Gene Summary

Gene:CCL20; C-C motif chemokine ligand 20
Aliases: CKb4, LARC, ST38, MIP3A, Exodus, MIP-3a, SCYA20, MIP-3-alpha
Summary:This antimicrobial gene belongs to the subfamily of small cytokine CC genes. Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by two adjacent cysteines. The protein encoded by this gene displays chemotactic activity for lymphocytes and can repress proliferation of myeloid progenitors. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-C motif chemokine 20
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (10)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • TNF
  • Chemokines, CC
  • Receptors, CCR6
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • MicroRNAs
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Down-Regulation
  • Transfection
  • Disease Progression
  • Cultured Cells
  • Interleukin-6
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Signal Transduction
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Gene Expression
  • Xenograft Models
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Receptors, Chemokine
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Chemokines
  • Staging
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Chemokine CCL20
  • Chromosome 2
  • Cell Movement
  • Lung Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • NF-kappa B
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cytokines
  • Mutation
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CCL20 (cancer-related)

Matte I, Garde-Granger P, Bessette P, Piché A
Ascites from ovarian cancer patients stimulates MUC16 mucin expression and secretion in human peritoneal mesothelial cells through an Akt-dependent pathway.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):406 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CA125 is a well-established ovarian cancer (OC) serum biomarker. The CA125 heavily glycosylated epitope is carried by the MUC16 mucin, a high molecular weight transmembrane mucin. Upon proteolytic cleavage, the extracellular domain of MUC16 is released from the cell surface into malignant ascites and blood vessels. Previous studies have shown that both tumor and surrounding mesothelial cells may express MUC16. Although little is known about the regulation of MUC16 expression in these cells, recent evidence suggest that inflammatory cytokines may stimulate MUC16 expression. Because malignant ascites is a pro-inflammatory environment, we investigated whether OC ascites stimulate the expression and release of MUC16 by human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs).
METHODS: HPMCs were isolated from peritoneal lavages of women operated for conditions other than cancer. MUC16 protein expression was determined by immunoblot, immunofluorescence or immunohistochemistry depending on the experiments. The release of MUC16 from the cell surface was measured using EIA and MUC16 mRNA expression by ddPCR.
RESULTS: We show that high-grade serous ascites from patients with OC (n = 5) enhance MUC16 expression in HPMCs. Malignant ascites, but not benign peritoneal fluids, stimulate the release of MUC16 in HPMCs in a dose-dependent manner, which is abrogated by heat inactivation. Moreover, we establish that ascites-induced MUC16 expression occurs at the post-transcriptional level and demonstrate that ascites-induced MUC16 expression is mediated, at least partially, through an Akt-dependent pathway. A cytokine array identified upregulation of several cytokines and chemokines in ascites that mediate MUC16 upregulation versus those that do not, including CCL7, CCL8, CCL16, CCL20, CXCL1, IL-6, IL-10, HGF and IL-1 R4. However, when individually tested, none of these factors affected MUC16 expression or secretion. Concentrations of CA125 in the serum of a given patient did not correlate with the ability of its corresponding ascites to stimulate MUC16 release in HPMCs.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data indicate that mesothelial cells are an important source of MUC16 in the context of ovarian cancer and malignant ascites is a strong modulator of MUC16 expression in HPMCs and uncover the Akt pathway as a driving factor for upregulation of MUC16. Factors in ascites associated with enhanced MUC16 expression and release remains to be identified.

Su S, Sun X, Zhang Q, et al.
CCL20 Promotes Ovarian Cancer Chemotherapy Resistance by Regulating ABCB1 Expression.
Cell Struct Funct. 2019; 44(1):21-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of prevalent tumors and this study aimed to explore CCL20's effects on doxorubicin resistance of OC and related mechanisms. Doxorubicin-resistant SKOV3 DR cells were established from SKOV3 cells via 6-month continuous exposure to gradient concentrations of doxorubicin. Quantitative PCR and Western blot assay showed that SKOV3 DR cells had higher level of CCL20 than SKOV3 cells, and doxorubicin upregulated CCL20 expression in SKOV3 cells. MTT and cell count assay found that CCL20 overexpression plasmid enhanced doxorubicin resistance of SKOV3 and OVCA433 cells compared to empty vector, as shown by the increase in cell viability. In contrast, CCL20 shRNA enhanced doxorubicin sensitivity of SKOV3 DR cells compared to control. CCL20 overexpression plasmid promoted NF-kB activation and positively regulated ABCB1 expression. Besides, ABCB1 overexpression plasmid enhanced the viability of SKOV3 and OVCA433 cells compared to empty vector under treatment with the same concentration of doxorubicin, whereas ABCB1 shRNA inhibited doxorubicin resistance of SKOV3 DR cells compared to control. In conclusion, CCL20 enhanced doxorubicin resistance of OC cells by regulating ABCB1 expression.Key words: CCL20, ovarian cancer, doxorubicin resistance, tumor-promoting, ABCB1.

Wei Y, Lao XM, Xiao X, et al.
Plasma Cell Polarization to the Immunoglobulin G Phenotype in Hepatocellular Carcinomas Involves Epigenetic Alterations and Promotes Hepatoma Progression in Mice.
Gastroenterology. 2019; 156(6):1890-1904.e16 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the composition and generation of plasma cell subsets in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and how these associate with outcomes. We investigated whether, or how, plasma cells differentiate and function in patients with HCC and mice with liver tumors.
METHODS: We analyzed subset composition and distribution of plasma cells in HCC samples from 342 patients who underwent curative resection at the Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University in China; samples of non-tumor liver tissue were used as controls. We associated plasma cell profiles with patient outcomes. Tissue-derived leukocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The ability of macrophages to regulate plasma cell differentiation was determined in ex vivo cultures of cells from human HCC tissues. C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were given injections of Hepa1-6 cells, which formed hepatomas, or H22 cells, which formed ascitic hepatomas. Gene expression patterns were analyzed in human HCC, mouse hepatoma, and non-tumor tissues by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Mice with hepatomas were given injections of GSK126 (an inhibitor of histone H3 lysine 27 methyltransferase [EZH2]) and 5-AZA-dC (an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases); tumor tissues were analyzed by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry for the presence of immune cells and cytokines.
RESULTS: B cells isolated from HCCs had somatic hypermutations and class-switch recombinations to the IgG phenotype that were not observed in non-tumor tissues. Increased level of plasma cells correlated with poor outcomes of patients. Activated CD4
CONCLUSIONS: Human HCC tissues contain B cells with class-switch recombinations to the IgG phenotype. Activated CD4

De Silva P, Garaud S, Solinas C, et al.
FOXP1 negatively regulates tumor infiltrating lymphocyte migration in human breast cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 39:226-238 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: FOXP1, a transcriptional regulator of lymphocyte development, is abnormally expressed in some human tumors. This study investigated FOXP1-mediated regulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in untreated primary breast cancer (BC).
METHODS: FOXP1 expression was analyzed in tissues from primary untreated breast tumors, BC cell lines and the METABRIC gene expression BC dataset. Cytokine and chemokine expression and lymphocyte migration in response to primary tumor supernatants (SN) was compared between FOXP1
FINDING: FOXP1 expression was higher in estrogen receptor positive compared to negative BC. FOXP1
INTERPRETATION: These data identify FOXP1 as an important negative regulator of immune responses in BC via its regulation of cytokine and chemokine expression. FUND: Belgian Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS 3.4513.12F) and Opération Télévie (7.4636.13F and 7.4609.15F), Fonds J.C. Heuson and Fonds Lambeau-Marteaux.

Xia F, Jiang B, Chen Y, et al.
Prediction of novel target genes and pathways involved in tall cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(51):e13802 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tall cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (TCPTC) is reportedly associated with aggressive clinicopathological parameters and poor outcomes; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying TCPTC remain poorly understood.
METHODS: The gene mutation types and mRNA expression profiles of patients with TCPTC were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Pathways in the interaction network and the diagnostic approaches of candidate markers for TCPTC were investigated.
RESULTS: BRAF mutation was particularly prevalent in TCPTC with a mutation frequency of 78%. TCPTC was associated with a patient age >45 years, tumor multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, a higher T stage, advanced AJCC TNM stages, BRAF V600E mutation, and poor disease-free survival. We identified 4138 TCPTC-related DEGs and 301 TCPTC-specific DEGs. Intriguingly, the gene expression pattern revealed that the dysregulated levels of both putative oncogenes and tumor suppressors in TCPTC were higher than those in classical/conventional variant PTC (cPTC). Functional enrichment analyses revealed that these DEGs were involved in several cancer-related pathways. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed from the 301 TCPTC-specific DEGs, and 3 subnetworks, and 8 hub genes were verified. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses revealed that 6 hub genes, including COL5A1, COL1A1, COL10A1, COL11A1, CCL20, and CXCL5, could be used not only for the differential diagnosis of PTC from normal samples, but also for the differential diagnosis of TCPTC from cPTC samples.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study might provide further insights into the investigations of the tumorigenesis mechanism of TCPTC and assists in the discovery of novel candidate diagnostic markers for TCPTC.

Lin Z, Liu J, Peng L, et al.
Complete pathological response following neoadjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy in BRCA2-mutant locally advanced rectal cancer: a case report.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1253 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) achieving a pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant treatment usually have a good prognosis, but only accounted for less than 20%.
CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 25-year-old male with LARC treated with neoadjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy, and experienced a pCR. The next-generation sequencing analysis revealed the presence of breast cancer gene 2 (BRCA2) somatic mutation and an increased somatic mutational load without microsatellite instability (MSI). To our knowledge, this is the first report of BRCA2 mutant LARC that demonstrated significant benefit from FOLFOX neoadjuvant treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: This case indicated an association of BRCA2 mutation with high mutation loads and an excellent response of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy regimen for LARC. Our findings encourage further studies to analyze BRCA mutations in patients with LARC, especially for those patients unable or unwilling to receive radiotherapy.

Zhao C, Wang D, Tang L, et al.
Stromal Cell-Derived CCL20 Promotes Tumor Progression and Osteolysis in Giant Cell Tumor of Bone.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 51(5):2472-2483 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB), one of the most common primary bone tumors, leads to extensive bone destruction. However, the mechanisms underlying GCTB progression remain elusive and prognostic factors and treatment targets are required. In the current study, we explored the function of the chemokine family member CCL20 in GCTB progression.
METHODS: We explored the expression of CCL20 in stromal cells (GCTSCs) using microarray. Clinical analyses of the role of CCL20 in tumor progression were performed based on the patient cohort of our institution. The role of CCL20 in tumor proliferation was evaluated by MTS assay, migration ability was measured by a Transwell assay, and osteoclastogenesis was induced by CCL20 or GCTSC-conditioned medium. Quantitative PCR and western blot were used to measure the expression levels of mRNAs and proteins related to tumor progression.
RESULTS: CCL20 was upregulated in GCTSCs and correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. CCL20 induced GCTSC proliferation and migration in an autocrine manner. In addition, CCL20 recruited mononuclear cells and induced osteoclastogenesis by overactivating the AKT and NF-κB signaling pathways. Antibody blockade of CCL20 abolished the exacerbated osteoclastogenesis.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, our data indicate that GCTSC secretion of CCL20 acts as a key modulator in the pathological progression of GCTB. It can promote GCTSC proliferation and migration in an autocrine manner and can recruit bone marrow monocytes to the tumor microenvironment and enhance osteoclastogenesis in a paracrine manner. These findings strongly indicate the potential prognostic and therapeutic value of CCL20 in GCTB.

Zeng C, Chen L, Chen B, et al.
Th17 cells were recruited and accumulated in the cerebrospinal fluid and correlated with the poor prognosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2018; 50(12):1266-1273 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder characterized by memory deficits, psychiatric symptoms, and autonomic instability. The lack of suitable biomarkers targeting anti-NMDAR encephalitis makes the immunotherapy and prognosis challenging. In this study, we found that the Th17 cells were significantly accumulated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients than that of control individuals. The concentration of the cytokines and chemokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-17, IL-6, and CXCL-13 were significantly increased in the CSF of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients. IL-6 and IL-17 were found to promote the differentiation of CD4+ T cells into Th17 lineage. The chemotaxis assay showed that CCL20 and CCL22 play essential roles in the migration of Th17 cells. Notably, the correlation between the expression of IL-17 and the outcome of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients was analyzed. The data showed that high level of IL-17 was significantly correlated with the limited response to the treatment and relapse of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients. Our results suggested the potential important involvement of IL-17 in anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

Braun SA, Baran J, Schrumpf H, et al.
Ingenol mebutate induces a tumor cell-directed inflammatory response and antimicrobial peptides thereby promoting rapid tumor destruction and wound healing.
Eur J Med Res. 2018; 23(1):45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ingenol mebutat (IM)-gel is effective for the topical treatment of epithelial tumors, including actinic keratoses (AKs) or anogenital warts (AGW). AK patients treated with IM develop intensified inflammatory reactions on sights of prior clinical visible or palpable AKs as compared to the surrounding actinically damaged skin, suggesting the induction of a tumor cell-directed inflammation. AGW patients treated with IM develop even stronger inflammatory reactions with large erosions, suggesting a directed inflammatory response against HPV-infected keratinocytes. Of note, even widespread erosions heal very fast without any superinfections. Here, we set out to elucidate underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of these clinical observations.
METHODS: The effects of IM (10
RESULTS: Ingenol mebutat significantly and dose-dependently induced the expression of proinflammatory chemokines (CXCL8, CCL2) and AMP (RNase7, HBD3) in HEK and epithelial cancer cell lines. A significantly stronger induction of CXCL8 and CCL2 was observed in our tested tumor cells as compared to HEK. We did not observe any significant effect of IM on HEK migration, respectively wound healing responses in vitro for any tested concentration (10
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that tumor cells are more susceptible to IM as compared to differentiated HEK. This is evident by a stronger IM-mediated induction of proinflammatory chemokines in tumor cells, which may result in a tumor cell-directed inflammatory response and rapid tumor destruction. In addition, IM induces AMP in keratinocytes and seems not to severely interfere with keratinocyte migration, which contributes to a fast and uncomplicated wound healing. Surprising is a selective inhibition of keratinocyte migration by IM at the concentration of 10

Lee IH, Kang K, Kang BW, et al.
Genetic variations using whole-exome sequencing might predict response for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer.
Med Oncol. 2018; 35(11):145 [PubMed] Related Publications
A good pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is associated with a better prognosis. However, there is no effective method to predict CRT response in LARC patients. Therefore, this study used whole-exome sequencing (WES) to identify novel biomarker predicting CRT benefit in LARC. Two independent tumor tissue sets were used to evaluate the genetic differences between the good CRT response group (15 patients achieved a pathologic complete response (pCR)) and the poor CRT response group (15 patients with pathologic stage III). After applying WES to the discovery set of 30 patients, additional samples (n = 67) were genotyped for candidate variants using TaqMan or Sanger sequencing for validation. Overall, this study included a total of 97 LARC patients. In the discovery and validation set, there was no known genetic mutation to predict response between two groups, while five candidate variants (BCL2L10 rs2231292, DLC1 rs3816748, DNAH14 rs3105571, ITIH5 rs3824658, and RAET1L rs912565) were found to be significantly associated with pCR. In the dominant model, the GC/CC genotype of DLC1 rs3816748 (p = 0.032), AC/CC genotype of DNAH14 rs3105571 (p = 0.009), and TT genotype of RAET1 rs912565 (p < 0.0001) were associated with a higher pCR rate. In the recessive model, BCL2L10 rs2231292 (p = 0.036) and ITIH5 rs3824658 (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with pCR. In the co-dominant model, 4 candidate variants (DLC1 rs3816748, DNAH14 rs3105571, ITIH5 rs3824658, and RAET1L rs912565) were significantly correlated with pCR. However, none of the candidate variants was associated with relapse-free or overall survival. The present results suggest that genetic variations of the BCL2L10 rs2231292, DLC1 rs3816748, DNAH14 rs3105571, ITIH5 rs3824658, and RAET1L rs912565 genes can be used as biomarkers predicting the CRT response for patients with LARC.

Romero-Masters JC, Ohashi M, Djavadian R, et al.
An EBNA3C-deleted Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mutant causes B-cell lymphomas with delayed onset in a cord blood-humanized mouse model.
PLoS Pathog. 2018; 14(8):e1007221 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
EBV causes human B-cell lymphomas and transforms B cells in vitro. EBNA3C, an EBV protein expressed in latently-infected cells, is required for EBV transformation of B cells in vitro. While EBNA3C undoubtedly plays a key role in allowing EBV to successfully infect B cells, many EBV+ lymphomas do not express this protein, suggesting that cellular mutations and/or signaling pathways may obviate the need for EBNA3C in vivo under certain conditions. EBNA3C collaborates with EBNA3A to repress expression of the CDKN2A-encoded tumor suppressors, p16 and p14, and EBNA3C-deleted EBV transforms B cells containing a p16 germline mutation in vitro. Here we have examined the phenotype of an EBNAC-deleted virus (Δ3C EBV) in a cord blood-humanized mouse model (CBH). We found that the Δ3C virus induced fewer lymphomas (occurring with a delayed onset) in comparison to the wild-type (WT) control virus, although a subset (10/26) of Δ3C-infected CBH mice eventually developed invasive diffuse large B cell lymphomas with type III latency. Both WT and Δ3C viruses induced B-cell lymphomas with restricted B-cell populations and heterogeneous T-cell infiltration. In comparison to WT-infected tumors, Δ3C-infected tumors had greatly increased p16 levels, and RNA-seq analysis revealed a decrease in E2F target gene expression. However, we found that Δ3C-infected tumors expressed c-Myc and cyclin E at similar levels compared to WT-infected tumors, allowing cells to at least partially bypass p16-mediated cell cycle inhibition. The anti-apoptotic proteins, BCL2 and IRF4, were expressed in Δ3C-infected tumors, likely helping cells avoid c-Myc-induced apoptosis. Unexpectedly, Δ3C-infected tumors had increased T-cell infiltration, increased expression of T-cell chemokines (CCL5, CCL20 and CCL22) and enhanced type I interferon response in comparison to WT tumors. Together, these results reveal that EBNA3C contributes to, but is not essential for, EBV-induced lymphomagenesis in CBH mice, and suggest potentially important immunologic roles of EBNA3C in vivo.

Means AL, Freeman TJ, Zhu J, et al.
Epithelial Smad4 Deletion Up-Regulates Inflammation and Promotes Inflammation-Associated Cancer.
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018; 6(3):257-276 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background & Aims: Chronic inflammation is a predisposing condition for colorectal cancer. Many studies to date have focused on proinflammatory signaling pathways in the colon. Understanding the mechanisms that suppress inflammation, particularly in epithelial cells, is critical for developing therapeutic interventions. Here, we explored the roles of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) family signaling through SMAD4 in colonic epithelial cells.
Methods: The
Results: Dextran sodium sulfate treatment was sufficient to drive carcinogenesis in mice lacking colonic
Conclusions: TGFβ suppresses the expression of proinflammatory genes in the colon epithelium, and loss of its downstream mediator, SMAD4, is sufficient to initiate inflammation-driven colon cancer. Transcript profiling: GSE100082.

Chen W, Qin Y, Wang D, et al.
CCL20 triggered by chemotherapy hinders the therapeutic efficacy of breast cancer.
PLoS Biol. 2018; 16(7):e2005869 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chemotherapeutic resistance in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has brought great challenges to the improvement of patient survival. The mechanisms of taxane chemoresistance in TNBC have not been well investigated. Our results illustrated C-C motif chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) was significantly elevated during taxane-containing chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with nonpathologic complete response. Furthermore, CCL20 promoted the self-renewal and maintenance of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) or breast cancer stem-like cells through protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated activation of p65 nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, significantly increasing the frequency and taxane resistance of BCSCs. Moreover, CCL20-promoted NF-κB activation increased ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1)/multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) expression, leading to the extracellular efflux of taxane. These results suggested that chemotherapy-induced CCL20 mediated chemoresistance via up-regulating ABCB1. In addition, NF-κB activation increased CCL20 expression, forming a positive feedback loop between NF-κB and CCL20 pathways, which provides sustained impetus for chemoresistance in breast cancer cells. Our results suggest that CCL20 can be a novel predictive marker for taxane response, and the blockade of CCL20 or its downstream pathway might reverse the taxane resistance in breast cancer patients.

Jung Y, Ahn SH, Park H, et al.
MCP-1 and MIP-3α Secreted from Necrotic Cell-Treated Glioblastoma Cells Promote Migration/Infiltration of Microglia.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 48(3):1332-1346 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. The defining characteristics of GBM are diffuse infiltration of tumor cells into normal brain parenchyma, rapid growth, a high degree of infiltration of microglia and macrophages, and the presence of necrosis. Microglia/macrophages are frequently found in gliomas and they extensively infiltrate GBM tissue, up to 30% of total tumor mass. However, little is known about the effect of necrotic cells (NCs) on microglia infiltration in GBM and the tumor-infiltrating microglia-induced factors in GBMs.
METHODS: In this study, to address whether necrosis or necrosis-exposed GBM cells affect the degree of microglia/macrophage infiltration, migration and invasion/infiltration assays were performed. Culture supernatants and nuclear extracts of CRT-MG cells treated or untreated with necrotic cells were analyzed using a chemokine array and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively.
RESULTS: The presence of NCs promoted the migration/infiltration of microglia, and GBM cell line CRT-MG cells exposed to NCs further enhanced the migration and infiltration of HMO6 microglial cells. Treatment with NCs induced mRNA and protein expression of chemokines such as Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (CCL2/MCP-1) and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3α (CCL20/MIP-3α) in CRT-MG cells. In particular, CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL20/MIP-3α were significantly increased in NC-treated CRT-MG cells. NCs induced DNA binding of the transcription factors Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB and Activator Protein 1 (AP-1) to the CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL20/MIP-3α promoters, leading to increased CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL20/MIP-3α mRNA and protein expression in CRT-MG cells.
CONCLUSION: These results provide evidence that NCs induce the expression of CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL20/MIP-3α in glioblastoma cells through activation of NF-κB and AP-1 and facilitate the infiltration of microglia into tumor tissues.

Benkheil M, Paeshuyse J, Neyts J, et al.
HCV-induced EGFR-ERK signaling promotes a pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic signature contributing to liver cancer pathogenesis.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2018; 155:305-315 [PubMed] Related Publications
HCV is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC development in chronically infected HCV patients has until now been attributed to persistent inflammation and interference of viral proteins with host cell signaling. Since activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) presents a crucial step in HCV entry, we aimed at investigating whether EGFR signaling may contribute to the pathogenesis of HCV-related HCC. By applying microarray analysis, we generated a gene expression signature for secreted proteins in HCV-infected hepatoma cells. This gene signature was enriched for inflammatory and angiogenic processes; both crucially involved in HCC development. RT-qPCR analysis, conducted on the entire list of upregulated genes, confirmed induction of 11 genes (AREG, IL8, CCL20, CSF1, GDF15, IGFBP1, VNN3, THBS1 and PAI-1) in a virus titer- and replication-dependent manner. EGFR activation in hepatoma cells largely mimicked the gene signature seen in the infectious HCV model. Further, the EGFR-ERK pathway, but not Akt signaling, was responsible for this gene expression profile. Finally, microarray analysis conducted on clinical data from the GEO database, revealed that our validated gene expression profile is significantly represented in livers of patients with HCV-related liver pathogenesis (cirrhosis and HCC) compared to healthy livers. Taken together, our data indicate that persistent activation of EGFR-ERK signaling in chronically infected HCV patients may induce a specific pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic signature that presents a new mechanism by which HCV can promote liver cancer pathogenesis. A better understanding of the key factors in HCV-related oncogenesis, may efficiently direct HCC drug development.

Liu L, Chen F, Xiu A, et al.
Identification of Key Candidate Genes and Pathways in Endometrial Cancer by Integrated Bioinformatical Analysis
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(4):969-975 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endometrial Cancer is the most common female genital tract malignancy, its pathogenesis is complex, not yet fully described. To identify key genes of Endometrial Cancer we downloaded the gene chip GSE17025 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified through the GEO2R analysis tool. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis were performed for DEGs using DAVID database. The network of protein–protein-interaction (PPI) was established by STRING website and visualized by Cytoscape. Then, functional and pathway enrichment analysis of DEGS were performed by DAVID database. A total of 1000 significant differences genes were obtained, contain 362 up-regulated genes and 638 down-regulated genes. PCDH10, SLC6A2, OGN, SFRP4, TRH, ANGPTL, FOSB are down-regulated genes. The gene of IGH, CCL20, ELF5, LTF, ASPM expression level in tumor patients are up-regulated. Biological function of enrichment include metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, MAPK signaling pathway, Serotonergic synapse, Protein digestion and absorption, IL-17 signaling pathway, Chemokine signaling pathway, HIF-1 signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway. All in all, the current study to determine endometrial differentially expressed genes and biological function, comprehensive analysis of intrauterine membrane carcinoma pathogenesis mechanism, and might be used as molecular targets and diagnostic biomarkers for the treatment of endometrial cancer.

Jin P, Shin SH, Chun YS, et al.
Astrocyte-derived CCL20 reinforces HIF-1-mediated hypoxic responses in glioblastoma by stimulating the CCR6-NF-κB signaling pathway.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(23):3070-3087 [PubMed] Related Publications
During tumor development, stromal cells are co-opted to the tumor milieu and provide favorable conditions for the tumor. Hypoxia stimulates cancer cells to acquire a more malignant phenotype via activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Given that cancer cells and astrocytes in glioblastomas coexist in a hypoxic microenvironment, we examined whether astrocytes affect the adaptation of glioblastoma cells to hypoxia. Immunoblotting, reporter assays, quantitative RT-PCR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation were performed to evaluate HIF-1 signaling in glioblastoma cells. Astrocyte-derived chemokine C-C motif ligand 20 (CCL20) was identified using cytokine arrays, and its role in glioblastoma development was evaluated in orthotopic xenografts. Astrocytes augmented HIF-1α expression in glioblastoma cells under hypoxia. The expression of HIF-1 downstream genes, cancer colony formation, and Matrigel invasion of glioblastoma cells were stimulated by conditioned medium from astrocytes pre-exposed to hypoxia. CCL20 was secreted in a hypoxia-dependent manner from astrocytes and busted the hypoxic induction of HIF-1α in glioblastoma cells. Mechanistically, the CCL20/CCR6 signaling pathway upregulates HIF-1α by stimulating nuclear factor kappa B-driven transactivation of the HIF1A gene. Compared with the control tumors, CCR6-deficient glioblastoma xenografts grew more slowly, with poor vascularization, and expressed lower levels of HIF-1α and its downstream proteins. Furthermore, CCR6 expression was correlated with HIF-1α expression in GEO and TCGA datasets from human glioblastoma tissues. These results suggest that glioblastoma cells adapt well to hypoxic stress by virtue of CCL20 derived from neighboring astrocytes.

Luo J, Liu L, Zhou N, et al.
miR-519b-3p promotes responsiveness to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer patients by targeting ARID4B.
Gene. 2018; 655:84-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent evidences demonstrate that preoperative chemoradiotherapy (pCRT) followed by mesorectal excision is an effective therapy for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Nevertheless, the predictive molecular biomarkers for the response of patients to CRT remain largely unknown. Here we showed that the expression of miR-519b-3p was correlated with the responsiveness to pCRT in patients with LARC. We found that miR-519b-3p was highly expressed in responsive LARC samples. And we showed that miR-519b-3p may serve as a novel predictive marker by ROC analysis. In addition, overexpression of miR-519b-3p enhanced responsiveness to chemoradiation in vitro. Mechanistically, we found that miR-519b-3p directly bond to the 3' UTR of ARID4B mRNA whose expression was inversely correlated with miR-519b-3p expression. Finally, we performed functional experiments and showed that miR-519b-3p was directly involved in response to pCRT in rectal cancer patients in an ARID4B-dependent way.

Thomas SK, Cha SC, Smith DL, et al.
Phase I study of an active immunotherapy for asymptomatic phase Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with DNA vaccines encoding antigen-chemokine fusion: study protocol.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):187 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is now a renewed interest in cancer vaccines. Patients responding to immune checkpoint blockade usually bear tumors that are heavily infiltrated by T cells and express a high load of neoantigens, indicating that the immune system is involved in the therapeutic effect of these agents; this finding strongly supports the use of cancer vaccine strategies. Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) is a low grade, incurable disease featuring an abnormal proliferation of Immunoglobulin (Ig)-producing malignant cells. Asymptomatic patients are currently managed by a "watchful waiting" approach, as available therapies provide no survival advantage if started before symptoms develop. Idiotypic determinants of a lymphoma surface Ig, formed by the interaction of the variable regions of heavy and light chains, can be used as a tumor-specific marker and effective vaccination using idiotypes was demonstrated in a positive controlled phase III trial.
METHODS: These variable region genes can be cloned and used as a DNA vaccine, a delivery system holding tremendous potential for streamlining vaccine production. To increase vaccination potency, we are targeting antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by fusing the antigen with a sequence encoding a chemokine (MIP-3α), which binds an endocytic surface receptor on APCs. Asymptomatic phase LPL is an excellent model to test our vaccine since patients have not received chemotherapeutics that interfere with innate immune function and have low tumor burden. We are evaluating the safety of this next-generation DNA vaccine in a first-in-human clinical trial currently enrolling asymptomatic LPL patients. To elucidate the mode of action of this vaccine, we will assess its ability to generate tumor-specific immune responses and examine changes in the immune profile of both the peripheral blood and bone marrow.
DISCUSSION: This vaccine could shift the current paradigm of clinical management for patients with asymptomatic LPL and inform development of other personalized approaches.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: identifier NCT01209871; registered on September 24, 2010.

Cremonesi E, Governa V, Garzon JFG, et al.
Gut microbiota modulate T cell trafficking into human colorectal cancer.
Gut. 2018; 67(11):1984-1994 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) favour survival in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Chemotactic factors underlying their recruitment remain undefined. We investigated chemokines attracting T cells into human CRCs, their cellular sources and microenvironmental triggers.
DESIGN: Expression of genes encoding immune cell markers, chemokines and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in fresh CRC samples and corresponding tumour-free tissues. Chemokine receptor expression on TILs was evaluated by flow cytometry on cell suspensions from digested tissues. Chemokine production by CRC cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo, on generation of intraperitoneal or intracecal tumour xenografts in immune-deficient mice. T cell trafficking was assessed on adoptive transfer of human TILs into tumour-bearing mice. Gut flora composition was analysed by 16SrRNA sequencing.
RESULTS: CRC infiltration by distinct T cell subsets was associated with defined chemokine gene signatures, including CCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL10 for cytotoxic T lymphocytes and T-helper (Th)1 cells; CCL17, CCL22 and CXCL12 for Th1 and regulatory T cells; CXCL13 for follicular Th cells; and CCL20 and CCL17 for interleukin (IL)-17-producing Th cells. These chemokines were expressed by tumour cells on exposure to gut bacteria in vitro and in vivo. Their expression was significantly higher in intracecal than in intraperitoneal xenografts and was dramatically reduced by antibiotic treatment of tumour-bearing mice. In clinical samples, abundance of defined bacteria correlated with high chemokine expression, enhanced T cell infiltration and improved survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbiota stimulate chemokine production by CRC cells, thus favouring recruitment of beneficial T cells into tumour tissues.

Tie J, Cohen JD, Wang Y, et al.
Serial circulating tumour DNA analysis during multimodality treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer: a prospective biomarker study.
Gut. 2019; 68(4):663-671 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: For patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), adjuvant chemotherapy selection following surgery remains a major clinical dilemma. Here, we investigated the ability of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) to improve risk stratification in patients with LARC.
DESIGN: We enrolled patients with LARC (T3/T4 and/or N+) planned for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Plasma samples were collected pretreatment, postchemoradiotherapy and 4-10 weeks after surgery. Somatic mutations in individual patient's tumour were identified via massively parallel sequencing of 15 genes commonly mutated in colorectal cancer. We then designed personalised assays to quantify ctDNA in plasma samples. Patients received adjuvant therapy at clinician discretion, blinded to the ctDNA results.
RESULTS: We analysed 462 serial plasma samples from 159 patients. ctDNA was detectable in 77%, 8.3% and 12% of pretreatment, postchemoradiotherapy and postsurgery plasma samples. Significantly worse recurrence-free survival was seen if ctDNA was detectable after chemoradiotherapy (HR 6.6; P<0.001) or after surgery (HR 13.0; P<0.001). The estimated 3-year recurrence-free survival was 33% for the postoperative ctDNA-positive patients and 87% for the postoperative ctDNA-negative patients. Postoperative ctDNA detection was predictive of recurrence irrespective of adjuvant chemotherapy use (chemotherapy: HR 10.0; P<0.001; without chemotherapy: HR 22.0; P<0.001). Postoperative ctDNA status remained an independent predictor of recurrence-free survival after adjusting for known clinicopathological risk factors (HR 6.0; P<0.001).
CONCLUSION: Postoperative ctDNA analysis stratifies patients with LARC into subsets that are either at very high or at low risk of recurrence, independent of conventional clinicopathological risk factors. ctDNA analysis could potentially be used to guide patient selection for adjuvant chemotherapy.

Wirsing AM, Ervik IK, Seppola M, et al.
Presence of high-endothelial venules correlates with a favorable immune microenvironment in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(6):910-922 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinomas are associated with a poor prognosis, which may be partly due to functional impairment of the immune response. Lymphocyte recruitment to the tumor site is facilitated by high-endothelial venules, whereas expression of programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) can impair T-cell function. Thus, we hypothesize that these factors are important in shaping the immune response in oral squamous cell carcinoma. In the present study, we characterized the immune infiltrate in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 75 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. We used immunohistochemistry to determine the distribution of immune cell subsets, high-endothelial venules, and PD-L1, as well as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines associated with lymphocyte trafficking. Finally, we calculated correlations between the presence of immune cell subsets, the gene expression patterns, high-endothelial venules, PD-L1, and the clinicopathological parameters, including patient survival. The presence of high-endothelial venules correlated with increased number of CD3+ T cells and CD20+ B cells, higher levels of the chemokines CXCL12 and CCL21, and lower levels of CCL20, irrespective of the tumors' T stage. In univariate analysis, high levels of CD20+ B cells and CD68+ macrophages, positive high-endothelial venule status, and low T and N stages predicted longer patient survival. However, only the presence of high-endothelial venules and a low T stage were independent positive prognosticators. This indicates that high-endothelial venules are important mediators and a convenient marker of an antitumor immune response in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our findings suggest that these vessels are a potential immunomodulatory target in this type of cancer. PD-L1 staining in tumor cells correlated with lower T stage, increased infiltration of CD4+ cells, and higher expression of several inflammation-related cytokines. Thus, oral squamous cell carcinomas rich in CD4+ cells may preferentially respond to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade therapy.

Gurdal N, Fayda M, Alishev N, et al.
Neoadjuvant volumetric modulated arc therapy in rectal cancer and the correlation of pathological response with diffusion-weighted MRI and apoptotic markers.
Tumori. 2018; 104(4):266-272 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: In this prospective observational study, we aimed to report the applicability and tolerability of neoadjuvant volumetric modulated arc therapy with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB-VMAT) and concurrent chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), and to evaluate the correlation of pathological response with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and apoptotic markers.
METHODS: The study enrolled 30 patients with T3 to T4 and/or N+ rectal cancer who preoperatively received SIB-VMAT and concurrent chemotherapy. Before and after the neoadjuvant treatment, apoptotic markers including the nucleosomes and cell-free DNA fragments in the serum samples were examined; DNA integrity was assessed by amplifying the ACTB gene; and the ADC measurements on the DW-MRI were analyzed.
RESULTS: No patients had acute or chronic grade III-IV toxicity. Pathologic complete response (pCR) was achieved in 8 patients (27%), while in 10 patients (33%) near-complete pathological response was obtained. Posttreatment ADC was significantly higher in patients with pCR compared with the others (1.28 vs. 1.10, p = 0.017). ROC curve analysis showed that posttreatment ADC values had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 77.3% for distinguishing the patients with pCR from other responders. On the other hand, posttreatment DNA integrity values were revealed lower than the pretreatment values (p = 0.36). Also, the results revealed an insignificant increase in the posttreatment serum level of nucleosomes (p = 0.72).
CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant SIB-VMAT with concurrent chemotherapy was proved to be a feasible treatment regimen in LARC with tolerable side effects, and improved local control rate and pCR rate.

Klymenko T, Gu Q, Herbert I, et al.
RNA-Seq Analysis of Differentiated Keratinocytes Reveals a Massive Response to Late Events during Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection, Including Loss of Epithelial Barrier Function.
J Virol. 2017; 91(24) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
The human papillomavirus (HPV) replication cycle is tightly linked to epithelial cell differentiation. To examine HPV-associated changes in the keratinocyte transcriptome, RNAs isolated from undifferentiated and differentiated cell populations of normal, spontaneously immortalized keratinocytes (NIKS) and NIKS stably transfected with HPV16 episomal genomes (NIKS16) were compared using next-generation sequencing (RNA-Seq). HPV16 infection altered expression of 2,862 cellular genes. Next, to elucidate the role of keratinocyte gene expression in late events during the viral life cycle, RNA-Seq was carried out on triplicate differentiated populations of NIKS (uninfected) and NIKS16 (infected). Of the top 966 genes altered (>log

Lee SK, Park KK, Kim HJ, et al.
Human antigen R-regulated CCL20 contributes to osteolytic breast cancer bone metastasis.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):9610 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Breast cancer mainly spreads to bone, causing decreased survival of patient. Human antigen R (HuR) and chemokines are important molecules associated with mRNA stability and cell-cell interaction in cancer biology. Here, HuR knockdown inhibited bone metastasis and osteolysis of metastatic breast cancer cells in mice and HuR expression promoted the metastatic ability of cancer cells via CCL20 and GM-CSF. In contrast with the findings for GM-CSF, ELAVL1 and CCL20 expressions were markedly increased in breast tumor tissues and ELAVL1 expression showed a strong positive correlation with CCL20 expression in breast cancer subtypes, particularly the basal-like subtype. Metastasis-free survival and overall survival were decreased in the breast cancer patients with high CCL20 expression. We further confirmed the role of CCL20 in breast cancer bone metastasis. Intraperitoneal administration of anti-CCL20 antibodies inhibited osteolytic breast cancer bone metastasis in mice. Treatment with CCL20 noticeably promoted cell invasion and the secretion of MMP-2/9 in the basal-like triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, not the luminal. Moreover, CCL20 elevated the receptor activator of nuclear factors kappa-B ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio in breast cancer and osteoblastic cells and mediated the crosstalk between these cells. Collectively, HuR-regulated CCL20 may be an attractive therapeutic target for breast cancer bone metastasis.

Sato T, Shibata W, Hikiba Y, et al.
c-Jun N-terminal kinase in pancreatic tumor stroma augments tumor development in mice.
Cancer Sci. 2017; 108(11):2156-2165 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a life-threatening disease and there is an urgent need to develop improved therapeutic approaches. The role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in PDAC stroma is not well defined even though dense desmoplastic reactions are characteristic of PDAC histology. We aimed to explore the role of JNK in PDAC stroma in mice. We crossed Ptf1a

Ha YJ, Tak KH, Kim CW, et al.
PSMB8 as a Candidate Marker of Responsiveness to Preoperative Radiation Therapy in Rectal Cancer Patients.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017; 98(5):1164-1173 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The ability to predict individual responsiveness to cancer therapy is urgently needed. This is particularly true for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) because a large proportion are resistant to preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT). In this study, we sought to identify markers that could predict response by comparing the gene expression profiles of the tumors of patients who received preoperative CRT.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: The basal gene expression profiles of tumors from 22 LARC patients who were responders (n=9) and nonresponders (n=13) to preoperative CRT were analyzed using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). To validate the RNA-Seq findings, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed on tumor samples from an additional 40 LARC patients (n=20 responders; n=20 nonresponders). Candidate genes were stably overexpressed or knocked down in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, and the effect on response to radiation was tested in vitro and also in vivo in a mouse xenograft model.
RESULTS: Eight differentially expressed (>16-fold) genes (B3GALT4, HSPA1B, KRBOX1, PPBP, PPP1R18, PSMB8, SLC39A7, and TAP2) associated with the preoperative CRT response were identified (P<.0005). Among these genes, real-time RT-PCR showed that PSMB8 and SLC39A7 were upregulated in the responsive group of the additional 40 LARC patients. In CRC cell lines, PSMB8 overexpression significantly reduced colony formation and increased the apoptosis-inducing molecules cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP after 6-Gy irradiation. PSMB8 knockdown increased colony formation and decreased caspase-3 activation and cleaved PARP levels after irradiation. SLC39A7 overexpression had no significant effects on irradiated CSC cells. After irradiation of the xenografted mice, tumors that arose from CRC cell line HCT116 overexpressing PSMB8 grew more slowly than did those from HCT116 with vector alone.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PSMB8 is a predictive marker of preoperative radiosensitivity in LARC patients. Clinical validation in a larger cohort is now required.

Chew V, Lai L, Pan L, et al.
Delineation of an immunosuppressive gradient in hepatocellular carcinoma using high-dimensional proteomic and transcriptomic analyses.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017; 114(29):E5900-E5909 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
The recent development of immunotherapy as a cancer treatment has proved effective over recent years, but the precise dynamics between the tumor microenvironment (TME), nontumor microenvironment (NTME), and the systemic immune system remain elusive. Here, we interrogated these compartments in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using high-dimensional proteomic and transcriptomic analyses. By time-of-flight mass cytometry, we found that the TME was enriched in regulatory T cells (Tregs), tissue resident memory CD8

Ye JF, Qi WX, Liu MY, Li Y
The combination of NK and CD8+T cells with CCL20/IL15-armed oncolytic adenoviruses enhances the growth suppression of TERT-positive tumor cells.
Cell Immunol. 2017; 318:35-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adoptive immunotherapy and targeted gene therapy have been extensively used to eliminate tumor cells. The combination treatment is capable of efficiently generating an effective antitumor immune response and disrupting tumor-induced tolerance. Moreover, effective antitumor immune responses are dependent on coordinate interaction among various effector cells. This study focused on whether the combination of cytotoxic effector cell-based adoptive immunotherapy and CCL20/IL15-armed oncolytic adenoviruses could induce enhanced antitumor activity. The CCL20/IL15-armed oncolytic adenovirus was constructed using homologous recombination with shuttle plasmids and full-length Ad backbones. We chose the telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (TERTp) to replace the E1A promoter to drive the oncolytic adenoviral E1A gene. Thus, this CRAd-CCL20-IL15 could induce apoptosis in TERTp-positive tumor cells due to viral propagation, but these viruses could not replicate efficiently in normal cells. The combination of cytotoxic effector cells and CRAd-CCL20-IL15 showed greater antitumor potential than that of cytotoxic effector cells or CRAd-CCL20-IL15 alone. Moreover, the combined treatment could induce tumor-specific cytotoxicity of CTLs in vitro. Further analysis demonstrated that this combined treatment resulted in significant tumor regression in mouse models. This study has provided preclinical evidence that combined treatment with cytotoxic effector cells and CRAd-CCL20-IL15 may offer alternative treatment options for tumor therapy.

Pettit C, Walston S, Wald P, et al.
Molecular profiling of locally-advanced rectal adenocarcinoma using microRNA expression (Review).
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(2):393-404 [PubMed] Related Publications
Treatment for locally-advanced rectal cancer (LARC) typically consists of neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by total mesorectal excision. Recently, there has been growing interest in non-operative management for patients who are medically-inoperable or wish to avoid surgical morbidity and permanent colostomy. Approximately 50% of patients who receive pre-operative neoadjuvant chemoradiation develop some degree of pathologic response. Approximately 10-20% of patients are found to have a complete pathologic response, a finding which has frequently been shown to predict better clinical outcomes, including local-regional control, distant metastasis and survival. Many recent studies have evaluated the role of molecular biomarkers in predicting response to neoadjuvant therapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an emerging class of biomarkers that have the potential to predict which patients are most likely to benefit from pre-operative therapy and from a selective surgical approach. Here, we review the published literature on microRNAs as prognostic and predictive biomarkers in rectal cancer after pre-operative therapy. In the future, the development of prospectively validated miRNA signatures will allow clinical implementation of miRNAs as prognostic and predictive signatures in LARC.

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