Gene Summary

Gene:CCNB2; cyclin B2
Aliases: HsT17299
Summary:Cyclin B2 is a member of the cyclin family, specifically the B-type cyclins. The B-type cyclins, B1 and B2, associate with p34cdc2 and are essential components of the cell cycle regulatory machinery. B1 and B2 differ in their subcellular localization. Cyclin B1 co-localizes with microtubules, whereas cyclin B2 is primarily associated with the Golgi region. Cyclin B2 also binds to transforming growth factor beta RII and thus cyclin B2/cdc2 may play a key role in transforming growth factor beta-mediated cell cycle control. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CCNB2 (cancer-related)

Jin X, Liu X, Li X, Guan Y
Integrated Analysis of DNA Methylation and mRNA Expression Profiles Data to Identify Key Genes in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:4369431 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Introduction. Lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) is the most frequent type of lung cancer and has a high metastatic rate at an early stage. This study is aimed at identifying LAC-associated genes. Materials and Methods. GSE62950 downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus included a DNA methylation dataset and an mRNA expression profiles dataset, both of which included 28 LAC tissue samples and 28 adjacent normal tissue samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened by Limma package in R, and their functions were predicted by enrichment analysis using TargetMine online tool. Then, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using STRING and Cytoscape. Finally, LAC-associated methylation sites were identified by CpGassoc package in R and mapped to the DEGs to obtain LAC-associated DEGs. Results. Total 913 DEGs were identified in LAC tissues. In the PPI networks, MAD2L1, AURKB, CCNB2, CDC20, and WNT3A had higher degrees, and the first four genes might be involved in LAC through interaction. Total 8856 LAC-associated methylation sites were identified and mapped to the DEGs. And there were 29 LAC-associated methylation sites located in 27 DEGs (e.g., SH3GL2, BAI3, CDH13, JAM2, MT1A, LHX6, and IGFBP3). Conclusions. These key genes might play a role in pathogenesis of LAC.

Zhang Y, Ran Y, Xiong Y, et al.
Effects of TMEM9 gene on cell progression in hepatocellular carcinoma by RNA interference.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(1):299-305 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor that has become a global health issue. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of transmembrane protein 9 (TMEM9) in cell progression, such as cell growth, cell cycle, cell metastasis of hepatoma cells, and to discuss the TMEM9 gene‑encoding protein as a potential therapy target of hepatoma. RT-qPCR was performed to examine TMEM9 expression in tumor tissues and adjacent tissues of patients with liver cancer. siRNAs were used to interfere TMEM9 in HepG2 and 7721 cells. A CCK-8 assay was performed to evaluate cell growth at 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed using flow cytometry. Transwell assays were used to determine cell invasion, migration and adhesion. The results showed that TMEM9 was expressed abnormally in liver cancers. TMEM9 expression increased significantly in the 34 examined patients. TMEM9 knockdown inhibited proliferation in the HepG2 and 7721 cells. The flow cytometric analysis revealed that TMEM9 knockdown by RNA interference resulted in G1 arrest and induced apoptosis. Cell invasion, migration and adhesion ability were also decreased. Western blotting indicated that expression of the cell cycle‑related proteins CDK1, EIF3H, RPL10L, S100A10, CCNB1 and CCNB2 was significantly decreased. In conclusion, TMEM9 plays an important role in the cell growth of hepatoma cells.

Bednarek K, Kiwerska K, Szaumkessel M, et al.
Recurrent CDK1 overexpression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):11115-26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In this study, we analyzed the expression profile of four genes (CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNB2, and CDK1) in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) cell lines and tumor samples. With the application of microarray platform, we have shown the overexpression of these genes in all analyzed LSCC samples in comparison to non-cancer controls from head and neck region. We have selected CDK1 for further analysis, due to its leading role in cell cycle regulation. It is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family of proven oncogenic properties. The results obtained for CDK1 were further confirmed with the application of reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) technique, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The observed upregulation of CDK1 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma has encouraged us to analyze for genetic mechanisms that can be responsible this phenomenon. Therefore, with the application of array-CGH, sequencing analysis and two methods for epigenetic regulation analysis (DNA methylation and miRNA expression), we tried to identify such potential mechanisms. Our attempts to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for observed changes failed as we did not observe significant alterations neither in the DNA sequence nor in the gene copy number that could underline CDK1 upregulation. Similarly, the pyrosequencing and miRNA expression analyses did not reveal any differences in methylation level and miRNA expression, respectively; thus, these mechanisms probably do not contribute to elevation of CDK1 expression in LSCC. However, our results suggest that alteration of CDK1 expression on both mRNA and protein level probably appears on the very early step of carcinogenesis.

Lei CY, Wang W, Zhu YT, et al.
The decrease of cyclin B2 expression inhibits invasion and metastasis of bladder cancer.
Urol Oncol. 2016; 34(5):237.e1-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: It has been shown that cyclin B2 is commonly overexpressed in many malignant tumors. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of cyclin B2 in bladder cancer.
METHOD AND MATERIAL: Fixed tissues for immunohistochemistry and fresh tissues for western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay were randomly selected from Nanfang hospital. Normal bladder urothelial cell and bladder cancer cell lines was stored in our laboratory, the bladder cancer cells were transfected to develop bladder cancer cell clones expressing decreased cyclin B2 levels, the clones were used for cell growth and metastasis experiments in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis both showed that the cyclin B2 protein expression was higher in bladder urothelial carcinoma than in normal bladder mucosa, especially in invasive cancer. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the cyclin B2 messenger RNA expression exhibited the same trend. Results of cell lines experiments also showed higher cyclin B2 expression in cancer cells. In vitro tests the decrease of cyclin B2 expression that had little effect on cell growth and cell cycling according to the MTT assay and the Edu assay, whereas in the Boyden chamber transwell assay, the cyclin B2 low-expressing clones significantly inhibits the cells׳ invasion and metastatic abilities. This result was consistent with the scratch-wound assay result showing that the target clone needed more time for healing the wound. The in vivo experiment in nude mice produced similar results, the lung and liver target cell metastasis nodules were smaller and less than those of the negative control by the hepatic subcapsular injection assay, and the mice of the target clone group has longer survival time in no intervention observed test.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the cyclin B2 was overexpressed in bladder cancer, and the down-regulation of cyclin B2 expression in bladder cancer greatly inhibits the cell׳s invasion and metastatic abilities, and it prolonged the survival time of nude mice in vivo.

Al-Rohil RN, Tarasen AJ, Carlson JA, et al.
Evaluation of 122 advanced-stage cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas by comprehensive genomic profiling opens the door for new routes to targeted therapies.
Cancer. 2016; 122(2):249-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The authors hypothesized that comprehensive genomic profiling of advanced-stage cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) could identify genomic-derived drug targets of therapy for patients with conventional therapy-resistant disease.
METHODS: Comprehensive genomic profiling of 315 cancer genes was applied to 50 ng of DNA from 122 cSCC cases for the evaluation of all classes of genomic alterations (GAs). Clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGAs) were defined as those identifying anticancer drugs on the market or in registered clinical trials.
RESULTS: There were 21 women (17%) and 101 men (83%) with a median age of 64.9 years (range, 21-87 years). Eleven cSCC cases (9%) were histologic AJCC grade 1, 69 (57%) were grade 2, and 42 (34%) were grade 3. The primary cSCC was used for sequencing in 77 cases (63%). Metastatic lesions were sequenced in 37% of cases. There were 1120 total GAs identified (average of 9.2 GAs per tumor), with 100% of cases harboring at least 1 alteration. Of the 122 cSCCs, 107 (88%) harbored at least 1 CRGA (2.5 CRGAs per cSCC) includingNOTCH1 (43%); patched 1 (PTCH1) (11%); BRCA2 (10%); HRAS (8%); ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) (7%); erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ERBB4) (7%); neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) (7%); erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) (6%); phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) (6%); cyclin D1 (CCND1) (6%); epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (5%); and F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (FBXW7) (5%).
CONCLUSIONS: In the current study, approximately 88% of patients with cSCC were found to harbor clinically relevant GAs that have the potential to guide the treatment of patients with advanced-stage tumors with targeted therapeutic agents. Cancer 2016;122:249-257. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

Xiong XY, Hu XJ, Li Y, Liu CM
Inhibitory Effects of Enterolactone on Growth and Metastasis in Human Breast Cancer.
Nutr Cancer. 2015; 67(8):1324-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
A lignan-rich diet is associated with a lower risk of human breast cancer. Enterolactone, an active polyphenol metabolites of lignan, was reported to have an antitumor effect. We investigated the mechanism for the effect of enterolactone against human breast cancer. Cellular changes, and associated genes induced by enterolactone, were investigated in MDA-MB-231 cells. Enterolactone showed an antiproliferative effect, and its IC50 was 261.9 ± 10.5 μM for a treatment period of 48 hr. The mRNA levels of the genes related to cell proliferation, Ki67, PCNA, and FoxM1, were reduced. Enterolactone induced accumulation of cells in the S phase, and a lower expression of Cyclin E1, Cyclin A2, Cyclin B1, and Cyclin B2 genes. There were almost no changes in the transcription levels of the genes that participate in G0/G1 phase regulation, CDK4, CDK6, and Cyclin D1. Furthermore, enterolactone interfered with the cytoskeleton by downregulating phosphorylation of the FAK/paxillin pathway, inhibiting migration and invasion of cells. The results suggest that enterolactone exerts an antitumor effect by regulating the expression of genes associated with cell proliferation and the cell cycle and by blocking the FAK/paxillin signaling pathway. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms behind the antitumor effect of enterolactone.

Qian X, Song X, He Y, et al.
CCNB2 overexpression is a poor prognostic biomarker in Chinese NSCLC patients.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2015; 74:222-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclin B2 (CCNB2), a member of cyclin family proteins, serves a key role in progression of G2/M transition. The clinical value of CCNB2 in non-small cell lung cancer is still unknown. The aim of our study is to identify the role of CCNB2 in NSCLC patients. The status of CCNB2 in NSCLC tissues and normal lung tissues was observed in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE19804). CCNB2 mRNA and protein expressions were detected in NSCLC and normal lung tissues by using Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. The association of CCNB protein expression with clinical characteristics of 186 NSCLC patients was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Based on microarray data (GEO: GSE19804), we observed that CCNB2 was significantly overexpressed in NSCLC tissues compared with paired adjacent normal lung tissue. Furthermore, we verified mRNA and protein levels of CCNB2 expression were both increased in NSCLC tissues. We found high levels of CCNB2 protein were positively associated with the status of differentiated degree, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and clinical stage. Meanwhile, CCNB2 protein overexpression was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for the overall survival of patients with NSCLC. In conclusion, overexpression of CCNB2 protein is associated with clinical progression and poor prognosis in NSCLC.

Yan-Fang T, Zhi-Heng L, Li-Xiao X, et al.
Molecular Mechanism of the Cell Death Induced by the Histone Deacetylase Pan Inhibitor LBH589 (Panobinostat) in Wilms Tumor Cells.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0126566 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Wilms tumor (WT) is an embryonic kidney cancer, for which histone acetylation might be a therapeutic target. LBH589, a novel targeted agent, suppresses histone deacetylases in many tumors. This study investigated the antitumor activity of LBH589 in SK-NEP-1 and G401 cells.
METHODS: SK-NEP-1 and G401 cell growth was assessed by CCK-8 and in nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry detected apoptosis in cell culture. Gene expressions of LBH589-treated tumor cells were analyzed using an Arraystar Human LncRNA Array. The Multi Experiment View cluster software analyzed the expression data. Differentially expressed genes from the cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool.
RESULTS: LBH589 inhibited cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1 and G401 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V, TUNEL and Hochest 33342 staining analysis showed that LBH589-treated cells showed more apoptotic features compared with the control. LBH589 treatment inhibited the growth of SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors in nude mice. Arraystar Human LncRNA Array analysis of genes and lncRNAs regulated by LBH589 identified 6653 mRNAs and 8135 lncRNAs in LBH589-treated SK-NEP-1 cells. The most enriched gene ontology terms were those involved in nucleosome assembly. KEGG pathway analysis identified cell cycle proteins, including CCNA2, CCNB2, CCND1, CCND2, CDK4, CDKN1B and HDAC2, etc. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified important upstream molecules: HIST2H3C, HIST1H4A, HIST1A, HIST1C, HIST1D, histone H1, histone H3, RPRM, HSP70 and MYC.
CONCLUSIONS: LBH589 treatment caused apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1and G401 cells. LBH589 had a significant effect and few side effects on SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors. Expression profiling, and GO, KEGG and IPA analyses identified new targets and a new "network" of genes responding to LBH589 treatment in SK-NEP-1 cells. RPRM, HSP70 and MYC may be important regulators during LBH589 treatment. Our results provide new clues to the proapoptotic mechanism of LBH589.

Shi Z, Chiang CI, Labhart P, et al.
Context-specific role of SOX9 in NF-Y mediated gene regulation in colorectal cancer cells.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2015; 43(13):6257-69 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Roles for SOX9 have been extensively studied in development and particular emphasis has been placed on SOX9 roles in cell lineage determination in a number of discrete tissues. Aberrant expression of SOX9 in many cancers, including colorectal cancer, suggests roles in these diseases as well and recent studies have suggested tissue- and context-specific roles of SOX9. Our genome wide approach by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) in human colorectal cancer cells identified a number of physiological targets of SOX9, including ubiquitously expressed cell cycle regulatory genes, such as CCNB1 and CCNB2, CDK1, and TOP2A. These novel high affinity-SOX9 binding peaks precisely overlapped with binding sites for histone-fold NF-Y transcription factor. Furthermore, our data showed that SOX9 is recruited by NF-Y to these promoters of cell cycle regulatory genes and that SOX9 is critical for the full function of NF-Y in activation of the cell cycle genes. Mutagenesis analysis and in vitro binding assays provided additional evidence to show that SOX9 affinity is through NF-Y and that SOX9 DNA binding domain is not necessary for SOX9 affinity to those target genes. Collectively, our results reveal possibly a context-dependent, non-classical regulatory role for SOX9.

Jin N, Jin X, Gu X, et al.
Screening biomarkers of bladder cancer using combined miRNA and mRNA microarray analysis.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(2):3170-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Biomarkers, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) may be useful for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying bladder cancer, differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) and their target genes in bladder cancer were analyzed. In the present study, miRNA and mRNA expression profiles (GSE40355) were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. These consisted of healthy bladder samples (n=8) and urothelial carcinoma samples (low-grade, n=8 and high-grade, n=8). DE-miRNAs and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the limma package and the Benjamin and Hochberg method from the multtest package in R. Target genes of DE-miRNAs were screened. Associations between DEGs were investigated using STRING, and an interaction network was constructed using Cytoscape. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed for DEGs from the interaction network. 87 DE-miRNAs and 2058 DEGs were screened from low-grade bladder cancer samples, and 40 DE-miRNAs and 2477 DEGs were screened from high-grade bladder cancer samples. DE-target genes were significantly associated with the regulation of cell apoptosis. Bladder cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and pancreatic cancer biological pathways were found to be enriched. The results of the present study demonstrated that E2F transcription factor 1, which is targeted by miR-106b, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and V-Erb-B2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog-2, which are targeted by miR-125b, participate in the bladder cancer pathway. In conclusion, DE-miRNAs in bladder cancer tissue samples and DE-targeted genes, such as miR-106b and CDKN2A, which were identified in the present study, may provide the basis for targeted therapy for breast cancer and enhance understanding of its pathogenesis.

Barlin JN, Zhou QC, Leitao MM, et al.
Molecular subtypes of uterine leiomyosarcoma and correlation with clinical outcome.
Neoplasia. 2015; 17(2):183-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The molecular etiology of uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is poorly understood, which accounts for the wide disparity in outcomes among women with this disease. We examined and compared the molecular profiles of ULMS and normal myometrium (NL) to identify clinically relevant molecular subtypes. Discovery cases included 29 NL and 23 ULMS specimens. RNA was hybridized to Affymetrix U133A 2.0 transcription microarrays. Differentially expressed genes and pathways were identified using standard methods. Fourteen NL and 44 ULMS independent archival samples were used for external validation. Molecular subgroups were correlated with clinical outcome. Pathway analyses of differentially expressed genes between ULMS and NL samples identified overrepresentation of cell cycle regulation, DNA repair, and genomic integrity. External validation confirmed differential expression in 31 genes (P < 4.4 × 10(-4), Bonferroni corrected), with 84% of the overexpressed genes, including CDC7, CDC20, GTSE1, CCNA2, CCNB1, and CCNB2, participating in cell cycle regulation. Unsupervised clustering of ULMS identified two clades that were reproducibly associated with progression-free (median, 4.0 vs 26.0 months; P = .02; HR, 0.33) and overall (median, 18.2 vs 77.2 months; P = .04; HR, 0.33) survival. Cell cycle genes play a key role in ULMS sarcomagenesis, providing opportunities for therapeutic targeting. Reproducible molecular subtypes associated with clinical outcome may permit individualized adjuvant treatment after clinical trial validation.

Wang DG, Chen G, Wen XY, et al.
Identification of biomarkers for diagnosis of gastric cancer by bioinformatics.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(4):1361-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We aimed to discover potential gene biomarkers for gastric cancer (GC) diagnosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genechips of 10 GC tissues and 10 gastric mucosa (GM, para-carcinoma tissue, normal control) tissues were generated using an exon array of Affymetrix containing 30,000 genes. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between GC tissues and normal control were identified by the Limma package and analyzed by hierarchical clustering analysis. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses were performed for investigating the functions of DEGs. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed to measure the effects of biomarker candidates for diagnosis of GC.
RESULTS: Totals of 896 up-regulated and 60 down-regulated DEGs were identified to be differentially expressed between GC samples and normal control. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that DEGs were highly differentially expressed and most DEGs were up-regulated. The most significantly enriched GO-BP term was revealed to be mitotic cell cycle and the most significantly enriched pathway was cell cycle. The intersection analysis showed that most significant DEGs were cyclin B1 (CCNB1) and cyclin B2 (CCNB2). The sensitivities and specificities of CCNB1 and CCNB2 were both high (p<0.0001). Areas under the ROC curve for CCNB1 and CCNB2 were both greater than 0.9 (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: CCNB1 and CCNB2, which were involved in cell cycle, played significant roles in the progression and development of GC and these genes may be potential biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of GC.

Huskey NE, Guo T, Evason KJ, et al.
CDK1 inhibition targets the p53-NOXA-MCL1 axis, selectively kills embryonic stem cells, and prevents teratoma formation.
Stem Cell Reports. 2015; 4(3):374-89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have adopted an accelerated cell-cycle program with shortened gap phases and precocious expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins, including cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). We examined the effect of CDK inhibition on the pathways regulating proliferation and survival of ESCs. We found that inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) leads to activation of the DNA damage response, nuclear p53 stabilization, activation of a subset of p53 target genes including NOXA, and negative regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1 in human and mouse ESCs, but not differentiated cells. We demonstrate that MCL1 is highly expressed in ESCs and loss of MCL1 leads to ESC death. Finally, we show that clinically relevant CDK1 inhibitors prevent formation of ESC-derived tumors and induce necrosis in established ESC-derived tumors. Our data demonstrate that ES cells are uniquely sensitive to CDK1 inhibition via a p53/NOXA/MCL1 pathway.

Blighe K, Kenny L, Patel N, et al.
Whole genome sequence analysis suggests intratumoral heterogeneity in dissemination of breast cancer to lymph nodes.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(12):e115346 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Intratumoral heterogeneity may help drive resistance to targeted therapies in cancer. In breast cancer, the presence of nodal metastases is a key indicator of poorer overall survival. The aim of this study was to identify somatic genetic alterations in early dissemination of breast cancer by whole genome next generation sequencing (NGS) of a primary breast tumor, a matched locally-involved axillary lymph node and healthy normal DNA from blood.
METHODS: Whole genome NGS was performed on 12 µg (range 11.1-13.3 µg) of DNA isolated from fresh-frozen primary breast tumor, axillary lymph node and peripheral blood following the DNA nanoball sequencing protocol. Single nucleotide variants, insertions, deletions, and substitutions were identified through a bioinformatic pipeline and compared to CIN25, a key set of genes associated with tumor metastasis.
RESULTS: Whole genome sequencing revealed overlapping variants between the tumor and node, but also variants that were unique to each. Novel mutations unique to the node included those found in two CIN25 targets, TGIF2 and CCNB2, which are related to transcription cyclin activity and chromosomal stability, respectively, and a unique frameshift in PDS5B, which is required for accurate sister chromatid segregation during cell division. We also identified dominant clonal variants that progressed from tumor to node, including SNVs in TP53 and ARAP3, which mediates rearrangements to the cytoskeleton and cell shape, and an insertion in TOP2A, the expression of which is significantly associated with tumor proliferation and can segregate breast cancers by outcome.
CONCLUSION: This case study provides preliminary evidence that primary tumor and early nodal metastasis have largely overlapping somatic genetic alterations. There were very few mutations unique to the involved node. However, significant conclusions regarding early dissemination needs analysis of a larger number of patient samples.

Rajan P, Stockley J, Sudbery IM, et al.
Identification of a candidate prognostic gene signature by transcriptome analysis of matched pre- and post-treatment prostatic biopsies from patients with advanced prostate cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:977 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although chemotherapy for prostate cancer (PCa) can improve patient survival, some tumours are chemo-resistant. Tumour molecular profiles may help identify the mechanisms of drug action and identify potential prognostic biomarkers. We performed in vivo transcriptome profiling of pre- and post-treatment prostatic biopsies from patients with advanced hormone-naive prostate cancer treated with docetaxel chemotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with an aim to identify the mechanisms of drug action and identify prognostic biomarkers.
METHODS: RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on biopsies from four patients before and ~22 weeks after docetaxel and ADT initiation. Gene fusion products and differentially-regulated genes between treatment pairs were identified using TopHat and pathway enrichment analyses undertaken. Publically available datasets were interrogated to perform survival analyses on the gene signatures identified using cBioportal.
RESULTS: A number of genomic rearrangements were identified including the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion and 3 novel gene fusions involving the ETS family of transcription factors in patients, both pre and post chemotherapy. In total, gene expression analyses showed differential expression of at least 2 fold in 575 genes in post-chemotherapy biopsies. Of these, pathway analyses identified a panel of 7 genes (ADAM7, FAM72B, BUB1B, CCNB1, CCNB2, TTK, CDK1), including a cell cycle-related geneset, that were differentially-regulated following treatment with docetaxel and ADT. Using cBioportal to interrogate the MSKCC-Prostate Oncogenome Project dataset we observed a statistically-significant reduction in disease-free survival of patients with tumours exhibiting alterations in gene expression of the above panel of 7 genes (p = 0.015).
CONCLUSIONS: Here we report on the first "real-time" in vivo RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of clinical PCa from pre- and post-treatment TRUSS-guided biopsies of patients treated with docetaxel chemotherapy plus ADT. We identify a chemotherapy-driven PCa transcriptome profile which includes the down-regulation of important positive regulators of cell cycle progression. A 7 gene signature biomarker panel has also been identified in high-risk prostate cancer patients to be of prognostic value. Future prospective study is warranted to evaluate the clinical value of this panel.

Wan L, Tan HL, Thomas-Ahner JM, et al.
Dietary tomato and lycopene impact androgen signaling- and carcinogenesis-related gene expression during early TRAMP prostate carcinogenesis.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014; 7(12):1228-39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Consumption of tomato products containing the carotenoid lycopene is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. To identify gene expression patterns associated with early testosterone-driven prostate carcinogenesis, which are impacted by dietary tomato and lycopene, wild-type (WT) and transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice were fed control or tomato- or lycopene-containing diets from 4 to 10 weeks of age. Eight-week-old mice underwent sham surgery, castration, or castration followed by testosterone repletion (2.5 mg/kg/d initiated 1 week after castration). Ten-week-old intact TRAMP mice exhibit early multifocal prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Of the 200 prostate cancer-related genes measured by quantitative NanoString, 189 are detectable, 164 significantly differ by genotype, 179 by testosterone status, and 30 by diet type (P < 0.05). In TRAMP, expression of Birc5, Mki67, Aurkb, Ccnb2, Foxm1, and Ccne2 is greater compared with WT and is decreased by castration. In parallel, castration reduces Ki67-positive staining (P < 0.0001) compared with intact and testosterone-repleted TRAMP mice. Expression of genes involved in androgen metabolism/signaling pathways is reduced by lycopene feeding (Srd5a1) and by tomato feeding (Srd5a2, Pxn, and Srebf1). In addition, tomato feeding significantly reduced expression of genes associated with stem cell features, Aldh1a and Ly6a, whereas lycopene feeding significantly reduced expression of neuroendocrine differentiation-related genes, Ngfr and Syp. Collectively, these studies demonstrate a profile of testosterone-regulated genes associated with early prostate carcinogenesis that are potential mechanistic targets of dietary tomato components. Future studies on androgen signaling/metabolism, stem cell features, and neuroendocrine differentiation pathways may elucidate the mechanisms by which dietary tomato and lycopene impact prostate cancer risk.

Mansoor A, Akhter A, Pournazari P, et al.
Protein Expression for Novel Prognostic Markers (Cyclins D1, D2, D3, B1, B2, ITGβ7, FGFR3, PAX5) Correlate With Previously Reported Gene Expression Profile Patterns in Plasma Cell Myeloma.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2015 May-Jun; 23(5):327-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Among plasma cell myeloma (PCM) patients, gene expression profiling (GEP)-based molecular classification has proven to be an independent predictor of survival, after autologous stem cell transplantation. However, GEP has limited routine clinical applicability given its complex methodology, high cost, and limited availability in clinical laboratories. In this study, we have evaluated biomarkers identified from GEP discoveries, utilizing immunohistochemistry (IHC) platform in a cohort of PCM patients. IHC staining for cyclins B1, B2, D1, D2, D3, FGFR3, PAX5, and integrin β7 (ITGβ7) was performed on the bone marrow biopsies of 93 newly diagnosed PCM patients. Expression of FGFR3 was noted in 10 (11%) samples correlating completely with t(4;14)(p16;q32) results (P<0.001); however, the association between FGFR3 and cyclin D2 expression was not significant (P=0.14). ITGβ7 expression was present in 9/93 (9%) patients and all these samples also demonstrated upregulated expression of cyclin D2 (P=0.014). Expression of cyclins D1, D2, and D3 was variable in this cohort. Positive protein expression of cyclin D1 was noted in 30/93 (32%), D2 in 17/93 (18%), and D3 in 5/93 (5%) samples. Coexpression of cyclins D1 and D2 was observed in 13/93 (14%) samples, whereas 28 (30%) samples were negative for all the 3 cyclin D proteins. Cyclin B1 was not expressed in any sample, despite adequate staining in positive controls. Cyclin B2 was expressed in 33/93 (35%) and PAX5 protein was noted in 7/93 (8%) samples. In summary, we have demonstrated that mRNA-based prognostic markers can be detected by routine IHC in decalcified bone marrow samples. This approach may provide a useful tool for the wider adoption of prognostic makers for risk stratification of PCM patients. We anticipate that such an approach might allow patients with high-risk immunoprofiles to be considered for other potential novel therapeutic agents, potentially sparing some patients the toxicity of stem cell transplant.

Shike M, Doane AS, Russo L, et al.
The effects of soy supplementation on gene expression in breast cancer: a randomized placebo-controlled study.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There are conflicting reports on the impact of soy on breast carcinogenesis. This study examines the effects of soy supplementation on breast cancer-related genes and pathways.
METHODS: Women (n = 140) with early-stage breast cancer were randomly assigned to soy protein supplementation (n = 70) or placebo (n = 70) for 7 to 30 days, from diagnosis until surgery. Adherence was determined by plasma isoflavones: genistein and daidzein. Gene expression changes were evaluated by NanoString in pre- and posttreatment tumor tissue. Genome-wide expression analysis was performed on posttreatment tissue. Proliferation (Ki67) and apoptosis (Cas3) were assessed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Plasma isoflavones rose in the soy group (two-sided Wilcoxon rank-sum test, P < .001) and did not change in the placebo group. In paired analysis of pre- and posttreatment samples, 21 genes (out of 202) showed altered expression (two-sided Student's t-test, P < .05). Several genes including FANCC and UGT2A1 revealed different magnitude and direction of expression changes between the two groups (two-sided Student's t-test, P < .05). A high-genistein signature consisting of 126 differentially expressed genes was identified from microarray analysis of tumors. This signature was characterized by overexpression (>2-fold) of cell cycle transcripts, including those that promote cell proliferation, such as FGFR2, E2F5, BUB1, CCNB2, MYBL2, CDK1, and CDC20 (P < .01). Soy intake did not result in statistically significant changes in Ki67 or Cas3.
CONCLUSIONS: Gene expression associated with soy intake and high plasma genistein defines a signature characterized by overexpression of FGFR2 and genes that drive cell cycle and proliferation pathways. These findings raise the concerns that in a subset of women soy could adversely affect gene expression in breast cancer.

Zhang W, Gong W, Ai H, et al.
Gene expression analysis of lung adenocarcinoma and matched adjacent non-tumor lung tissue.
Tumori. 2014 May-Jun; 100(3):338-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to find disease-associated genes and gene functions in lung adenocarcinoma and matched adjacent non-tumor lung tissues with DNA microarray.
METHODS: We downloaded the gene expression profile GSE32863 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database including 58 lung adenocarcinoma and 58 adjacent non-tumor lung tissue samples. Data were preprocessed and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using packages in the R computing language. The selected DEGs were further analyzed with bioinformatics methods. After the coexpression network of DEGs was constructed by STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins), we analyzed gene functions with DAVID (The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) and WebGestalt (WEB-based Gene Set Analysis Toolkit).
RESULTS: A total of 1429 genes were filtered as DEGs, including 873 downregulated genes and 556 upregulated genes, and the DEGs including CDC45, CCNB2, CDC20, MCM2, PTTG1, MCM4 and FEN1 were most significantly related to cell cycle and DNA replication.
CONCLUSION: The discovery of featured genes which were significantly related to cell cycle and DNA replication has potential for use in the clinic for the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma in the future. However, further experiments will be needed to confirm our result.

Oliveras-Ferraros C, Vazquez-Martin A, Cuyàs E, et al.
Acquired resistance to metformin in breast cancer cells triggers transcriptome reprogramming toward a degradome-related metastatic stem-like profile.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(7):1132-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Therapeutic interventions based on metabolic inhibitor-based therapies are expected to be less prone to acquired resistance. However, there has not been any study assessing the possibility that the targeting of the tumor cell metabolism may result in unforeseeable resistance. We recently established a pre-clinical model of estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells that were chronically adapted to grow (> 10 months) in the presence of graded, millimolar concentrations of the anti-diabetic biguanide metformin, an AMPK agonist/mTOR inhibitor that has been evaluated in multiple in vitro and in vivo cancer studies and is now being tested in clinical trials. To assess what impact the phenomenon of resistance might have on the metformin-like "dirty" drugs that are able to simultaneously hit several metabolic pathways, we employed the ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) software to functionally interpret the data from Agilent whole-human genome arrays in the context of biological processes, networks, and pathways. Our findings establish, for the first time, that a "global" targeting of metabolic reprogramming using metformin certainly imposes a great selective pressure for the emergence of new breast cancer cellular states. Intriguingly, acquired resistance to metformin appears to trigger a transcriptome reprogramming toward a metastatic stem-like profile, as many genes encoding the components of the degradome (KLK11, CTSF, FREM1, BACE-2, CASP, TMPRSS4, MMP16, HTRA1), cancer cell migration and invasion factors (TP63, WISP2, GAS3, DKK1, BCAR3, PABPC1, MUC1, SPARCL1, SEMA3B, SEMA6A), stem cell markers (DCLK1, FAK), and key pro-metastatic lipases (MAGL and Cpla2) were included in the signature. Because this convergent activation of pathways underlying tumor microenvironment interactions occurred in low-proliferative cancer cells exhibiting a notable downregulation of the G 2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulators that maintain genome stability (CCNB1, CCNB2, CDC20, CDC25C, AURKA, AURKB, BUB1, CENP-A, CENP-M) and pro-autophagic features (i.e., TRAIL upregulation and BCL-2 downregulation), it appears that the unique mechanism of acquired resistance to metformin has opposing roles in growth and metastatic dissemination. While refractoriness to metformin limits breast cancer cell growth, likely due to aberrant mitotic/cytokinetic machinery and accelerated autophagy, it notably increases the potential of metastatic dissemination by amplifying the number of pro-migratory and stemness inputs via the activation of a significant number of proteases and EMT regulators. Future studies should elucidate whether our findings using supra-physiological concentrations of metformin mechanistically mimic the ultimate processes that could paradoxically occur in a polyploid, senescent-autophagic scenario triggered by the chronic metabolic stresses that occur during cancer development and after treatment with cancer drugs.

Takashima S, Saito H, Takahashi N, et al.
Strong expression of cyclin B2 mRNA correlates with a poor prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4257-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclin family proteins act in association with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) at cell cycle checkpoints to regulate the eukaryotic cell cycle. CyclinB2 contributes to G2/M transition by activating CDK1 kinase, and cyclin B2 inhibition induces cell cycle arrest. CyclinB2 is overexpressed in various human tumors, though the relationship between cyclin B2 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of lung cancer and patient prognosis is not well understood. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the relationship between cyclin B2 mRNA expression and the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We used semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to assess the expression of cyclin B2 mRNA in tumor samples from 79 patients with NSCLC. We then correlated the cyclin B2 mRNA levels with clinicopathological factors. We also used immunohistochemical staining to determine the localization of expressed cyclin B2. The 5-year overall survival rates among patients with adenocarcinoma of lung expressing lower levels of cyclin B2 mRNA were significantly better than the corresponding rates among patients expressing higher levels (p = 0.004). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses revealed that gender ((hazard ratio (HR), 9.81; p = 0.044)), n2 (HR, 146.26; p ≤ 0.001), and cyclin B2 mRNA high (HR, 7.21; p = 0.021) were independent factors affecting the 5-year overall survival rates. However, there was no significance in the 5-year overall survival rates among the patients with squamous cell carcinoma between expressing lower and higher level of cyclin B2 mRNA. Stronger expression of cyclin B2 mRNA in tumor cells is an independent predictor of a poor prognosis in patients with adenocarcinoma of lung.

Bidkhori G, Narimani Z, Hosseini Ashtiani S, et al.
Reconstruction of an integrated genome-scale co-expression network reveals key modules involved in lung adenocarcinoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e67552 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our goal of this study was to reconstruct a "genome-scale co-expression network" and find important modules in lung adenocarcinoma so that we could identify the genes involved in lung adenocarcinoma. We integrated gene mutation, GWAS, CGH, array-CGH and SNP array data in order to identify important genes and loci in genome-scale. Afterwards, on the basis of the identified genes a co-expression network was reconstructed from the co-expression data. The reconstructed network was named "genome-scale co-expression network". As the next step, 23 key modules were disclosed through clustering. In this study a number of genes have been identified for the first time to be implicated in lung adenocarcinoma by analyzing the modules. The genes EGFR, PIK3CA, TAF15, XIAP, VAPB, Appl1, Rab5a, ARF4, CLPTM1L, SP4, ZNF124, LPP, FOXP1, SOX18, MSX2, NFE2L2, SMARCC1, TRA2B, CBX3, PRPF6, ATP6V1C1, MYBBP1A, MACF1, GRM2, TBXA2R, PRKAR2A, PTK2, PGF and MYO10 are among the genes that belong to modules 1 and 22. All these genes, being implicated in at least one of the phenomena, namely cell survival, proliferation and metastasis, have an over-expression pattern similar to that of EGFR. In few modules, the genes such as CCNA2 (Cyclin A2), CCNB2 (Cyclin B2), CDK1, CDK5, CDC27, CDCA5, CDCA8, ASPM, BUB1, KIF15, KIF2C, NEK2, NUSAP1, PRC1, SMC4, SYCE2, TFDP1, CDC42 and ARHGEF9 are present that play a crucial role in cell cycle progression. In addition to the mentioned genes, there are some other genes (i.e. DLGAP5, BIRC5, PSMD2, Src, TTK, SENP2, PSMD2, DOK2, FUS and etc.) in the modules.

Lucotti S, Rainaldi G, Evangelista M, Rizzo M
Fludarabine treatment favors the retention of miR-485-3p by prostate cancer cells: implications for survival.
Mol Cancer. 2013; 12(1):52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found in many body fluids and represent reliable markers of several physio-pathological disorders, including cancer. In some cases, circulating miRNAs have been evaluated as markers of the efficacy of anticancer treatment but it is not yet clear if miRNAs are actively released by tumor cells or derive from dead tumor cells.
RESULTS: We showed that a set of prostate cancer secretory miRNAs (PCS-miRNAs) were spontaneously released in the growth medium by DU-145 prostate cancer cells and that the release was greater after treatment with the cytotoxic drug fludarabine. We also found that the miRNAs were associated with exosomes, implying an active mechanism of miRNA release. It should be noted that in fludarabine treated cells the release of miR-485-3p, as well as its association with exosomes, was reduced suggesting that miR-485-3p was retained by surviving cells. Monitoring the intracellular level of miR-485-3p in these cells, we found that miR-485-3p was stably up regulated for several days after treatment. As a possible mechanism we suggest that fludarabine selected cells that harbor high levels of miR-485-3p, which in turn regulates the transcriptional repressor nuclear factor-Y triggering the transcription of topoisomerase IIα, multidrug resistance gene 1 and cyclin B2 pro-survival genes.
CONCLUSIONS: Cytotoxic treatment of DU-145 cells enhanced the release of PCS-miRNAs with the exception of miR-485-3p which was retained by surviving cells. We speculate that the retention of miR-485-3p was a side effect of fludarabine treatment in that the high intracellular level of miR-485-3p plays a role in the sensitivity to fludarabine.

Colak D, Nofal A, Albakheet A, et al.
Age-specific gene expression signatures for breast tumors and cross-species conserved potential cancer progression markers in young women.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e63204 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer in young women is more aggressive with a poorer prognosis and overall survival compared to older women diagnosed with the disease. Despite recent research, the underlying biology and molecular alterations that drive the aggressive nature of breast tumors associated with breast cancer in young women have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we performed transcriptomic profile and network analyses of breast tumors arising in Middle Eastern women to identify age-specific gene signatures. Moreover, we studied molecular alterations associated with cancer progression in young women using cross-species comparative genomics approach coupled with copy number alterations (CNA) associated with breast cancers from independent studies. We identified 63 genes specific to tumors in young women that showed alterations distinct from two age cohorts of older women. The network analyses revealed potential critical regulatory roles for Myc, PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, and IL-1 in disease characteristics of breast tumors arising in young women. Cross-species comparative genomics analysis of progression from pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) revealed 16 genes with concomitant genomic alterations, CCNB2, UBE2C, TOP2A, CEP55, TPX2, BIRC5, KIAA0101, SHCBP1, UBE2T, PTTG1, NUSAP1, DEPDC1, HELLS, CCNB1, KIF4A, and RRM2, that may be involved in tumorigenesis and in the processes of invasion and progression of disease. Array findings were validated using qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and extensive in silico analyses of independently performed microarray datasets. To our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive genomic analysis of breast cancer in Middle Eastern women in age-specific cohorts and potential markers for cancer progression in young women. Our data demonstrate that cancer appearing in young women contain distinct biological characteristics and deregulated signaling pathways. Moreover, our integrative genomic and cross-species analysis may provide robust biomarkers for the detection of disease progression in young women, and lead to more effective treatment strategies.

De Luca P, Moiola CP, Zalazar F, et al.
BRCA1 and p53 regulate critical prostate cancer pathways.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2013; 16(3):233-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Loss or mutations of the BRCA1 gene are associated with increased risk of breast and ovarian cancers and with prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness. Previously, we identified GADD153 as a target of BRCA1 protein, which increases doxorubicin sensitivity in human p53 -/- PCa cells (PC3). Considering that p53 is a crucial target in cancer therapy, in this work we investigated p53 role in the regulation of transcription of GADD153.
METHODS: We performed reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), western blot and luciferase assays to analyze GADD153 and/or BRCA1 expression in response to ultraviolet or doxorubicin exposure in PC3 p53 stable-transfected cells and LNCaP (p53+/+) cells. BRCA1 protein recruitment to GADD153 promoter was studied by chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR. To assess expression of BRCA1 and/or p53 target genes, we used a panel of stable-transfected PCa cell lines. We finally analyzed these genes in vivo using BRCA1-depleted PCa xenograft models.
RESULTS: We found that GADD153 was highly induced by doxorubicin in PC3 cells; however, this response was totally abolished in LNCaP (p53wt) and in p53-restituted PC3 cells. Furthermore, BRCA1 protein associates to GADD153 promoter after DNA damage in the presence of p53. Additionally, we demonstrated that BRCA1 and/or p53 modulate genes involved in DNA damage and cell cycle regulation (cyclin D1, BLM, BRCA2, DDB2, p21(WAF1/CIP1), H3F3B, GADD153, GADD45A, FEN1, CCNB2), EMT (E-cadherin, β-catenin, vimentin, fibronectin, slug, snail) and Hedgehog pathways (SHH, IHH, DHH, Gli1, PATCH1). Furthermore, xenograft studies demonstrated that BRCA1 knockdown in PC3 cells increased tumor growth and modulated these genes in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Although BRCA1 induces GADD153 in a p53 independent manner, p53 abolished GADD153 induction in response to DNA damage. In addition, several important PCa targets are modulated by BRCA1 and p53. Altogether, these data might be important to understand the therapy response of PCa patients.

Yang J, Zhang W
New molecular insights into osteosarcoma targeted therapy.
Curr Opin Oncol. 2013; 25(4):398-406 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent translational studies in osteosarcoma are discussed with the purpose to shed light on the new molecular therapeutic targets.
RECENT FINDINGS: The genetic aberrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mammalian target of rapamycin, Wnt signaling pathway, the inactivation of p53, Rb, WWOX genes, and amplification of APEX1, c-myc, RECQL4, RPL8, MDM2, VEGFA might be involved in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. The promising therapeutic targets for osteosarcoma patients include: integrin, ezrin, statin, NOTCH/HES1, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), m-calpain, and Src, which are involved in tumor cell invasion and metastasis; aldolase A, fructose-bisphosphate, sulfotransferase family 3A, member 1, BCL2-associated athanogene 3, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), B-cell lymphoma 2-interacting mediator (BIM), polo-like kinase 1, hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit, minibrain-related kinase, Bcl-xl, caspase-3, midkine, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and Beclin1, which are involved in tumor proliferation and apoptosis; met proto-oncogene (hepatocyte growth factor receptor), v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1R, fms-related tyrosine kinase 4, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, beta polypeptide, IGF-I/II, and c-kit, which are involved in tumor growth; endosialin, VEGF, thrombin, and MMPs, which are involved in tumor angiogenesis; transforming growth factor-α/β, parathyroid hormone-like hormone, interleukin-6, interleukin-11, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1, and cathepsin, which are involved in osteoclast function; Myc, HSP90, p-Met, p-Akt, p-STAT3, and cyclin D1, which are transcriptional factors; p-GP, hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 10, HMGB1, BIM, inorganic phosphate, Bcl-2, PARP, mdm2, p21, Bax, and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, which are involved in drug sensitivity. Furthermore, microRNAs such as miR-215 are also therapeutic targets.
SUMMARY: These translational studies in osteosarcoma have identified new molecular targets for osteosarcoma.

Lin S, Wang MJ, Tseng KY
Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein induces p19(Ink4d) expression and inhibits the proliferation of H1299 cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e58227 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The expression of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) is up-regulated in many types of cancer. Here, we studied the role of PTB in the growth of non small cell lung cancer cells. Data showed that PTB overexpression inhibited the growth of H1299 cells at least by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses showed that PTB overexpression in H1299 cells specifically induced the expression of p19(Ink4d), an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4. Repression of p19(Ink4d) expression partially rescued PTB-caused proliferation inhibition. PTB overexpression also inhibited the growth and induced the expression of p19(Ink4d) mRNA in A549 cells. However, Western blot analyses failed to detect the presence of p19(Ink4d) protein in A549 cells. To address how PTB induced p19(Ink4d) in H1299 cells, we showed that PTB might up-regulate the activity of p19(Ink4d) gene (CDKN2D) promoter. Besides, PTB lacking the RNA recognition motif 3 (RRM3) was less effective in growth inhibition and p19(Ink4d) induction, suggesting that RNA-binding activity of PTB plays an important role in p19(Ink4d) induction. However, immunoprecipitation of ribonuclearprotein complexes plus quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that PTB might not bind p19(Ink4d) mRNA, suggesting that PTB overexpression might trigger the other RNA-binding protein(s) to bind p19(Ink4d) mRNA. Subsequently, RNA electrophoretic mobility-shift assays revealed a 300-base segment (designated as B2) within the 3'UTR of p19(Ink4d) mRNA, with which the cytoplasmic lysates of PTB-overexpressing cells formed more prominent complexes than did control cell lysates. Insertion of B2 into a reporter construct increased the expression of the chimeric luciferase transcripts in transfected PTB-overexpressing cells but not in control cells; conversely, overexpression of B2-containing reporter construct in PTB-overexpressing cells abolished the induction of p19(Ink4d) mRNA. In sum, we have shown that PTB plays as a negative regulator in H1299 cell proliferation at least by inducing p19(Ink4d) expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

Dementyeva E, Kryukov F, Kubiczkova L, et al.
Clinical implication of centrosome amplification and expression of centrosomal functional genes in multiple myeloma.
J Transl Med. 2013; 11:77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a low proliferative tumor of postgerminal center plasma cell (PC). Centrosome amplification (CA) is supposed to be one of the mechanisms leading to chromosomal instability. Also, CA is associated with deregulation of cell cycle, mitosis, DNA repair and proliferation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic significance and possible role of CA in pathogenesis and analysis of mitotic genes as mitotic disruption markers.
DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 173 patients were evaluated for this study. CD138+ cells were separated by MACS. Immunofluorescent labeling of centrin was used for evaluation of centrosome amplification in PCs. Interphase FISH with cytoplasmic immunoglobulin light chain staining (cIg FISH) and qRT-PCR were performed on PCs.
RESULTS: Based on the immunofluorescent staining results, all patients were divided into two groups: CA positive (38.2%) and CA negative (61.8%). Among the newly diagnosed patients, worse overall survival was indicated in the CA negative group (44/74) in comparison to the CA positive group (30/74) (P = 0.019). Gene expression was significantly down-regulated in the CA positive group in comparison to CA negative in the following genes: AURKB, PLK4, TUBG1 (P < 0.05). Gene expression was significantly down-regulated in newly diagnosed in comparison to relapsed patients in the following genes: AURKA, AURKB, CCNB1, CCNB2, CETN2, HMMR, PLK4, PCNT, and TACC3 (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate better prognosis for CA positive newly diagnosed patients. Considering revealed clinical and gene expression heterogeneity between CA negative and CA positive patients, there is a possibility to characterize centrosome amplification as a notable event in multiple myeloma pathogenesis.

Espinosa AM, Alfaro A, Roman-Basaure E, et al.
Mitosis is a source of potential markers for screening and survival and therapeutic targets in cervical cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e55975 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The effect of preventive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on the reduction of the cervical cancer (CC) burden will not be known for 30 years. Therefore, it's still necessary to improve the procedures for CC screening and treatment. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize cellular targets that could be considered potential markers for screening or therapeutic targets. A pyramidal strategy was used. Initially the expression of 8,638 genes was compared between 43 HPV16-positive CCs and 12 healthy cervical epitheliums using microarrays. A total of 997 genes were deregulated, and 21 genes that showed the greatest deregulation were validated using qRT-PCR. The 6 most upregulated genes (CCNB2, CDC20, PRC1, SYCP2, NUSAP1, CDKN3) belong to the mitosis pathway. They were further explored in 29 low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN1) and 21 high-grade CIN (CIN2/3) to investigate whether they could differentiate CC and CIN2/3 (CIN2+) from CIN1 and controls. CCNB2, PRC1, and SYCP2 were mostly associated with CC and CDC20, NUSAP1, and CDKN3 were also associated with CIN2/3. The sensitivity and specificity of CDKN3 and NUSAP1 to detect CIN2+ was approximately 90%. The proteins encoded by all 6 genes were shown upregulated in CC by immunohistochemistry. The association of these markers with survival was investigated in 42 CC patients followed up for at least 42 months. Only CDKN3 was associated with poor survival and it was independent from clinical stage (HR = 5.9, 95%CI = 1.4-23.8, p = 0.01). CDKN3 and NUSAP1 may be potential targets for the development of screening methods. Nevertheless, further studies with larger samples are needed to define the optimal sensitivity and specificity. Inhibition of mitosis is a well-known strategy to combat cancers. Therefore, CDKN3 may be not only a screening and survival marker but a potential therapeutic target in CC. However, whether it's indispensable for tumor growth remains to be demonstrated.

Chang HY, Shih MH, Huang HC, et al.
Middle infrared radiation induces G2/M cell cycle arrest in A549 lung cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e54117 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There were studies investigating the effects of broadband infrared radiation (IR) on cancer cell, while the influences of middle-infrared radiation (MIR) are still unknown. In this study, a MIR emitter with emission wavelength band in the 3-5 µm region was developed to irradiate A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. It was found that MIR exposure inhibited cell proliferation and induced morphological changes by altering the cellular distribution of cytoskeletal components. Using quantitative PCR, we found that MIR promoted the expression levels of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related and Rad3-related), TP53 (tumor protein p53), p21 (CDKN1A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A) and GADD45 (growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible), but decreased the expression levels of cyclin B coding genes, CCNB1 and CCNB2, as well as CDK1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 1). The reduction of protein expression levels of CDC25C, cyclin B1 and the phosphorylation of CDK1 at Thr-161 altogether suggest G(2)/M arrest occurred in A549 cells by MIR. DNA repair foci formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) marker γ-H2AX and sensor 53BP1 was induced by MIR treatment, it implies the MIR induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest resulted from DSB. This study illustrates a potential role for the use of MIR in lung cancer therapy by initiating DSB and blocking cell cycle progression.

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