RANBP2; RAN binding protein 2 (2q12.3)

Gene Summary

Gene:RANBP2; RAN binding protein 2
Aliases: ANE1, TRP1, TRP2, ADANE, IIAE3, NUP358
Summary:RAN is a small GTP-binding protein of the RAS superfamily that is associated with the nuclear membrane and is thought to control a variety of cellular functions through its interactions with other proteins. This gene encodes a very large RAN-binding protein that immunolocalizes to the nuclear pore complex. The protein is a giant scaffold and mosaic cyclophilin-related nucleoporin implicated in the Ran-GTPase cycle. The encoded protein directly interacts with the E2 enzyme UBC9 and strongly enhances SUMO1 transfer from UBC9 to the SUMO1 target SP100. These findings place sumoylation at the cytoplasmic filaments of the nuclear pore complex and suggest that, for some substrates, modification and nuclear import are linked events. This gene is partially duplicated in a gene cluster that lies in a hot spot for recombination on chromosome 2q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:E3 SUMO-protein ligase RanBP2
Updated:14 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (24)


What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- Cycling of Ran in nucleocytoplasmic transport BIOCARTA
- Mechanism of Protein Import into the Nucleus BIOCARTA
- Sumoylation by RanBP2 Regulates Transcriptional Repression BIOCARTA
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (3)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Colorectal CancerRANBP2 and Bowel Cancer View Publications3
-ALK-RANBP2 Rearrangements in Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor View Publications2
Soft Tissue SarcomaRANBP2 and Soft Tissue Sarcoma View Publications2

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: RANBP2 (cancer-related)

Lim JH, Jang S, Park CJ, et al.
RANBP2-ALK fusion combined with monosomy 7 in acute myelomonocytic leukemia.
Cancer Genet. 2014 Jan-Feb; 207(1-2):40-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) is located on chromosome 2p23; the chromosomal rearrangements of this gene are common genetic alterations, resulting in the creation of multiple fusion genes involved in tumorigenesis. However, the presence of an ALK fusion in myeloid malignancies is extremely rare. We report a case of acute myelomonocytic leukemia in a 31-year-old woman with an unusual rearrangement between RAN-binding protein 2 (RANBP2) and ALK and a karyotype of 45,XX,inv(2)(p23q21),-7[20]. We detected an ALK rearrangement using fluorescence in situ hybridization, identified the ALK fusion partner by using RNA transcriptome sequencing, and demonstrated the RANBP2-ALK fusion transcript by reverse transcriptase--PCR and Sanger sequencing. Immunohistochemistry for ALK showed strong staining of the nuclear membrane in leukemic cells. The patient had an unfavorable clinical course. Our results, together with a literature review, suggest the RANBP2-ALK fusion combined with monosomy 7 may be related to a unique clonal hematologic disorder of childhood and adolescence, characterized by myelomonocytic leukemia and a poor prognosis.

Related: Chromosome 7 FISH

Maesako Y, Izumi K, Okamori S, et al.
inv(2)(p23q13)/RAN-binding protein 2 (RANBP2)-ALK fusion gene in myeloid leukemia that developed in an elderly woman.
Int J Hematol. 2014; 99(2):202-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 75-year-old woman presented with marked leukocytosis; the white cell count was 143.6 × 10³/μL with 38.6 % monocytes and 13.6 % immature granulocytes, including blasts. Bone marrow (BM) aspirate smears showed >90 % cellularity with hyperplasia of myeloid-lineage cells, 14.6 % monocytes, and 32.1 % blasts. The granulocyte series showed a range of dysplastic morphologies. The rate of peroxidase positivity was 51.5 %. CD36+ cells with monocytic differentiation comprised 64.6 % mononuclear cells. Metaphase spreads obtained from the BM revealed an aneuploid karyotype with -7 and a submetacentric marker chromosome derived from chromosome 2, which was determined to be inv(2)(p23q13) by fluorescence in situ hybridization using the Vysis ALK probe. RAN-binding protein 2 (RANBP2)-ALK fusion mRNA was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing. High-sensitivity anti-ALK immunohistochemistry of a BM biopsy specimen demonstrated nuclear membrane staining of leukemia cells. As the leukemia showed features of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, the patient was treated with standard daunorubicin-cytarabine followed by azacitidine, leading to the durable suppression of leukemia progression. These findings suggest that inv(2)(p23q13)/RABBP2-ALK defines a small subset of myeloid leukemia characterized by differentiation to monocytes and sharing features of myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm.

Related: Azacitidine Chromosome 2 Cytarabine Daunorubicin Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

Li J, Yin WH, Takeuchi K, et al.
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with RANBP2 and ALK gene rearrangement: a report of two cases and literature review.
Diagn Pathol. 2013; 8:147 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are categorized as intermediate biologic neoplasms, whereas IMTs with genetic features of ran-binding protein 2 (RANBP2) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement (IMT-RAs) are possibly related to a more aggressive clinical course. However, fewer than 10 cases of IMT-RA have been reported to date. Herein, we present 2 new cases of IMT-RA in which both tumors recurred quickly after primary surgery; one patient died 3 months later from the disease, and the other patient has been living with the disease for 12 months. IMT-RAs are characterized by noncohesive epithelioid and rounded tumoral cell morphology, commonly derived from pelvic and peritoneal cavities, and frequently show larger tumor sizes. The relation between the clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis of IMT-RA is discussed.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3314123381007714.

Related: FISH

Gylfe AE, Kondelin J, Turunen M, et al.
Identification of candidate oncogenes in human colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability.
Gastroenterology. 2013; 145(3):540-3.e22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microsatellite instability can be found in approximately 15% of all colorectal cancers. To detect new oncogenes we sequenced the exomes of 25 colorectal tumors and respective healthy colon tissue. Potential mutation hot spots were confirmed in 15 genes; ADAR, DCAF12L2, GLT1D1, ITGA7, MAP1B, MRGPRX4, PSRC1, RANBP2, RPS6KL1, SNCAIP, TCEAL6, TUBB6, WBP5, VEGFB, and ZBTB2; these were validated in 86 tumors with microsatellite instability. ZBTB2, RANBP2, and PSRC1 also were found to contain hot spot mutations in the validation set. The form of ZBTB2 associated with colorectal cancer increased cell proliferation. The mutation hot spots might be used to develop personalized tumor profiling and therapy.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Kozu Y, Isaka M, Ohde Y, et al.
Epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma arising in the pleural cavity.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014; 62(3):191-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 57-year-old Japanese man presented with massive right pleural effusion, and a huge tumor arising in the pleural cavity was detected by chest computed tomography. A thoracoscopic tumor biopsy revealed that the tumor protruded extensively into the pleural cavity, and its gross appearance was cystic and glossy. Microscopically, the tumor cells were rounded and epithelioid in shape. Prominent and abundant myxoid stroma was also present together with an inflammatory infiltrate, and the tumor was anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-immunopositive. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the Ran-binding protein 2-ALK fusion gene was present. Taken together, these findings supported the diagnosis of epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma (EIMS), which is a variant of an inflammatory myofibrobrastic tumor. This is the first reported case of an EIMS arising in the pleural cavity.

Related: FISH Soft Tissue Sarcomas Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcomas Soft Tissue Sarcoma

Wolf K, Schmitt-Mechelke T, Kollias S, Curt A
Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE1): rare autosomal-dominant disorder presenting as acute transverse myelitis.
J Neurol. 2013; 260(6):1545-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
The term "acute transverse myelitis (ATM)" comprises various non-traumatic disorders that eventually can be associated with a focal myelopathy. Patients characteristically present with an acutely occurring paraparesis/plegia and require a comprehensive and timely diagnostic work up for the initiation of an appropriate treatment. We present a case of a 36-year-old female patient with a rare genetic disorder (ANE1: Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy due to a RANBP2 mutation) who presented with an acute quadriplegia. Following an acute pulmonal infection, she rapidly (< 24 h) developed a severe quadriplegia (total motor score 38) with some facial sensory symptoms (perioral hypoesthesia). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a combination of longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis and symmetrical thalamic lesions. A work-up for infectious and systemic diseases was negative; specifically, no findings related to multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica or vascular disorders. After empirical high dose steroid treatment and rehabilitation therapy, the patient gained almost normal gait and upper limb function. She was found to carry an autosomal-dominant missense mutation in the RANBP2 gene predisposing for ANE. Gene segregation was confirmed in other family members that had been affected by other episodes of acute steroid-responsive encephalopathies. We propose that a redefined diagnostic workup of ATM might include ANE1, as the frequency of this rare disorder might be underestimated.

Satow R, Shitashige M, Jigami T, et al.
β-catenin inhibits promyelocytic leukemia protein tumor suppressor function in colorectal cancer cells.
Gastroenterology. 2012; 142(3):572-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Loss of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear body (NB) formation has been reported in colorectal and other solid tumors. However, genetic alteration of PML is rarely observed in these tumors; the exact mechanisms that mediate loss of PML function are not known.
METHODS: We previously used a comprehensive shotgun mass spectrometry approach to identify PML as 1 of 70 proteins that coimmunoprecipitate with anti-T-cell factor 4 in DLD-1 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cell lines; we investigated the effects of altered β-catenin expression on PML function in these cells.
RESULTS: β-catenin specifically interacted with the product of PML transcript variant IV (PML-IV) through the armadillo repeat domain of β-catenin. Overexpression of β-catenin in colorectal cancer cells disrupted the subcellular compartmentalization of PML-IV, whereas knockdown of β-catenin restored formation of PML-NB. Modification of PML by the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is required for proper assembly of PML-NB. β-catenin inhibited Ran-binding protein 2-mediated SUMOylation of PML-IV.
CONCLUSIONS: β-catenin interacts with PML isoform IV and disrupts PML-IV function and PML-NB formation by inhibiting Ran-binding protein 2-mediated SUMO modification of PML-IV. These findings indicate the involvement of a posttranslational mechanism in disruption of PML-NB organization in cancer cells and provide more information about the oncogenic functions of β-catenin.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer TP53 CTNNB1 gene PML gene

Solár P, Sytkowski AJ
Differentially expressed genes associated with cisplatin resistance in human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line A2780.
Cancer Lett. 2011; 309(1):11-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer cells are usually initially sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy, such as cisplatin (CDDP), but typically become resistant over time. Such drug resistance is a serious impediment to successful disease treatment, and the molecular mechanisms responsible for resistance are not fully understood. In search of novel mechanisms that may lead to the development of CDDP chemoresistance, we used subtractive hybridization to identify differentially expressed genes in CDDP resistant CP70 and C200 cells vs. CDDP sensitive A2780 human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells. We analyzed 256 randomly selected clones. Subtraction efficiency was determined by dot blot and DNA sequencing. Confirmation of differentially expressed cDNAs was done by virtual northern blot analysis, and 17 genes that were differentially expressed in CDDP resistant cell lines vs. CDDP sensitive A2780 cells were identified. The expression of 10 of these genes was low or undetectable in sensitive A2780 cells in comparison to resistant cells and an additional seven genes were more highly expressed in resistant CP70 and C200 vs. A2780 cells. Our identified genes are involved in numerous and diverse cellular processes, such as inhibition of apoptosis (ARHGDIB), stress response (HSPCA, TRA1), chromatin condensation (CNAP1, RanBP2), invasiveness of cells (MMP10), alteration of Ca(2+) homeostasis (ASPH, ATP2B1) and others. Further characterization of these genes and gene products should yield important insights into the biology of CDDP resistance in ovarian carcinoma.

Related: Apoptosis Cisplatin Ovarian Cancer

Mariño-Enríquez A, Wang WL, Roy A, et al.
Epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma: An aggressive intra-abdominal variant of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with nuclear membrane or perinuclear ALK.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2011; 35(1):135-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm of intermediate biological potential, which may recur and rarely metastasize. Pathologic features do not correlate well with behavior. Approximately 50% of conventional IMTs harbor ALK gene rearrangement and overexpress ALK, most showing diffuse cytoplasmic staining. Rare IMTs with a distinct nuclear membrane or perinuclear pattern of ALK staining and epithelioid or round cell morphology have been reported. These cases pursued an aggressive clinical course, suggesting that such patterns may predict malignant behavior. We describe 11 cases of IMT with epithelioid morphology and a nuclear membrane or perinuclear pattern of immunostaining for ALK. Ten patients were male and 1 was female, ranging from 7 months to 63 years in age (median, 39 y). All tumors were intra-abdominal; most arose in the mesentery or omentum, measuring 8 to 26 cm (median, 15 cm). Six tumors were multifocal at presentation. The tumors were composed predominantly of sheets of round-to-epithelioid cells with vesicular nuclei, large nucleoli, and amphophilic-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm. In all cases, a minor spindle cell component was present. Nine tumors had abundant myxoid stroma. In 7 cases neutrophils were prominent and in 3 cases lymphocytes were prominent. Plasma cells were often absent. Median mitotic rate was 4/10 HPF; 6 tumors had necrosis. By immunohistochemistry, all tumors were positive for ALK, 9 tumors showing a nuclear membrane staining pattern and 2 tumors showing a cytoplasmic pattern with perinuclear accentuation. Other positive markers were desmin (10 of 11), focal smooth muscle actin (4 of 8), and CD30 (8 of 8). All tumors were negative for MYF4, caldesmon, keratins, EMA, and S-100. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was positive for ALK gene rearrangement in 9 cases, and in 3 cases tested, a RANBP2-ALK fusion was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Ten patients underwent surgical resection; 1 patient was inoperable. Follow-up was available for 8 patients and ranged from 3 to 40 months (median, 13 mo). All patients experienced rapid local recurrences; 4 patients had multiple recurrences. Eight patients were treated with postoperative chemotherapy; 2 patients received additional radiotherapy. Two patients also developed metastases (both patients developed metastases to the liver; 1 patient developed metastases to the lung and lymph nodes as well). Thus far, 5 patients died of disease, 2 patients are alive with disease, and 1 patient, treated with an experimental ALK inhibitor, has no evidence of disease. In summary, the epithelioid variant of IMT with nuclear membrane or perinuclear ALK is a distinctive intra-abdominal sarcoma with a predilection for male patients. Unlike conventional IMT, abundant myxoid stroma and prominent neutrophils are common. These tumors pursue an aggressive course with rapid local recurrences and are frequently fatal. We propose the designation "epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma" to convey both the malignant behavior of these tumors and their close relationship with IMT.

Related: FISH Soft Tissue Sarcomas Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcomas Soft Tissue Sarcoma

Horio Y, Osada H, Shimizu J, et al.
Relationship of mRNA expressions of RanBP2 and topoisomerase II isoforms to cytotoxicity of amrubicin in human lung cancer cell lines.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2010; 66(2):237-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: RanBP2 is a small ubiquitin-like modifier ligase for DNA topoisomerase II (TopoII) and plays a role in maintaining chromosome stability by recruiting TopoII to centromeres during mitosis. Engineered-mice with low amounts of RanBP2 have been reported to form lung adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, in the murine embryonic fibroblasts, formation of chromatin bridges in anaphase, a distinctive feature of cells with impaired DNA decatenation by chemical inhibition of TopoII, has been reported. In this study, we tested whether the association between mRNA expression of the RanBP2 gene and chemosensitivity of a TopoII inhibitor, amrubicin could be seen.
METHODS: Using a panel of 20 lung cancer cell lines, the mRNA expression levels of the RanBP2, TopoII-alpha and TopoII-beta genes were examined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. The in vitro cytotoxicity of amrubicin was assessed using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay).
RESULTS: Although RanBP2 mRNA expression was infrequently downregulated in human lung cancer cell lines, significantly higher RanBP2 transcripts were observed in small cell lung cancer than non-small cell lung cancer. There were no correlations between chemosensitivity of amrubicin and mRNA expression levels of the RanBP2, TopoII-alpha and TopoII-beta genes.
CONCLUSIONS: Our in vitro results suggest that mRNA expressions of RanBP2 and TopoII isoforms are unlikely to be a predictive biomarker for the sensitivity to amrubicin.

Related: Lung Cancer

Felix RS, Colleoni GW, Caballero OL, et al.
SAGE analysis highlights the importance of p53csv, ddx5, mapkapk2 and ranbp2 to multiple myeloma tumorigenesis.
Cancer Lett. 2009; 278(1):41-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) allows a comprehensive profiling of gene expression within a given tissue and also an assessment of transcript abundance. We generated SAGE libraries from normal and neoplastic plasma cells to identify genes differentially expressed in multiple myeloma (MM). Normal plasma cells were obtained from palatine tonsils and MM SAGE library was generated from bone marrow plasma cells of MM patients. We obtained 29,918 SAGE tags from normal and 10,340 tags from tumor libraries. Computer-generated genomic analysis identified 46 upregulated genes in the MM library. Ten upregulated genes were selected for further investigation. Differential expression was validated by quantitative real-time PCR in purified plasma cells of 31 patients and three controls. P53CSV, DDX5, MAPKAPK2 and RANBP2 were found to be upregulated in at least 50% of the MM cases tested. All of them were also found upregulated in MM when compared to normal plasma cells in a meta-analysis using ONCOMINE microarray database. Antibodies specific to DDX5, RANBP2 and MAPKAPK2 were used in a TMA containing 57 MM cases and confirmed the expression of these proteins in 74%, 96%, and 21% of the MM samples, respectively. Analysis of differential expression using SAGE could identify genes important for myeloma tumorigenesis (P53CSV, DDX5, MAPKPK2 and RANBP2) and that could potentially be useful as therapeutic targets.

Related: Myeloma Myeloma - Molecular Biology TP53 SDC1 DDX5 gene

Chen ST, Lee JC
An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in liver with ALK and RANBP2 gene rearrangement: combination of distinct morphologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic features.
Hum Pathol. 2008; 39(12):1854-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is an intermediate-grade neoplasm with potential for recurrence and rare metastasis. Rearrangement of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene with variable fusion partners and anaplastic lymphoma kinase expression using immunohistochemistry are noted in about half of the tumors. We present a hepatic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor from a 34-year-old man with an unusual rearrangement between the Ran binding protein 2 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase genes, as well as a peculiar round cell transformation of tumor cells and a unique nuclear membrane expression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase protein. As the fourth reported inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with this fusion so far, we find that these genetic and morphologic features may be related to a poor clinical outcome. The diagnostic difficulty and other prognostic factors of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor are also discussed.

Related: Liver Cancer

Dawlaty MM, Malureanu L, Jeganathan KB, et al.
Resolution of sister centromeres requires RanBP2-mediated SUMOylation of topoisomerase IIalpha.
Cell. 2008; 133(1):103-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RanBP2 is a nucleoporin with SUMO E3 ligase activity that functions in both nucleocytoplasmic transport and mitosis. However, the biological relevance of RanBP2 and the in vivo targets of its E3 ligase activity are unknown. Here we show that animals with low amounts of RanBP2 develop severe aneuploidy in the absence of overt transport defects. The main chromosome segregation defect in cells from these mice is anaphase-bridge formation. Topoisomerase IIalpha (Topo IIalpha), which decatenates sister centromeres prior to anaphase onset to prevent bridges, fails to accumulate at inner centromeres when RanBP2 levels are low. We find that RanBP2 sumoylates Topo IIalpha in mitosis and that this modification is required for its proper localization to inner centromeres. Furthermore, mice with low amounts of RanBP2 are highly sensitive to tumor formation. Together, these data identify RanBP2 as a chromosomal instability gene that regulates Topo IIalpha by sumoylation and suppresses tumorigenesis.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Patel AS, Murphy KM, Hawkins AL, et al.
RANBP2 and CLTC are involved in ALK rearrangements in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2007; 176(2):107-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are rare soft tissue tumors occurring primarily in children and young adults. ALK gene rearrangements have been identified in this neoplasm, with fusion of the ALK gene at 2p23 to a number of different partner genes. Metaphase cytogenetic analyses of these tumors have been relatively few, however, and may help to identify additional variant partners. We report on an IMT from a 2-year-old boy with a karyotype of 45,XY,der(2)inv(2)(p23q12)del(2)(p11.1p11.2),-22. FISH showed ALK-RANBP2 fusion in this tumor. The breakpoint was cloned and the fusion was confirmed, making this the third reported case of IMT with ALK-RANBP2 fusion. In addition, we identified the ALK fusion partner in a previously reported IMT with t(2;17)(p23;q23) as CLTC, a gene reported to be involved in four other IMTs, and showed that the breakpoint involved a novel ALK-CLTC fusion. FISH evaluation of nine other IMTs identified CLTC as the fusion partner in one additional case, but RANBP2 was not involved in the remaining eight IMTs, suggesting that the variant partners involved in ALK rearrangements in IMTs are diverse.

Renner O, Fominaya J, Alonso S, et al.
Mst1, RanBP2 and eIF4G are new markers for in vivo PI3K activation in murine and human prostate.
Carcinogenesis. 2007; 28(7):1418-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) constitute important regulators of signaling pathways. The PIK3CA gene encoding the p110-alpha catalytic subunit represents one of the highly mutated oncogenes identified in human cancer. Here, we report new markers for in vivo PI3K activation in prostate. To that end, we used a transgenic mouse line, which expresses a constitutively active p110-alpha subunit in the epithelial cells of the prostate. The activity of the PI3K pathway in the prostate was proven by assessing the phosphorylation of the PI3K direct target AKT1 and of the mTOR target eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G). To establish also transcriptional ('late') targets of the PI3K pathway, we tested two genes, Mst1 and RanBP2, which we recently described as transcriptional targets of the growth factor platelet-derived growth factor-beta. We show that the levels of both proteins are elevated in transgenic animals. Additionally, we describe that the phosphorylation of AKT and eIF4G, as well as the elevation of the Mst1 and RanBP2 protein levels, can be inhibited in vivo in transgenic animals by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Finally, we performed human tissue microarray experiments with the four markers. Since they define overlapping but not identical subsets of the tested tissue panel, a combination of all four markers might lead to a more accurate diagnosis of the status of the PI3K-signaling cascade in cancer patients.

Related: Prostate Cancer Signal Transduction

Um JW, Chung KC
Functional modulation of parkin through physical interaction with SUMO-1.
J Neurosci Res. 2006; 84(7):1543-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by the extensive and progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the CNS substantia nigra pars compacta region. Mutations in the parkin gene, which encodes for E3 ubiquitin ligase, have been implicated in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism, an early-onset and common familial form of PD. Although several parkin substrates have already been identified, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of enzymatic activity of parkin has yet to be clarified. In a previous study, we demonstrated that RanBP2 becomes a new target for parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase and is processed via parkin-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. RanBP2, which is localized in the cytoplasmic filament of the nuclear pore complex, belongs to the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase family. Here we show that parkin appears to bind selectively to the SUMO-1 in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, the physical association of SUMO-1 with parkin results in an increase in the nuclear transport of parkin as well as its self-ubiquitination. Our findings suggest that the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of parkin and its intracellular localization may be modulated through the SUMO-1 association.

Related: Neuroblastoma

Ma Z, Hill DA, Collins MH, et al.
Fusion of ALK to the Ran-binding protein 2 (RANBP2) gene in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2003; 37(1):98-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare mesenchymal proliferation of transformed myofibroblasts, with a prominent inflammatory cell component, that can mimic other spindle cell processes such as nodular fasciitis, desmoid tumor, and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Genetic analyses have recently demonstrated rearrangements of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), located at 2p23, in a subset of IMTs. Molecular characterizations have identified ALK fusions involving tropomyosin-3 and -4 (TPM-3 and -4), the clathrin heavy chain (CLTC), and the cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CARS) genes as fusion partners. Here we describe two IMTs with a novel ALK fusion that involves the Ran-binding protein 2 (RANBP2) gene at 2q13, which normally encodes a large (358-kDa) nucleopore protein localized at the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex. The N-terminal 867 residues of RANBP2 are fused to the cytoplasmic segment of ALK in the 1,430-amino acid RANBP2-ALK chimeric protein. Myofibroblasts that express RANBP2-ALK exhibit nuclear membrane-associated ALK staining that is unique compared to the subcellular localization observed with other ALK fusions in IMT, presumably attributable to heteroassociation of the fusion with normal RANBP2 at the nuclear pore. These findings expand the spectrum of ALK abnormalities observed in IMT and further confirm the clonal, neoplastic nature of these lesions.

Related: Chromosome 2

Dunican DS, McWilliam P, Tighe O, et al.
Gene expression differences between the microsatellite instability (MIN) and chromosomal instability (CIN) phenotypes in colorectal cancer revealed by high-density cDNA array hybridization.
Oncogene. 2002; 21(20):3253-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Two distinct pathways of tumorigenesis exist in sporadic colorectal cancer. The microsatellite instability pathway (MIN), which is characterized by widespread microsatellite instability due to aberrant mismatch repair machinery, accounts for 15% of all sporadic colorectal cancers. The chromosomal instability (CIN) phenotype, which accounts for 85% of sporadic colorectal cancers, is characterized by gross chromosomal lesions but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We have addressed differences in gene expression between the MIN and CIN colorectal cancer phenotypes in vitro by the use of high density cDNA filters to compare gene expression patterns between MIN and CIN colorectal cancer cell-lines yielding a panel of 73 consistently differentially expressed genes. Nine of these genes were subjected to confirmatory analysis by independent methods, of which six were confirmed as being differentially expressed; PLK, RanBP2 and CCNA2 were overexpressed in CIN lines while BTF3, H2AZ and PTPD1 were overexpressed in MIN lines. These six genes are involved in diverse processes, such as maintenance of chromatin architecture, DNA-damage checkpoint and cell cycle regulation, which may contribute to the CIN and MIN phenotypes.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Schmits R, Cochlovius B, Treitz G, et al.
Analysis of the antibody repertoire of astrocytoma patients against antigens expressed by gliomas.
Int J Cancer. 2002; 98(1):73-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular characterization of antigens preferentially or exclusively expressed by astrocytomas and recognized by the autologous immune system are a prerequisite for the development of specific vaccines. To identify such antigens, we screened 5 cDNA expression libraries derived from astrocytomas and other gliomas for reactivity with high-titered IgG antibodies in the sera of astrocytoma patients using SEREX, the serologic identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression cloning. Autologous and allogeneic SEREX analysis of >5 x 10(6) clones with the sera of 18 astrocytoma patients revealed 10 antigens: the differentiation antigen glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Bax-inhibitor 1 (which was overexpressed in all glioma samples tested), 3 other molecules involved in the regulation of gene expression and proliferation (the nm23-H2-encoded nucleoside diphosphate kinase B, the Ran binding protein-2 and a DNA binding protein encoded by the son gene), SP40,40 (a complement inhibitory molecule), the chaperonin TCP-1, calnexin and 2 new gene products. No immune responses were detected against the "shared tumor" or "cancer testis antigens" that are regularly expressed in gliomas. Antibody responses in astrocytoma patients against antigens expressed by gliomas were rare and, with the exception of Bax-inhibitor 1 and the product of the son gene, were also found in apparently healthy controls. We conclude that although astrocytomas express a broad spectrum of antigens, they elicit antibody responses only rarely, most likely because of their intrinsic immunosuppressive effects.


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