BRAP

Gene Summary

Gene:BRAP; BRCA1 associated protein
Aliases: IMP, BRAP2, RNF52
Location:12q24.12
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene was identified by its ability to bind to the nuclear localization signal of BRCA1 and other proteins. It is a cytoplasmic protein which may regulate nuclear targeting by retaining proteins with a nuclear localization signal in the cytoplasm. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:BRCA1-associated protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 10 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Genetic Counseling
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • alpha Karyopherins
  • RTPCR
  • Mutation
  • DNA Methylation
  • Ultrasonography, Mammary
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Cancer DNA
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Ductal Breast Carcinoma
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Models, Statistical
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Chromosome 12
  • Risk Assessment
  • Lung Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Genotype
  • Mastectomy
  • Heterozygote
  • Carrier Proteins
  • BRCA2 Protein
  • DNA Repair
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Genetic Testing
  • BRCA1
  • Models, Genetic
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Ubiquitination
Tag cloud generated 10 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BRAP (cancer-related)

Wieczorek E, Jablonowski Z, Tomasik B, et al.
Different Gene Expression and Activity Pattern of Antioxidant Enzymes in Bladder Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):841-848 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role in and contribution of antioxidant enzymes to bladder cancer (BC) etiology and recurrence after transurethral resection (TUR). We enrolled 40 patients with BC who underwent TUR and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The analysis was performed at diagnosis and recurrence, taking into account the time of recurrence. Gene expression of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) was determined in peripheral blood leukocytes. The activity of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) was examined in plasma, and GPX1 and copper-zinc containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in erythrocytes. SOD2 and GPX1 expression and GPX1 and SOD1 activity were significantly higher in patients at diagnosis of BC in comparison to controls. In patients who had recurrence earlier than 1 year from TUR, CAT and SOD2 expression was lower (at diagnosis p=0.024 and p=0.434, at recurrence p=0.022 and p=0.010), while the GPX1 and GPX3 activity was higher (at diagnosis p=0.242 and p=0.394, at recurrence p=0.019 and p=0.025) compared to patients with recurrence after 1 year from TUR. This study revealed that the gene expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes are elevated in blood of patients with BC, although a low expression of CAT might contribute to the recurrence of BC, in early prognosis.

Cao Y, Zhang G, Wang P, et al.
Clinical significance of UGT1A1 polymorphism and expression of ERCC1, BRCA1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, STMN1 and TOP2A in gastric cancer.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2017; 17(1):2 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Individualized therapeutic regimen is a recently intensively pursued approach for targeting diseases, in which the search for biomarkers was considered the first and most important. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate whether the UGT1A1, ERCC1, BRCA1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, STMN1 and TOP2A genes are underlying biomarkers for gastric cancer, which, to our knowledge, has not been performed.
METHODS: Ninety-eight tissue specimens were collected from gastric cancer patients between May 2012 and March 2015. A multiplex branched DNA liquidchip technology was used for measuring the mRNA expressions of ERCC1, BRCA1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, STMN1 and TOP2A. Direct sequencing was performed for determination of UGT1A1 polymorphisms. Furthermore, correlations between gene expressions, polymorphisms and clinicopathological characteristics were investigated.
RESULTS: The expressions of TYMS, TUBB3 and STMN1 were significantly associated with the clinicopathological characteristics of age, gender and family history of gastric cancer, but not with differentiation, growth patterns, metastasis and TNM staging in patients with gastric cancer. No clinical characteristics were correlated with the expressions of ERCC1, BRCA1, RRM1 and TOP2A. Additionally, patients carrying G allele at -211 of UGT1A1 were predisposed to developing tubular adenocarcinoma, while individuals carrying 6TAA or G allele respectively at *28 or -3156 of UGT1A1 tended to have a local invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: The UGT1A1 polymorphism may be useful to screen the risk population of gastric cancer, while TYMS, TUBB3 and STMN1 may be potential biomarkers for prognosis and chemotherapy guidance.

Reszka E, Przybek M
Circadian Genes in Breast Cancer.
Adv Clin Chem. 2016; 75:53-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exploring the putative impact of circadian rhythms is a relatively novel approach to illuminating hormone-related female breast cancer etiology and prognosis. One of several proposed mechanisms underlying breast cancer risk among individuals exposed to light at night involves circadian gene alterations. Although in vitro and animal studies indicate a key role of circadian genes in breast tumor suppression, there is a paucity of data on the role of circadian genes in human breast cancer. This review summarizes recent findings of circadian gene expression and DNA methylation profile from human breast cancer studies in relation to hormonal status, clinicopathological features of tumors, and exposure to night shift work. The major findings from human studies indicate that expression of circadian genes is deregulated in breast cancer. Breast cancer etiology and prognosis-associated PERs, CRYs, CLOCK downregulation, and TIMELESS upregulation may be related to relevant gene methylation in tumor tissue. Alterations and desynchronization of molecular clock machinery found on genetic and epigenetic level were observed in more aggressive breast cancer tumors and those lacking estrogen receptors.

Winship I, Southey MC
Gene panel testing for hereditary breast cancer.
Med J Aust. 2016; 204(5):188-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inherited predisposition to breast cancer is explained only in part by mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Most families with an apparent familial clustering of breast cancer who are investigated through Australia's network of genetic services and familial cancer centres do not have mutations in either of these genes. More recently, additional breast cancer predisposition genes, such as PALB2, have been identified. New genetic technology allows a panel of multiple genes to be tested for mutations in a single test. This enables more women and their families to have risk assessment and risk management, in a preventive approach to predictable breast cancer. Predictive testing for a known family-specific mutation in a breast cancer predisposition gene provides personalised risk assessment and evidence-based risk management. Breast cancer predisposition gene panel tests have a greater diagnostic yield than conventional testing of only the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The clinical validity and utility of some of the putative breast cancer predisposition genes is not yet clear. Ethical issues warrant consideration, as multiple gene panel testing has the potential to identify secondary findings not originally sought by the test requested. Multiple gene panel tests may provide an affordable and effective way to investigate the heritability of breast cancer.

Kim JS, He X, Orr B, et al.
Intact Cohesion, Anaphase, and Chromosome Segregation in Human Cells Harboring Tumor-Derived Mutations in STAG2.
PLoS Genet. 2016; 12(2):e1005865 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Somatic mutations of the cohesin complex subunit STAG2 are present in diverse tumor types. We and others have shown that STAG2 inactivation can lead to loss of sister chromatid cohesion and alterations in chromosome copy number in experimental systems. However, studies of naturally occurring human tumors have demonstrated little, if any, correlation between STAG2 mutational status and aneuploidy, and have further shown that STAG2-deficient tumors are often euploid. In an effort to provide insight into these discrepancies, here we analyze the effect of tumor-derived STAG2 mutations on the protein composition of cohesin and the expected mitotic phenotypes of STAG2 mutation. We find that many mutant STAG2 proteins retain their ability to interact with cohesin; however, the presence of mutant STAG2 resulted in a reduction in the ability of regulatory subunits WAPL, PDS5A, and PDS5B to interact with the core cohesin ring. Using AAV-mediated gene targeting, we then introduced nine tumor-derived mutations into the endogenous allele of STAG2 in cultured human cells. While all nonsense mutations led to defects in sister chromatid cohesion and a subset induced anaphase defects, missense mutations behaved like wild-type in these assays. Furthermore, only one of nine tumor-derived mutations tested induced overt alterations in chromosome counts. These data indicate that not all tumor-derived STAG2 mutations confer defects in cohesion, chromosome segregation, and ploidy, suggesting that there are likely to be other functional effects of STAG2 inactivation in human cancer cells that are relevant to cancer pathogenesis.

Stoskus M, Vaitkeviciene G, Eidukaite A, Griskevicius L
ETV6/RUNX1 transcript is a target of RNA-binding protein IGF2BP1 in t(12;21)(p13;q22)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2016; 57:30-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
The oncofetal RNA-binding protein IGF2BP1 (IGF2 mRNA binding protein 1) is overexpressed in a subset of cancers and promotes cell cycle, migration and aggressive phenotype by regulating post-transcriptionally a number of key mRNAs (e. g, ACTB, CD44, CTNNB1, KRAS, MAPK4, MYC, PTEN and others). IGF2BP1 is also overexpressed in t(12;21)(p13;q22)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but the biological significance of this phenomenon has not been addressed so far. We have identified leukemia fusion gene ETV6/RUNX1 mRNA to be highly enriched in immunoprecipitated fraction of endogenous IGF2BP1 from a model cell line REH and t(12;21)(p13;q22)-positive ALL samples. Furthermore, downregulation of IGF2BP1 by two-fold has resulted in a corresponding decrease of ETV6/RUNX1 mRNA validating this transcript as a target of IGF2BP1 protein in t(12;21)(p13;q22)-positive ALL. These data infer that IGF2BP1 is a potent regulator of ETV6/RUNX1 mRNA stability and potentially link this evolutionary-highly conserved protein to cell transformation events in ETV6/RUNX1-mediated leukemogenesis of t(12;21)(p13;q22)-positive ALL.

Levine BD, Cagan RL
Drosophila Lung Cancer Models Identify Trametinib plus Statin as Candidate Therapeutic.
Cell Rep. 2016; 14(6):1477-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have developed a Drosophila lung cancer model by targeting Ras1(G12V)--alone or in combination with PTEN knockdown--to the Drosophila tracheal system. This led to overproliferation of tracheal tissue, formation of tumor-like growths, and animal lethality. Screening a library of FDA-approved drugs identified several that improved overall animal survival. We explored two hits: the MEK inhibitor trametinib and the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor fluvastatin. Oral administration of these drugs inhibited Ras and PI3K pathway activity, respectively; in addition, fluvastatin inhibited protein prenylation downstream of HMG-CoA reductase to promote survival. Combining drugs led to synergistic suppression of tumor formation and rescue lethality; similar synergy was observed in human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Notably, fluvastatin acted both within transformed cells and also to reduce whole-body trametinib toxicity in flies. Our work supports and provides further context for exploring the potential of combining statins with MAPK inhibitors such as trametinib to improve overall therapeutic index.

Kushitani K, Amatya VJ, Mawas AS, et al.
Use of Anti-Noxa Antibody for Differential Diagnosis between Epithelioid Mesothelioma and Reactive Mesothelial Hyperplasia.
Pathobiology. 2016; 83(1):33-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The histological differential diagnosis between epithelioid mesothelioma (EM) and reactive mesothelial hyperplasia (RMH) is not always straightforward. The aim of the present study was to search for new immunohistochemical markers to distinguish EM from RMH.
METHODS: We evaluated and compared the expression of apoptosis-related genes in EM and RMH by real-time RT-PCR array analysis followed by clustering of significant gene expression. Immunohistochemical staining and statistical analysis of Noxa expression in 81 cases of EM and 55 cases of RMH were performed and compared with the utility of other previously reported antibodies such as Desmin, EMA, GLUT-1, IMP-3 and CD146.
RESULTS: Noxa mRNA expression levels were found to be increased in EM when compared to RMH by RT-PCR array analysis. In the immunohistochemical analysis, Noxa showed sensitivity of 69.0%, specificity of 93.6% and positive predictive value of 93.0% as a positive marker of EM in distinguishing it from RMH, and these values were almost similar to IMP-3.
CONCLUSION: Noxa is a marker with relatively high specificity, and can be used to distinguish EM from RMH. It would be a valuable addition to the current antibody panel used for the differential diagnosis of EM and RMH.

Hurvitz S, Mead M
Triple-negative breast cancer: advancements in characterization and treatment approach.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 28(1):59-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) comprises 15-20% of all breast cancer and is defined by the lack of estrogen and progesterone receptor expression and absence of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 amplification. Compared with patients with hormone receptor positive or Her-2 positive breast cancer, patients with TNBC are more commonly young (age <50 years), African-American and have a higher incidence of BRCA1/2 mutations. The clinical course is frequently characterized by early relapse and poor overall survival. The TNBC phenotype is impervious to therapies commonly used in other breast cancer subtypes, including hormonal therapy and Her-2 receptor antagonism. Cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the only approved treatment. With its aggressive clinical course and paucity of effective treatment options, TNBC represents an unmet clinical need. This review will focus on updates of the biologic underpinnings of TNBC and the associated treatment advances.
RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous advancements have been made toward understanding the biologic framework of TNBC. Gene expression profiling has revealed six clinically relevant subsets of TNBC. Further study has demonstrated a portion of TNBC exhibits a strong immune gene signature. Lastly, it is now appreciated that a subgroup of sporadic TNBC shares biologic characteristics with BRCA1/2-mutated breast cancer, notably homologous repair deficiency. Recent studies focus on incorporation of platinum salts and new combinations of conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Targeted agents, including poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors, antiangiogenic agents, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway inhibitors, and androgen antagonist are also being evaluated. Most recently, checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated a modest degree of activity in a subset of TNBC.
SUMMARY: These discoveries are informing novel treatment paradigms and identification of correlative biomarkers in TNBC. Improved understanding of the biologic heterogeneity of TNBC is allowing for a more effective and individualized approach to treatment.

Baker A, Gregory GP, Verbrugge I, et al.
The CDK9 Inhibitor Dinaciclib Exerts Potent Apoptotic and Antitumor Effects in Preclinical Models of MLL-Rearranged Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(5):1158-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
Translocations of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene occur in 60% to 80% of all infant acute leukemias and are markers of poor prognosis. MLL-AF9 and other MLL fusion proteins aberrantly recruit epigenetic regulatory proteins, including histone deacetylases (HDAC), histone methyltransferases, bromodomain-containing proteins, and transcription elongation factors to mediate chromatin remodeling and regulate tumorigenic gene expression programs. We conducted a small-molecule inhibitor screen to test the ability of candidate pharmacologic agents targeting epigenetic and transcriptional regulatory proteins to induce apoptosis in leukemic cells derived from genetically engineered mouse models of MLL-AF9-driven acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We found that the CDK inhibitor dinaciclib and HDAC inhibitor panobinostat were the most potent inducers of apoptosis in short-term in vitro assays. Treatment of MLL-rearranged leukemic cells with dinaciclib resulted in rapidly decreased expression of the prosurvival protein Mcl-1, and accordingly, overexpression of Mcl-1 protected AML cells from dinaciclib-induced apoptosis. Administration of dinaciclib to mice bearing MLL-AF9-driven human and mouse leukemias elicited potent antitumor responses and significantly prolonged survival. Collectively, these studies highlight a new therapeutic approach to potentially overcome the resistance of MLL-rearranged AML to conventional chemotherapies and prompt further clinical evaluation of CDK inhibitors in AML patients harboring MLL fusion proteins.

Qu Y, Pan S, Kang M, et al.
MicroRNA-150 functions as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma by targeting IGF2BP1.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(4):5275-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor with high morbidity in young adults and adolescents. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression is involved in OS occurrence and development. miR-150 has been recently widely studied in many cancers, but not including OS. This study is aimed to investigate the expression and biological role of miR-150 in OS. Here, we found that miR-150 expression was consistently downregulated in OS tissues and cell lines compared with the matched adjacent normal tissues and human normal osteoblast cells (NHOst), and its expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Functional study showed that restoration of miR-150 expression in OS cells could inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and induced apoptosis in vitro as well as suppressed tumor growth of OS in vivo. Mechanistically, IGF2 mRNA-binding protein 1(IGF2BP1) was confirmed to act as a direct target of miR-150, and the IGF2BP1 mRNA expression was inversely correlated with the level of miR-150 in OS tissues. In addition, downregulation of endogenous IGF2BP1 exhibited similar effects of overexpression of miR-150. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-150 functions as a tumor suppressor in OS partially by targeting IGF2BP1.

Zhang J, Cheng J, Zeng Z, et al.
Comprehensive profiling of novel microRNA-9 targets and a tumor suppressor role of microRNA-9 via targeting IGF2BP1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(39):42040-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNA-9 (miR-9) dysregulation is implicated in a variety of human malignancies including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its role remains contradictory. In this study, we explored the expression and methylation status of miR-9 in HCC samples, as well as the tumor-related functions of miR-9 in vitro. Bioinformatics analysis, array-based RNA expression profile, and literature retrieval were used to identify miR-9 targets in HCC. The potential downstream candidates were then validated by luciferase reporter assay, real-time quantitative PCR, and western blot or enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression status and clinicopathologic significances of miR-9 target genes in clinical samples were further explored. The results showed that miR-9 was frequently downregulated in primary HCC. Its silencing was largely contributed by a high frequency (42.5%) of mir-9-1 hypermethylation, which was correlated with bigger tumor size (P = 0.0234). In vitro functional studies revealed that miR-9 restoration retarded HCC cell proliferation and migration. IL-6, AP3B1, TC10, ONECUT2, IGF2BP1, MYO1D, and ANXA2 were confirmed to be miR-9 targets in HCC. Among them, ONECUT2, IGF2BP1, and ANXA2 were confirmed to be aberrantly upregulated in HCC. Moreover, upregulation of ONECUT2, IGF2BP1, and IL-6 were significantly associated with poor post-surgery prognosis (P = 0.0458, P = 0.0037 and P = 0.0461, respectively). Mechanically, miR-9 plays a tumor suppressive role partially through a functional miR-9/IGF2BP1/AKT&ERK axis. Our study suggests that miR-9 functions as a tumor suppressor in HCC progression by inhibiting a series of target genes, including the newly validated miR-9/IGF2BP1/AKT&ERK axis, thus providing potential therapeutic targets and novel prognostic biomarkers for HCC patients.

Jablonska E, Gromadzinska J, Peplonska B, et al.
Lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity relationship in breast cancer depends on functional polymorphism of GPX1.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:657 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Since targeting oxidative stress markers has been recently recognized as a novel therapeutic target in cancer, it is interesting to investigate whether genetic susceptibility may modify oxidative stress response in cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether genetic polymorphism in the antioxidant enzymes is associated with lipid peroxidation in breast cancer.
METHODS: We conducted a study among Polish women, including 136 breast cancer cases and 183 healthy controls. The analysis included genetic polymorphisms in five redox related genes: GPX1 (rs1050450), GPX4 (rs713041), SOD2 (rs4880), SEPP1 (rs3877899) and SEP15 (rs5859), lipid peroxidation, the activities of antioxidant enzymes determined in blood compartments as well as plasma concentration of selenium - an antioxidant trace element involved in cancer. Genotyping was performed using the Real Time PCR. Lipid peroxidation was expressed as plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and measured with the spectrofluorometric method. Glutathione peroxidase activity was spectrophotometrically determined in erythrocytes (GPx1) and plasma (GPx3) by the use of Paglia and Valentine method. Spectrophotometric methods were employed to measure activity of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in erythrocytes (Beauchamp and Fridovich method) and ceruloplasmin (Cp) in plasma (Sunderman and Nomoto method). Plasma selenium concentration was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
RESULTS: Breast cancer risk was significantly associated with GPX1 rs1050450 (Pro198Leu) polymorphism, showing a protective effect of variant (Leu) allele. As compared to the control subjects, lipid peroxidation and GPx1 activity were significantly higher in the breast cancer cases, whereas ceruloplasmin activity was decreased. After genotype stratification, both GPx1 activity and TBARS concentration were the highest in GPX1 Pro/Pro homozygotes affected by breast cancer. At the same time, there was a significant correlation between the level of lipid peroxidation and GPx1 activity among the cancer subjects possessing GPX1 Pro/Pro genotype (r = 0.3043; p = 0.0089), whereas such a correlation was completely absent in the cases carrying at least one GPX1 Leu allele as well as in the controls (regardless of GPX1 genotype).
CONCLUSIONS: GPX1 polymorphism may be an important factor modifying oxidative stress response in breast cancer subjects. Further studies are needed to elucidate its potential clinical significance.

Chokoeva AA, Ananiev J, Wollina U, et al.
IMP-3 EXPRESSION IN BENIGN MELANOCYTIC NEVI, DYSPLASTIC NEVI AND MALIGNANT MELANOMA: PRELIMINARY FINDINGS IN BULGARIAN PATIENTS.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2015 Jul-Sep; 29(3):695-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
IMP-3 is generally considered as an oncofetal protein, which plays a critical role in regulation of cell proliferation via an IGF-II-dependent pathway in K562 leukemia cells. IMP-3 expression has been detected in malignancies with various origins, while its appearance in adult tissue is generally considered abnormal, with some exceptions. IMP3 is also considered a prognostic biomarker in patients with renal cell carcinoma and clear-cell type ovarian carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and in patients with poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma and uterine cervical carcinomas, testicular cancer and malignant melanoma. To our knowledge, no more than 4 PubMed-indexed studies have investigated the expression of IMP-3 in melanocytic lesions, namely its role in the differentiation between benign and malignant neoplasms. We investigated the expression of IMP-3 in a small series of benign melanocytic lesions, dysplastic nevi and melanomas, aiming to establish its significance as a marker for their distinction, comparing the results with those from the literature. IMP- 3 immunostaining was performed in 30 melanocytic lesions: 10 malignant melanomas, 10 dysplastic nevi and 10 benign melanocytic nevi. Our results revealed expression in 20% of dysplastic lesions and 40% of melanoma cases, while none of the benign nevi showed positive expression. These data contradict some of the results from other studies and raise some questions regarding the correlation between IMP- 3 and the degree of dysplasia of melanocytic nevi, as well as its potential relationship with prognostic parameters in melanoma, including tumor thickness and mitotic rate. Our results suggest that IMP-3 expression could be only an auxiliary marker for differentiation between dysplastic nevi and benign nevi, since although it is not expressed in all dysplastic lesions, staining correlates with the degree of dysplasia/atypia. It seems that IMP-3 expression is not a useful discriminator between dysplastic nevi and melanoma nor a good prognostic marker in melanoma.

Chen T, Braga-Neto UM
Statistical Detection of Intrinsically Multivariate Predictive Genes.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform. 2015 Jul-Aug; 12(4):951-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Canalizing genes possess broad regulatory power over a wide swath of regulatory processes. On the other hand, it has been hypothesized that the phenomenon of intrinsically multivariate prediction (IMP) is associated with canalization. However, applications have relied on user-selectable thresholds on the IMP score to decide on the presence of IMP. A methodology is developed here that avoids arbitrary thresholds, by providing a statistical test for the IMP score. In addition, the proposed procedure allows the incorporation of prior knowledge if available, which can alleviate the problem of loss of power due to small sample sizes. The issue of multiplicity of tests is addressed by family-wise error rate (FWER) and false discovery rate (FDR) controlling approaches. The proposed methodology is demonstrated by experiments using synthetic and real gene-expression data from studies on melanoma and ionizing radiation (IR) responsive genes. The results with the real data identified DUSP1 and p53, two well-known canalizing genes associated with melanoma and IR response, respectively, as the genes with a clear majority of IMP predictor pairs. This validates the potential of the proposed methodology as a tool for discovery of canalizing genes from binary gene-expression data. The procedure is made available through an R package.

Huang X, Huang M, Kong L, Li Y
miR-372 suppresses tumour proliferation and invasion by targeting IGF2BP1 in renal cell carcinoma.
Cell Prolif. 2015; 48(5):593-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate proteins and mRNAs for degradation or translational suppression. Up to now, the role of miR-372 in renal cell carcinoma has remained unknown; in this study, we have aimed to reveal its functional importance in this tumour.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: qRT-PCR was performed to measure expression levels of miR-372 in renal cell carcinoma cell lines and tissues. CCK-8 and an invasion assay were performed to measure its functional role. Luciferase assays, qRT-PCR and western blotting were performed to discover miR-372's target gene.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that miRNA-372 was down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma cell lines and tissue specimens; its over-expression inhibited cell proliferation and invasion. Moreover, we showed that miRNA-372 repressed insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) expression by directly interacting with its putative binding site at the 3'-UTR. Furthermore, ectopic expression of IGF2BP1 significantly reversed suppression of cell proliferation and invasion caused by miR-372 over-expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicated that miR-372 seemed to function as a tumour suppressor in renal cell carcinoma progression by inhibiting the IGF2BP1 expression.

Churg A, Sheffield BS, Galateau-Salle F
New Markers for Separating Benign From Malignant Mesothelial Proliferations: Are We There Yet?
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2016; 140(4):318-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: The separation of benign from malignant mesothelial proliferations is crucial to patient care but is frequently morphologically difficult.
OBJECTIVE: To briefly review adjunctive tests claimed to be useful in this setting and to examine in detail 2 new tests: p16 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) immunohistochemistry.
DESIGN: Literature review with emphasis on p16 FISH and BAP1 immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Glucose transporter-1, p53, insulin-like growth factor 2 messenger RNA-binding protein 3 (IMP-3), desmin, and epithelial membrane antigen have all been claimed to mark either benign or malignant mesothelial processes, but in practice they at best provide statistical differences in large series of cases, without being useful in an individual case. Homozygous deletion of p16 by FISH or loss of BAP1 has only been reported in malignant mesotheliomas and not in benign mesothelial proliferations. BAP1 appears to be lost more frequently in epithelial than mixed or sarcomatous mesotheliomas. Homozygous deletion of p16 by FISH is seen in pleural epithelial, mixed, and sarcomatous mesotheliomas, but it is much less frequent in peritoneal mesothelioma. The major drawback to both these tests is limited sensitivity; moreover, failure to find p16 deletion or BAP1 loss does not make a mesothelial process benign.
CONCLUSIONS: In the context of a mesothelial proliferation, the finding of homozygous deletion of p16 by FISH or loss of BAP1 by immunohistochemistry is, thus far, 100% specific for malignant mesothelioma. The limited sensitivity of each test may be improved to some extent by running both tests.

Azimi F, Mortazavi Y, Alavi S, et al.
Frequency of ITPA gene polymorphisms in Iranian patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and prediction of its myelosuppressive effects.
Leuk Res. 2015; 39(10):1048-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) plays an important role in treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (ITPA) is an enzyme involved in 6-MP metabolic pathway that convert the inosine triphosphate (ITP) to inosine monophosphate (IMP) and prevents the accumulation of the toxic metabolite ITP. Our objective was to evaluate the ITPA 94C>A, IVS2+21A>C polymorphisms in patients with ALL treated with 6-MP and prediction of its clinical outcomes. Our study population consisted of 70 patients diagnosed with ALL in the Division of Hematology-Oncology of Tehran Mofid Hospital. PCR was carried out to amplify exon 2, exon 3, intron 2, and intron 3 of ITPA gene then, all the amplified fragments were subjected to directional sequencing and then association between genotype and 6-MP toxicity was studied. In this study two exonic variants including 94C>A and 138G>A showed a prevalence of 8.5% and 36.4%, respectively. Two intronic variants, IVS2+21A>C and IVS3+101G>A were found in 13.5% and 7% of the samples, respectively. The rate of myelosuppression in the presence of mutant homozygote and heterozygous alleles (94C>A, 138G>A, IVS2+21A>C and IVS3+101G>A) was higher than that of wild type alleles during the use of 6-MP. Hepatotoxicity in patients with mutant homozygous and heterozygous 94C>A and IVS3+101G>A during the treatment 6-MP was higher than before treatment with 6-MP. Our results showed that patients with aberrant ITPase genotype (mutant homozygous or heterozygous), more likely to be myelosuppressed and show liver toxicity after treatment with 6-MP. Our results suggest that pre-therapeutic screening of patients for ITPA 94C>A, IVS2+21A>C and IVS3+101G>A can help in minimizing the adverse effects of 6-MP in ALL patients.

Wieczorek E, Jablonowski Z, Tomasik B, et al.
MMP, VEGF and TIMP as prognostic factors in recurring bladder cancer.
Clin Biochem. 2015; 48(18):1235-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical correlates and prognostic utility of MMP, VEGF and TIMP genes expression in bladder cancer (BCa) recurrence.
METHODS: Expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP9, VEGFA and TIMP1, TIMP3 was analyzed by qRT-PCR using SYBR Green in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of BCa patients at two time points (diagnosis (n=40), and first recurrence (n=40)) and an age-matched group of healthy controls (n=100). Plasma concentrations of MMP1 (pro- and active forms) were measured using ELISA in BCa patients.
RESULTS: The expression of MMP1 mRNA was significantly lower in BCa patients with first recurrence compared to control (p=0.019). Expression of other genes did not differ significantly between the groups. MMP9 gene expression was associated with differentiation grade (p=0.043), with the highest expression in poorly differentiated tumors (G3) and was higher in smokers than in non-smokers (p=0.039) in BCa patients at diagnosis. The results at two time points showed that MMP9 and VEGFA genes expression was increased in patients with moderately differentiated BCa (p=0.029), and advanced pathologic stage (p=0.048), respectively. Moreover, gene expression of TIMP1 was increased for G3 (p=0.043), and was decreased for early recurrence (p=0.003).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the expression of MMP9 in PBLs of BCa patients at diagnosis is associated with the differentiation grade of the BCa, and smoking status. Genes expression of MMP9, VEGFA and TIMP1 in PBLs may play a pivotal role in regulation of progression of BCa. Additionally, TIMP1 gene expression may be important factor for early recurrence of BCa.

Hamilton KE, Chatterji P, Lundsmith ET, et al.
Loss of Stromal IMP1 Promotes a Tumorigenic Microenvironment in the Colon.
Mol Cancer Res. 2015; 13(11):1478-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The colon tumor microenvironment is becoming increasingly recognized as a complex but central player in the development of many cancers. Previously, we identified an oncogenic role for the mRNA-binding protein IMP1 (IGF2BP1) in the epithelium during colon tumorigenesis. In the current study, we reveal the contribution of stromal IMP1 in the context of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis. Interestingly, stromal deletion of Imp1 (Dermo1Cre;Imp1(LoxP/LoxP), or Imp1(ΔMes)) in the azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS) model of colitis-associated cancer resulted in increased tumor numbers of larger size and more advanced histologic grade than controls. In addition, Imp1(ΔMes) mice exhibited a global increase in protumorigenic microenvironment factors, including enhanced inflammation and stromal components. Evaluation of purified mesenchyme from AOM/DSS-treated Imp1(ΔMes) mice demonstrated an increase in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which has not been associated with regulation via IMP1. Genetic knockdown of Imp1 in human primary fibroblasts confirmed an increase in HGF with Imp1 loss, demonstrating a specific, cell-autonomous role for Imp1 loss to increase HGF expression. Taken together, these data demonstrate a novel tumor-suppressive role for IMP1 in colon stromal cells and underscore an exquisite, context-specific function for mRNA-binding proteins, such as IMP1, in disease states.
IMPLICATIONS: The tumor-suppressive role of stromal IMP1 and its ability to modulate protumorigenic factors suggest that IMP1 status is important for the initiation and growth of epithelial tumors.

Fawzy IO, Hamza MT, Hosny KA, et al.
miR-1275: A single microRNA that targets the three IGF2-mRNA-binding proteins hindering tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma.
FEBS Lett. 2015; 589(17):2257-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to identify a single miRNA or miR (microRNA) which regulates the three insulin-like growth factor-2-mRNA-binding proteins (IGF2BP1, 2 and 3). Bioinformatics predicted miR-1275 to simultaneously target the three IGF2BPs, and screening revealed miR-1275 to be underexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues. Transfection of HuH-7 cells with miR-1275 suppressed IGF2BPs expression and all three IGF2BPs were confirmed as targets of miR-1275. Ectopic expression of miR-1275 and knockdown of IGF2BPs inhibited malignant cell behaviors, and also reduced IGF1R protein and mRNA. Finally IGF1R was validated as a direct target of miR-1275. These findings indicate that the tumor-suppressor miR-1275 can control HCC tumor growth partially through simultaneously regulating the oncogenic IGF2BPs and IGF1R.

Higuchi T, Flies DB, Marjon NA, et al.
CTLA-4 Blockade Synergizes Therapeutically with PARP Inhibition in BRCA1-Deficient Ovarian Cancer.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2015; 3(11):1257-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immune checkpoint blockade has shown significant therapeutic efficacy in melanoma and other solid tumors, but results in ovarian cancer have been limited. With evidence that tumor immunogenicity modulates the response to checkpoint blockade, and data indicating that BRCA-deficient ovarian cancers express higher levels of immune response genes, we hypothesized that BRCA(-) ovarian tumors would be vulnerable to checkpoint blockade. To test this hypothesis, we used an immunocompetent BRCA1-deficient murine ovarian cancer model to compare treatment with CTLA-4 or PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies alone or combined with targeted cytotoxic therapy using a PARP inhibitor. Correlative studies were performed in vitro using human BRCA1(-) cells. We found that CTLA-4 antibody, but not PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, synergized therapeutically with the PARP inhibitor, resulting in immune-mediated tumor clearance and long-term survival in a majority of animals (P < 0.0001). The survival benefit of this combination was T-cell mediated and dependent on increases in local IFNγ production in the peritoneal tumor environment. Evidence of protective immune memory was observed more than 60 days after completion of therapy. Similar increases in the cytotoxic effect of PARP inhibition in the presence of elevated levels of IFNγ in human BRCA1(-) cancer cells support the translational potential of this treatment protocol. These results demonstrate that CTLA-4 blockade combined with PARP inhibition induces protective antitumor immunity and significant survival benefit in the BRCA1(-) tumor model, and support clinical testing of this regimen to improve outcomes for women with hereditary ovarian cancer.

Wedeh G, Cerny-Reiterer S, Eisenwort G, et al.
Identification of bromodomain-containing protein-4 as a novel marker and epigenetic target in mast cell leukemia.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(11):2230-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Advanced systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a life-threatening neoplasm characterized by uncontrolled growth and accumulation of neoplastic mast cells (MCs) in various organs and a poor survival. So far, no curative treatment concept has been developed for these patients. We identified the epigenetic reader bromodomain-containing protein-4 (BRD4) as novel drug target in aggressive SM (ASM) and MC leukemia (MCL). As assessed by immunohistochemistry and PCR, neoplastic MCs expressed substantial amounts of BRD4 in ASM and MCL. The human MCL lines HMC-1 and ROSA also expressed BRD4, and their proliferation was blocked by a BRD4-specific short hairpin RNA. Correspondingly, the BRD4-targeting drug JQ1 induced dose-dependent growth inhibition and apoptosis in HMC-1 and ROSA cells, regardless of the presence or absence of KIT D816V. In addition, JQ1 suppressed the proliferation of primary neoplastic MCs obtained from patients with ASM or MCL (IC50: 100-500 nm). In drug combination experiments, midostaurin (PKC412) and all-trans retinoic acid were found to cooperate with JQ1 in producing synergistic effects on survival in HMC-1 and ROSA cells. Taken together, we have identified BRD4 as a promising drug target in advanced SM. Whether JQ1 or other BET-bromodomain inhibitors are effective in vivo in patients with advanced SM remains to be elucidated.

Kuusisto HV, Jans DA
Hyper-dependence of breast cancer cell types on the nuclear transporter Importin β1.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015; 1853(8):1870-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously reported that overexpression of members of the Importin (Imp) superfamily of nuclear transporters results in increased nuclear trafficking through conventional transport pathways in tumour cells. Here we show for the first time that the extent of overexpression of Impβ1 correlates with disease state in the MCF10 human breast tumour progression system. Excitingly, we find that targeting Impβ1 activity through siRNA is >30 times more efficient in decreasing the viability of malignant ductal carcinoma cells compared to isogenic non-transformed counterparts, and is highly potent and tumour selective at subnanomolar concentrations. Tumour cell selectivity of the siRNA effects was unique to Impβ1 and not other Imps, with flow cytometric analysis showing >60% increased cell death compared to controls concomitant with reduced nuclear import efficiency as indicated by confocal microscopic analysis. This hypersensitivity of malignant cell types to Impβ1 knockdown raises the exciting possibility of anti-cancer therapies targeted at Impβ1.

Pasiliao CC, Chang CW, Sutherland BW, et al.
The involvement of insulin-like growth factor 2 binding protein 3 (IMP3) in pancreatic cancer cell migration, invasion, and adhesion.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:266 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Over-expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is correlated with poor prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Previous studies examining other cancer types have implicated IMP3 in the regulation of several cellular functions that are characteristic of tumour cells. However, the role of this oncofetal protein in PDAC progression remained unclear.
METHODS: Using siRNA, we examined the effect of IMP3 inhibition on the motility, invasive ability, and matrix adhesion of PDAC cells. In addition, we also evaluated the expression of cytoskeleton-associated genes following IMP depletion.
RESULTS: Knockdown of IMP3 significantly decreased the motility, invasion, and extracellular matrix adhesion of select PDAC cells in vitro. In addition, IMP3-depleted cells exhibited lower levels of CD44 protein and KIF11 mRNA. Moreover, we also observed a reduction in downstream RhoA signaling following IMP3 knockdown, indicating that IMP3 modulates the levels of proteins involved in cytoskeletal organization.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that IMP3 facilitates PDAC progression by enhancing the pro-metastatic behaviour of tumour cells.

Niess H, von Einem JC, Thomas MN, et al.
Treatment of advanced gastrointestinal tumors with genetically modified autologous mesenchymal stromal cells (TREAT-ME1): study protocol of a phase I/II clinical trial.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:237 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoma originating from the digestive system is a major contributor to cancer-related deaths worldwide. Tumor recurrence, advanced local growth and metastasis are key factors that frequently prevent these tumors from curative surgical treatment. Preclinical research has demonstrated that the dependency of these tumors on supporting mesenchymal stroma results in susceptibility to cell-based therapies targeting this stroma.
METHODS/DESIGN: TREAT-ME1 is a prospective, uncontrolled, single-arm phase I/II study assessing the safety and efficacy of genetically modified autologous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) as delivery vehicles for a cell-based gene therapy for advanced, recurrent or metastatic gastrointestinal or hepatopancreatobiliary adenocarcinoma. Autologous bone marrow will be drawn from each eligible patient after consent for bone marrow donation has been obtained (under a separate EC-approved protocol). In the following ~10 weeks the investigational medicinal product (IMP) is developed for each patient. To this end, the patient's MSCs are stably transfected with a gamma-retroviral, replication-incompetent and self-inactivating (SIN) vector system containing a therapeutic promoter - gene construct that allows for tumor-specific expression of the therapeutic gene. After release of the IMP the patients are enrolled after given informed consent for participation in the TREAT-ME 1 trial. In the phase I part of the study, the safety of the IMP is tested in six patients by three treatment cycles consisting of re-transfusion of MSCs at different concentrations followed by administration of the prodrug Ganciclovir. In the phase II part of the study, sixteen patients will be enrolled receiving IMP treatment. A subgroup of patients that qualifies for surgery will be treated preoperatively with the IMP to verify homing of the MSCs to tumors as to be confirmed in the surgical specimen.
DISCUSSION: The TREAT-ME1 clinical study involves a highly innovative therapeutic strategy combining cell and gene therapy and is conducted at a high level of pharmaceutical quality ensuring patient safety. This patient-tailored approach represents the first clinical study worldwide utilizing genetically engineered MSCs in humans.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: EU Clinical Trials Register/European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials Database number: 2012-003741-15.

Barfeld SJ, Fazli L, Persson M, et al.
Myc-dependent purine biosynthesis affects nucleolar stress and therapy response in prostate cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(14):12587-602 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The androgen receptor is a key transcription factor contributing to the development of all stages of prostate cancer (PCa). In addition, other transcription factors have been associated with poor prognosis in PCa, amongst which c-Myc (MYC) is a well-established oncogene in many other cancers. We have previously reported that the AR promotes glycolysis and anabolic metabolism; many of these metabolic pathways are also MYC-regulated in other cancers. In this study, we report that in PCa cells de novo purine biosynthesis and the subsequent conversion to XMP is tightly regulated by MYC and independent of AR activity. We characterized two enzymes, PAICS and IMPDH2, within the pathway as PCa biomarkers in tissue samples and report increased efficacy of established anti-androgens in combination with a clinically approved IMPDH inhibitor, mycophenolic acid (MPA). Treatment with MPA led to a significant reduction in cellular guanosine triphosphate (GTP) levels accompanied by nucleolar stress and p53 stabilization. In conclusion, targeting purine biosynthesis provides an opportunity to perturb PCa metabolism and enhance tumour suppressive stress responses.

Fakhraldeen SA, Clark RJ, Roopra A, et al.
Two Isoforms of the RNA Binding Protein, Coding Region Determinant-binding Protein (CRD-BP/IGF2BP1), Are Expressed in Breast Epithelium and Support Clonogenic Growth of Breast Tumor Cells.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(21):13386-400 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CRD-BP/IGF2BP1 has been characterized as an "oncofetal" RNA binding protein typically highly expressed in embryonic tissues, suppressed in normal adult tissues, but induced in many tumor types. In this study, we show that adult breast tissues express ubiquitous but low levels of CRD-BP protein and mRNA. Although CRD-BP mRNA expression is induced in breast tumor cells, levels remain ∼1000-fold lower than in embryonic tissues. Despite low expression levels, CRD-BP is required for clonogenic growth of breast cancer cells. We reveal that because the most common protein isoform in normal adult breast and breast tumors has an N-terminal deletion (lacking two RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains) and is therefore missing antibody epitopes, CRD-BP expression has been under-reported by previous studies. We show that a CRD-BP mutant mouse strain retains expression of the shorter transcript (ΔN-CRD-BP), which originates in intron 2, suggesting that the impact of complete ablation of this gene in mice is not yet known. Either the full-length CRD-BP or the N-terminally truncated version can rescue the clonogenicity of CRD-BP knockdown breast cancer cells, suggesting that clonogenic function is served by either CRD-BP isoform. In summary, although CRD-BP expression levels are low in breast cancer cells, this protein is necessary for clonogenic activity.

Vaishampayan UN
Sequences and combinations of multifaceted therapy in advanced prostate cancer.
Curr Opin Oncol. 2015; 27(3):201-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple agents with very distinct mechanisms of actions and unique toxicities and efficacies have become available for use in advanced prostate cancer. The next wave of investigations is focused on the development of combinations and optimal sequences of the currently available agents. The focus of this article is to provide an update on clinical developments in advanced prostate cancer occurring within the past year and to highlight the ongoing investigations of promising novel targets and compounds.
RECENT FINDINGS: The clinical use of enzalutamide prior to chemotherapy demonstrated improvement in progression-free survival and overall survival as compared with placebo in metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer. This report of the Enzalutamide in men with chemotherapy-naive metastatic prostate cancer (PREVAIL) trial led to the Food and Drug Administration approval of this agent. Novel agents such as cabozantinib and custirsen that had shown promising results in phase II trials revealed disappointing results in the phase III setting. The breakthrough report, of the ability of the androgen receptor splice variant mutation, detected in circulating tumor cells, to predict lack of response to abiraterone or enzalutamide, and the remarkable responses of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors in prostate cancer with breast cancer genes 1 and 2 (BRCA1/2) mutations, have elevated hopes of a bright future in the biomarker-driven therapeutic arena.
SUMMARY: As the clinical application of the recently approved multifaceted therapies widens, trials addressing optimal sequences and combinations are gaining importance. In addition, exploring the utility of therapies in the hormone naive or nonmetastatic settings is an area of active investigation. Early use of available agents, optimal sequencing and aid of biomarkers to guide therapeutic choices will make the achievement of lifetime remissions in advanced prostate cancer a reachable goal.

Bell JL, Turlapati R, Liu T, et al.
IGF2BP1 harbors prognostic significance by gene gain and diverse expression in neuroblastoma.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(11):1285-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Chromosomal 17q21-ter gain in neuroblastoma is both a common and prognostically significant event. The insulin-like growth factor-2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) gene is located near the proximal edge of this region. Here, its prognostic value is evaluated in neuroblastoma.
METHODS: The mRNA expression of IGF2BP family members was first evaluated by microarray data sets. In addition, in a separate cohort of 69 tumors, IGF2BP1 gene copy number, mRNA, and protein abundance were determined and compared with clinical parameters.
RESULTS: In two independent microarray data sets, 77% to 100% of tumors had substantial IGF2BP1 mRNA levels measured. High IGF2BP1 transcript abundance was significantly associated with stage 4 tumors (P < .001) and decreased patient survival (P < .001). IGF2BP1 was also associated with MYCN gene amplification and MYCN mRNA abundance. In the 69 neuroblastoma samples, IGF2BP1 DNA copy number (increased in 84% of tumors), mRNA, and protein abundance were significantly higher in stage 4 compared with stage 1 tumors. Importantly, IGF2BP1 protein levels were associated with lower overall patient survival (P = .012) and positively correlated with MYCN mRNA, even when excluding MYCN-amplified tumors. Moreover, IGF2BP1 clearly affected MYCN expression and neuroblastoma cell survival in vitro.
CONCLUSION: In neuroblastoma, IGF2BP1 was expressed in the majority of neuroblastoma specimens analyzed and was associated with lower overall patient survival and MYCN abundance. These data demonstrate that IGF2BP1 is a potential oncogene and an independent negative prognostic factor in neuroblastoma.

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