Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (8)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: CCNB2 (cancer-related)
Gao Z, Man X, Li Z, et al.Expression profiles analysis identifies the values of carcinogenesis and the prognostic prediction of three genes in adrenocortical carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(4):2440-2452 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease associated with a poor prognosis. Furthermore, the underlying molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis is poorly understood, and prognostic prediction of ACC has low accuracy. In the present study, a bioinformatics approach was used to investigate the molecular mechanisms and prognosis of ACC. Samples of adrenal tumors were collected from patients undergoing adrenalectomy at the Department of Urology, the First Hospital of China Medical University. The analyzed gene datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Following this, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were included in Gene Ontology enrichment, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, protein‑protein interaction network and survival analyses. MTT colorimetric assays, colony formation assays and 5‑ethynyl‑20‑deoxyuridine incorporation assays were also conducted to evaluate ACC cell proliferation. The identified DEGs included 20 downregulated genes and 51 upregulated genes, which were highly associated with the cell cycle, organelle fission, chromosome segregation, cell division and spindle stability. The top 14 hub genes were subsequently confirmed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction in ACC and adrenocortical adenoma samples. It was identified that the nuclear division cycle 80, cyclin B2 and topoisomerase 2‑α may serve important roles in adrenocortical tumor development. Furthermore, these three genes predicted overall survival and recurrence‑free survival in patients with ACC from the TCGA cohort. The findings identified three novel genes that have important roles in carcinogenesis and in the prognostic prediction of ACC.
The aim of the present study was to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between primary tumor tissue and adjacent non‑tumor tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples in order to investigate the mechanisms of HCC. The microarray data of the datasets GSE76427, GSE84005 and GSE57957 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. DEGs were identified using the limma package in the R programming language. Following the intersection of the DEGs screened from the three datasets, 218 genes were selected for further study. A protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes database. The construction and analysis of modules were performed using Cytoscape and the module with the highest score was selected for further analysis. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis were conducted for genes involved in the PPI network and the selected subnetwork. The network of the enriched pathways and their associated genes was constructed using Cytoscape. For the genes in the global PPI network, metabolism‑associated pathways were significantly enriched; whereas, for the genes in the subnetwork, 'cell cycle', 'oocyte meiosis' and 'DNA replication' pathways were significantly enriched. To demonstrate the portability and repeatability of the prognostic value of the weighted genes, a validation cohort was obtained from datasets of The Cancer Genome Atlas and Kaplan‑Meier survival analysis was conducted. Evidence is presented that the expression levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family member, cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily C member 8, alcohol dehydrogenase 4 (class II), pi polypeptide, alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (class I), β polypeptide and cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily C member 9 were associated with the overall survival of patients with HCC and that the expression levels of pituitary tumor‑transforming 1, cell division cycle 20, DNA topoisomerase II α and cyclin B2 were negatively associated with the overall survival of patients with HCC. In conclusion, 9 weighted genes, involved in the development and progression of HCC, were identified using bioinformatics and survival analyses.
Glioma is the most common neoplasm of the central nervous system (CNS); the progression and outcomes of which are affected by a complicated network of genes and pathways. We chose a gene expression profile of GSE66354 from GEO database to search core biomarkers during the occurrence and development of glioma. A total of 149 samples, involving 136 glioma and 13 normal brain tissues, were enrolled in this article. 1980 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 697 upregulated genes and 1283 downregulated genes between glioma patients and healthy individuals were selected using GeoDiver and GEO2R tool. Then, gene ontology (GO) analysis as well as Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were carried out using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Moreover, Cytoscape with Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) and Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) plug-in was employed to imagine protein-protein interaction (PPI) of these DEGs. The upregulated genes were enriched in cell cycle, ECM-receptor interaction, and p53 signaling pathway, while the downregulated genes were enriched in retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, glutamatergic synapse, morphine addiction, GABAergic synapse, and calcium signaling pathway. Subsequently, 4 typical modules were discovered by the PPI network utilizing MCODE software. Besides, 15 hub genes were chosen according to the degree of connectivity, including TP53, CDK1, CCNB1, and CCNB2, the Kaplan-Meier analysis of which was further identified. In conclusion, this bioinformatics analysis indicated that DEGs and core genes, such as TP53, might influence the development of glioma, especially in tumor proliferation, which were expected to be promising biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment of glioma.
The present study aimed to identify the therapeutic role of the forkhead box M1 (FOXM1)‑associated pathway in triple‑negative breast cancer (TNBC). Using a Cancer Landscapes‑based analysis, a gene regulatory network model was constructed. The present results demonstrated that FOXM1 occupies a key position in gene networks and is a critical regulatory gene in breast cancer. Using breast carcinoma gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, it was identified that FOXM1 expression was increased in the basal‑like breast cancer subtype compared with other breast cancer subtypes. RNA‑sequencing analysis of MDA‑MB‑231 cells treated with 4 and 10 µl/ml Thiostrepton identified 662 and 5,888 significantly differentially expressed genes, respectively. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses demonstrated that FOXM1 was highly associated with multiple biological processes and was markedly associated with metabolic pathways in TNBC. The use of Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins provided a critical assessment and integration of protein‑protein interactions, and demonstrated the multiple important functions of FOXM1 in TNBC. Real‑time cell analysis, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining were used to assess the anti‑tumor activity of Thiostrepton in TNBC cells in vitro. The present results identified that suppression of FOXM1 using Thiostrepton inhibited MDA‑MB‑231 cell proliferation and the expression of cell cycle‑associated genes, including cyclin A2, cyclin B2, checkpoint kinase 1, centrosomal protein 55 and polo like kinase 1. Immunofluorescence staining analysis demonstrated that vimentin, filamentous actin and zinc finger E‑box‑binding homeobox 1 were all decreased following treatment with Thiostrepton. Furthermore, a BALB/C nude mouse subcutaneous xenograft model was used to verify the function of FOXM1 in vivo. The present results demonstrated that FOXM1 inhibition significantly suppressed MDA‑MB‑231 cell tumorigenesis in vivo. Overall, the present results suggested that FOXM1 is a key gene that serves important roles in multiple biological processes in TNBC and that it may serve as a novel therapeutic target in TNBC.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Up to date, HCC pathogenesis has not been fully understood. The aim of the present study was to identify crucial genes and pathways associated with HCC by bioinformatics methods. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between 14 HCC tissues and corresponding non-cancerous tissues were identified using limma package. Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs were performed by clusterProfiler package. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs was constructed and visualized by STRING database and Cytoscape software, respectively. The crucial genes in PPI network were identified using a Cytoscape plugin, CytoNCA. Furthermore, the effect of the expression level of the crucial genes on HCC patient survival was analyzed by an interactive web-portal, UALCAN. A total of 870 DEGs including 237 up-regulated and 633 down-regulated genes were identified in HCC tissues. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that DEGs were mainly enriched in complement and coagulation cascades pathway, chemical carcinogenesis pathway, retinol metabolism pathway, fatty acid degradation pathway, and valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation pathway. PPI network analysis showed that
Exportin-T (XPOT) belongs to the RAN-GTPase exportin family that mediates export of tRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Up-regulation of XPOT indicates poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. However, the correlation between XPOT and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Here, we found that high expression of XPOT in HCC indicated worse prognosis via bioinformatics analysis. Consistently, immunohistochemical staining of 95 pairs of tumors and adjacent normal liver tissues (ANLT) also showed up-regulation of XPOT. Small interfering (si) RNA transfection was used to down-regulate XPOT in HepG2 and 7721 cell lines. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assays were performed to analyze cell proliferation. Cell migration and invasion were measured by scratch wound healing assays and migration assays. Subcutaneous xenograft models were using to explore the role of XPOT in tumor formation in vivo. Down-regulation of XPOT significantly inhibited tumor proliferation and invasion in vitro and vivo. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) results indicated that XPOT may affect tumor progression through cell cycle and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Furthermore, knockdown of XPOT caused a block in G0/G1 phase as evidenced by down-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), CyclinA1 (CCNA1), CyclinB1 (CCNB1), CyclinB2 (CCNB2), and CyclinE2 (CCNE2) in HCC cells. In conclusion, our findings indicate that XPOT could serve as a novel biomarker for prognoses and a potential therapeutic target for patients with HCC.
To identify the key genes and pathways in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from hepatitis B virus (HBV)‑positive liver cirrhosis, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between HCC and liver cirrhosis tissue samples from the GSE17548 gene expression profile dataset were screened. A total of 1,845 DEGs were identified, including 1,803 upregulated and 42 downregulated genes. Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network analyses were performed. It was identified that the 'cell cycle' and 'progesterone‑mediated oocyte maturation' KEGG pathways were significantly enriched in the DEGs. In addition, the high expression of the hub genes from the PPI network (including cyclin dependent kinase 1, cyclin B1, cyclin B2, mitotic arrest deficient 2 like 1, BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase and cyclin A2; P=0.00116, 0.00021, 0.04889, 0.00222, 0.00015 and 0.00647, respectively) was associated with a decrease in overall survival for patients with HCC as identified using survival and expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The identified hub genes and pathways may help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of HCC progression from HBV‑positive liver cirrhosis. Additionally, they may be useful as therapeutic targets or serve as novel biomarkers for HCC prognosis prediction.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for a significant proportion of liver cancer, which has become the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. To investigate the potential mechanisms of invasion and progression of HCC, bioinformatics analysis and validation by qRT-PCR were performed. We found 237 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including EGR1, FOS, and FOSB, which were three cancer-related transcription factors. Subsequently, we constructed TF-gene network and miRNA-TF-mRNA network based on data obtained from mRNA and miRNA expression profiles for analysis of HCC. We found that 42 key genes from the TF-gene network including EGR1, FOS, and FOSB were most enriched in the p53 signaling pathway. The qRT-PCR data confirmed that mRNA levels of EGR1, FOS, and FOSB all were decreased in HCC tissues. In addition, we confirmed that the mRNA levels of CCNB1, CCNB2, and CHEK1, three key markers of the p53 signaling pathway, were all increased in HCC tissues by bioinformatics analysis and qRT-PCR validation. Therefore, we speculated that miR-181a-5p, which was upregulated in HCC tissues, could regulate FOS and EGR1 to promote the invasion and progression of HCC by p53 signaling pathway. Overall, the study provides support for the possible mechanisms of progression in HCC.
BACKGROUND: This study compared tumor-related signaling pathways with known compounds to determine potential agents for lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) treatment.
METHODS: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes signaling pathway analyses were performed based on LUAD differentially expressed genes from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project and genotype-tissue expression controls. These results were compared to various known compounds using the Connectivity Mapping dataset. The clinical significance of the hub genes identified by overlapping pathway enrichment analysis was further investigated using data mining from multiple sources. A drug-pathway network for LUAD was constructed, and molecular docking was carried out.
RESULTS: After the integration of 57 LUAD-related pathways and 35 pathways affected by small molecules, five overlapping pathways were revealed. Among these five pathways, the p53 signaling pathway was the most significant, with CCNB1, CCNB2, CDK1, CDKN2A, and CHEK1 being identified as hub genes. The p53 signaling pathway is implicated as a risk factor for LUAD tumorigenesis and survival. A total of 88 molecules significantly inhibiting the five LUAD-related oncogenic pathways were involved in the LUAD drug-pathway network. Daunorubicin, mycophenolic acid, and pyrvinium could potentially target the hub gene CHEK1 directly.
CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the critical pathways that should be targeted in the search for potential LUAD treatments, most importantly, the p53 signaling pathway. Some compounds, such as ciclopirox and AG-028671, may have potential roles for LUAD treatment but require further experimental verification.
Wen DY, Lin P, Pang YY, et al.Expression of the Long Intergenic Non-Protein Coding RNA 665 (LINC00665) Gene and the Cell Cycle in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, the Gene Expression Omnibus, and Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:2786-2808 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have a role in physiological and pathological processes, including cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 665 (LINC00665) gene and the cell cycle in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using database analysis including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). MATERIAL AND METHODS Expression levels of LINC00665 were compared between human tissue samples of HCC and adjacent normal liver, clinicopathological correlations were made using TCGA and the GEO, and qPCR was performed to validate the findings. Other public databases were searched for other genes associated with LINC00665 expression, including The Atlas of Noncoding RNAs in Cancer (TANRIC), the Multi Experiment Matrix (MEM), Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. RESULTS Overexpression of LINC00665 in patients with HCC was significantly associated with gender, tumor grade, stage, and tumor cell type. Overexpression of LINC00665 in patients with HCC was significantly associated with overall survival (OS) (HR=1.47795%; CI: 1.046-2.086). Bioinformatics analysis identified 469 related genes and further analysis supported a hypothesis that LINC00665 regulates pathways in the cell cycle to facilitate the development and progression of HCC through ten identified core genes: CDK1, BUB1B, BUB1, PLK1, CCNB2, CCNB1, CDC20, ESPL1, MAD2L1, and CCNA2. CONCLUSIONS Overexpression of the lncRNA, LINC00665 may be involved in the regulation of cell cycle pathways in HCC through ten identified hub genes.
Kwiecińska A, Porwit A, Souchelnytskyi N, et al.Proteomic Profiling of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas.
Pathobiology. 2018; 85(4):211-219 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify differences in proteome profiles of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of nongerminal center (non-GC) versus GC type in the search for new markers and drug targets.
METHODS: Six DLBCL, with 3 repeats for each, were used for the initial study by proteomics: 3 non-GC and 3 GC DLBCL cases. For immunohistochemistry, tissue microarrays were made from 31 DLBCL samples: 16 non-GC de novo lymphomas and 15 GC cases (11 transformed from follicular lymphomas and 4 de novo GC lymphomas). Proteome profiling was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.
RESULTS: Ninety-one proteins were found differentially expressed in non-GC compared to GC type. The Cytoscape tool was used for systemic analysis of proteomics data, revealing 19 subnetworks representing functions affected in non-GC versus GC types of DLBCL.
CONCLUSION: A validation study of 3 selected proteins (BiP/Grp78, Hsp90, and cyclin B2) showed the enhanced expression in non-GC DLBCL, supporting the proteomics data.
Piao J, Sun J, Yang Y, et al.Target gene screening and evaluation of prognostic values in non-small cell lung cancers by bioinformatics analysis.
Gene. 2018; 647:306-311 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the major leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. This study aims to explore molecular mechanism of NSCLC.
METHODS: Microarray dataset was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and analyzed by using GEO2R. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis were performed based on Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Then, STRING, Cytoscape and MCODE were applied to construct the Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and screen hub genes. Following, overall survival (OS) analysis of hub genes was performed by using the Kaplan-Meier plotter online tool. Moreover, miRecords was also applied to predict the targets of the differentially expressed microRNAs (DEMs).
RESULTS: A total of 228 DEGs were identified, and they were mainly enriched in the terms of cell adhesion molecules, leukocyte transendothelial migration and ECM-receptor interaction. A PPI network was constructed, and 16 hub genes were identified, including TEK, ANGPT1, MMP9, VWF, CDH5, EDN1, ESAM, CCNE1, CDC45, PRC1, CCNB2, AURKA, MELK, CDC20, TOP2A and PTTG1. Among the genes, expressions of 14 hub genes were associated with prognosis of NSCLC patients. Additionally, a total of 11 DEMs were also identified.
CONCLUSION: Our results provide some potential underlying biomarkers for NSCLC. Further studies are required to elucidate the pathogenesis of NSCLC.
Zhou H, Lv Q, Guo ZTranscriptomic signature predicts the distant relapse in patients with ER+ breast cancer treated with tamoxifen for five years.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 17(2):3152-3157 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Tamoxifen is the most commonly used drug to treat estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. However, many patients with ER+ breast cancer have experienced resistance and other adverse side effects following treatment with tamoxifen. Furthermore, clinical and pathological parameters have thus far failed to predict the efficiency of tamoxifen administration. Therefore, gene signature based models for the prediction of survival time of such patients are urgently needed. In the current study, gene expression levels and follow‑up information of samples from GSE17705 and GSE22219 databases were used to construct a risk score model based on Cox multivariate regression. The expression levels of 10 genes were included in the model: CCNB2, CCNA2, FOXD1, WSB2, RBPMS, CTDSP1, BIN3, SLBP, EPRS, FTO. The samples in the high‑risk group had a relative early distant relapse time period (median survival time of 3.75 years) compared with the patients in the low risk group (median survival time of 6.5 years, P<0.01). For further validation, a further two independent datasets (GSE26971, GSE58644) were assessed. The overall survival time period of patients with high‑risk scores in these datasets was significantly longer than those with low‑risk scores (P<0.01). Furthermore, the associations between clinical parameters and risk score were investigated, and it was revealed that the risk score was significantly correlated with tumor age, tumor stage and grade. In addition, a 5‑year survival nomogram was plotted in order to facilitate the utilization of risk score along with other clinical data. In summary, using the transcriptomic profile, a multi‑gene expression based risk score was developed and was revealed as being able to successfully predict the outcome of patients with ER+ breast cancer treated with tamoxifen for 5 years.
Horning AM, Wang Y, Lin CK, et al.Single-Cell RNA-seq Reveals a Subpopulation of Prostate Cancer Cells with Enhanced Cell-Cycle-Related Transcription and Attenuated Androgen Response.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(4):853-864 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increasing evidence suggests the presence of minor cell subpopulations in prostate cancer that are androgen independent and poised for selection as dominant clones after androgen deprivation therapy. In this study, we investigated this phenomenon by stratifying cell subpopulations based on transcriptome profiling of 144 single LNCaP prostate cancer cells treated or untreated with androgen after cell-cycle synchronization. Model-based clustering of 397 differentially expressed genes identified eight potential subpopulations of LNCaP cells, revealing a previously unappreciable level of cellular heterogeneity to androgen stimulation. One subpopulation displayed stem-like features with a slower cell doubling rate, increased sphere formation capability, and resistance to G
Prostate cancer (CaP) is a serious and common genital tumor. Generally, men with metastatic CaP can easily develop castration‑resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, the pathogenesis and tumorigenic pathways of CRPC remain to be elucidated. The present study performed a comprehensive analysis on the gene expression profile of CRPC in order to determine the pathogenesis and tumorigenic of CRPC. The GSE33316 microarray, which consisted of 5 non‑castrated samples and 5 castrated samples, was downloaded from the gene expression omnibus database. Subsequently, 201 upregulated and 161 downregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the limma package in R and those genes were classified and annotated by plugin Mcode of Cytoscape. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery and KEGG Orthology Based Annotation System 2.0 online tools to investigate the function of different gene modules. The BiNGO tool was used to visualize the level of enriched GO terms. Protein‑protein interaction network was constructed using STRING and analyzed with Cytoscape. In conclusion, the present study determined that aldo‑keto reductase 3, cyclin B2, regulator of G protein signaling 2, nuclear factor of activated T‑cells and protein kinase C a may have important roles in the development of CRPC.
Le Gac G, Angenard G, Clément B, et al.Local Anesthetics Inhibit the Growth of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.
Anesth Analg. 2017; 125(5):1600-1609 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive cancer with limited therapeutic options. Retrospective studies have shown that the administration of local anesthetics (LAs) during cancer surgery could reduce cancer recurrence. Besides, experimental studies reported that LAs could inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of LAs on human HCC cells.
METHODS: The effects of 2 LAs (lidocaine and ropivacaine) (10 to 10 M) were studied after an incubation of 48 hours on 2 HCC cell lines, namely HuH7 and HepaRG. Cell viability, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis and senescence tests were performed together with unsupervised genome-wide expression profiling and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for relevant genes.
RESULTS: We showed that LAs decreased viability and proliferation of HuH7 cells (from 92% [P < .001] at 5 × 10 M to 40% [P = .02] at 10 M with ropivacaine and from 87% [P < .001] to 37% [P = .02] with lidocaine) and HepaRG progenitor cells (from 58% at 5 × 10 M [P < .001] to 29% at 10 M [P = .04] with lidocaine and 59% [P < .001] with ropivacaine 5 × 10 M) in concentration-dependent manner. LAs have no effect on well-differentiated HepaRG. Ropivacaine decreased the mRNA level of key cell cycle regulators, namely cyclin A2, cyclin B1, cyclin B2, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1, and the expression of the nuclear marker of cell proliferation MKI67. Lidocaine had no specific effect on cell cycle but increased by 10× the mRNA level of adenomatous polyposis coli (P < .01), which acts as an antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Both LAs increased apoptosis in Huh7 and HepaRG progenitor cells (P < .01).
CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate that LAs induced profound modifications in gene expression profiles of tumor cells, including modulations in the expression of cell cycle-related genes that result in a cytostatic effect and induction of apoptosis.
Chen Q, Wang L, Jiang M, et al.E2F1 interactive with BRCA1 pathway induces HCC two different small molecule metabolism or cell cycle regulation via mitochondrion or CD4+T to cytosol.
J Cell Physiol. 2018; 233(2):1213-1221 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) are related to metabolism and cell cycle regulation. However, the corresponding mechanism is not clear in HCC. High BRCA1 direct pathway was constructed with 11 molecules from E2F1 feedback-interactive network in HCC by GRNInfer based on 39 Pearson mutual positive corelation CC ≥0.25 molecules with E2F1. Integration of GRNInfer with GO, KEGG, BioCarta, GNF_U133A, UNIGENE_EST, Disease, GenMAPP databases by DAVID and MAS 3.0, E2F1 feedback-interactive BRCA1 indirect mitochondrion to cytosol pathway was identified as upstream LAPTM4B activation, feedback UNG, downstream BCAT1-HIST1H2AD-TK1 reflecting protein, and DNA binding with enrichment of small molecule metabolism; The corresponding BRCA1 indirect membrane to cytosol pathway as upstream CCNB2-NUSAP1 activation, feedback TTK-HIST1H2BJ-CENPF, downstream MCM4-TK1 reflecting ATP, and microtubule binding with enrichment of CD4+T-related cell cycle regulation in HCC. Therefore, we propose that E2F1 interactive with BRCA1 pathway induces HCC two different small molecule metabolism or cell cycle regulation via mitochondrion or CD4+T to cytosol. Knowledge analysis demonstrates our E2F1 feedback-interactive BRCA1 pathway wide disease distribution and reflects a novel common one of tumor and cancer.
Suh YJ, Choe JY, Park HJMalignancy in Pheochromocytoma or Paraganglioma: Integrative Analysis of 176 Cases in TCGA.
Endocr Pathol. 2017; 28(2):159-164 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Methods of diagnosing malignant pheochromocytoma (PCC) or paraganglioma (PGL) are needed. However, there are no reliable histopathologic criteria to distinguish malignant PCC/PGLs. The recent genomic analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) provides in-depth information enabling more accurate diagnosis of disease entities. Therefore, we investigated genomic expression differences and mutational differences of malignant PCC/PGLs with TCGA. As of December 2014, TCGA had acquired multigenomic analysis of 176 PCC/PGL samples. Clinical information, mutation status, and 20,531 gene messenger RNA (mRNA) expression dataset of normalized RNA-sequencing mRNA read counts were downloaded from TCGA, and integrated into a table. Of the 176 PCC/PGL samples in the dataset, 14 had metastasis and 162 exhibited no metastasis. mRNA expression and mutations were compared in these two groups. There were 76 males in the dataset of 176 TCGA samples. Mean age was 47.6 ± 15.2 years (19-83 years). There was no significant gender or race difference between metastatic and non-metastatic groups. mRNA expression of malignant PCC/PGLs was upregulated in five pathways of cell cycle (BUB1, BUB1B, CCNB2, CDC2, ESPL1), calcium signaling (CCNB2, CDC2, PRKCB1), regulation of actin cytoskeleton (DIAPH3, FGF18, IQGAP3), gap junction (CDC2, PRKCB1), and phosphatidylinositol (PRKCB1, TTK). Disease-free survival rates were significantly correlated with the presence or absence of mutations, such as RP11-798G7.5, HERC2, SETD2, TGDS, TRHDE, FKBP9, and BMS1. TCGA showed differences in mRNA expression and mutations between metastatic and non-metastatic PCC/PGLs. The improved recognition of genetic causes can help to achieve proper diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment of PCC/PGL.
Tremblay PG, Sirard MATranscriptomic analysis of gene cascades involved in protein kinase A and C signaling in the KGN line of human ovarian granulosa tumor cells†.
Biol Reprod. 2017; 96(4):855-865 [PubMed
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The developmental competence of an oocyte is its capacity to resume maturation, undergo successful fertilization, and reach the blastocyst stage. This competence is acquired through interaction with somatic cells of the follicle. Cumulus and granulosa cells support oocyte development, while the oocyte influences follicular cell growth and differentiation. Studies suggest that follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone play an essential role in oocyte competence acquisition through signaling initiated by protein kinases A and C (PKA and PKC) in granulosa cells. Using a microarray and RT-qPCR, the transcriptome of human granulosa-like tumor cells (KGN) treated for 24 h with forskolin (FSK) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was analyzed to determine the effects of PKA and PKC stimulation on gene expression. Protein-kinase-driven signaling appeared to involve five major upstream regulators, namely epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Gene associations with seven major ovarian functions were identified: Prostaglandin- endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), interleukin 8 (IL8), and interleukin 6 (IL6) with inflammation; Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1), and cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily A member 1 (CYP19A1) with steroidogenesis; Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC), Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) with angiogenesis; Amphiregulin (AREG), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and sprouty RTK signaling antagonist 2 (SPRY2) with differentiation, BCL2 associated X (BAX), BCL2 like 12 (BCL2L12), and caspase 1(CASP1) with apoptosis, Cyclin D1 (CCND1), cyclin B1 (CCNB1), and cyclin B2 (CCNB2) with division; and Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1), Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), and TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1) with ovulation. Overall, these results indicate that signaling via both PKA and PKC potentiates gene regulation of functions such as inflammation and apoptosis, while functions such as differentiation, ovulation and angiogenesis are partial to one kinase or the other. These results improve understanding of the pathways underlying the most important changes that occur in the follicle prior to ovulation.
Youns M, Abdel Halim Hegazy WThe Natural Flavonoid Fisetin Inhibits Cellular Proliferation of Hepatic, Colorectal, and Pancreatic Cancer Cells through Modulation of Multiple Signaling Pathways.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(1):e0169335 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Digestive cancers are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Fisetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been previously shown anti-proliferative, anti-cancer, neuroprotective, and antioxidant activities. In our study, the anti-tumor activities in addition to regulatory effects of fisetin on some cancer cell lines were investigated. Data presented here showed that fisetin induces growth inhibition, and apoptosis in hepatic (HepG-2), colorectal (Caco-2) and pancreatic (Suit-2) cancer cell lines. Gene expression results showed that 1307 genes were significantly regulated in their expression in hepatic and pancreatic cell lines. 350 genes were commonly up-regulated and 353 genes were commonly down-regulated. Additionally, 604 genes were oppositely expressed in both tumor cells. CDK5 signaling, NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response, glucocorticoid signaling, and ERK/MAPK signaling were among most prominent signaling pathways modulating the growth inhibitory effects of fisetin on hepatic and pancreatic cancer cells. The present analysis showed, for the first time, that the anti-tumor effect of fisetin was mediated mainly through modulation of multiple signaling pathways and via activation of CDKN1A, SEMA3E, GADD45B and GADD45A and down-regulation of TOP2A, KIF20A, CCNB2 and CCNB1 genes.
Li Y, Ji S, Fu LY, et al.Knockdown of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 3 Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion in Human Gastric Cancer Cells.
Oncol Res. 2017; 25(5):721-731 [PubMed
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Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) has been reported to promote tumorigenesis. Since it is unclear whether CDKN3 participates in the development of human gastric cancer, this study assessed the association between CDKN3 expression and cell biological function and demonstrated the clinical significance and prognosis of CDKN3 in human gastric cancer. In this study, we found that CDKN3 showed a high expression in 35 paired human gastric cancer tissues and was correlated with poor patient survival, AJCC clinical staging, and recurrence. Silencing of CDKN3 in human gastric cancer cells can significantly reduce proliferation, migration, invasion, and adhesion abilities. Also, silencing of CDKN3 in human gastric cancer cells can induce G0-G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Detection of cell cycle marker expression showed that CDKN3 knockdown promotes cell cycle arrest by decreasing the expression of CDK2, CDC25A, CCNB1, and CCNB2 in human gastric cancer cells. The results of this study will help elucidate the oncogene function of CDKN3 in human gastric cancer.
DiBardino DM, Saqi A, Elvin JA, et al.Yield and Clinical Utility of Next-Generation Sequencing in Selected Patients With Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Clin Lung Cancer. 2016; 17(6):517-522.e3 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing is available for assessing genomic alterations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although the performance characteristics and clinical utility has not been well characterized. This technique can be used to sequence hundreds of known cancer-associated genes. Our aim was to investigate the diagnostic success and clinically relevant results of extensive sequencing in NSCLC patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case series of 49 NSCLC patients was used to determine the success of extended next-generation sequencing, record genomic alterations, and evaluate clinical utility. Data were collected in a retrospective review. Sequencing was performed using a hybridization capture of 3320 exons from 236 cancer-related genes and 47 introns of 19 genes applied to ≥50 ng of DNA and sequenced to high, uniform coverage of 622 times.
RESULTS: Sequencing was successful in 29 of 32 (91%) surgical/excisional specimens, and 12 of 17 (71%) nonsurgical specimens including an endoscopic forceps biopsy, core needle biopsies, fine-needle aspirates, and effusion cytologies. All 5 transthoracic core needle biopsies failed. A total of 179 genomic alterations (average 4.37 per tumor) were found. A total of 63 were clinically relevant (average 1.54 per tumor). The most frequently mutated genes were tumor protein p53, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 1, rapamycin-insensitive companion of mammalian target of rapamycin, epithelial growth factor receptor, SWI/SNF Related, Matrix Associated, Actin Dependent Regulator Of Chromatin, Subfamily A, Member 4, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit α, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog, Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2, Serine/Threonine Kinase 11, and NK2 Homeobox 1. Sequencing results led to a change in management in 7 of 49 cases (14.3%).
CONCLUSION: Extended next-generation sequencing was performed successfully in 41 (83.7%) cases of NSCLC using a range of pathology specimens. Testing had the potential to affect treatment decisions in selected patients.
Introduction. Lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) is the most frequent type of lung cancer and has a high metastatic rate at an early stage. This study is aimed at identifying LAC-associated genes. Materials and Methods. GSE62950 downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus included a DNA methylation dataset and an mRNA expression profiles dataset, both of which included 28 LAC tissue samples and 28 adjacent normal tissue samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened by Limma package in R, and their functions were predicted by enrichment analysis using TargetMine online tool. Then, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using STRING and Cytoscape. Finally, LAC-associated methylation sites were identified by CpGassoc package in R and mapped to the DEGs to obtain LAC-associated DEGs. Results. Total 913 DEGs were identified in LAC tissues. In the PPI networks, MAD2L1, AURKB, CCNB2, CDC20, and WNT3A had higher degrees, and the first four genes might be involved in LAC through interaction. Total 8856 LAC-associated methylation sites were identified and mapped to the DEGs. And there were 29 LAC-associated methylation sites located in 27 DEGs (e.g., SH3GL2, BAI3, CDH13, JAM2, MT1A, LHX6, and IGFBP3). Conclusions. These key genes might play a role in pathogenesis of LAC.
The RNA helicase DHX33 has been shown to be a critical regulator of cell proliferation and growth. However, the underlying mechanisms behind DHX33 function remain incompletely understood. We present original evidence in multiple cell lines that DHX33 transcriptionally controls the expression of genes involved in the cell cycle, notably cyclin, E2F1, cell division cycle (CDC), and minichromosome maintenance (MCM) genes. DHX33 physically associates with the promoters of these genes and controls the loading of active RNA polymerase II onto these promoters. DHX33 deficiency abrogates cell cycle progression and DNA replication and leads to cell apoptosis. In zebrafish, CRISPR-mediated knockout of DHX33 results in downregulation of cyclin A2, cyclin B2, cyclin D1, cyclin E2, cdc6, cdc20, E2F1, and MCM complexes in DHX33 knockout embryos. Additionally, we found the overexpression of DHX33 in a subset of non-small-cell lung cancers and in Ras-mutated human lung cancer cell lines. Forced reduction of DHX33 in these cancer cells abolished tumor formation in vivo Our study demonstrates for the first time that DHX33 acts as a direct transcriptional regulator to promote cell cycle progression and plays an important role in driving cell proliferation during both embryo development and tumorigenesis.
Voulgaridou GP, Kiziridou M, Mantso T, et al.Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 promotes multi-modality resistance and alters gene expression profile in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2016; 77(Pt A):120-128 [PubMed
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Aldehyde dehydrogenases participate in a variety of cellular homeostatic mechanisms like metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, whereas recently, they have been implicated in normal and cancer cell stemness. We explored roles for ALDH3A1 in conferring resistance to chemotherapeutics/radiation/oxidative stress and whether ectopic overexpression of ALDH3A1 could lead to alterations of gene expression profile associated with cancer stem cell-like phenotype. MCF-7 cells were stably transfected either with an empty vector (mock) or human aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 cDNA. The expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 in MCF-7 cells was associated with altered cell proliferation rate and enhanced cell resistance against various chemotherapeutic drugs (4-hydroxyperoxycyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, etoposide, and 5-fluorouracil). Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 expression also led to increased tolerance of MCF-7 cells to gamma radiation and hydrogen peroxide-induced stress. Furthermore, aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1-expressing MCF-7 cells exhibited gene up-regulation of cyclins A, B1, B2, and down-regulation of cyclin D1 as well as transcription factors p21, CXR4, Notch1, SOX2, SOX4, OCT4, and JAG1. When compared to mock cells, no changes were observed in mRNA levels of ABCA2 and ABCB1 protein pumps with only a minor decrease of the ABCG2 pump in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1-expressing cells. Also, the adhesion molecules EpCAM and CD49F were also found to be up-regulated in aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1expressing cells. Taken together, ALDH3A1 confers a multi-modality resistance phenotype in MCF-7 cells associated with slower growth rate, increased clonogenic capacity, and altered gene expression profile, underlining its significance in cell homeostasis.
Zhang Y, Ran Y, Xiong Y, et al.Effects of TMEM9 gene on cell progression in hepatocellular carcinoma by RNA interference.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(1):299-305 [PubMed
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor that has become a global health issue. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of transmembrane protein 9 (TMEM9) in cell progression, such as cell growth, cell cycle, cell metastasis of hepatoma cells, and to discuss the TMEM9 gene‑encoding protein as a potential therapy target of hepatoma. RT-qPCR was performed to examine TMEM9 expression in tumor tissues and adjacent tissues of patients with liver cancer. siRNAs were used to interfere TMEM9 in HepG2 and 7721 cells. A CCK-8 assay was performed to evaluate cell growth at 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed using flow cytometry. Transwell assays were used to determine cell invasion, migration and adhesion. The results showed that TMEM9 was expressed abnormally in liver cancers. TMEM9 expression increased significantly in the 34 examined patients. TMEM9 knockdown inhibited proliferation in the HepG2 and 7721 cells. The flow cytometric analysis revealed that TMEM9 knockdown by RNA interference resulted in G1 arrest and induced apoptosis. Cell invasion, migration and adhesion ability were also decreased. Western blotting indicated that expression of the cell cycle‑related proteins CDK1, EIF3H, RPL10L, S100A10, CCNB1 and CCNB2 was significantly decreased. In conclusion, TMEM9 plays an important role in the cell growth of hepatoma cells.
Islet-1 (ISL1) belongs to the LIM homeodomain transcription factor family, which is specifically expressed in certain tissue types only. Previously, we reported that ISL1 is aberrantly overexpressed in gastric cancer (GC). However, its role in GC is not clear. Here, we report that ISL1 is aberrantly upregulated not only in human gastric carcinoma tissues but also in some GC cell lines. Upregulated ISL1 expression enhanced xenografted gastric carcinoma development, while ISL1 knockdown inhibited GC growth in nude mice. ISL1 overexpression promoted GC cell proliferation, colony formation, and cell growth in soft agar, and facilitated cell cycle transition in GC cells, demonstrated an increase in the proportion of cells in the G2/M and S phases and a decrease in the proportion of cells in the G1 phase. Furthermore, we provide evidence that ISL1 is a novel regulator of the cyclin B1 (CCNB1), cyclin B2 (CCNB2) and c-myc (c-MYC) genes. ISL1 activated the expression of these genes in GC cells by binding to the conserved binding sites on their promoters or enhancers. The expression levels of the genes were decreased in response to ISL1 knockdown. Therefore, ISL1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target in GC.
In this study, we analyzed the expression profile of four genes (CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNB2, and CDK1) in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) cell lines and tumor samples. With the application of microarray platform, we have shown the overexpression of these genes in all analyzed LSCC samples in comparison to non-cancer controls from head and neck region. We have selected CDK1 for further analysis, due to its leading role in cell cycle regulation. It is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family of proven oncogenic properties. The results obtained for CDK1 were further confirmed with the application of reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) technique, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The observed upregulation of CDK1 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma has encouraged us to analyze for genetic mechanisms that can be responsible this phenomenon. Therefore, with the application of array-CGH, sequencing analysis and two methods for epigenetic regulation analysis (DNA methylation and miRNA expression), we tried to identify such potential mechanisms. Our attempts to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for observed changes failed as we did not observe significant alterations neither in the DNA sequence nor in the gene copy number that could underline CDK1 upregulation. Similarly, the pyrosequencing and miRNA expression analyses did not reveal any differences in methylation level and miRNA expression, respectively; thus, these mechanisms probably do not contribute to elevation of CDK1 expression in LSCC. However, our results suggest that alteration of CDK1 expression on both mRNA and protein level probably appears on the very early step of carcinogenesis.
Lei CY, Wang W, Zhu YT, et al.The decrease of cyclin B2 expression inhibits invasion and metastasis of bladder cancer.
Urol Oncol. 2016; 34(5):237.e1-10 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: It has been shown that cyclin B2 is commonly overexpressed in many malignant tumors. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of cyclin B2 in bladder cancer.
METHOD AND MATERIAL: Fixed tissues for immunohistochemistry and fresh tissues for western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay were randomly selected from Nanfang hospital. Normal bladder urothelial cell and bladder cancer cell lines was stored in our laboratory, the bladder cancer cells were transfected to develop bladder cancer cell clones expressing decreased cyclin B2 levels, the clones were used for cell growth and metastasis experiments in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis both showed that the cyclin B2 protein expression was higher in bladder urothelial carcinoma than in normal bladder mucosa, especially in invasive cancer. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the cyclin B2 messenger RNA expression exhibited the same trend. Results of cell lines experiments also showed higher cyclin B2 expression in cancer cells. In vitro tests the decrease of cyclin B2 expression that had little effect on cell growth and cell cycling according to the MTT assay and the Edu assay, whereas in the Boyden chamber transwell assay, the cyclin B2 low-expressing clones significantly inhibits the cells׳ invasion and metastatic abilities. This result was consistent with the scratch-wound assay result showing that the target clone needed more time for healing the wound. The in vivo experiment in nude mice produced similar results, the lung and liver target cell metastasis nodules were smaller and less than those of the negative control by the hepatic subcapsular injection assay, and the mice of the target clone group has longer survival time in no intervention observed test.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the cyclin B2 was overexpressed in bladder cancer, and the down-regulation of cyclin B2 expression in bladder cancer greatly inhibits the cell׳s invasion and metastatic abilities, and it prolonged the survival time of nude mice in vivo.
Al-Rohil RN, Tarasen AJ, Carlson JA, et al.Evaluation of 122 advanced-stage cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas by comprehensive genomic profiling opens the door for new routes to targeted therapies.
Cancer. 2016; 122(2):249-57 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The authors hypothesized that comprehensive genomic profiling of advanced-stage cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) could identify genomic-derived drug targets of therapy for patients with conventional therapy-resistant disease.
METHODS: Comprehensive genomic profiling of 315 cancer genes was applied to 50 ng of DNA from 122 cSCC cases for the evaluation of all classes of genomic alterations (GAs). Clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGAs) were defined as those identifying anticancer drugs on the market or in registered clinical trials.
RESULTS: There were 21 women (17%) and 101 men (83%) with a median age of 64.9 years (range, 21-87 years). Eleven cSCC cases (9%) were histologic AJCC grade 1, 69 (57%) were grade 2, and 42 (34%) were grade 3. The primary cSCC was used for sequencing in 77 cases (63%). Metastatic lesions were sequenced in 37% of cases. There were 1120 total GAs identified (average of 9.2 GAs per tumor), with 100% of cases harboring at least 1 alteration. Of the 122 cSCCs, 107 (88%) harbored at least 1 CRGA (2.5 CRGAs per cSCC) includingNOTCH1 (43%); patched 1 (PTCH1) (11%); BRCA2 (10%); HRAS (8%); ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) (7%); erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ERBB4) (7%); neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) (7%); erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) (6%); phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) (6%); cyclin D1 (CCND1) (6%); epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (5%); and F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (FBXW7) (5%).
CONCLUSIONS: In the current study, approximately 88% of patients with cSCC were found to harbor clinically relevant GAs that have the potential to guide the treatment of patients with advanced-stage tumors with targeted therapeutic agents. Cancer 2016;122:249-257. © 2015 American Cancer Society.