Gene Summary

Gene:BRAP; BRCA1 associated protein
Aliases: IMP, BRAP2, RNF52
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene was identified by its ability to bind to the nuclear localization signal of BRCA1 and other proteins. It is a cytoplasmic protein which may regulate nuclear targeting by retaining proteins with a nuclear localization signal in the cytoplasm. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:BRCA1-associated protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (10)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • BRCA1
  • Genetic Testing
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • DNA Damage
  • Cancer DNA
  • Skin Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Receptor, erbB-2
  • Genetic Counseling
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Mastectomy
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • BRCA2 Protein
  • Mutation
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Lung Cancer
  • DNA Repair
  • Ductal Breast Carcinoma
  • DNA Methylation
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Adolescents
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Risk Factors
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genotype
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Heterozygote
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Chromosome 12
  • Risk Assessment
  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer
  • Estrogen Receptors
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BRAP (cancer-related)

de Almeida BP, Apolónio JD, Binnie A, Castelo-Branco P
Roadmap of DNA methylation in breast cancer identifies novel prognostic biomarkers.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):219 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease resulting in diverse clinical behaviours and therapeutic responses. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic alteration that is commonly perturbed in cancers. The aim of this study is to characterize the relationship between DNA methylation and aberrant gene expression in breast cancer.
METHODS: We analysed DNA methylation and gene expression profiles from breast cancer tissue and matched normal tissue in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Genome-wide differential methylation analysis and methylation-gene expression correlation was performed. Gene expression changes were subsequently validated in the METABRIC dataset. The Oncoscore tool was used to identify genes that had previously been associated with cancer in the literature. A subset of genes that had not previously been studied in cancer was chosen for further analysis.
RESULTS: We identified 368 CpGs that were differentially methylated between tumor and normal breast tissue (∆β > 0.4). Hypermethylated CpGs were overrepresented in tumor tissue and were found predominantly (56%) in upstream promoter regions. Conversely, hypomethylated CpG sites were found primarily in the gene body (66%). Expression analysis revealed that 209 of the differentially-methylated CpGs were located in 169 genes that were differently expressed between normal and breast tumor tissue. Methylation-expression correlations were predominantly negative (70%) for promoter CpG sites and positive (74%) for gene body CpG sites. Among these differentially-methylated and differentially-expressed genes, we identified 7 that had not previously been studied in any form of cancer. Three of these, TDRD10, PRAC2 and TMEM132C, contained CpG sites that showed diagnostic and prognostic value in breast cancer, particularly in estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive samples. A pan-cancer analysis confirmed differential expression of these genes together with diagnostic and prognostic value of their respective CpG sites in multiple cancer types.
CONCLUSION: We have identified 368 DNA methylation changes that characterize breast cancer tumor tissue, of which 209 are associated with genes that are differentially-expressed in the same samples. Novel DNA methylation markers were identified, of which cg12374721 (PRAC2), cg18081940 (TDRD10) and cg04475027 (TMEM132C) show promise as diagnostic and prognostic markers in breast cancer as well as other cancer types.

Quaas A, Heydt C, Waldschmidt D, et al.
Alterations in ERBB2 and BRCA and microsatellite instability as new personalized treatment options in small bowel carcinoma.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2019; 19(1):21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Carcinomas of the small bowel are rare tumors usually with dismal prognosis. Most recently, some potentially treatable molecular alterations were described. We emphasize the growing evidence of individualized treatment options in small bowel carcinoma.
METHODS: We performed a DNA- based multi-gene panel using ultra-deep sequencing analysis (including 14 genes with up to 452 amplicons in total; KRAS, NRAS, HRAS, BRAF, DDR2, ERBB2, KEAP1, NFE2L2, PIK3CA, PTEN, RHOA, BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53) as well as an RNA-based gene fusion panel including ALK, BRAF, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, MET, NRG1, NTRK1, NTRK2, NTRK3, RET and ROS1 on eleven formalin fixed and paraffin embedded small bowel carcinomas. Additionally, mismatch-repair-deficiency was analyzed by checking the microsatellite status using the five different mononucleotide markers BAT25, BAT26, NR-21, NR-22 and NR-27 and loss of mismatch repair proteins using four different markers (MLH1, MSH6, MSH2, PMS2).
RESULTS: In five out of eleven small bowel carcinomas we found potentially treatable genetic alterations. Three patients demonstrated pathogenic (class 5) BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations - one germline-related in a mixed neuroendocrine-non neuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN). Two additional patients revealed an activating ERBB2 mutation or PIK3CA mutation. Furthermore two tumors were highly microsatellite-instable (MSI-high), in one case associated to Lynch-syndrome. We did not find any gene fusions.
CONCLUSION: Our results underscore, in particular, the relevance of potentially treatable molecular alterations (like ERBB2, BRCA and MSI) in small bowel carcinomas. Further studies are needed to proof the efficacy of these targeted therapies in small bowel carcinomas.

Wang B, Wang M, Zhang W, et al.
Integrative analysis of pooled CRISPR genetic screens using MAGeCKFlute.
Nat Protoc. 2019; 14(3):756-780 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genome-wide screening using CRISPR coupled with nuclease Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) is a powerful technology for the systematic evaluation of gene function. Statistically principled analysis is needed for the accurate identification of gene hits and associated pathways. Here, we describe how to perform computational analysis of CRISPR screens using the MAGeCKFlute pipeline. MAGeCKFlute combines the MAGeCK and MAGeCK-VISPR algorithms and incorporates additional downstream analysis functionalities. MAGeCKFlute is distinguished from other currently available tools by its comprehensive pipeline, which contains a series of functions for analyzing CRISPR screen data. This protocol explains how to use MAGeCKFlute to perform quality control (QC), normalization, batch effect removal, copy-number bias correction, gene hit identification and downstream functional enrichment analysis for CRISPR screens. We also describe gene identification and data analysis in CRISPR screens involving drug treatment. Completing the entire MAGeCKFlute pipeline requires ~3 h on a desktop computer running Linux or Mac OS with R support.

Duan S, Huang W, Liu X, et al.
IMPDH2 promotes colorectal cancer progression through activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and PI3K/AKT/FOXO1 signaling pathways.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):304 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase type II (IMPDH2) was originally identified as an oncogene in several human cancers. However, the clinical significance and biological role of IMPDH2 remain poorly understood in colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), western blotting analysis, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data mining and immunohistochemistry were employed to examine IMPDH2 expression in CRC cell lines and tissues. A series of in-vivo and in-vitro assays were performed to demonstrate the function of IMPDH2 and its possible mechanisms in CRC.
RESULTS: IMPDH2 was upregulated in CRC cells and tissues at both mRNA and protein level. High IMPDH2 expression was closely associated with T stage, lymph node state, distant metastasis, lymphovascular invasion and clinical stage, and significantly correlated with poor survival of CRC patients. Further study revealed that overexpression of IMPDH2 significantly promoted the proliferation, invasion, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CRC cells in vitro and accelerated xenograft tumour growth in nude mice. On the contrary, knockdown of IMPDH2 achieved the opposite effect. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that the gene set related to cell cycle was linked to upregulation of IMPDH2 expression. Our study verified that overexpressing IMPDH2 could promote G1/S phase cell cycle transition through activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR and PI3K/AKT/FOXO1 pathways and facilitate cell invasion, migration and EMT by regulating PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that IMPDH2 plays an important role in the development and progression of human CRC and may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for CRC.

Müller S, Glaß M, Singh AK, et al.
IGF2BP1 promotes SRF-dependent transcription in cancer in a m6A- and miRNA-dependent manner.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2019; 47(1):375-390 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The oncofetal mRNA-binding protein IGF2BP1 and the transcriptional regulator SRF modulate gene expression in cancer. In cancer cells, we demonstrate that IGF2BP1 promotes the expression of SRF in a conserved and N6-methyladenosine (m6A)-dependent manner by impairing the miRNA-directed decay of the SRF mRNA. This results in enhanced SRF-dependent transcriptional activity and promotes tumor cell growth and invasion. At the post-transcriptional level, IGF2BP1 sustains the expression of various SRF-target genes. The majority of these SRF/IGF2BP1-enhanced genes, including PDLIM7 and FOXK1, show conserved upregulation with SRF and IGF2BP1 synthesis in cancer. PDLIM7 and FOXK1 promote tumor cell growth and were reported to enhance cell invasion. Consistently, 35 SRF/IGF2BP1-dependent genes showing conserved association with SRF and IGF2BP1 expression indicate a poor overall survival probability in ovarian, liver and lung cancer. In conclusion, these findings identify the SRF/IGF2BP1-, miRNome- and m6A-dependent control of gene expression as a conserved oncogenic driver network in cancer.

Wang C, Gu Y, Zhang E, et al.
A cancer-testis non-coding RNA LIN28B-AS1 activates driver gene LIN28B by interacting with IGF2BP1 in lung adenocarcinoma.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(10):1611-1624 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous work found cancer-testis (CT) genes as a new source of epi-driver candidates of cancer. LIN28B was a CT gene, but the "driver" ability and the activation mechanism in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remain unclear. We observed that LIN28B expression was restricted in testis. It was re-activated in LUAD patients without known genomic alterations in oncogenes and was related to poorer survival. In vitro and In vivo experiments confirmed that the activation of LIN28B could promote the proliferation and metastasis of LUAD cells and can influence cell cycle, DNA damage repair, and genome instability. In addition to the known let-7-LIN28B regulation loop, our results further revealed a let-7-independent Cis-regulator of LIN28B: LIN28B-AS1. LIN28B-AS1 is a CT long non-coding RNA (CT-lncRNA). It altered the messenger RNA stability of LIN28B by directly interacting with another CT protein IGF2BP1 but not with LIN28B and constituted a novel regulation network. In sum, we identify that LIN28B is an "epi-driver" of LUAD and clarify a new lncRNA-activated mechanism of LIN28B, which provide new candidate targets for precise anticancer therapy in the future.

Zoranovic T, Manent J, Willoughby L, et al.
A genome-wide Drosophila epithelial tumorigenesis screen identifies Tetraspanin 29Fb as an evolutionarily conserved suppressor of Ras-driven cancer.
PLoS Genet. 2018; 14(10):e1007688 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oncogenic mutations in the small GTPase Ras contribute to ~30% of human cancers. However, Ras mutations alone are insufficient for tumorigenesis, therefore it is paramount to identify cooperating cancer-relevant signaling pathways. We devised an in vivo near genome-wide, functional screen in Drosophila and discovered multiple novel, evolutionarily-conserved pathways controlling Ras-driven epithelial tumorigenesis. Human gene orthologs of the fly hits were significantly downregulated in thousands of primary tumors, revealing novel prognostic markers for human epithelial tumors. Of the top 100 candidate tumor suppressor genes, 80 were validated in secondary Drosophila assays, identifying many known cancer genes and multiple novel candidate genes that cooperate with Ras-driven tumorigenesis. Low expression of the confirmed hits significantly correlated with the KRASG12 mutation status and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. Among the novel top 80 candidate cancer genes, we mechanistically characterized the function of the top hit, the Tetraspanin family member Tsp29Fb, revealing that Tsp29Fb regulates EGFR signaling, epithelial architecture and restrains tumor growth and invasion. Our functional Drosophila screen uncovers multiple novel and evolutionarily conserved epithelial cancer genes, and experimentally confirmed Tsp29Fb as a key regulator of EGFR/Ras induced epithelial tumor growth and invasion.

Wang L, Aireti A, Aihaiti A, Li K
Expression of microRNA-150 and its Target Gene IGF2BP1 in Human Osteosarcoma and their Clinical Implications.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2019; 25(2):527-533 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous study revealed that microRNA (miR)-150 might function as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma partially by targeting Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 mRNA-Binding Protein 1 (IGF2BP1). The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of miR-150-IGF2BP1 axis in human osteosarcoma which remains unclear. At first, expression levels of miR-150, and IGF2BP1 mRNA and protein in 20 osteosarcoma and matched adjacent noncancerous tissues were respectively detected by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analyses. Then, subcellular localization and expression pattern of IGF2BP1 protein in 100 osteosarcoma tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry. Associations of miR-150/IGF2BP1 expression with various clinicopathological features and patients' prognosis were also statistically evaluated. As a result, miR-150 expression was significantly decreased, while IGF2BP1 mRNA and protein expression were dramatically increased in osteosarcoma tissues compared to matched adjacent noncancerous tissues (all P < 0.001). Immunostaining of IGF2BP1 protein was localized in cytoplasm of tumor cells in osteosarcoma tissues. Statistically, low miR-150 expression and/or high IGF2BP1 protein immunoreactive score were all significantly associated with high tumor grade, presence of metastasis and recurrence, as well as poor response to chemotherapy (all P < 0.05). Moreover, miR-150, IGF2BP1 and combined miR-150/IGF2BP1 expressions were all identified as independent prognostic factors for overall and disease-free survivals of osteosarcoma patients (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggest that miR-150 and its downstream target IGF2BP1 may be a crucial axis for the development, progression and patients' prognosis of ostesarcoma. The newly identified miR-150/IGF2BP1 axis might be a novel potential therapeutic target for osteosarcoma treatment.

Seehawer M, Heinzmann F, D'Artista L, et al.
Necroptosis microenvironment directs lineage commitment in liver cancer.
Nature. 2018; 562(7725):69-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary liver cancer represents a major health problem. It comprises hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), which differ markedly with regards to their morphology, metastatic potential and responses to therapy. However, the regulatory molecules and tissue context that commit transformed hepatic cells towards HCC or ICC are largely unknown. Here we show that the hepatic microenvironment epigenetically shapes lineage commitment in mosaic mouse models of liver tumorigenesis. Whereas a necroptosis-associated hepatic cytokine microenvironment determines ICC outgrowth from oncogenically transformed hepatocytes, hepatocytes containing identical oncogenic drivers give rise to HCC if they are surrounded by apoptotic hepatocytes. Epigenome and transcriptome profiling of mouse HCC and ICC singled out Tbx3 and Prdm5 as major microenvironment-dependent and epigenetically regulated lineage-commitment factors, a function that is conserved in humans. Together, our results provide insight into lineage commitment in liver tumorigenesis, and explain molecularly why common liver-damaging risk factors can lead to either HCC or ICC.

Reszka E, Zienolddiny S
Epigenetic Basis of Circadian Rhythm Disruption in Cancer.
Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1856:173-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
Self-sustained and synchronized to environmental stimuli, circadian clocks are under genetic and epigenetic regulation. Recent findings have greatly increased our understanding of epigenetic plasticity governed by circadian clock. Thus, the link between circadian clock and epigenetic machinery is reciprocal. Circadian clock can affect epigenetic features including genomic DNA methylation, noncoding RNA, mainly miRNA expression, and histone modifications resulted in their 24-h rhythms. Concomitantly, these epigenetic events can directly modulate cyclic system of transcription and translation of core circadian genes and indirectly clock output genes. Significant findings interlocking circadian clock, epigenetics, and cancer have been revealed, particularly in breast, colorectal, and blood cancers. Aberrant methylation of circadian gene promoter regions and miRNA expression affected circadian gene expression, together with 24-h expression oscillation pace have been frequently observed.

Shang Y
LncRNA THOR acts as a retinoblastoma promoter through enhancing the combination of c-myc mRNA and IGF2BP1 protein.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 106:1243-1249 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) THOR is an extremely conserved lncRNA with specifically expressed in testis while widespreadly exist in human multiple cancer tissues. The high expression of it significantly promotes the occurrence and progression of melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, osteosarcoma and renal cell carcinoma. However, the expression pattern and effects of lncRNA THOR in the progression of retinoblastoma remain unclear. As a result, this study was conducted to discovery the expression and roles of lncRNA THOR in the malignant phenotype transformation of retinoblastoma cells, as well as its underlying mechanism. Our results demonstrated that lncRNA THOR was over-expressed in the retina tissues from retinoblastoma patients and retinoblastoma Y79 and WERI-Rb1 cell lines. Down-regulation of lncRNA THOR with siRNA significantly repressed cell growth, migration and S phase accumulation, while induced cell apoptosis and G1 phase reduction and reduced the expression of c-myc. Besides, knockdown of c-myc promoted cell apoptosis and suppressed cell proliferation. Furthermore, RNA pull down and PIP assays showed that up-regulation of lncRNA THOR enhanced the combination of IGF2BP1 protein and c-myc RNA. And lncRNA THOR up-regulation obviously increased the tumorigenesis of Y79 cells in vivo. In conclusion, this study makes clear that lncRNA THOR is up-regulated in retinoblastoma, and its over-expression significantly enhances the malignant phenotype transformation of retinoblastoma cells through up-regulating c-myc expression via enhancing its combination with TGF2BP1 protein. Overall, our study illustrates that lncRNA THOR/c-myc molecular cascade might be another potent target for retinoblastoma treatment.

Romero P, Benhamo V, Deniziaut G, et al.
Medullary Breast Carcinoma, a Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Associated with BCLG Overexpression.
Am J Pathol. 2018; 188(10):2378-2391 [PubMed] Related Publications
Medullary breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare subtype of triple-negative breast cancer with specific genomic features within the spectrum of basal-like carcinoma (BLC). In this study of 19 MBCs and 36 non-MBC BLCs, we refined the transcriptomic and genomic knowledge about this entity. Unsupervised and supervised analysis of transcriptomic profiles confirmed that MBC clearly differs from non-MBC BLC, with 92 genes overexpressed and 154 genes underexpressed in MBC compared with non-MBC BLC. Immunity-related pathways are the most differentially represented pathways in MBC compared with non-MBC BLC. The proapoptotic gene BCLG (official name BCL2L14) is by far the most intensely overexpressed gene in MBC. A quantitative RT-PCR validation study conducted in 526 breast tumors corresponding to all molecular subtypes documented the specificity of BCLG overexpression in MBC, which was confirmed at the protein level by immunohistochemistry. We also found that most MBCs belong to the immunomodulatory triple-negative breast cancer subtype. Using pan-genomic analysis, it was found that MBC harbors more losses of heterozygosity than non-MBC BLC. These observations corroborate the notion that MBC remains a distinct entity that could benefit from specific treatment strategies (such as deescalation or targeted therapy) adapted to this rare tumor type.

Chatterji P, Hamilton KE, Liang S, et al.
The LIN28B-IMP1 post-transcriptional regulon has opposing effects on oncogenic signaling in the intestine.
Genes Dev. 2018; 32(15-16):1020-1034 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are expressed broadly during both development and malignant transformation, yet their mechanistic roles in epithelial homeostasis or as drivers of tumor initiation and progression are incompletely understood. Here we describe a novel interplay between RBPs LIN28B and IMP1 in intestinal epithelial cells. Ribosome profiling and RNA sequencing identified

Bian S, Repic M, Guo Z, et al.
Genetically engineered cerebral organoids model brain tumor formation.
Nat Methods. 2018; 15(8):631-639 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Brain tumors are among the most lethal and devastating cancers. Their study is limited by genetic heterogeneity and the incompleteness of available laboratory models. Three-dimensional organoid culture models offer innovative possibilities for the modeling of human disease. Here we establish a 3D in vitro model called a neoplastic cerebral organoid (neoCOR), in which we recapitulate brain tumorigenesis by introducing oncogenic mutations in cerebral organoids via transposon- and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated mutagenesis. By screening clinically relevant mutations identified in cancer genome projects, we defined mutation combinations that result in glioblastoma-like and central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor (CNS-PNET)-like neoplasms. We demonstrate that neoCORs are suitable for use in investigations of aspects of tumor biology such as invasiveness, and for evaluation of drug effects in the context of specific DNA aberrations. NeoCORs will provide a valuable complement to the current basic and preclinical models used to study brain tumor biology.

Parker BM, Parker JV, Lymperopoulos A, Konda V
A case report: Pharmacology and resistance patterns of three generations of ALK inhibitors in metastatic inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma.
J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2019; 25(5):1226-1230 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Little exists currently in research about the mechanisms of resistance of ALK inhibitors in inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma. It is known, however, that ALK gene rearrangements are common in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors, similar to non-small cell lung cancer. In roughly 50% of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors, gene rearrangement has been found to occur on chromosome 2 at band 2p23. In non-small cell lung cancer, it has been shown that about a third of patients who progress on the first generation ALK inhibitor, crizotinib develops mutations in the ALK kinase domain. The remaining two-thirds of patients tend to develop amplification of ALK or activation of alternative signaling pathways. Chromoplexy has also been described as a mechanism of resistance, where multiple closed chain rearrangements cause loss-of-function of tumor suppressor genes and gain-in-function of oncogenic fusions. Partner genes that have been identified in IMTs are tropomyosin 3 (TPM3), tropomyosin 4 (TPM4), clathrin heavy chain (CLTC), Ran-binding protein 2 (RANBP2), cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CARS), 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (ATIC), and SEC31L1. All are active promoters for the fusion gene, in response to NPM binding. Several inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor case reports indicated that fusion of ALK and RANBP2 led to a more aggressive clinical course. Although the majority of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor case reports have utilized first and second generation ALK inhibitors, all generations of ALK inhibitors have demonstrated some ability to impair disease progression and extend life expectancy. However, at some point in the course of therapy with each generation of ALK inhibitor, resistance ultimately developed. In order to better understand the pharmacology and resistance patterns behind three generations of ALK inhibitors, we sought to examine a patient with metastatic anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1-rearranged inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma to the brain. We also explored the similarities and differences of this clinical case to other inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma case reports involving the use of ALK inhibitors.
CASE REPORT: A rare case of pulmonary IMS with ALK-1 gene rearrangement and multiple brain metastases responded to three generations of ALK inhibitors. However, similar to other case reports, due to the development of resistance and recurrence, the patient eventually succumbed to the disease.
CONCLUSIONS: ALK inhibitors are beneficial in the temporary prevention of progression of disease in patients with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. In this case, due to the inability to reveal the fusion partner in this patient via DNA sequencing, it is unknown exactly if that partner was RANBP2 or another ALK partner gene. Brain biopsy tissue was also unobtainable during sequence of ALK due to risk versus benefit, which would have provided insight as which type of ALK resistance mutations the patient was developing. It is likely that this patient had some form of chromoplexy occurring.

Liu Z, Wu G, Lin C, et al.
IGF2BP1 over-expression in skin squamous cell carcinoma cells is essential for cell growth.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 501(3):731-738 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study examined expression and potential functions of insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) in human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We show that IGF2BP1 mRNA and protein expression levels were upregulated in established (A431 line) and primary human skin SCC cells. Its expression was also increased in human skin SCC tissues, as compared to the normal skin tissues. In skin SCC cells, IGF2BP1 silencing or CRISPR/Cas9 knockout decreased levels of IGF2BP1-stablized mRNAs, including IGF2, CD44, Gli1 and Myc. Furthermore, skin SCC cell survival and proliferation were inhibited by IGF2BP1 silencing/knockout. Conversely, forced over-expression of IGF2BP1 further promoted A431 cell survival and proliferation. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of IGF2BP1-bound long non-coding RNA THOR ("Lnc-THOR") similarly depleted IGF2BP1-dependent mRNAs, causing inhibition on A431 cell survival and proliferation. In vivo, IGF2BP1 silencing or knockout inhibited A431 tumor xenograft growth in mice. Together, we conclude that IGF2BP1 over-expression in skin SCC cells is essential for cell growth.

Ye XT, Huang H, Huang WP, Hu WL
LncRNA THOR promotes human renal cell carcinoma cell growth.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 501(3):661-667 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have characterized a novel but extremely conserved long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) THOR. THOR directly associates with insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) to promote mRNA stabilization of key pro-cancerous genes.
RESULTS: Here, we show that THOR is expressed in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tissues and established/primary human RCC cells. It was not detected in normal renal tissues nor in HK-2 and primary human renal epithelial cells. THOR silencing (by targeted siRNAs) or CRISPR/Cas9 knockout inhibited RCC cell growth, viability and proliferation in vitro. Reversely, forced over-expression of THOR promoted RCC cell survival and proliferation. IGF2BP1-regulated genes, including IGF2, GLI1 and Myc, were downregulated by THOR silencing or knockout, but they were upregulated after THOR over-expression. In vivo, THOR-knockout 786-O tumors grew significantly slower than the control tumors in nude mice.
CONCLUSION: THOR expression promotes RCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo. THOR could be a novel and important therapeutic target for human RCC.

Zhou Y, Meng X, Chen S, et al.
IMP1 regulates UCA1-mediated cell invasion through facilitating UCA1 decay and decreasing the sponge effect of UCA1 for miR-122-5p.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) represent a class of widespread and diverse endogenous RNAs that can posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression through the interaction with RNA-binding proteins and micro RNAs (miRNAs). Here, we report that in breast carcinoma cells, the insulin-like growth factor 2 messenger RNA binding protein (IMP1) binds to lncRNA urethral carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1) and suppresses the UCA1-induced invasive phenotype.
METHODS: RT-qPCR and RNA sequence assays were used to investigate the expression of UCA1 and miRNAs in breast cancer cells in response to IMP1 expression. The role of IMP1-UCA1 interaction in cell invasion was demonstrated by transwell analysis through loss-of-function and gain-of-function effects. RNA pull-down and RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) were performed to confirm the molecular interactions of IMP1-UCA1 and UCA1-miR-122-5p involved in breast cancer cells.
RESULTS: In breast cancer cells, IMP1 interacts with UCA1 via the "ACACCC" motifs within UCA1 and destabilizes UCA1 through the recruitment of CCR4-NOT1 deadenylase complex. Meanwhile, binding of IMP1 prevents the association of miR-122-5p with UCA1, thereby shifting the availability of miR-122-5p from UCA1 to the target mRNAs and reducing the UCA1-mediated cell invasion. Accordingly, either IMP1 silencing or UCA1 overexpression resulted in reduced levels of free miR-122-5p within the cytoplasm, affecting miR-122-5p in regulating its target mRNAs.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides initial evidence that interaction between IMP1 and UCA1 enhances UCA1 decay and competes for miR-122-5p binding, leading to the liberation of miR-122-5p activity and the reduction of cell invasiveness.

Müller S, Bley N, Glaß M, et al.
IGF2BP1 enhances an aggressive tumor cell phenotype by impairing miRNA-directed downregulation of oncogenic factors.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(12):6285-6303 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The oncofetal IGF2 mRNA binding proteins (IGF2BPs) are upregulated in most cancers but their paralogue-specific roles in tumor cells remain poorly understood. In a panel of five cancer-derived cell lines, IGF2BP1 shows highly conserved oncogenic potential. Consistently, the deletion of IGF2BP1 impairs the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer-derived cells in nude mice. Gene expression analyses in ovarian cancer-derived cells reveal that the knockdown of IGF2BPs is associated with the downregulation of mRNAs that are prone to miRNA regulation. All three IGF2BPs preferentially associate upstream of miRNA binding sites (MBSs) in the 3'UTR of mRNAs. The downregulation of mRNAs co-regulated by miRNAs and IGF2BP1 is abrogated at low miRNA abundance or when miRNAs are depleted. IGF2BP1 associates with these target mRNAs in RISC-free complexes and its deletion enhances their association with AGO2. The knockdown of most miRNA-regulated target mRNAs of IGF2BP1 impairs tumor cell properties. In four primary cancers, elevated synthesis of these target mRNAs is largely associated with upregulated IGF2BP1 mRNA levels. In ovarian cancer, the enhanced expression of IGF2BP1 and most of its miRNA-controlled target mRNAs is associated with poor prognosis. In conclusion, these findings indicate that IGF2BP1 enhances an aggressive tumor cell phenotype by antagonizing miRNA-impaired gene expression.

Chatterji P, Rustgi AK
RNA Binding Proteins in Intestinal Epithelial Biology and Colorectal Cancer.
Trends Mol Med. 2018; 24(5):490-506 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The intestinal epithelium is highly proliferative and consists of crypt invaginations that house stem cells and villus projections with differentiated cells. There exists a dynamic equilibrium between proliferation, migration, differentiation, and senescence that is regulated by several factors. Among these are RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that bind their targets in a both context dependent and independent manner. RBP-RNA complexes act as rheostats by regulating expression of RNAs both co- and post-transcriptionally. This is important, especially in response to intestinal injury, to fuel regeneration. The manner in which these RBPs function in the intestine and their interactions with other pivotal pathways in colorectal cancer may provide a framework for new insights and potential therapeutic applications.

Muhar M, Ebert A, Neumann T, et al.
SLAM-seq defines direct gene-regulatory functions of the BRD4-MYC axis.
Science. 2018; 360(6390):800-805 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Defining direct targets of transcription factors and regulatory pathways is key to understanding their roles in physiology and disease. We combined SLAM-seq [thiol(SH)-linked alkylation for the metabolic sequencing of RNA], a method for direct quantification of newly synthesized messenger RNAs (mRNAs), with pharmacological and chemical-genetic perturbation in order to define regulatory functions of two transcriptional hubs in cancer, BRD4 and MYC, and to interrogate direct responses to BET bromodomain inhibitors (BETis). We found that BRD4 acts as general coactivator of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription, which is broadly repressed upon high-dose BETi treatment. At doses triggering selective effects in leukemia, BETis deregulate a small set of hypersensitive targets including MYC. In contrast to BRD4, MYC primarily acts as a selective transcriptional activator controlling metabolic processes such as ribosome biogenesis and de novo purine synthesis. Our study establishes a simple and scalable strategy to identify direct transcriptional targets of any gene or pathway.

Fan L, Wang Z, Wang Q, et al.
Increasing rates of
J Cancer Res Ther. 2018; 14(1):68-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objective: Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen found in immunocompromised patients, especially cancer patients. This study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of cancer patients and the antimicrobial resistance of A.baumannii isolates.
Materials and Methods: Clinical isolates were collected from the oncology department of a general teaching hospital, and the clinical and demographic information of patients was obtained from the hospital's information system. Antimicrobial susceptibility was examined using the agar dilution method. Carbapenemase-encoding genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and sequence types were determined by multilocus sequence typing.
Results: The isolation rate of A.baumannii increased annually in the oncology department. Multivariate analysis showed that only prior antibiotic use was an independent risk factor for A.baumannii infection. The use of antibiotics in A.baumannii-infected patients was significantly more frequent than in non-A.baumannii-infected patients. A.baumannii isolates were highly resistant to most tested antibiotics. The IMP-4 and VIM-2 genes were present in 6 and 2 isolates, respectively. Sixty isolates had 12 genotypes, and ST208 was the most common genotype.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of antibiotics and hospital environmental pollution may be the main causes of A. baumannii infection.

Gerlach D, Tontsch-Grunt U, Baum A, et al.
The novel BET bromodomain inhibitor BI 894999 represses super-enhancer-associated transcription and synergizes with CDK9 inhibition in AML.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(20):2687-2701 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein inhibitors have been reported as treatment options for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in preclinical models and are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. This work presents a novel potent and selective BET inhibitor (BI 894999), which has recently entered clinical trials (NCT02516553). In preclinical studies, this compound is highly active in AML cell lines, primary patient samples, and xenografts. HEXIM1 is described as an excellent pharmacodynamic biomarker for target engagement in tumors as well as in blood. Mechanistic studies show that BI 894999 targets super-enhancer-regulated oncogenes and other lineage-specific factors, which are involved in the maintenance of the disease state. BI 894999 is active as monotherapy in AML xenografts, and in addition leads to strongly enhanced antitumor effects in combination with CDK9 inhibitors. This treatment combination results in a marked decrease of global p-Ser2 RNA polymerase II levels and leads to rapid induction of apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Together, these data provide a strong rationale for the clinical evaluation of BI 894999 in AML.

Huang H, Weng H, Sun W, et al.
Recognition of RNA N
Nat Cell Biol. 2018; 20(3):285-295 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Kim T, Havighurst T, Kim K, et al.
Targeting insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) in metastatic melanoma to increase efficacy of BRAF
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(5):678-683 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Melanoma is one of the deadliest forms of skin cancer. Although BRAF inhibitors significantly enhance survival of metastatic melanoma patients, most patients relapse after less than a year of treatment. We previously reported that mRNA binding protein Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) is overexpressed in metastatic melanoma and that expression of IGF2BP1 confers resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Here we demonstrate that IGF2BP1 plays an important role in the sensitivity of melanoma to targeted therapy. Inhibition of IGF2BP1 enhances the effects of BRAF-inhibitor and BRAF-MEK inhibitors in BRAF

Tzoneva G, Dieck CL, Oshima K, et al.
Clonal evolution mechanisms in NT5C2 mutant-relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Nature. 2018; 553(7689):511-514 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is associated with resistance to chemotherapy and poor prognosis. Gain-of-function mutations in the 5'-nucleotidase, cytosolic II (NT5C2) gene induce resistance to 6-mercaptopurine and are selectively present in relapsed ALL. Yet, the mechanisms involved in NT5C2 mutation-driven clonal evolution during the initiation of leukaemia, disease progression and relapse remain unknown. Here we use a conditional-and-inducible leukaemia model to demonstrate that expression of NT5C2(R367Q), a highly prevalent relapsed-ALL NT5C2 mutation, induces resistance to chemotherapy with 6-mercaptopurine at the cost of impaired leukaemia cell growth and leukaemia-initiating cell activity. The loss-of-fitness phenotype of NT5C2

Zhang Y, Wu H, Yang F, et al.
Prognostic Value of the Expression of DNA Repair-Related Biomarkers Mediated by Alcohol in Gastric Cancer Patients.
Am J Pathol. 2018; 188(2):367-377 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Alcohol consumption likely induces gastric carcinogenesis through deregulation of RNA polymerase (Pol) III genes and oxidative damage. Transcription factor IIB-related factor 1 (BRF1) overexpression alleviates RNA Pol III transcription inhibition through breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) involvement in cancer is induced by alcohol-mediated oxidative damage. BRCA1/2 and MPO play key roles in DNA repair. BRCA1 and BRCA2 exert different roles in homologous recombination repair. By using human gastric cancer (GC) biopsies, we investigated the prognostic value of these proteins upon alcohol induction. In total, high expression of BRF1 (P = 0.010) and positive cell infiltration of MPO (P = 0.004) in tumor tissues as well as positive expression of BRCA1 (P < 0.001) in para-tumor tissues were more frequent in GC patients with hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption habits. BRF1 (P = 0.021), BRCA2 (P < 0.001), and MPO (P = 0.039) were independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival. BRCA1 (P = 0.005) and BRCA2 (P < 0.001) also were identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Furthermore, BRCA2 was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for disease-free survival and overall survival (P < 0.001) in GC patients who underwent platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. BRF1, BRCA1/2, and MPO are DNA repair-related biomarkers, induced by alcohol with prognostic value in GC patients.

Abdullah C, Korkaya H, Iizuka S, Courtneidge SA
SRC Increases
Mol Cell Biol. 2018; 38(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcription factor gene

Milanovic M, Fan DNY, Belenki D, et al.
Senescence-associated reprogramming promotes cancer stemness.
Nature. 2018; 553(7686):96-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cellular senescence is a stress-responsive cell-cycle arrest program that terminates the further expansion of (pre-)malignant cells. Key signalling components of the senescence machinery, such as p16

Li M, Jin C, Xu M, et al.
Bifunctional enzyme ATIC promotes propagation of hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating AMPK-mTOR-S6 K1 signaling.
Cell Commun Signal. 2017; 15(1):52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the cancer types with poor prognosis. To effectively treat HCC, new molecular targets and therapeutic approaches must be identified. 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/inosine monophosphate (IMP) cyclohydrolase (ATIC), a bifunctional protein enzyme, catalyzes the last two steps of the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway. Whether ATIC contributes to cancer development remains unclear.
METHODS: ATIC mRNA levels in different types of human HCC samples or normal tissues were determined from Gene Expression across Normal and Tumor tissue (GENT) database. The expression level of ATIC in human HCC samples or cell lines were examined by RT-PCR and western blot. Overall survival and disease-free survival of HCC patients in the ATIC low and ATIC high groups were determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Effects of ATIC knockdown by lentivirus infection were evaluated on cell-proliferation, cell-apoptosis, colony formation and migration. The mechanisms involved in HCC cells growth, apoptosis and migration were analyzed by western blot and Compound C (C-C) rescue assays.
RESULTS: Here, we first demonstrated that expression of ATIC is aberrantly up-regulated in HCC tissues and high level of ATIC is correlated with poor survival in HCC patients. Knockdown of ATIC expression resulted in a dramatic decrease in proliferation, colony formation and migration of HCC cells. We also identified ATIC as a novel regulator of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream signaling mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). ATIC suppresses AMPK activation, thus activates mTOR-S6 K1-S6 signaling and supports growth and motility activity of HCC cells.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results indicate that ATIC acts as an oncogenic gene that promotes survival, proliferation and migration by targeting AMPK-mTOR-S6 K1 signaling.

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