The oncogene BCL2 is a membrane protein that blocks a step in a pathway leading to apoptosis or programmed cell death. The protein encoded by this gene binds to BCL2 and is referred to as BCL2-associated athanogene. It enhances the anti-apoptotic effects of BCL2 and represents a link between growth factor receptors and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. Multiple protein isoforms are encoded by this mRNA through the use of a non-AUG (CUG) initiation codon, and three alternative downstream AUG initiation codons. A related pseudogene has been defined on chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
BAG1 is implicated in: - apoptotic process
- cell surface receptor signaling pathway
- chaperone binding
- chaperone cofactor-dependent protein refolding
- negative regulation of apoptotic process
- neuron differentiation
- perinuclear region of cytoplasm
- phosphoprotein binding
- positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process
- positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
- protein binding
- receptor signaling protein activity
- response to drug
- response to lithium ion
- response to nicotine
- response to stress
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP [Hide]
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
BAG1 OMIM, Johns Hopkin University Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
BAG1 International Cancer Genome Consortium. Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
BAG1 Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI Gene Summary
BAG1 COSMIC, Sanger Institute Somatic mutation information and related details
BAG1 GEO Profiles, NCBI Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: BAG1 (cancer-related)
Gennaro VJ, Wedegaertner H, McMahon SB Interaction between the BAG1S isoform and HSP70 mediates the stability of anti-apoptotic proteins and the survival of osteosarcoma cells expressing oncogenic MYC. BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):258 [PubMed] Free Access to Full ArticleRelated Publications
BACKGROUND: The oncoprotein MYC has the dual capacity to drive cell cycle progression or induce apoptosis, depending on the cellular context. BAG1 was previously identified as a transcriptional target of MYC that functions as a critical determinant of this cell fate decision. The BAG1 protein is expressed as multiple isoforms, each having an array of distinct biochemical functions; however, the specific effector function of BAG1 that directs MYC-dependent cell survival has not been defined. METHODS: In our studies the human osteosarcoma line U2OS expressing a conditional MYC-ER allele was used to induce oncogenic levels of MYC. We interrogated MYC-driven survival processes by modifying BAG1 protein expression. The function of the separate BAG1 isoforms was investigated by depleting cells of endogenous BAG1 and reintroducing the distinct isoforms. Flow cytometry and immunoblot assays were performed to analyze the effect of specific BAG1 isoforms on MYC-dependent apoptosis. These experiments were repeated to determine the role of the HSP70 chaperone complex in BAG1 survival processes. Finally, a proteomic approach was used to identify a set of specific pro-survival proteins controlled by the HSP70/BAG1 complex. RESULTS: Loss of BAG1 resulted in robust MYC-induced apoptosis. Expression of the larger isoforms of BAG1, BAG1L and BAG1M, were insufficient to rescue survival in cells with oncogenic levels of MYC. Alternatively, reintroduction of BAG1S significantly reduced the level of apoptosis. Manipulation of the BAG1S interaction with HSP70 revealed that BAG1S provides its pro-survival function by serving as a cofactor for the HSP70 chaperone complex. Via a proteomic approach we identified and classified a set of pro-survival proteins controlled by this HSP70/BAG1 chaperone complex that contribute to the BAG1 anti-apoptotic phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: The small isoform of BAG1, BAG1S, in cooperation with the HSP70 chaperone complex, selectively mediates cell survival in MYC overexpressing tumor cells. We identified a set of specific pro-survival clients controlled by the HSP70/BAG1S chaperone complex. These clients define new nodes that could be therapeutically targeted to disrupt the survival of tumor cells driven by MYC activation. With MYC overexpression occurring in most human cancers, this introduces new strategies for cancer treatment.
Lu S, Du Y, Cui F, et al. Downregulation of BAG‑1 in T47D cells promotes resistance to tamoxifen via activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(3):1901-1910 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator, is the most widely used endocrine therapy for patients with ER‑positive breast cancer. However, ~30% of tamoxifen‑treated breast cancers do not initially respond to tamoxifen, and neither do they eventually develop tamoxifen resistance. Bcl‑2‑associated athanogene 1 (BAG‑1) is a multifunctional protein that interacts with a wide range of molecules to protect cells from apoptosis otherwise induced by cytotoxic drugs, growth factor withdrawal, radiation and stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of BAG‑1 in tamoxifen resistance. Immunohistochemistry techniques were used to determine BAG‑1 expression in 119 stage I‑III primary breast cancer tissues and it was identified that BAG‑1 was significantly overexpressed in ER‑positive breast cancer (P=0.001). Knockdown of BAG‑1 by short interfering RNA was revealed to downregulate ER, and upregulate phospho (p)‑protein kinase B (Akt) and p‑mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) levels. Furthermore, significantly decreased tamoxifen‑induced apoptosis (41.70±1.93 vs. 55.03±2.39%; P=0.012) was observed in T47D cells following the silencing of BAG‑1. In contrast, overexpression of BAG‑1 long enhanced apoptosis (65.10±2.35 vs. 55.03±2.39%; P=0.039) in T47D cells treated with tamoxifen. Combination treatment of tamoxifen and an mTOR inhibitor restored the inhibitory effects of tamoxifen in T47D cells exhibiting low BAG‑1 expression levels (66.87±2.27 vs. 57.07±2.46%; P=0.037). In conclusion, there results of the present study indicated that suppression of BAG‑1 expression may activate the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway and protect ER‑positive breast cancer cells from tamoxifen‑induced inhibition of proliferation. ER‑positive breast cancer cells exhibiting low BAG‑1 expression appeared to be more sensitive to treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Furthermore, the results indicated that combination treatment targeting ER with tamoxifen and targeting mTOR with rapamycin may significantly potentiate the inhibitory effect in BAG‑1‑silenced cells.
Kilbas PO, Akcay IM, Doganay GD, Arisan ED Bag-1 silencing enhanced chemotherapeutic drug-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells affecting PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. Mol Biol Rep. 2019; 46(1):847-860 [PubMed] Related Publications
The multifunctional anti-apoptotic Bag-1 protein has important roles in apoptosis, proteasome-mediated degradation, transcriptional regulation, and intracellular signaling. Bag-1 promotes cell survival and proliferation, and is overexpressed in breast cancer. Therefore, Bag-1-targeted therapy might be a promising strategy to treat breast cancer. However, the effects of Bag-1 silencing in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs on cell viability and major signaling pathways have not yet been fully investigated in breast cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of Bag-1 silencing, alone and in combination with cisplatin or paclitaxel treatment, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Bag-1 knockdown by shRNA or siRNA transfection sensitized MCF-7 cells to apoptosis induced by cisplatin or paclitaxel. Combination of Bag-1 silencing and drug treatment more potently downregulated the pro-survival PI3K/Akt/mTOR and p44/42 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, and more potently upregulated the stress-activated p38 and SAPK/JNK MAPK pathways. Bag-1-silenced drug-treated cells had also highly reduced proliferative capacity, downregulated cyclin-cyclin dependent kinase complexes and upregulated tumor suppressors p21 and Rb. These results overall indicated that Bag-1 silencing enhanced cisplatin- or paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity through multiple pathways. In conclusion, Bag-1 targeted therapy might enhance the therapeutic potential of conventional anti-cancer drugs in the treatment of breast cancer.
ROS and oxidative stress may promote autophagy; on the other hand, autophagy may help reduce oxidative damages. According to the known interplay of ROS, autophagy, and melanoma onset, we hypothesized that autophagy-related genes (ARGs) may represent useful melanoma biomarkers. We therefore analyzed the gene and protein expression of 222 ARGs in human melanoma samples, from 5 independent expression databases (overall 572 patients). Gene expression was first evaluated in the GEO database. Forty-two genes showed extremely high ability to discriminate melanoma from nevi (63 samples) according to ROC (AUC ≥ 0.85) and Mann-Whitney (
Shen Z, Li Y, Zhao C, et al. miR‑494‑BAG‑1 axis is involved in cinobufacini‑induced cell proliferation and apoptosis in gastric cancer. Mol Med Rep. 2018; 17(5):7435-7441 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cinobufacini is widely used in the treatment of advanced cancers. It has been previously reported that microRNA (miR)‑494 was upregulated in cinobufacini‑treated gastric cancer cells; however, the detailed role of miR‑494 in the anti‑tumor activity of cinobufacini is unclear. The present study aimed to clarify the function of miR‑494 in cinobufacini‑induced cell behavior changes. Cell viability and proliferation ability were investigated using a Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay. Flow cytometry was performed to investigate the apoptosis rate of gastric cancer (GC) cells. The mRNA expression levels of microRNA (miR)‑494 and BCL2 associated athanogene 1 (BAG‑1) were investigated using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the protein expression level of BAG‑1 was investigated using western blot assays. The results demonstrated that treatment with cinobufacini suppressed proliferation and promoted apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. miR‑494 acts as a tumor suppressor gene in gastric cancer. In cinobufacini‑treated cells, miR‑494 and BAG‑1 exhibited opposing expression trends. Furthermore, knockdown of miR‑494 in cinobufacini‑treated cells upregulated the protein expression level of BAG‑1, promoted cell proliferation and inhibited cell apoptosis. In addition, inhibition of BAG‑1 using small interfering RNA in cinobufacini‑treated cells partially abrogated the effects of miR‑494 inhibitor on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Thus, these results suggest that cinobufacini suppresses GC cells proliferation and promotes apoptosis partially through the regulation of miR‑494‑BAG‑1 axis, which may provide a novel insight into the functional mechanism of cinobufacini.
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as oncogenes or tumor suppressors that are involved in tumorigenesis and chemoresistance. LncRNA XIST expression is upregulated in several cancers, however, its biologic role in the development of the chemotherapy of human lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) has not been elucidated. This study aimed to observe the expression of LncRNA XIST in LAD and to evaluate its biologic role and clinical significance in the resistance of LAD cells to cisplatin. LncRNA XIST expression was markedly increased in cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells compared with parental A549 cells as shown by qRT-PCR. LncRNA XIST overexpression in A549 cells increased their chemosensitivity to cisplatin both in vitro and in vivo by protecting cells from apoptosis and promoting cell proliferation. By contrast, LncRNA XIST knockdown in A549/DDP cells decreased the chemoresistance. We revealed that XIST functioned as competing endogenous RNA to repress let-7i, which controlled its down-stream target BAG-1. We proposed that XIST was responsible for cisplatin resistance of LAD cells and XIST exerted its function through the let-7i/BAG-1 axis. Our findings suggested that lncRNA XIST may be a new marker of poor response to cisplatin and could be a potential therapeutic target for LAD chemotherapy.
Lin PL, Wu TC, Wu DW, et al. An increase in BAG-1 by PD-L1 confers resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitor in non-small cell lung cancer via persistent activation of ERK signalling. Eur J Cancer. 2017; 85:95-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
High programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in tumour tissues was associated with poor outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) due to evasion of tumour immune surveillance. However, the role of PD-L1 in tumour invasion and resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatments is not fully understood. Here, we provide evidence to support the involvement of PD-L1 expression in the invasiveness and TKI resistance in NSCLC cells by increased Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG-1) expression. The upregulation of BAG-1 transcription by PD-L1 was verified by constructing the BAG-1 promoters using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and deletion mutations for luciferase reporter assays. The results indicated that C/EBPβ phosphorylation by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling was responsible for PD-L1-mediated BAG-1 transcription. Mechanistically, the PD-L1-induced BAG-1 expression reciprocally increased PD-L1 expression due to persistent activation of ERK signalling, and it consequently conferred TKI resistance in NSCLC cells. The mechanistic action of this cell model was further confirmed by an animal model, affirming that PD-L1 conferred tumour invasiveness and TKI resistance via persistent activation of ERK signalling by the PD-L1/BAG-1 axis. We therefore suggest a combination of an ERK inhibitor with a TKI as a potential strategy for conquering PD-L1-mediated tumour invasion and TKI resistance in NSCLC patients whose tumours harbour high PD-L1/high BAG-1 expression.
BACKGROUND: In order to improve therapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), biomarkers associated with local and/or distant tumor relapses and cancer drug resistance are urgently needed. This study identified a potential biomarker, Bcl-2 associated athanogene-1 (BAG-1), that is implicated in HNSCC insensitive to cisplatin and tumor progression. METHODS: Primary and advanced (relapsed from parental) University of Michigan squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were tested for sensitivity to cisplatin and gene expression profiles were compared between primary (cisplatin sensitive) and the relapsed (cisplatin resistant) cell lines by using Agilent microarrays. Additionally, differentially expressed genes phosphorylated AKT, and BAG-1, and BCL-xL were evaluated for expression using HNSCC tissue arrays. RESULTS: Advanced HNSCC cells revealed resistant to cisplatin accompanied by increased expression of BAG-1 protein. siRNA knockdown of BAG-1 expression resulted in significant improvement of HNSCC sensitivity to cisplatin. BAG-1 expression enhanced stability of BCL-xL and conferred cisplatin resistant to the HNSCC cells. In addition, high levels of expression of phosphorylated AKT, BAG-1, and BCL-xL were observed in advanced HNSCC compared to in that of primary HNSCC. CONCLUSION: Increased expression of BAG-1 was associated with cisplatin resistance and tumor progression in HNSCC patients and warrants further validation in larger independent studies. Over expression of BAG-1 may be a biomarker for cisplatin resistance in patients with primary or recurrent HNSCCs and targeting BAG-1 could be helpful in overcoming cisplatin resistance.
Targeting the activation function-1 (AF-1) domain located in the N-terminus of the androgen receptor (AR) is an attractive therapeutic alternative to the current approaches to inhibit AR action in prostate cancer (PCa). Here we show that the AR AF-1 is bound by the cochaperone Bag-1L. Mutations in the AR interaction domain or loss of Bag-1L abrogate AR signaling and reduce PCa growth. Clinically, Bag-1L protein levels increase with progression to castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) and high levels of Bag-1L in primary PCa associate with a reduced clinical benefit from abiraterone when these tumors progress. Intriguingly, residues in Bag-1L important for its interaction with the AR AF-1 are within a potentially druggable pocket, implicating Bag-1L as a potential therapeutic target in PCa.
Wang Y, Jia C, Li QS, et al. BAG-1L Protects SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells Against Hypoxia/Re-oxygenation Through Up-Regulating HSP70 and Activating PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2017; 42(10):2861-2868 [PubMed] Related Publications
BCL-2-associated athanogene-1(BAG-1) is a multifunctional and anti-apoptotic protein that was first identified as a binding partner of BCL-2. But the effects and mechanisms for BAG-1 against hypoxic damage is unclear up to now. Whether BAG-1 could protect the human brain against hypoxic damage through up-regulating 70 kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70) and PI3K/AKT pathway activation? In present study, we examined the changes of HSP70 and AKT and p-AKT protein level in SH-SY5Y cells with BAG-1L gene over-expression subjected to hypoxia/re-oxygenation injury. BAG-1L over-expression increased neuronal viability, and it reduced apoptosis of neurons after hypoxia/re-oxygenation for 8 h. BAG-1L over-expression enhanced the HSP70 protein levels and increased p-AKT/total AKT ratio after hypoxia/re-oxygenation for 8 h. These results suggest that BAG-1L over-expression protects against hypoxia/re-oxygenation injury, at least in part, by interacting with HSP70, and by accelerating the activation of PI3K/AKT pathways.
BACKGROUND: The co-chaperone protein Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG-1) is overexpressed in breast cancer and has been incorporated in the oncotype DX and PAM50 breast cancer prognostic assays. Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1 exists as multiple protein isoforms that interact with diverse partners, including chaperones Hsc70/Hsp70, Ser/Thr kinase Raf-1 and Bcl-2, to promote cancer cell survival. The BAG-1L isoform specifically binds to and increases the transcriptional activity of oestrogen receptor in cells, and in some, but not all studies, BAG-1 expression is predictive of clinical outcome in breast cancer. METHODS: A systematic review of published studies reporting BAG-1 (mRNA and/or protein) expression and clinical outcome in early breast cancer. The REporting Recommendations for Tumour MARKer and Prognostic Studies (REMARK) criteria were used as a template against which data were assessed. Meta-analyses were performed for studies that provided a hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals for clinical outcomes including disease-free survival or breast cancer-specific survival from univariate analysis. RESULTS: Eighteen studies used differing methodologies and reported on differing outcomes. Meta-analyses were only possible on results from a subset of reported studies. Meta-analyses suggested improved outcome with high BAG-1 mRNA and high BAG-1 nuclear expression by immunohistochemisty. CONCLUSIONS: Increased levels of BAG-1 are associated with better breast cancer outcomes.
Liao Y, Feng J, Zhang Y, et al. The mechanism of CIRP in inhibition of keratinocytes growth arrest and apoptosis following low dose UVB radiation. Mol Carcinog. 2017; 56(6):1554-1569 [PubMed] Related Publications
UV induces CIRP expression and subsequent Stat3 activation, but the biological function and mechanism of CIRP and Stat3 in mediating UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that CIRP is elevated in all tested melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer cell lines; and the expression of CIRP is upregulated in keratinocytes after being irradiated with relatively low dose (<5 mJ/cm
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones subdivided into several families based on their molecular weight. Due to their cytoprotective roles, these proteins may help protect cancer cells against chemotherapy-induced cell death. Investigation into the biologic activity of HSPs in a variety of cancers including primary bone tumors, such as osteosarcoma (OSA), is of great interest. Both human and canine OSA tumor samples have aberrant production of HSP70. This study assessed the response of canine OSA cells to inhibition of HSP70 and GRP78 by the ATP-mimetic VER-155008 and whether this treatment strategy could sensitize cells to doxorubicin chemotherapy. Single-agent VER-155008 treatment decreased cellular viability and clonogenic survival and increased apoptosis in canine OSA cell lines. However, combination schedules with doxorubicin after pretreatment with VER-155008 did not improve inhibition of cellular viability, apoptosis, or clonogenic survival. Treatment with VER-155008 prior to chemotherapy resulted in an upregulation of target proteins HSP70 and GRP78 in addition to the co-chaperone proteins Herp, C/EBP homologous transcription protein (CHOP), and BAG-1. The increased GRP78 was more cytoplasmic in location compared to untreated cells. Single-agent treatment also revealed a dose-dependent reduction in activated and total Akt. Based on these results, targeting GRP78 and HSP70 may have biologic activity in canine osteosarcoma. Further studies are required to determine if and how this strategy may impact the response of osteosarcoma cells to chemotherapy.
Davidson B, Valborg Reinertsen K, Trinh D, et al. BAG-1/SODD, HSP70, and HSP90 are potential prognostic markers of poor survival in node-negative breast carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2016; 54:64-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this study was to analyze the expression and clinical role of 13 signaling molecules in a large cohort of breast carcinoma patients with long follow-up period. Breast carcinomas (n=410) were analyzed for protein expression of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p38) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway proteins (p-AKT, p-mTOR, p-p70S6K); the BAG family proteins BAG-1 and BAG-4/SODD; the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2; the inhibitor of apoptosis family member Survivin; and the heat shock protein family members HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90. Protein expression was studied for association with clinicopathological parameters and survival. Significantly higher expression of p-AKT (P<.001), p-mTOR (P<.001), p-p70S6K (P<.001), Bcl-2 (P<.001), BAG-4/SODD (P<.001), HSP27 (P<.001), HSP70 (P=.012), HSP90 (P<.001), and Survivin (P=.004) was found in infiltrating ductal and lobular carcinomas compared to mucinous carcinomas. Bcl-2 expression was significantly higher in grades 1 and 2 compared to grade 3 carcinomas (P<.001). p-AKT expression was higher in tumors more than 2cm (P=.027), whereas p-mTOR expression was lowest in tumors more than 5cm (P=.019). Higher BAG-4/SODD, HSP70, and HSP90 expression was associated with poor overall survival (P=.016, P=.039, and P=.023, respectively) in univariate analysis, whereas the only independent prognosticator in Cox multivariate survival analysis was tumor diameter (P=.003). In conclusion, BAG-4/SODD, HSP70, and HSP90 are potential prognostic markers in node-negative breast carcinoma that merit further research.
Treatment of HER2+ breast cancer with trastuzumab is effective and combination anti-HER2 therapies have demonstrated benefit over monotherapy in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the BAG-1 protein co-chaperone in trastuzumab-responsive or -resistant cells. In the METABRIC dataset, BAG-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in HER2+ breast tumors and predicted overall survival in a multivariate analysis (HR = 0.81; p = 0.022). In a breast cell line panel, BAG-1 protein was increased in HER2+ cells and was required for optimal growth as shown by siRNA knockdown. Overexpression of BAG-1S in HER2+ SKBR3 cells blocked growth inhibition by trastuzumab, whereas overexpression of a mutant BAG-1S protein (BAG-1S H3AB), defective in binding HSC70, potentiated the effect of trastuzumab. Injection of a Tet-On SKBR3 clone, induced to overexpress myc-BAG-1S into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice, resulted in 2-fold larger tumors compared to uninduced controls. Induction of myc-BAG-1S expression in two Tet-On SKBR3 clones attenuated growth inhibition by trastuzumab in vitro. Targeting endogenous BAG-1 by siRNA enhanced growth inhibition of SKBR3 and BT474 cells by trastuzumab, while BAG-1 protein-protein interaction inhibitor (Thio-S or Thio-2) plus trastuzumab combination treatment synergistically attenuated growth. In BT474 cells this reduced protein synthesis, caused G1/S cell cycle arrest and targeted the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In a SKBR3 subpopulation with acquired resistance to trastuzumab BAG-1 targeting remained effective and either Thio-2 or BAG-1 siRNA reduced growth more compared to trastuzumab-responsive parental cells. In summary, targeting BAG-1 function in combination with anti-HER2 therapy might prove beneficial.
Huang W, Liu Z, Zhou G, et al. Silencing Bag-1 gene via magnetic gold nanoparticle-delivered siRNA plasmid for colorectal cancer therapy in vivo and in vitro. Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):10365-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Apoptosis disorder is generally regarded as an important mechanism of carcinogenesis. Inducement of tumor cell apoptosis can be an effectual way to treat cancer. Bcl-2-associated athanogene 1 (Bag-1) is a positive regulator of Bcl-2 which is an anti-apoptotic gene. Bag-1 is highly expressed in colorectal cancer, which plays a critical role in promoting metastasis, poor prognosis, especially in anti-apoptotic function, and is perhaps a valuable gene target for colorectal cancer therapy. Recently, we applied a novel non-viral gene carrier, magnetic gold nanoparticle, and mediated plasmid pGPH1/GFP/Neo-Bag-1-homo-825 silencing Bag-1 gene for treating colorectal cancer in vivo and in vitro. By mediating with magnetic gold nanoparticle, siRNA plasmid was successfully transfected into cell. In 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, magnetic gold nanoparticle had no significant cytotoxicity and by which delivered RNA plasmid inhibited cell viability significantly (P < 0.05). Downregulation of Bag-1 promoted cell apoptosis (∼47.0 %) in vitro and significantly decreased tumor growth when the cells were injected into nude mice. Based on the studies in vivo, the relative expression of Bag-1 was 0.165 ± 0.072 at mRNA level and ∼60 % at protein level. In further study, C-myc and β-catenin, mainly molecules of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, were decreased notably when Bag-1 were silenced in nanoparticle plasmid complex-transfected Balb c/nude tumor xenograft. In conclusion, Bag-1 is confirmed an anti-apoptosis gene that functioned in colorectal cancer, and the mechanism of Bag-1 gene causing colorectal cancer may be related to Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway abnormality and suggested that magnetic gold nanoparticle-delivered siRNA plasmid silencing Bag-1 is an effective gene therapy method for colorectal cancer.
Huang W, Liu Z, Zhou G, et al. Magnetic gold nanoparticle-mediated small interference RNA silencing Bag-1 gene for colon cancer therapy. Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(2):978-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bcl-2-associated athanogene 1 (Bag-1) is a positive regulator of Bcl-2 which is an anti-apoptotic gene. Bag-1 was very slightly expressed in normal tissues, but often highly expressed in many tumor tissues, particularly in colon cancer, which can promote metastasis, poor prognosis and anti-apoptotic function of colon cancer. We prepared and evaluated magnetic gold nanoparticle/Bag-1 siRNA recombinant plasmid complex, a gene therapy system, which can transfect cells efficiently, for both therapeutic effect and safety in vitro mainly by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, flow cytometric analyses, cell viability assays, western blot analyses and RT-PCR (real-time) assays. Magnetic gold nanoparticle/Bag-1 siRNA recombinant plasmid complex was successfully transfected into LoVo colon cancer cells and the exogenous gene was expressed in the cells. Flow cytometric results showed apoptosis rate was significantly increased. In MTT assays, magnetic gold nanoparticles revealed lower cytotoxicity than Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagents (P<0.05). Both in western blot analyses and RT-PCR assays, magnetic gold nanoparticle/Bag-1 siRNA recombinant plasmid complex transfected cells demonstrated expression of Bag-1 mRNA (P<0.05) and protein (P<0.05) was decreased. In further study, c-myc and β-catenin which are main molecules of Wnt/β‑catenin pathway were decreased when Bag-1 were silenced in nanoparticle plasmid complex transfected LoVo cells. These results suggest that magnetic gold nanoparticle mediated siRNA silencing Bag-1 is an effective gene therapy method for colon cancer.
Li P, Wang YD, Cheng J, et al. Association between polymorphisms of BAG-1 and XPD and chemotherapy sensitivity in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with vinorelbine combined cisplatin regimen. Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(12):9465-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
BCL-2 Associated athanogene 1 (BAG-1) and Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) are involved in the nucleotide excision repair pathway and DNA repair. We aimed to investigate whether polymorphisms in BAG-1 and XPD have effects on chemotherapy sensitivity and survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with vinorelbine combined cisplatin (NP) regimen. A total of 142 patients with diagnosed advanced NSCLC were recruited in the current study. NP regimen was applied for all eligible patients. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used for BAG-1 (codon 324) and XPD (codons 312 and 751) genotyping. The treatment response was evaluated according to the RECIST guidelines. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were record as median and end point, respectively. As for BAG-1 codon 324, the chemotherapy sensitivity in NSCLC patients with CT genotype was 0.383 times of those with CC genotype (P < 0.05). With respect to XPD codon 751, the chemotherapy sensitivity in NSCLC patients with Lys/Gln genotype was 0.400 times of those with Lys/Lys genotype (P < 0.05). In addition, NSCLC patients carrying combined C/C genotype at codon 324 in BAG-1, Asp/Asp of XPD codon 312, and Lys/Lys of XPD codon 751 produced a higher efficacy of NP chemotherapy compared to those carrying mutation genotypes (all P < 0.05). Further, there were significant differences in PFS between patients with combined C/C genotype of BAG-1 codon 324, Lys/Lys genotype of XPD codon 751, and Asp/Asp genotype of XPD codon 312 and patients carrying BAG-1 codon 324 C/T genotype, XPD codon751 Lys/Gln genotype, and XPD codon312 Asp/Asn genotype (P < 0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the combined wild-type of codon 324 XPD, codon 751 XPD, and codon 312 BAG-1 is the protective factor for OS and PFS, and clinical stages is the risk factor for OS and PFS. In conclusion, our research demonstrated the combined effects of BAG-1 and XPD polymorphisms on chemotherapy sensitivity and survival in patients with advanced NSCLC, which might be the important predictive markers for platinum-based chemotherapy efficacy.
BACKGROUND: MiR-138 is frequently downregulated in different cancer types and is thought to be involved in the progression of tumorigenesis. However, the molecular mechanism of miR-138 involvement in gallbladder carcinoma still remains unknown. METHODS: The expression of miR-138 in 49 gallbladder carcinoma samples and paired normal gallbladder samples was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The biological functions of miR-138 and Bag-1 (Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1) on cell proliferation were examined using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and apoptosis assays. Targets of miR-138 were predicted using bioinformatics and validated using luciferase reporter and Western blot analyses. The in vivo effects of miR-138 were examined using subcutaneous inoculation of gallbladder carcinoma cells in Balb/c nude mice. RESULTS: Compared with their paired normal gallbladder samples, the gallbladder carcinoma samples had decreased expression of miR-138 and increased expression of Bag-1. Overexpression of miR-138 inhibited the proliferation of gallbladder carcinoma cells. Bag-1 was defined as a novel target of miR-138. Both the inhibition of Bag-1 by miR-138 and the silencing of Bag-1 by siRNA led to alterations of apoptosis-related proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bax. Restoring expression of Bag-1 eliminates the effects of miR-138 on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-138 markedly inhibited the growth of tumors in the gallbladder carcinoma xenograft model in nude mice. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of miR-138 is frequently reduced in gallbladder carcinoma when compared to normal cells. Overexpression of miR-138 inhibited cell proliferation by directly suppressing the expression of Bag-1. These results suggest that miR-138 plays an important role in inhibiting the growth of gallbladder carcinoma.
Aveic S, Viola G, Accordi B, et al. Targeting BAG-1: a novel strategy to increase drug efficacy in acute myeloid leukemia. Exp Hematol. 2015; 43(3):180-190.e6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins occurs frequently in cancer, resulting in defective apoptosis that may contribute to a poor chemosensitivity of tumor cells. B-cell lymphoma (BCL) 2-associated AthanoGene-1 (BAG-1) is a prosurvival chaperone recently found involved in the maintenance of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells survival in vitro. Here we reported BAG-1 upregulation in 87 of 99 analyzed AML patients with respect to healthy control samples applying reverse phase protein assay. Silencing of BAG-1 expression confirmed a decreased BCL-2 protein level but, in addition, provoked the increased transcription of GADD34 stress sensor. Furthermore, a dephosphorylation of eIF2α, as well as alteration of expression of IRE-1 and CHOP proteins, were documented, suggesting that a disruption of the endoplasmic reticulum stress/unfolded protein response was provoked by downregulation of BAG-1. A similar phenomenon was triggered after addition of Thioflavin S, which was shown to block BAG-1/BCL-2 interaction and to increase cell death, enforcing a prosurvival role of the BAG-1 protein in AML. Interestingly, synergic cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin, VP16 drugs, and ABT-737 compound were observed when Thioflavin S was coupled with these drugs. Taken together, our results gave further proof that upregulation of BAG-1 plays a critical role in AML and that BAG-1 targeting might be considered for a combined therapeutic strategy with conventional chemotherapy drugs in the treatment of AML patients.
Huang B, Zhou H, Lang X, et al. Expression of BAG-1 is closely related to cell differentiation and TNM stage in esophageal cancer and its downregulation inhibits the proliferation and invasion of human esophageal carcinoma cells. Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(4):1441-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to explore the correlation of BAG-1 with clinical characteristics of esophageal cancer and its effects on the proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of the esophageal carcinoma cell line Eca109. Therefore, the expression of BAG-1 was assessed in esophageal carcinoma tumor tissues and adjacent normal esophageal tissues. The siRNA vector of BAG-1 was constructed and transfected into the Eca109 cell line, and then fluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the transfection efficiency. MTT and Transwell assays were used to study cell proliferation and invasive activity, and the apoptosis rate was assessed by flow cytometry. Western blotting was adopted to assess the silencing efficiency and expression of related gene bcl-2. The results revealed that BAG-1 expression was low in the adjacent normal esophageal tissues while expression was high in the esophageal carcinoma tissues. After Eca109 cells were transfected with BAG-1-siRNA, the proliferation and invasive capabilities of the cells were significantly decreased while the apoptosis rate was greatly enhanced (P<0.01). When the expression of BAG-1 in the Eca109 cells was downregulated, the expression of bcl-2 was significantly abated (P<0.05). In conclusion, BAG-1 is closely connected with the pathogenesis and development of esophageal carcinoma, which may act through affecting bcl-2.
Ozfiliz P, Arisan ED, Coker-Gurkan A, et al. Bag-1L is a stress-withstand molecule prevents the downregulation of Mcl-1 and c-Raf under control of heat shock proteins in cisplatin treated HeLa cervix cancer cells. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(11):4475-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin, a DNA damaging agent, induces apoptosis through increasing DNA fragmentation. However, identification of intrinsic resistance molecules against Cisplatin is vital to estimate the success of therapy. Bag-1 (Bcl-2-associated anthanogene) is one anti-apoptotic protein involved in drug resistance impacting on therapeutic efficiency. Elevated levels of this protein are related with increase cell proliferation rates, motility and also cancer development. For this reason, we aimed to understand the role of Bag-1 expression in Cisplatin- induced apoptosis in HeLa cervix cancer cells. Cisplatin decreased cell viability in time- and dose-dependent manner in wt and Bag-1L+HeLa cells. Although, 10 μM Cisplatin treatment induced cell death within 24h by activating caspases in wt cells, Bag-1L stable transfection protected cells against Cisplatin treatment. To assess the potential protective role of Bag-1, we first checked the expression profile of interacting anti-apoptotic partners of Bag-1. We found that forced Bag-1L expression prevented Cisplatin-induced apoptosis through acting on Mcl-1 expression, which was reduced after Cisplatin treatment in wt HeLa cells. This mechanism was also supported by the regulation of heat shock protein (Hsp) family members, Hsp90 and Hsp40, which were involved in the regulation Bag-1 interactome including several anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members and c-Raf.
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), which originates from germinal center (GC) B cells and harbors translocations deregulating v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC). A comparative analysis of microRNAs expressed in normal and malignant GC B cells identified microRNA 28 (miR-28) as significantly down-regulated in BL, as well as in other GC-derived B-NHL. We show that reexpression of miR-28 impairs cell proliferation and clonogenic properties of BL cells by modulating several targets including MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1, MAD2L1, a component of the spindle checkpoint whose down-regulation is essential in mediating miR-28-induced proliferation arrest, and BCL2-associated athanogene, BAG1, an activator of the ERK pathway. We identify the oncogene MYC as a negative regulator of miR-28 expression, suggesting that its deregulation by chromosomal translocation in BL leads to miR-28 suppression. In addition, we show that miR-28 can inhibit MYC-induced transformation by directly targeting genes up-regulated by MYC. Overall, our data suggest that miR-28 acts as a tumor suppressor in BL and that its repression by MYC contributes to B-cell lymphomagenesis.
Zhou RP, Chen G, Shen ZL, Pan LQ Cinobufacin suppresses cell proliferation via miR-494 in BGC- 823 gastric cancer cells. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(3):1241-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cinobufacin is used clinically to treat patients with many solid malignant tumors. However, the mechanisms underlying action remain to be detailed. Our study focused on miRNAs involved in cinobufacin inhibition of GC cell proliferation. miRNA microarray analysis and real time PCR identified miR-494 as a significant cinobufacin- associated miRNA. In vivo, ectopic expression of miR-494 inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis of BGC-823 cells on CCK-8 and flow cytometry analysis. Further study verified BAG-1 (anti-apoptosis gene) to bea target of miR-494 by luciferase reporter assay and Western blotting. In summary, our study demonstrated that cinobufacin may inhibit the proliferation and promote the apoptosis of BGC-823 cells. Cinobufacin-associated miR-494 may indirectly be involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis by targeting BAG-1, pointing to use as a potential molecular target of cinobufacin in gastric cancer therapy.
Liu H, Lu S, Gu L, et al. Modulation of BAG-1 expression alters the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to tamoxifen. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2014; 33(2):365-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: BAG-1 (bcl-2 associated athanogene) is a multifunctional protein that protects cells from a wide range of apoptotic stimuli including radiation, hypoxia and chemotherapeutic agents. Overexpression of cytoplasmic BAG-1 has been associated with the increased survival and decreased response to treatment with tamoxifen (TAM) in breast cancer. We attempted to assess the expression of BAG-1 in the human breast cancer cells that are resistant to treatment with 4-OH TAM and effect of altered BAG-1 expression on their sensitivity to 4-OH TAM. METHODS: BAG-1 expression was examined in the MCF-7 cells that became resistant to 4-OH TAM. The 4-OH TAM-resistant MCF-7 cells were then transfected with the BAG-1 siRNA and the 4-OH TAM-sensitive MCF-7 cells with the plasmids carrying the human BAG-1 isoform-specific expression constructs respectively to investigate the effect of BAG-1 on the TAM-induced apoptosis. RESULTS: Our results showed that the TAM-resistant MCF-7 (TAMR/MCF-7) cells expressed higher level of BAG-1 than that of the MCF-7 cells. Down-regulation of BAG-1 significantly enhanced the sensitivity of the TAMR/MCF-7 cells to TAM treatment. Additionally, we found that BAG-1 p50 was the only isoform that inhibited the TAM-induced apoptosis in the MCF-7 cells, while the other isoforms had little effect. CONCLUSION: Our study indicated that up and down regulations of the BAG-1 expression were associated with the decreased and increased sensitivity to 4-OH TAM in the estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 respectively, and distinct isoforms of BAG-1 had different anti-apoptotic ability in breast cancer cells treated with the 4-OH TAM.
Sun NF, Tian AL, Liu ZA, et al. Antiapoptotic gene BAG-1 vector structure of RNA interference and endogenous targeted screening in colon cancer cell lines. Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(2):1057-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purposes of the present work were to construct the shRNA plasmids for BAG-1 gene of human and test the expression of mRNA and protein of BAG-1. Recombinant plasmids containing green fluorescent protein reporter genes are constructed using gene cloning methods. The shRNA plasmids for the BAG-1 gene are constructed by RNA interference technology. We applied fluorescent plasmid-transfected target cells in the cell transfection experiments and monitored the transfection rate of plasmids by observing the fluorescence amount. We transfected three synthesized shRNA in target screening cell and adopted RT-PCR and Western test to identify the difference of target gene transfection and translation level in cells. The specific shRNA plasmid for the BAG-1 gene was successfully recombined, and stably transfected colon cancer Lo Vo cell lines were obtained. The results present that the constructed shRNA plasmids significantly inhibited the expression of mRNA and protein of Lo Vo cell BAG-1, and can maintain the effect for a long term. pGPH1/GFP/Neo-BAG-1-homo-825 was screened as the optimum sequence of interference so as to lay a solid foundation to explore into the research on the BAG-1 gene and the biological behavior of colon cancer cells. It showed the remarkable advantage of RNAi in the generation of posttranscriptional gene silencing.
Enthammer M, Papadakis ES, Salomé Gachet M, et al. Isolation of a novel thioflavin S-derived compound that inhibits BAG-1-mediated protein interactions and targets BRAF inhibitor-resistant cell lines. Mol Cancer Ther. 2013; 12(11):2400-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein-protein interactions mediated through the C-terminal Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) domain of BAG-1 are critical for cell survival and proliferation. Thioflavin S (NSC71948)-a mixture of compounds resulting from the methylation and sulfonation of primulin base-has been shown to dose-dependently inhibit the interaction between BAG-1 and Hsc70 in vitro. In human breast cancer cell lines, with high BAG-1 expression levels, Thioflavin S reduces the binding of BAG-1 to Hsc70, Hsp70, or CRAF and decreases proliferation and viability. Here, we report the development of a protocol for the purification and isolation of biologically active constituents of Thioflavin S and the characterization of the novel compound Thio-2. Thio-2 blocked the growth of several transformed cell lines, but had much weaker effects on untransformed cells. Thio-2 also inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cell lines that had become resistant to treatment with PLX4032, an inhibitor of mutant BRAF. In transformed cells, Thio-2 interfered with intracellular signaling at the level of RAF, but had no effect on the activation of AKT. Thio-2 decreased binding of BAG-1 to Hsc70 and to a lesser extent BRAF in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a possible mechanism of action. Given that tumors frequently develop resistance to kinase inhibitors during treatment, Thio-2 and related compounds may offer promising alternative strategies to currently available therapies.
Afentakis M, Dowsett M, Sestak I, et al. Immunohistochemical BAG1 expression improves the estimation of residual risk by IHC4 in postmenopausal patients treated with anastrazole or tamoxifen: a TransATAC study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 140(2):253-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
BAG1 is a multifunctional anti-apoptotic protein located on chromosome 9q12, which binds to Bcl-2. BAG1 is present as a separate module in the GHI-RS 21-gene panel. It may provide additional prognostic information as an immunohistochemical marker when added to IHC4. Analysis of BAG1 was performed on archival tumour blocks from patients from the anastrozole and tamoxifen arms of the ATAC trial of 5 years endocrine therapy in postmenopausal women with oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive primary breast cancer. Staining was scored separately as nuclear or cytoplasmic. Statistical analyses were performed on data from median 10-year follow-up with distant recurrence as primary endpoint. Data on both nuclear and cytoplasmic BAG1 as well as the IHC4 markers (ER, PgR, HER2 and Ki67) were available on 963 ER-positive cases of which 860 were HER2-negative. Cytoplasmic and nuclear BAG1 were highly correlated (Spearman r = 0.79, p < 00001). Women with higher BAG1 expression developed 30 % fewer distant recurrences compared to those with low expression. Nuclear BAG1 contributed significantly to the clinical and IHC4 models with added information being greater in node-positive cases. Similar results were seen if all recurrences were the endpoints. BAG1 expression provides significant prognostic information when added to the classical clinicopathological parameters and IHC4, particularly in node-positive patients.