Gene Summary

Gene:RANBP2; RAN binding protein 2
Aliases: ANE1, TRP1, TRP2, ADANE, IIAE3, NUP358
Summary:RAN is a small GTP-binding protein of the RAS superfamily that is associated with the nuclear membrane and is thought to control a variety of cellular functions through its interactions with other proteins. This gene encodes a very large RAN-binding protein that immunolocalizes to the nuclear pore complex. The protein is a giant scaffold and mosaic cyclophilin-related nucleoporin implicated in the Ran-GTPase cycle. The encoded protein directly interacts with the E2 enzyme UBC9 and strongly enhances SUMO1 transfer from UBC9 to the SUMO1 target SP100. These findings place sumoylation at the cytoplasmic filaments of the nuclear pore complex and suggest that, for some substrates, modification and nuclear import are linked events. This gene is partially duplicated in a gene cluster that lies in a hot spot for recombination on chromosome 2q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:E3 SUMO-protein ligase RanBP2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RANBP2 (cancer-related)

Li H, Zhang W, Yan M, et al.
Nucleolar and spindle associated protein 1 promotes metastasis of cervical carcinoma cells by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The primary obstacle to treat cervical cancer is its high prevalence of metastasis, which severely affects patients' quality of life and survival time. Nucleolar and spindle associated protein 1 (NUSAP1) has been implicated in the development, progression, and metastasis in several types of cancer. However, its oncogenic role in cervical cancer remains unclear.
METHODS: Western blot assay and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the expression of NUSAP1 in 21 clinical fresh Cervical cancer tissues and 233 clinicopathologically characterized cervical cancer specimens. The biological roles of NUSAP1 in the metastasis of cervical cancer were investigated both in vitro by EMT, Side population analysis and Transwell assays and so on, and in vivo using a mouse 4w model of hematogenous metastasis and lymph node metastasis. Bioinformatics analysis, luciferase reporter analysis, immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting of nuclear and cytoplasmic cellular fractions were applied to discern and examine the relationshipbetween NUSAP1 and its potential targets.
RESULTS: The results demonstrated that NUSAP1 was upregulated in cervical cancer cells and tissues, correlated positively with metastasis and poor clinical outcome of patients. High expression of NUSAP1 promoted metastasis by enhancing cancer stem cell (CSC) traits and epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) progression, while silencing of NUSAP1 reduced CSC traits and EMT progression. Mechanistically, upregulation of NUSAP1 induced SUMOylation of TCF4 via interacting with SUMO E3 ligase Ran-binding protein 2 (RanBP2) and hyperactivated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cervical cancer cells. Additionally, NUSAP1-induced cervical cancer cells metastasis and the cancer stem cell phenotype were abrogated with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitor XAV-939 treatment. Importantly, co-therapy of conventional treatment and XAV-939 will provide a novel and effective treatment for NUSAP1-ovexpressed cervical cancer patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate thatNUSAP1 upregulation contributes to metastasis of cervical cancer by promoting CSC properties and EMT via Wnt/β-catenin signaling and XAV-939 might serve as a potential tailored therapeutic option for patients with NUSAP1-ovexpressed cervical cancer.

Parker BM, Parker JV, Lymperopoulos A, Konda V
A case report: Pharmacology and resistance patterns of three generations of ALK inhibitors in metastatic inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma.
J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2019; 25(5):1226-1230 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Little exists currently in research about the mechanisms of resistance of ALK inhibitors in inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma. It is known, however, that ALK gene rearrangements are common in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors, similar to non-small cell lung cancer. In roughly 50% of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors, gene rearrangement has been found to occur on chromosome 2 at band 2p23. In non-small cell lung cancer, it has been shown that about a third of patients who progress on the first generation ALK inhibitor, crizotinib develops mutations in the ALK kinase domain. The remaining two-thirds of patients tend to develop amplification of ALK or activation of alternative signaling pathways. Chromoplexy has also been described as a mechanism of resistance, where multiple closed chain rearrangements cause loss-of-function of tumor suppressor genes and gain-in-function of oncogenic fusions. Partner genes that have been identified in IMTs are tropomyosin 3 (TPM3), tropomyosin 4 (TPM4), clathrin heavy chain (CLTC), Ran-binding protein 2 (RANBP2), cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CARS), 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (ATIC), and SEC31L1. All are active promoters for the fusion gene, in response to NPM binding. Several inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor case reports indicated that fusion of ALK and RANBP2 led to a more aggressive clinical course. Although the majority of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor case reports have utilized first and second generation ALK inhibitors, all generations of ALK inhibitors have demonstrated some ability to impair disease progression and extend life expectancy. However, at some point in the course of therapy with each generation of ALK inhibitor, resistance ultimately developed. In order to better understand the pharmacology and resistance patterns behind three generations of ALK inhibitors, we sought to examine a patient with metastatic anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1-rearranged inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma to the brain. We also explored the similarities and differences of this clinical case to other inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma case reports involving the use of ALK inhibitors.
CASE REPORT: A rare case of pulmonary IMS with ALK-1 gene rearrangement and multiple brain metastases responded to three generations of ALK inhibitors. However, similar to other case reports, due to the development of resistance and recurrence, the patient eventually succumbed to the disease.
CONCLUSIONS: ALK inhibitors are beneficial in the temporary prevention of progression of disease in patients with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. In this case, due to the inability to reveal the fusion partner in this patient via DNA sequencing, it is unknown exactly if that partner was RANBP2 or another ALK partner gene. Brain biopsy tissue was also unobtainable during sequence of ALK due to risk versus benefit, which would have provided insight as which type of ALK resistance mutations the patient was developing. It is likely that this patient had some form of chromoplexy occurring.

Wang J, Zhuo Z, Chen M, et al.
Aging (Albany NY). 2018; 10(4):808-818 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The genetic etiology of sporadic neuroblastoma remains largely obscure.

Murakami N, Okuno Y, Yoshida K, et al.
Integrated molecular profiling of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.
Blood. 2018; 131(14):1576-1586 [PubMed] Related Publications
Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), a rare and aggressive myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm that occurs in infants and during early childhood, is characterized by excessive myelomonocytic cell proliferation. More than 80% of patients harbor germ line and somatic mutations in RAS pathway genes (eg,

Takayama KI, Suzuki T, Tanaka T, et al.
TRIM25 enhances cell growth and cell survival by modulating p53 signals via interaction with G3BP2 in prostate cancer.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(16):2165-2180 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer growth is promoted by the gene regulatory action of androgen receptor (AR) and its downstream signals. The aberrant dysfunction of tumor suppressor p53 has an important role in the prognosis of cancer. We previously found that androgen treatments translocate p53 to the cytoplasm. The mechanism of this translocation depends on sumoylation of p53 by complex of SUMO E3 ligase RanBP2 with androgen-induced GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 2 (G3BP2). Here, we identified tripartite motif-containing protein 25 (TRIM25)/estrogen-responsive finger protein (Efp) as a novel interacting partner of G3BP2 protein complex. Then, we demonstrated that TRIM25 knockdown resulted in p53 downstream activation for cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis induction in LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells. In contrast, overexpression of TRIM25 promoted prostate cancer cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis by docetaxel treatment in LNCaP cells. We observed that p53 activity was reduced by mechanism of G3BP2-mediated nuclear export in TRIM25-overexpressing prostate cancer cells. We also found TRIM25 is important for G3BP2/RanBP2-mediated p53 modification. Clinically, we newly demonstrated that TRIM25 is a prognostic factor for prostate cancer patients. Expression of TRIM25 is significantly associated with cytoplasmic p53 expression and G3BP2. Moreover, TRIM25 knockdown results in reduced tumor growth and increased p53 activity in the mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer. Thus, our findings show that overexpression of TRIM25 promoted prostate cancer cell proliferation and cell survival by modulating p53 nuclear export mechanism with G3BP2 interaction.

Yang J, Liu Y, Wang B, et al.
Sumoylation in p27kip1 via RanBP2 promotes cancer cell growth in cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939.
BMC Mol Biol. 2017; 18(1):23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma is one of the deadly disease with poor 5-year survival and poor response to conventional therapies. Previously, we found that p27kip1 nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation confers proliferation potential to cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939 and this process is mediated by crm-1. However, no other post-transcriptional regulation was found in this process including sumoylation in cholangiocarcinoma.
RESULTS: In this study, we explored the role of sumoylation in the nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of p27kip1 and its involvement of QBC939 cells' proliferation. First, we identified K73 as the sumoylation site in p27kip1. By utilizing plasmid flag-p27kip1, HA-RanBP2, GST-RanBP2 and His-p27kip1 and immunoprecipitation assay, we validated that p27kip1 can serve as the sumoylation target of RanBP2 in QBC939. Furthermore, we confirmed crm-1's role in promoting nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of p27kip1 and found that RanBP2's function relies on crm-1. However, K73R mutated p27kip1 can't be identified by crm-1 or RanBP2 in p27kip1 translocation process, suggesting sumoylation of p27kip1 via K73 site is necessary in this process by RanBP2 and crm-1. Phenotypically, the overexpression of either RanBP2 or crm-1 can partially rescue the anti-proliferative effect brought by p27kip1 overexpression in both the MTS and EdU assay. For the first time, we identified and validated the K73 sumoylation site in p27kip1, which is critical to RanBP2 and crm-1 in p27kip1 nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation process.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, targeted inhibition of sumoylation of p27kip1 may serve as a potentially potent therapeutic target in the eradication of cholangiocarcinoma development and relapses.

Ashikari D, Takayama K, Tanaka T, et al.
Androgen induces G3BP2 and SUMO-mediated p53 nuclear export in prostate cancer.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(45):6272-6281 [PubMed] Related Publications
The androgen receptor (AR) has a central role in prostate cancer progression, particularly treatment-resistance disease including castration-resistant prostate cancer. Loss of the p53 tumor suppressor, a nuclear transcription factor, is also known to contribute to prostate malignancy. Here we report that p53 is translocated to the cytoplasm by androgen-mediated induction of G3BP2, a newly described direct target gene of AR. G3BP2 induces both cell cycle progression and blocks apoptosis. Translocation of p53 is regulated by androgen-dependent sumoylation mediated by the G3BP2-interacting SUMO-E3 ligase, RanBP2. G3BP2 knockdown results in reduced tumor growth and increased nuclear p53 accumulation in mouse xenograft models of prostate cancer with or without long-term androgen deprivation. Moreover, strong cytoplasmic p53 localization is correlated clinically with elevated G3BP2 expression and predicts poor prognosis and disease progression to the hormone-refractory state. Our findings reveal a new AR-mediated mechanism of p53 inhibition that promotes treatment-resistant prostate cancer.

Jiang Q, Tong HX, Hou YY, et al.
Identification of EML4-ALK as an alternative fusion gene in epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma.
Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2017; 12(1):97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Known as solid tumors of intermediate malignant potential, most inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are treatable as long as the tumor is en-bloc resected. However, in some cases, the tumors have recurred and grown rapidly after successful surgery. Some of these tumors were classified as an epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma (EIMS). Most previously reported EIMSs have been caused by RANBP2-ALK fusion gene. We herein report an EIMS case caused by an EML4-ALK fusion gene.
METHODS: RNAseq was conducted to find out the new ALK fusion gene which could not be detected following previously reported RT-PCR methods for EIMS cases with RANBP2-ALK fusion gene. After that, RT-PCR was also conducted to further prove the newly found fusion gene. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test were applied to find out the unique morphological characters compared with the previous reported EIMS cases.
RESULTS: We found an EIMS case who was suffering from a rapid recurrence after cytoreducyive surgery was done to relieve the exacerbating symptoms. The patient finally died for tumor lysis syndrome after the application of crizotinib. Distinctive ALK staining under the membrane and relatively weak ALK staining in the cytoplasm could also be observed. RNAseq and RT-PCR further revealed that the tumor harbored an EML4-ALK fusion gene.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this is the first EIMS demonstrated to have been caused by the formation of an EML4-ALK fusion gene. This enriches the spectrum of EIMS and enlarges the horizon for the study of EIMS. The experience we shared in managing this kind of disease by discussing aspects of its success and failure could be of great value for surgeons and pathologists.

Yang MH, Chen KC, Chiang PW, et al.
Proteomic Profiling of Neuroblastoma Cells Adhesion on Hyaluronic Acid-Based Surface for Neural Tissue Engineering.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:1917394 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The microenvironment of neuron cells plays a crucial role in regulating neural development and regeneration. Hyaluronic acid (HA) biomaterial has been applied in a wide range of medical and biological fields and plays important roles in neural regeneration. PC12 cells have been reported to be capable of endogenous NGF synthesis and secretion. The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of HA biomaterial combining with PC12 cells conditioned media (PC12 CM) in neural regeneration. Using SH-SY5Y cells as an experimental model, we found that supporting with PC12 CM enhanced HA function in SH-SY5Y cell proliferation and adhesion. Through RP-nano-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses, we identified increased expression of HSP60 and RanBP2 in SH-SY5Y cells grown on HA-modified surface with cotreatment of PC12 CM. Moreover, we also identified factors that were secreted from PC12 cells and may promote SH-SY5Y cell proliferation and adhesion. Here, we proposed a biomaterial surface enriched with neurotrophic factors for nerve regeneration application.

Lee JC, Li CF, Huang HY, et al.
ALK oncoproteins in atypical inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours: novel RRBP1-ALK fusions in epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma.
J Pathol. 2017; 241(3):316-323 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ALK oncogenic activation mechanisms were characterized in four conventional spindle-cell inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours (IMT) and five atypical IMT, each of which had ALK genomic perturbations. Constitutively activated ALK oncoproteins were purified by ALK immunoprecipitation and electrophoresis, and were characterized by mass spectrometry. The four conventional IMT had TPM3/4-ALK fusions (two cases) or DCTN1-ALK fusions (two cases), whereas two atypical spindle-cell IMT had TFG-ALK and TPM3-ALK fusion in one case each, and three epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcomas had RANBP2-ALK fusions in two cases, and a novel RRBP1-ALK fusion in one case. The epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma with RRBP1-ALK fusion had cytoplasmic ALK expression with perinuclear accentuation, different from the nuclear membranous ALK localization in epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcomas with RANBP2-ALK fusions. Evaluation of three additional uncharacterized epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcomas with ALK cytoplasmic/perinuclear- accentuation expression demonstrated RRBP1-ALK fusion in two cases. These studies show that atypical spindle-cell IMT can utilize the same ALK fusion mechanisms described previously in conventional IMT, whereas in clinically aggressive epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma we identify a novel recurrent ALK oncogenic mechanism, resulting from fusion with the RRBP1 gene. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hayashi A, Tanoshima R, Tsujimoto SI, et al.
Crizotinib treatment for refractory pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with RAN-binding protein 2-anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion gene.
Blood Cancer J. 2016; 6(8):e456 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

BRAF-Like Colorectal Cancer Cells Are Selectively Dependent on RANBP2.
Cancer Discov. 2016; 6(6):OF18 [PubMed] Related Publications
In BRAF-like colorectal cancer cells, RANBP2 loss induces mitotic abnormalities and cell death.

Vecchione L, Gambino V, Raaijmakers J, et al.
A Vulnerability of a Subset of Colon Cancers with Potential Clinical Utility.
Cell. 2016; 165(2):317-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
BRAF(V600E) mutant colon cancers (CCs) have a characteristic gene expression signature that is also found in some tumors lacking this mutation. Collectively, they are referred to as "BRAF-like" tumors and represent some 20% of CCs. We used a shRNA-based genetic screen focused on genes upregulated in BRAF(V600E) CCs to identify vulnerabilities of this tumor subtype that might be exploited therapeutically. Here, we identify RANBP2 (also known as NUP358) as essential for survival of BRAF-like, but not for non-BRAF-like, CC cells. Suppression of RANBP2 results in mitotic defects only in BRAF-like CC cells, leading to cell death. Mechanistically, RANBP2 silencing reduces microtubule outgrowth from the kinetochores, thereby inducing spindle perturbations, providing an explanation for the observed mitotic defects. We find that BRAF-like CCs display far greater sensitivity to the microtubule poison vinorelbine both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that vinorelbine is a potential tailored treatment for BRAF-like CCs.

Liu Q, Kan Y, Zhao Y, et al.
Epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma treated with ALK inhibitor: a case report and review of literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(11):15328-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma is extremely rare and belongs to a variant of inflammatory myofibrobalstic tumor with aggressive clinical course. We describe a case of a 22 years old man presented with an abdominal huge tumor. Microscopically, the neoplasm cells were rounded and epithelioid in shape. Abundant interstitial edema and less myxoid stroma were also present together with an inflammatory infiltrate. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that ALK gene presented mutation. After surgery the patient received chemotherapy with an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor, crizotinib. The patient continues to be alive with disease for 16 months and has no recurrence. Although EIMS has a poor prognosis, this is the few successful case with sustained response of targeted therapy.

Schnepp RW, Khurana P, Attiyeh EF, et al.
A LIN28B-RAN-AURKA Signaling Network Promotes Neuroblastoma Tumorigenesis.
Cancer Cell. 2015; 28(5):599-609 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A more complete understanding of aberrant oncogenic signaling in neuroblastoma, a malignancy of the developing sympathetic nervous system, is paramount to improving patient outcomes. Recently, we identified LIN28B as an oncogenic driver in high-risk neuroblastoma. Here, we identify the oncogene RAN as a LIN28B target and show regional gain of chromosome 12q24 as an additional somatic alteration resulting in increased RAN expression. We show that LIN28B influences RAN expression by promoting RAN Binding Protein 2 expression and by directly binding RAN mRNA. Further, we demonstrate a convergence of LIN28B and RAN signaling on Aurora kinase A activity. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that LIN28B-RAN-AURKA signaling drives neuroblastoma oncogenesis, suggesting that this pathway may be amenable to therapeutic targeting.

Tuccilli C, Baldini E, Sorrenti S, et al.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2015 Jul-Sep; 29(3):655-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Small Ubiquitin–like MOdifier (SUMO) proteins are small protein modifiers capable of regulating cellular localization and function of target proteins. Over the last few years, a relevant role has been demonstrated for sumoylation in the modulation of important cellular processes, including gene transcription, DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation and apoptosis. Components of the sumoylation machinery have been found deregulated in different human cancers, and are thought to significantly affect cancer cell progression. In the present study we sought to analyze the expression of all the components of the sumoylation machinery in a case study comprising 77 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) and normal matched tissues. In particular, we evaluated the expression of the SENP1 to SENP8 (SENtrin-specific proteases), SAE1 (SUMO1 activating enzyme subunit 1), UBA2 (UBiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 2), UBC9 (UBiquitin conjugating enzyme 9), RanBP2 (RAN binding protein 2), MSMCE2 (Non- SMC element 2), CBX4 (ChromoBoX homolog 4), PIAS1 to PIAS4 (protein inhibitor of activated STAT), ZMIZ1 (zinc finger, MIZ-type containing 1) and ZMIZ2 (Zinc finger, MIZ-type containing 2) by means of quantitative RT-PCR. In most of the PTC examined we observed a significant alteration in the mRNAs of SENP8, ZMIZ1, SAE1, PIAS1 and PIAS2. These tended to be reduced in about 50 to 66% of cases, and unchanged or increased in the remaining ones. Univariate and Kaplan-Mayer analyses documented the lack of association between the expression of the above 5 genes and clinicopathological parameters. Only SAE1 was significantly higher in female PTC tissues, in respect to male PTC tissues (p=0.021), and SENP8 was significantly lower in TNM stages III-V, with respect to stages I-II (p=0.047). In conclusion, we demonstrated that the expression of SENP8, SAE1, PIAS1, PIAS2 and ZMIZ1 is deregulated in the majority of PTC tissues, likely contributing to the PTC phenotype. However, differently from other human cancers, their mRNA level does not represent a prognostic biomarker in PTC patients.

Wu H, Meng YH, Lu P, et al.
Epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma in abdominal cavity: a case report and review of literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(4):4213-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In this study, we present a rare and difficult case of epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma (EIMS) in abdominal cavity. A 47-year-old female presented as left upper abdominal pain for 6 months and abdominal distention for 1 month. CT examination showed a solid mass in the left upper intra-abdomen. Grossly, the tumor was found in the mesenterium of colon with the size of 7.5 × 6.5 × 3.5 cm, and was solid and gray-yellowish in the cut surface. Focal myxomatous appearance was observed. Microscopically, stromal myxoid change together with prominant infiltrated lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils were found in the tumor, and the tumor cells were round, epithelioid with vesicular nuclei, large prominant nucleoli and high mitotic rate. Immunohistochemically, strong diffused positive for vimentin, desmin, ALK (nuclear membrane staining pattern) and AAT, focally positive for CD99 and CD30, were showed, Ki67 index was about 20%; Especially, WT-1 and D240 were focally expressed in this tumor. FISH analysis showed rearrangement of ALK, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was used to detect the fusion location of the RANBP2 and ALK gene. The diagnosis of EMIS was made based on its location, typical morphology, the immunohistochemical features especially the nuclear membranous immunostaining of ALK and rearrangement of RANBP2-ALK. The tumor showed higher aggressive behaviors and a poor prognosis. The differential diagnosis and other treatments of EMIS are also discussed in the present study. This finding may increase the case information of EMIS.

Takeoka K, Okumura A, Maesako Y, et al.
Crizotinib resistance in acute myeloid leukemia with inv(2)(p23q13)/RAN binding protein 2 (RANBP2) anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion and monosomy 7.
Cancer Genet. 2015; 208(3):85-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
This is the first report on the development of a p.G1269A mutation within the kinase domain (KD) of ALK after crizotinib treatment in RANBP2-ALK acute myeloid leukemia (AML). An elderly woman with AML with an inv(2)(p23q13)/RANBP2-ALK and monosomy 7 was treated with crizotinib. After a short-term hematological response and the restoration of normal hematopoiesis, she experienced a relapse of AML. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using the ALK break-apart probe confirmed the inv(2)(p23q13), while G-banded karyotyping revealed the deletion of a segment of the short arm of chromosome 1 [del(1)(p13p22)] after crizotinib therapy. The ALK gene carried a heterozygous mutation at the nucleotide position g.716751G>C within exon 25, causing the p.G1269A amino acid substitution within the ALK-KD. Reverse transcriptase PCR revealed that the mutated ALK allele was selectively transcribed and the mutation occurred in the ALK allele rearranged with RANBP2. As both the del(1)(p13p22) at the cytogenetic level and p.G1269A at the nucleotide level newly appeared after crizotinib treatment, it is likely that they were secondarily acquired alterations involved in crizotinib resistance. Although secondary genetic abnormalities in ALK are most frequently described in non-small cell lung cancers harboring an ALK alteration, this report suggests that an ALK-KD mutation can occur independently of the tumor cell type or fusion partner after crizotinib treatment.

Kimbara S, Takeda K, Fukushima H, et al.
A case report of epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma with RANBP2-ALK fusion gene treated with the ALK inhibitor, crizotinib.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2014; 44(9):868-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma is a variant of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with aggressive clinical course associated with RANBP2-ALK fusion. The present report describes a case of a 22-year-old Japanese man with a pelvic mesenchymal neoplasm. The feature of the neoplasms, including epithelioid morphology, anaplastic lymphoma kinase staining on the nuclear membrane, and results from the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, led to diagnosis of epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma with RANBP2-ALK fusion. Despite two surgical excision procedures, local recurrence rapidly occurred, and the tumor developed resistance to conventional chemotherapy with doxorubicin. Subsequent administration of crizotinib, an oral anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, resulted in tumor shrinkage. Distinguishing epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma from conventional inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is important, and crizotinib is a promising treatment for this aggressive tumor.

Packham S, Warsito D, Lin Y, et al.
Nuclear translocation of IGF-1R via p150(Glued) and an importin-β/RanBP2-dependent pathway in cancer cells.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(17):2227-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mounting evidence has shown that the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) has critical roles in cancer cell growth. This has prompted pharmacological companies to develop agents targeting the receptor. Surprisingly, clinical trials using specific IGF-1R antibodies have, however, revealed disappointing results. Further understanding of the role of IGF-1R in cancer cells is therefore necessary for development of efficient therapeutic strategies. Recently, we showed that IGF-1R is sumoylated and translocated into the cell nucleus where it activates gene transcription. Several other studies have confirmed our findings and it has been reported that nuclear IGF-1R (nIGF-1R) has prognostic and predictive impact in cancer. To increase the understanding of IGF-1R in cancer cells, we here present the first study that proposes a pathway by which IGF-1R translocates into the cell nucleus. We could demonstrate that IGF-1R first associates with the dynactin subunit p150(Glued), which transports the receptor to the nuclear pore complex, where it co-localizes with importin-β followed by association with RanBP2. Sumoylation of IGF-1R seems to be required for interaction with RanBP2, which in turn may serve as the SUMO E3 ligase. In the context of sumoylation, we provided evidence that it may favor nIGF-1R accumulation by increasing the stability of the receptor. Taken together, topographic and functional interactions between dynactin, importin-β and RanBP2 are involved in nuclear translocation of IGF-1R. Our results provide new understanding of IGF-1R in cancer, which in turn may contribute to development of new therapeutic strategies.

Lim JH, Jang S, Park CJ, et al.
RANBP2-ALK fusion combined with monosomy 7 in acute myelomonocytic leukemia.
Cancer Genet. 2014 Jan-Feb; 207(1-2):40-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) is located on chromosome 2p23; the chromosomal rearrangements of this gene are common genetic alterations, resulting in the creation of multiple fusion genes involved in tumorigenesis. However, the presence of an ALK fusion in myeloid malignancies is extremely rare. We report a case of acute myelomonocytic leukemia in a 31-year-old woman with an unusual rearrangement between RAN-binding protein 2 (RANBP2) and ALK and a karyotype of 45,XX,inv(2)(p23q21),-7[20]. We detected an ALK rearrangement using fluorescence in situ hybridization, identified the ALK fusion partner by using RNA transcriptome sequencing, and demonstrated the RANBP2-ALK fusion transcript by reverse transcriptase--PCR and Sanger sequencing. Immunohistochemistry for ALK showed strong staining of the nuclear membrane in leukemic cells. The patient had an unfavorable clinical course. Our results, together with a literature review, suggest the RANBP2-ALK fusion combined with monosomy 7 may be related to a unique clonal hematologic disorder of childhood and adolescence, characterized by myelomonocytic leukemia and a poor prognosis.

Maesako Y, Izumi K, Okamori S, et al.
inv(2)(p23q13)/RAN-binding protein 2 (RANBP2)-ALK fusion gene in myeloid leukemia that developed in an elderly woman.
Int J Hematol. 2014; 99(2):202-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 75-year-old woman presented with marked leukocytosis; the white cell count was 143.6 × 10³/μL with 38.6 % monocytes and 13.6 % immature granulocytes, including blasts. Bone marrow (BM) aspirate smears showed >90 % cellularity with hyperplasia of myeloid-lineage cells, 14.6 % monocytes, and 32.1 % blasts. The granulocyte series showed a range of dysplastic morphologies. The rate of peroxidase positivity was 51.5 %. CD36+ cells with monocytic differentiation comprised 64.6 % mononuclear cells. Metaphase spreads obtained from the BM revealed an aneuploid karyotype with -7 and a submetacentric marker chromosome derived from chromosome 2, which was determined to be inv(2)(p23q13) by fluorescence in situ hybridization using the Vysis ALK probe. RAN-binding protein 2 (RANBP2)-ALK fusion mRNA was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing. High-sensitivity anti-ALK immunohistochemistry of a BM biopsy specimen demonstrated nuclear membrane staining of leukemia cells. As the leukemia showed features of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, the patient was treated with standard daunorubicin-cytarabine followed by azacitidine, leading to the durable suppression of leukemia progression. These findings suggest that inv(2)(p23q13)/RABBP2-ALK defines a small subset of myeloid leukemia characterized by differentiation to monocytes and sharing features of myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm.

Li J, Yin WH, Takeuchi K, et al.
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with RANBP2 and ALK gene rearrangement: a report of two cases and literature review.
Diagn Pathol. 2013; 8:147 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are categorized as intermediate biologic neoplasms, whereas IMTs with genetic features of ran-binding protein 2 (RANBP2) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement (IMT-RAs) are possibly related to a more aggressive clinical course. However, fewer than 10 cases of IMT-RA have been reported to date. Herein, we present 2 new cases of IMT-RA in which both tumors recurred quickly after primary surgery; one patient died 3 months later from the disease, and the other patient has been living with the disease for 12 months. IMT-RAs are characterized by noncohesive epithelioid and rounded tumoral cell morphology, commonly derived from pelvic and peritoneal cavities, and frequently show larger tumor sizes. The relation between the clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis of IMT-RA is discussed.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3314123381007714.

Gylfe AE, Kondelin J, Turunen M, et al.
Identification of candidate oncogenes in human colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability.
Gastroenterology. 2013; 145(3):540-3.e22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microsatellite instability can be found in approximately 15% of all colorectal cancers. To detect new oncogenes we sequenced the exomes of 25 colorectal tumors and respective healthy colon tissue. Potential mutation hot spots were confirmed in 15 genes; ADAR, DCAF12L2, GLT1D1, ITGA7, MAP1B, MRGPRX4, PSRC1, RANBP2, RPS6KL1, SNCAIP, TCEAL6, TUBB6, WBP5, VEGFB, and ZBTB2; these were validated in 86 tumors with microsatellite instability. ZBTB2, RANBP2, and PSRC1 also were found to contain hot spot mutations in the validation set. The form of ZBTB2 associated with colorectal cancer increased cell proliferation. The mutation hot spots might be used to develop personalized tumor profiling and therapy.

Kozu Y, Isaka M, Ohde Y, et al.
Epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma arising in the pleural cavity.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014; 62(3):191-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 57-year-old Japanese man presented with massive right pleural effusion, and a huge tumor arising in the pleural cavity was detected by chest computed tomography. A thoracoscopic tumor biopsy revealed that the tumor protruded extensively into the pleural cavity, and its gross appearance was cystic and glossy. Microscopically, the tumor cells were rounded and epithelioid in shape. Prominent and abundant myxoid stroma was also present together with an inflammatory infiltrate, and the tumor was anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-immunopositive. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the Ran-binding protein 2-ALK fusion gene was present. Taken together, these findings supported the diagnosis of epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma (EIMS), which is a variant of an inflammatory myofibrobrastic tumor. This is the first reported case of an EIMS arising in the pleural cavity.

Wolf K, Schmitt-Mechelke T, Kollias S, Curt A
Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE1): rare autosomal-dominant disorder presenting as acute transverse myelitis.
J Neurol. 2013; 260(6):1545-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
The term "acute transverse myelitis (ATM)" comprises various non-traumatic disorders that eventually can be associated with a focal myelopathy. Patients characteristically present with an acutely occurring paraparesis/plegia and require a comprehensive and timely diagnostic work up for the initiation of an appropriate treatment. We present a case of a 36-year-old female patient with a rare genetic disorder (ANE1: Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy due to a RANBP2 mutation) who presented with an acute quadriplegia. Following an acute pulmonal infection, she rapidly (< 24 h) developed a severe quadriplegia (total motor score 38) with some facial sensory symptoms (perioral hypoesthesia). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a combination of longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis and symmetrical thalamic lesions. A work-up for infectious and systemic diseases was negative; specifically, no findings related to multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica or vascular disorders. After empirical high dose steroid treatment and rehabilitation therapy, the patient gained almost normal gait and upper limb function. She was found to carry an autosomal-dominant missense mutation in the RANBP2 gene predisposing for ANE. Gene segregation was confirmed in other family members that had been affected by other episodes of acute steroid-responsive encephalopathies. We propose that a redefined diagnostic workup of ATM might include ANE1, as the frequency of this rare disorder might be underestimated.

Satow R, Shitashige M, Jigami T, et al.
β-catenin inhibits promyelocytic leukemia protein tumor suppressor function in colorectal cancer cells.
Gastroenterology. 2012; 142(3):572-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Loss of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear body (NB) formation has been reported in colorectal and other solid tumors. However, genetic alteration of PML is rarely observed in these tumors; the exact mechanisms that mediate loss of PML function are not known.
METHODS: We previously used a comprehensive shotgun mass spectrometry approach to identify PML as 1 of 70 proteins that coimmunoprecipitate with anti-T-cell factor 4 in DLD-1 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cell lines; we investigated the effects of altered β-catenin expression on PML function in these cells.
RESULTS: β-catenin specifically interacted with the product of PML transcript variant IV (PML-IV) through the armadillo repeat domain of β-catenin. Overexpression of β-catenin in colorectal cancer cells disrupted the subcellular compartmentalization of PML-IV, whereas knockdown of β-catenin restored formation of PML-NB. Modification of PML by the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is required for proper assembly of PML-NB. β-catenin inhibited Ran-binding protein 2-mediated SUMOylation of PML-IV.
CONCLUSIONS: β-catenin interacts with PML isoform IV and disrupts PML-IV function and PML-NB formation by inhibiting Ran-binding protein 2-mediated SUMO modification of PML-IV. These findings indicate the involvement of a posttranslational mechanism in disruption of PML-NB organization in cancer cells and provide more information about the oncogenic functions of β-catenin.

Solár P, Sytkowski AJ
Differentially expressed genes associated with cisplatin resistance in human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line A2780.
Cancer Lett. 2011; 309(1):11-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer cells are usually initially sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy, such as cisplatin (CDDP), but typically become resistant over time. Such drug resistance is a serious impediment to successful disease treatment, and the molecular mechanisms responsible for resistance are not fully understood. In search of novel mechanisms that may lead to the development of CDDP chemoresistance, we used subtractive hybridization to identify differentially expressed genes in CDDP resistant CP70 and C200 cells vs. CDDP sensitive A2780 human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells. We analyzed 256 randomly selected clones. Subtraction efficiency was determined by dot blot and DNA sequencing. Confirmation of differentially expressed cDNAs was done by virtual northern blot analysis, and 17 genes that were differentially expressed in CDDP resistant cell lines vs. CDDP sensitive A2780 cells were identified. The expression of 10 of these genes was low or undetectable in sensitive A2780 cells in comparison to resistant cells and an additional seven genes were more highly expressed in resistant CP70 and C200 vs. A2780 cells. Our identified genes are involved in numerous and diverse cellular processes, such as inhibition of apoptosis (ARHGDIB), stress response (HSPCA, TRA1), chromatin condensation (CNAP1, RanBP2), invasiveness of cells (MMP10), alteration of Ca(2+) homeostasis (ASPH, ATP2B1) and others. Further characterization of these genes and gene products should yield important insights into the biology of CDDP resistance in ovarian carcinoma.

Mariño-Enríquez A, Wang WL, Roy A, et al.
Epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma: An aggressive intra-abdominal variant of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with nuclear membrane or perinuclear ALK.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2011; 35(1):135-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm of intermediate biological potential, which may recur and rarely metastasize. Pathologic features do not correlate well with behavior. Approximately 50% of conventional IMTs harbor ALK gene rearrangement and overexpress ALK, most showing diffuse cytoplasmic staining. Rare IMTs with a distinct nuclear membrane or perinuclear pattern of ALK staining and epithelioid or round cell morphology have been reported. These cases pursued an aggressive clinical course, suggesting that such patterns may predict malignant behavior. We describe 11 cases of IMT with epithelioid morphology and a nuclear membrane or perinuclear pattern of immunostaining for ALK. Ten patients were male and 1 was female, ranging from 7 months to 63 years in age (median, 39 y). All tumors were intra-abdominal; most arose in the mesentery or omentum, measuring 8 to 26 cm (median, 15 cm). Six tumors were multifocal at presentation. The tumors were composed predominantly of sheets of round-to-epithelioid cells with vesicular nuclei, large nucleoli, and amphophilic-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm. In all cases, a minor spindle cell component was present. Nine tumors had abundant myxoid stroma. In 7 cases neutrophils were prominent and in 3 cases lymphocytes were prominent. Plasma cells were often absent. Median mitotic rate was 4/10 HPF; 6 tumors had necrosis. By immunohistochemistry, all tumors were positive for ALK, 9 tumors showing a nuclear membrane staining pattern and 2 tumors showing a cytoplasmic pattern with perinuclear accentuation. Other positive markers were desmin (10 of 11), focal smooth muscle actin (4 of 8), and CD30 (8 of 8). All tumors were negative for MYF4, caldesmon, keratins, EMA, and S-100. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was positive for ALK gene rearrangement in 9 cases, and in 3 cases tested, a RANBP2-ALK fusion was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Ten patients underwent surgical resection; 1 patient was inoperable. Follow-up was available for 8 patients and ranged from 3 to 40 months (median, 13 mo). All patients experienced rapid local recurrences; 4 patients had multiple recurrences. Eight patients were treated with postoperative chemotherapy; 2 patients received additional radiotherapy. Two patients also developed metastases (both patients developed metastases to the liver; 1 patient developed metastases to the lung and lymph nodes as well). Thus far, 5 patients died of disease, 2 patients are alive with disease, and 1 patient, treated with an experimental ALK inhibitor, has no evidence of disease. In summary, the epithelioid variant of IMT with nuclear membrane or perinuclear ALK is a distinctive intra-abdominal sarcoma with a predilection for male patients. Unlike conventional IMT, abundant myxoid stroma and prominent neutrophils are common. These tumors pursue an aggressive course with rapid local recurrences and are frequently fatal. We propose the designation "epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma" to convey both the malignant behavior of these tumors and their close relationship with IMT.

Horio Y, Osada H, Shimizu J, et al.
Relationship of mRNA expressions of RanBP2 and topoisomerase II isoforms to cytotoxicity of amrubicin in human lung cancer cell lines.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2010; 66(2):237-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: RanBP2 is a small ubiquitin-like modifier ligase for DNA topoisomerase II (TopoII) and plays a role in maintaining chromosome stability by recruiting TopoII to centromeres during mitosis. Engineered-mice with low amounts of RanBP2 have been reported to form lung adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, in the murine embryonic fibroblasts, formation of chromatin bridges in anaphase, a distinctive feature of cells with impaired DNA decatenation by chemical inhibition of TopoII, has been reported. In this study, we tested whether the association between mRNA expression of the RanBP2 gene and chemosensitivity of a TopoII inhibitor, amrubicin could be seen.
METHODS: Using a panel of 20 lung cancer cell lines, the mRNA expression levels of the RanBP2, TopoII-alpha and TopoII-beta genes were examined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. The in vitro cytotoxicity of amrubicin was assessed using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay).
RESULTS: Although RanBP2 mRNA expression was infrequently downregulated in human lung cancer cell lines, significantly higher RanBP2 transcripts were observed in small cell lung cancer than non-small cell lung cancer. There were no correlations between chemosensitivity of amrubicin and mRNA expression levels of the RanBP2, TopoII-alpha and TopoII-beta genes.
CONCLUSIONS: Our in vitro results suggest that mRNA expressions of RanBP2 and TopoII isoforms are unlikely to be a predictive biomarker for the sensitivity to amrubicin.

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