors in a rare nonsynonymous variant of testis-expressed gene

Lupia M, Angiolini F, Bertalot G, et al.
CD73 Regulates Stemness and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Ovarian Cancer-Initiating Cells.
Stem Cell Reports. 2018; 10(4):1412-1425 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) have been implicated in tumor development and aggressiveness. In ovarian carcinoma (OC), CICs drive tumor formation, dissemination, and recurrence, as well as drug resistance, thus accounting for the high death-to-incidence ratio of this neoplasm. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie such a pathogenic role of ovarian CICs (OCICs) remain elusive. Here, we have capitalized on primary cells either from OC or from its tissues of origin to obtain the transcriptomic profile associated with OCICs. Among the genes differentially expressed in OCICs, we focused on CD73, which encodes the membrane-associated 5'-ectonucleotidase. The genetic inactivation of CD73 in OC cells revealed that this molecule is causally involved in sphere formation and tumor initiation, thus emerging as a driver of OCIC function. Furthermore, functional inhibition of CD73 via either a chemical compound or a neutralizing antibody reduced sphere formation and tumorigenesis, highlighting the druggability of CD73 in the context of OCIC-directed therapies. The biological function of CD73 in OCICs required its enzymatic activity and involved adenosine signaling. Mechanistically, CD73 promotes the expression of stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated genes, implying a regulation of OCIC function at the transcriptional level. CD73, therefore, is involved in OCIC biology and may represent a therapeutic target for innovative treatments aimed at OC eradication.

Hnízda A, Fábry M, Moriyama T, et al.
Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia-specific mutations in NT5C2 cluster into hotspots driving intersubunit stimulation.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(6):1393-1403 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activating mutations in NT5C2, a gene encoding cytosolic purine 5'-nucleotidase (cN-II), confer chemoresistance in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Here we show that all mutants became independent of allosteric effects of ATP and thus constitutively active. Structural mapping of mutations described in patients demonstrates that 90% of leukemia-specific allelles directly affect two regulatory hotspots within the cN-II molecule-the helix A region: residues 355-365, and the intersubunit interface: helix B (232-242) and flexible interhelical loop L (400-418). Furthermore, analysis of hetero-oligomeric complexes combining wild-type (WT) and mutant subunits showed that the activation is transmitted from the mutated to the WT subunit. This intersubunit interaction forms structural basis of hyperactive NT5C2 in drug-resistant leukemia in which heterozygous NT5C2 mutation gave rise to hetero-tetramer mutant and WT proteins. This enabled us to define criteria to aid the prediction of NT5C2 drug resistance mutations in leukemia.

Kirches E, Steffen T, Waldt N, et al.
The expression of the MSC-marker CD73 and of NF2/Merlin are correlated in meningiomas.
J Neurooncol. 2018; 138(2):251-259 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been found in various cancers and were discussed to influence tumor biology. Cells fulfilling the complete MSC criteria, including surface marker expression (CD73, CD90, CD105) and tri-lineage differentiation, have been isolated solely from a low percentage of high-grade meningiomas. In contrast, pure co-expression of the surface-markers was relatively frequent, raising the question for an additional role of these membrane proteins in meningiomas. Therefore, here we analyzed the expression of CD73, CD90 and CD105 in a series of meningiomas of all grades. Although no significant association of any marker with meningeal tumor growth per se or with tumor-grade was observed, we detected a positive Pearson correlation (r = 0.55, p ≤ 0.05) in low-grade tumors between CD73 and the most relevant tumor suppressor NF2/Merlin, supported by a tendency of lower CD73 expression in cases with allelic losses at the NF2-locus, which express significantly lower NF2/Merlin-mRNA (p ≤ 0.05). In two pairs of syngenous meningeal or meningioma cell lines with or without shRNA-mediated knockdown of NF2/Merlin a nearly complete loss of CD73 mRNA expression was observed after the knockdown (p ≤ 0.001). This suggested that the correlation observed in tumors may result from a direct functional link between Merlin and CD73. Since CD73 is a 5'-exonucleotidase (termed NT5E), we discuss a potential role of NT5E-mediated purinergic signaling to modulate actin-cytoskeleton and cell contacts, which may be a functional link to NF2/Merlin.

Samanta D, Park Y, Ni X, et al.
Chemotherapy induces enrichment of CD47
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(6):E1239-E1248 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy and is often characterized by early relapse and metastasis. To form a secondary (recurrent and/or metastatic) tumor, a breast cancer cell must evade the innate and adaptive immune systems. CD47 enables cancer cells to evade killing by macrophages, whereas CD73 and PDL1 mediate independent mechanisms of evasion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Here, we report that treatment of human or murine TNBC cells with carboplatin, doxorubicin, gemcitabine, or paclitaxel induces the coordinate transcriptional induction of CD47, CD73, and PDL1 mRNA and protein expression, leading to a marked increase in the percentage of CD47

Tzoneva G, Dieck CL, Oshima K, et al.
Clonal evolution mechanisms in NT5C2 mutant-relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Nature. 2018; 553(7689):511-514 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is associated with resistance to chemotherapy and poor prognosis. Gain-of-function mutations in the 5'-nucleotidase, cytosolic II (NT5C2) gene induce resistance to 6-mercaptopurine and are selectively present in relapsed ALL. Yet, the mechanisms involved in NT5C2 mutation-driven clonal evolution during the initiation of leukaemia, disease progression and relapse remain unknown. Here we use a conditional-and-inducible leukaemia model to demonstrate that expression of NT5C2(R367Q), a highly prevalent relapsed-ALL NT5C2 mutation, induces resistance to chemotherapy with 6-mercaptopurine at the cost of impaired leukaemia cell growth and leukaemia-initiating cell activity. The loss-of-fitness phenotype of NT5C2

Dietrich F, Figueiró F, Filippi-Chiela EC, et al.
Ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 contributes to the radiosensitivity of T24 human bladder cancer cell line.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2018; 144(3):469-482 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Trimodal therapy is a reasonable bladder-preserving option to radical cystectomy. However, many tumors are radioresistive. In this sense, the identification of new prognostic and predictive biomarkers that allow the selection of patients with better responses to radiation therapy would improve outcomes. With the aim of using ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 as a predictive biomarker, the role of this enzyme in the context of radiotherapy in T24 human bladder cancer cell line was investigated.
METHODS: T24 cell line was exposure to a single dose of radiation (4 Gray) and trypan blue assay (pharmacological assays of viability/cumulative population doubling), flow cytometry (cell cycle/cell death/active caspase-3/ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 protein staining), DAPI staining (nuclear morphometric assay), RT-PCR and real-time PCR, malachite green method (ectonucleotidase enzymatic assay), and HPLC (analysis of AMP metabolism) were carried out. T24 cell line in which ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 has been completely silenced (5'KO) was also used.
RESULTS: The exposure of T24 cell line to a single dose (4 Gray) of radiation-induced cell death and triggered a transitory increase in ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 expression, increased ectonucleotidase activity, and led to adenosine and inosine accumulation in the extracellular medium. Pharmacological inhibition or knocking out ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 rescued cells' proliferative capacity, reducing their sensitivity to radiation.
CONCLUSION: Our findings show that the induction of ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 by radiation contributes to the radiosensitivity of T24 cell line.

Wang N, Xiang X, Chen K, et al.
Targeting of NT5E by miR-30b and miR-340 attenuates proliferation, invasion and migration of gallbladder carcinoma.
Biochimie. 2018; 146:56-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been closely associated with the proliferation, invasion and migration of various cancers, including gallbladder carcinoma (GBC). Previous studies have revealed dysregulation of miR-30b and miR-340 in many types of cancer. However, the role of miR-30b and miR-340 in the development and progression of GBC remains unclear. Moreover, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been gradually viewed as a significant contributor to tumor metastasis. In this study, the cell line GBC-SD was used and we explored that EMT promoted GBC cells invasion and migration and inhibited the expression level of miR-30b and miR-340 compared with the control. We showed that overexpression of miR-30b and miR-340 suppressed GBC cells proliferation, invasion and migration, as well as the expression of EMT-associated genes. In addition, we identified ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E) as a common target of miR-30b and miR-340 using bioinformatics analysis and a luciferase assay. Further experiments found that exogenous expression of NT5E in GBC cells could partially reverse the inhibitory effect of miR-30b and miR-340 on cell proliferation, invasion and migration. Our findings suggest that NT5E-targeting miRNAs (miR-30b and miR-340) function as tumor suppressors and may represent promising therapeutic targets for GBC.

Turcotte M, Allard D, Mittal D, et al.
CD73 Promotes Resistance to HER2/ErbB2 Antibody Therapy.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(20):5652-5663 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression of the ectonucleotidase CD73 by tumor cells, stromal cells, and immune cells is associated in cancer with immune suppression. In this study, we investigated the role of CD73 on the activity of the anti-HER2/ErbB2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) trastuzumab. In a prospective, randomized phase III clinical trial evaluating the activity of trastuzumab, high levels of CD73 gene expression were associated significantly with poor clinical outcome. In contrast, high levels of PD-1 and PD-L1 were associated with improved clinical outcome. In immunocompetent mouse models of HER2/ErbB2-driven breast cancer, CD73 expression by tumor cells and host cells significantly suppressed immune-mediated responses mediated by anti-ErbB2 mAb. Furthermore, anti-CD73 mAb therapy enhanced the activity of anti-ErbB2 mAb to treat engrafted or spontaneous tumors as well as lung metastases. Gene ontology enrichment analysis from gene-expression data revealed a positive association of CD73 expression with extracellular matrix organization, TGFβ genes, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) transcription factors and hypoxia-inducible-factor (HIF)-1 gene signature. Human mammary cells treated with TGFβ or undergoing EMT upregulated CD73 cell-surface expression, confirming roles for these pathways. In conclusion, our findings establish CD73 in mediating resistance to trastuzumab and provide new insights into how CD73 is regulated in breast cancer.

Tsai AK, Khan AY, Worgo CE, et al.
A Multikinase and DNA-PK Inhibitor Combination Immunomodulates Melanomas, Suppresses Tumor Progression, and Enhances Immunotherapies.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2017; 5(9):790-803 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Combination therapies have the potential to improve outcomes in melanoma patients but have not yet been clinically efficacious. Here, we used high-throughput flow cytometry-based screening to identify and characterize candidate therapies that might synergize with and augment T-cell immunotherapy efficacy. Two lead therapies, regorafenib (Reg) and NU7441, were selected based on their ability to alter a variety of immunomodulatory proteins, including CD55, CD73, CD155, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), and HLA class I in a heterogeneous panel of melanomas. The therapies also upregulated several melanoma antigens, inhibited proliferation, and perturbed activation of oncogenic signaling pathways in melanomas. T cells treated with the therapies proliferated normally and exhibited a favorably altered phenotype, including increased CD25, CD28, inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS), and reduced expression of coinhibitory receptors. Cytokine production was also increased in treated T cells. When administered in mice, REg suppressed melanoma progression in a CD8

Reinhardt J, Landsberg J, Schmid-Burgk JL, et al.
MAPK Signaling and Inflammation Link Melanoma Phenotype Switching to Induction of CD73 during Immunotherapy.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(17):4697-4709 [PubMed] Related Publications
Evolution of tumor cell phenotypes promotes heterogeneity and therapy resistance. Here we found that induction of CD73, the enzyme that generates immunosuppressive adenosine, is linked to melanoma phenotype switching. Activating MAPK mutations and growth factors drove CD73 expression, which marked both nascent and full activation of a mesenchymal-like melanoma cell state program. Proinflammatory cytokines like TNFα cooperated with MAPK signaling through the c-Jun/AP-1 transcription factor complex to activate CD73 transcription by binding to an intronic enhancer. In a mouse model of T-cell immunotherapy, CD73 was induced in relapse melanomas, which acquired a mesenchymal-like phenotype. We also detected CD73 upregulation in melanoma patients progressing under adoptive T-cell transfer or immune checkpoint blockade, arguing for an adaptive resistance mechanism. Our work substantiates CD73 as a target to combine with current immunotherapies, but its dynamic regulation suggests limited value of CD73 pretreatment expression as a biomarker to stratify melanoma patients.

Ma SR, Deng WW, Liu JF, et al.
Blockade of adenosine A2A receptor enhances CD8
Mol Cancer. 2017; 16(1):99 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer immunotherapy offers a promising approach in cancer treatment. The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) could protect cancerous tissues from immune clearance via inhibiting T cells response. To date, the role of A2AR in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has not been investigated. Here, we sought to explore the expression and immunotherapeutic value of A2AR blockade in HNSCC.
METHODS: The expression of A2AR was evaluated by immunostaining in 43 normal mucosae, 48 dysplasia and 165 primary HNSCC tissues. The immunotherapeutic value of A2AR blockade was assessed in vivo in genetically defined immunocompetent HNSCC mouse model.
RESULTS: Immunostaining of HNSCC tissue samples revealed that increased expression of A2AR on tumor infiltrating immune cells correlated with advanced pathological grade, larger tumor size and positive lymph node status. Elevated A2AR expression was also detected in recurrent HNSCC and HNSCC tissues with induction chemotherapy. The expression of A2AR was found to be significantly correlated with HIF-1α, CD73, CD8 and Foxp3. Furthermore, the increased population of CD4
CONCLUSIONS: These results offer a preclinical proof for the administration of A2AR inhibitor on prophylactic experimental therapy of HNSCC and suggest that A2AR blockade can be a potential novel strategy for HNSCC immunotherapy.

Xie M, Qin H, Luo Q, et al.
MicroRNA-30a regulates cell proliferation and tumor growth of colorectal cancer by targeting CD73.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):305 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs which regulate a variety of cellular functions in the development of tumors. Among the numerous microRNAs, microRNA-30a (miR-30a) is thought to play an important role in the processes of various human tumors. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of miR-30a in the process of colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: The quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis were used to detect the expressions of miR-30a and CD73 in CRC cell lines and clinical tissues. The luciferase reporter assay was conducted to validate the association between miR-30a and CD73. The CCK-8, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP -biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays and cell cycle flow cytometry were carried out to verify the biological functions of miR-30a in vitro. The nude mouse tumorigenicity experiment was used to clarify the biological role of miR-30a in vivo.
RESULTS: The expression of miR-30a was significantly reduced in tumor cells and tissues of CRC. The proliferation ability of CRC cells was suppressed and the apoptosis of cells was promoted when miR-30a is over-regulated, however, the biological effects would be inverse since the miR-30a is down-regulated. CD73 is thought to be a target binding gene of miR-30a because miR-30a can bind directly to the 3'-UTR of CD73 mRNA, subsequently reducing its expression. The proliferation suppression of the CRC cells mediated by miR-30a could be rescued after up-regulating the expression of CD73.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-30a plays an important role on regulating the cell proliferation and apoptosis, thus affecting the growth of the tumor in CRC. And it may participate in the disease process of CRC by regulating the expression of CD73.

Martínez-Ramírez AS, Díaz-Muñoz M, Battastini AM, et al.
Cellular Migration Ability Is Modulated by Extracellular Purines in Ovarian Carcinoma SKOV-3 Cells.
J Cell Biochem. 2017; 118(12):4468-4478 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides have emerged as important elements regulating tissue homeostasis. Acting through specific receptors, have the ability to control gene expression patterns to direct cellular fate. We observed that SKOV-3 cells express the ectonucleotidases: ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase 1 (ENPP1), ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E), and liver alkaline phosphatase (ALPL). Strikingly, in pulse and chase experiments supplemented with ATP, SKOV-3 cells exhibited low catabolic efficiency in the conversion of ADP into AMP, but they were efficient in converting AMP into adenosine. Since these cells release ATP, we proposed that the conversion of ADP into AMP is a regulatory node associated with the migratory ability and the mesenchymal characteristics shown by SKOV-3 cells under basal conditions. The landscape of gene expression profiles of SKOV-3 cell cultures treated with apyrase or adenosine demonstrated similarities (e.g., decrease FGF16 transcript) and differences (e.g., the negative regulation of Wnt 2, and 10B by adenosine). Thus, in SKOV-3 we analyzed the migratory ability and the expression of epithelium to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers in response to apyrase. Apyrase-treatment favored the epithelial-like phenotype, as revealed by the re-location of E-cadherin to the cell to cell junctions. Pharmacological approaches strongly suggested that the effect of Apyrase involved the accumulation of extracellular adenosine; this notion was strengthened when the incubation of the SKOV-3 cell with α,β-methylene ADP (CD73 inhibitor) or adenosine deaminase was sufficient to abolish the effect of apyrase on cell migration. Overall, adenosine signaling is a fine tune mechanism in the control of cell phenotype in cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4468-4478, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ni W, Zhang Y, Zhan Z, et al.
A novel lncRNA uc.134 represses hepatocellular carcinoma progression by inhibiting CUL4A-mediated ubiquitination of LATS1.
J Hematol Oncol. 2017; 10(1):91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and tumor recurrence and metastasis are major factors that contribute to the poor outcome of patients with HCC. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to regulate different tumorigenic processes, and a growing body of evidence indicates that Hippo kinase signaling is inactivated in many cancers. However, the upstream lncRNA regulators of Hippo kinase signaling in HCC are poorly understood.
METHODS: Using a lncRNA microarray, we identified a novel lncRNA, uc.134, whose expression was significantly decreased in the highly aggressive HCC cell line HCCLM3 compared with MHCC97L cells. Furthermore, we evaluated uc.134 expression in clinical samples using in situ hybridization (ISH) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. The full-length transcript of uc.134 was confirmed using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) analyses. To investigate the biological function of uc.134, we performed gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies both in vitro and in vivo. The underlying mechanisms of uc.134 in HCC were investigated using RNA pulldown, RNA immunoprecipitation, ubiquitination assays, Western blotting, mRNA microarray analyses, and qRT-PCR analyses.
RESULTS: The ISH assay revealed that uc.134 expression was significantly decreased in 170 paraffin-embedded samples from patients with HCC compared with adjacent tissues and uc.134 expression directly correlated with patient prognosis. Furthermore, we defined a 1867-bp full-length transcript of uc.134 using 5'- and 3'-RACE analysis. The overexpression of uc.134 inhibited HCC cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis in vitro and in vivo, whereas the knockdown of uc.134 produced the opposite results. Furthermore, we confirmed that uc.134 (1408-1867 nt) binds to CUL4A (592-759 aa region) and inhibits its nuclear export. Moreover, we demonstrated that uc.134 inhibits the CUL4A-mediated ubiquitination of LATS1 and increases YAP
CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies that a novel lncRNA, uc.134, represses hepatocellular carcinoma progression by inhibiting the CUL4A-mediated ubiquitination of LATS1 and increasing YAP

Song L, Ye W, Cui Y, et al.
Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) is a biomarker for clear cell renal carcinoma stem-like cells.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(19):31977-31992 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Identification of a specific biomarker for cancer stem cells (CSCs) is of potential applications in the development of effective therapeutic strategies for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this study, both the RCC cell line 786-O and surgically removed clear cell RCC (ccRCC) tissues were implemented to grew as spheroids in serum-free medium supplemented with mitogens. This subpopulation possessed key characteristics defining CSCs. We also identified that surgically removed ccRCC tissues were heterogenic and there was a subpopulation of cells that was highly stained with rhodamine-123. Based on membrane-proteomic analyses, CD73 was identified as a candidate biomarker. We further found that CD73high cells were highly tumorigenic. As few as 100 CD73high cells were capable of forming xenograft tumors in non obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency disease mice, whereas 1 × 105 CD73low cells did not initiate tumor formation. During successive culture, the CD73high population regenerated both CD73high and CD73low cells, whereas the CD73low population remained low expression level of CD73. Furthermore, the CD73high cells were more resistant to radiation and DNA-damaging agents than the CD73low cells, and expressed a panel of 'stemness' genes at a higher level than the CD73low cells. These findings suggest that a high level of CD73 expression is a bona fide biomarker of ccRCC stem-like cells. Future research will aim at the elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of CD73 in RCC development and the distinct aspects of ccRCC stem-like cells from other tumor types.

Yang X, Pei S, Wang H, et al.
Tiamulin inhibits breast cancer growth and pulmonary metastasis by decreasing the activity of CD73.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):255 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastasis is the leading cause of death in breast cancer patients. CD73, also known as ecto-5'-nucleotidase, plays a critical role in cancer development including metastasis. The existing researches indicate that overexpression of CD73 promotes growth and metastasis of breast cancer. Therefore, CD73 inhibitor can offer a promising treatment for breast cancer. Here, we determined whether tiamulin, which was found to inhibit CD73, was able to suppress breast cancer development and explored the related mechanisms.
METHODS: We firstly measured the effect of tiamulin hydrogen fumarate (THF) on CD73 using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Then, we investigated cell proliferation, migration and invasion in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line and 4 T1 mouse breast cancer cell line treated with THF by migration assay, invasion assay and activity assay. Besides, we examined the effect of THF on syngeneic mammary tumors of mice by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Our data demonstrated that THF inhibited CD73 by decreasing the activity instead of the expression of CD73. In vitro, THF inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and 4 T1 cells by suppressing CD73 activity. In vivo, animal experiments showed that THF treatment resulted in significant reduction in syngeneic tumor growth, microvascular density and lung metastasis rate.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that THF inhibits growth and metastasis of breast cancer by blocking the activity of CD73, which may offer a promising treatment for breast cancer therapy.

Santos AA, Cappellari AR, de Marchi FO, et al.
Potential role of P2X7R in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma proliferation.
Purinergic Signal. 2017; 13(3):279-292 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Esophageal cancer is an aggressive tumor and is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. ATP is well known to regulate cancer progression in a variety of models by different mechanisms, including P2X7R activation. This study aimed to evaluate the role of P2X7R in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) proliferation. Our results show that treatment with high ATP concentrations induced a decrease in cell number, cell viability, number of polyclonal colonies, and reduced migration of ESCC. The treatment with the selective P2X7R antagonist A740003 or siRNA for P2X7 reverted this effect in the KYSE450 cell line. In addition, results showed that P2X7R is highly expressed, at mRNA and protein levels, in KYSE450 lineage. Additionally, KYSE450, KYSE30, and OE21 cells express P2X3R, P2X4R, P2X5R, P2X6R, and P2X7R genes. P2X1R is expressed by KYSE30 and KYSE450, and only KYSE450 expresses the P2X2R gene. Furthermore, esophageal cancer cell line KYSE450 presented higher expression of E-NTPDases 1 and 2 and of Ecto-5'-NT/CD73 when compared to normal cells. This cell line also exhibits ATPase, ADPase, and AMPase activity, although in different levels, and the co-treatment of apyrase was able to revert the antiproliferative effects of ATP. Moreover, results showed high immunostaining for P2X7R in biopsies of patients with esophageal carcinoma, indicating the involvement of this receptor in the growth of this type of cancer. The results suggest that P2X7R may be a potential pharmacological target to treat ESCC and can lead us to further investigate the effect of this receptor in cancer cell progression.

Kazemi MH, Raoofi Mohseni S, Hojjat-Farsangi M, et al.
Adenosine and adenosine receptors in the immunopathogenesis and treatment of cancer.
J Cell Physiol. 2018; 233(3):2032-2057 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor cells overcome anti-tumor responses in part through immunosuppressive mechanisms. There are several immune modulatory mechanisms. Among them, adenosine is an important factor which is generated by both cancer and immune cells in tumor microenvironment to suppress anti-tumor responses. Two cell surface expressed molecules including CD73 and CD39 catalyze the generation of adenosine from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The generation of adenosine can be enhanced under metabolic stress like tumor hypoxic conditions. Adenosine exerts its immune regulatory functions through four different adenosine receptors (ARs) including A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 which are expressed on various immune cells. Several studies have indicated the overexpression of adenosine generating enzymes and ARs in various cancers which was correlated with tumor progression. Since the signaling of ARs enhances tumor progression, their manipulation can be promising therapeutic approach in cancer therapy. Accordingly, several agonists and antagonists against ARs have been designed for cancer therapy. In this review, we will try to clarify the role of different ARs in the immunopathogenesis, as well as their role in the treatment of cancer.

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