Gene Summary

Gene:CHD5; chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5
Aliases: CHD-5
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein family. Members of this family are characterized by a chromodomain, a helicase ATP-binding domain and an additional functional domain. This gene encodes a neuron-specific protein that may function in chromatin remodeling and gene transcription. This gene is a potential tumor suppressor gene that may play a role in the development of neuroblastoma. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 5
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Mutation
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Gene Silencing
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Liver Cancer
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Apoptosis
  • Gene Dosage
  • MicroRNAs
  • Down-Regulation
  • Transfection
  • RT-PCR
  • Risk Factors
  • DNA Helicases
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Chromosome 1
  • Histones
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Western Blotting
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Messenger RNA
  • CpG Islands
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • DNA Methylation
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • HEK293 Cells
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Up-Regulation
  • Protein Binding
  • Epigenetics
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Cell Movement
  • Exons
  • Cell Proliferation
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CHD5 (cancer-related)

Liu Z, Su D, Qi X, Ma J
MiR‑500a‑5p promotes glioblastoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(3):2689-2696 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma is one of the most common malignant primary tumors and develops in brain. The molecular mechanism that regulates glioblastoma occurrence still remains unknown. MicroRNA (miR)‑500a‑5p has been reported to be involved in hepatocellular carcinoma and breast cancer. Whether miR‑500a‑5p regulates glioblastoma progression requires further investigation. In the present study, miR‑500a‑5p was highly expressed in malignant glioblastoma tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR‑500a‑5p promoted glioblastoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. In addition, knockdown of miR‑500a‑5p accelerated cell apoptosis. Furthermore, miR‑500a‑5p inhibition significantly impaired tumor growth in vivo. The present study further explored the downstream mechanism. The luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR‑500a‑5p directly binds the 3'‑untranslated region of chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) mRNA. MiR‑500a‑5p markedly inhibited CHD5 expression in glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, CHD5 was downregulated in glioblastoma tissues, and the expression levels of miR‑500a‑5p and CHD5 were inversely correlated. In addition, knockdown of CHD5 restored the inhibition of cell proliferation and migration triggered by miR‑500a‑5p silence. Finally, it was demonstrated that miR‑500a‑5p can serve as a novel biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of glioblastoma patients. Taken together, the results of the present study indicated that miR‑500a‑5p may have promoted glioblastoma development and progression by targeting CHD5.

Xiao Q, Chen L, Luo H, et al.
A rare CHD5 haplotype and its interactions with environmental factors predicting hepatocellular carcinoma risk.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):658 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CHD5 is a conventional tumour-suppressing gene in many tumours. The aim of this study was to determine whether CHD5 variants contribute to the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Gene variants were identified using next-generation sequencing targeted on referenced mutations followed by TaqMan genotyping in two case-control studies.
RESULTS: We discovered a rare variant (haplotype AG) in CHD5 (rs12564469-rs9434711) that was markedly associated with the risk of HCC in a Chinese population. A logistical regression model and permutation test confirmed the association. Indeed, the association quality increased in a gene dose-dependent manner as the number of samples increased. In the stratified analysis, this haplotype risk effect was statistically significant in a subgroup of alcohol drinkers. The false-positive report probability and multifactor dimensionality reduction further supported the finding.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the rare CHD5 gene haplotype and alcohol intake contribute to the risk of HCC. Our findings can be valuable to researchers of cancer precision medicine looking to improve diagnosis and treatment of HCC.

Xu G, Zhu H, Zhang M, Xu J
Histone deacetylase 3 is associated with gastric cancer cell growth via the miR-454-mediated targeting of CHD5.
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 41(1):155-163 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in China and worlwide; hence, the identification of GC-related genes is necessary for the development of effective treatment strategies. In this study, histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) was identified as the most significantly upregulated cancer-related gene in GC tissues by microarray. In accordance with this, HDAC3 expression was found to be upregulated in GC cell lines/tissues. Further experiments indicated that the knockdown of HDAC3 decreased GC cell viability, reduced the colony formation number and decreased tumor weight. To explore the underlying mechanisms, the overexpression of HDAC3 was induced by transfection with an overexpression plasmid, followed by miRNA microarray, and we identified miR-454 as the most markedly upregulated miRNA. Accordingly, miR-454 expression was upregulated in GC cell lines/tissues and a high level of miR-454 indicated a high HDAC3 expression in GC tissues, and miR-454 knockdown reduced cell viability. In addition, a high level of miR-454 was significantly associated with an advanced clinical stage, lymph node metastases and a poor prognosis of patients with GC. Furthermore, CHD5 was identified as a direct target of miR-454. CHD5 was downregulated in GC tissues/cell lines and the expresssion of CHD5 inversely correlated with the level of miR-454 in GC tissues. Taken together, these observations indicate that HDAC3 is associated with GC cell growth via the miR-454-mediated targeting of CHD5.

Baykara O, Tansarikaya M, Bulut P, et al.
CHD5 is a potential tumor suppressor in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Gene. 2017; 618:65-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is one of the deadliest types of cancers and genetic and epigenetic alterations play major roles in its development. Chromodomain (CHD) protein family acts in chromatin organization, regulation of transcription and also genomic stability and cancer prevention. Although CHD5, a member of this family was shown to contribute to major cellular events and functions as a tumor suppressor gene in various types of cancer, it is not clear whether CHD5 plays a role in lung carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of CHD5 in progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Expression levels of CHD5 gene in 59 tumor and corresponding non-cancerous lung tissue samples were analyzed by qRT-PCR and the methylation status of the promoter region was investigated by methylation specific PCR (MS-PCR). The Akt phosphorylation levels were investigated by Western Blot (WB). CHD5 was down-regulated in 17 (39.5%) and up-regulated in 24 (55.8%) of tumor specimens. Even though the promoter of CHD5 was hypermethylated in 8 patients, it was not found associated with CHD5 gene expression (p=0.08). Akt phosphorylation was increased in 14 (53.8%) and decreased in 12 (46.2%) of the samples but no significant association was found between p-Akt phosphorylation and CHD5 expression (p=0.67). We suggest that CHD5 may act as a tumor suppressor gene in NSCLC.

Sun X, Xiao D, Xu T, Yuan Y
miRNA-24-3p promotes cell proliferation and regulates chemosensitivity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by targeting CHD5.
Future Oncol. 2016; 12(23):2701-2712 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the role of miR-24-3p in tumorigenesis and chemosensitivity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
METHODS: Growth rate and colony formation assays were performed after transfection with miR-24-3p mimic and inhibitor in cultured SCC-15 cells, followed by a CellTiter-Glo
RESULTS & CONCLUSION: Inhibition of miR-24-3p reduced cell proliferation, colony formation efficiency and reversed chemoresistance in HNSCC cells. CHD5 is the direct target of miR-24-3p which is required for the regulatory role of miR-24-3p in chemoresistance. miR-24-3p may represent a new therapeutic target for the improvement of clinical outcome in HNSCC.

Du Z, Li L, Huang X, et al.
The epigenetic modifier CHD5 functions as a novel tumor suppressor for renal cell carcinoma and is predominantly inactivated by promoter CpG methylation.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(16):21618-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common urological cancer with steadily increasing incidence. A series of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) have been identified methylated in RCC as potential epigenetic biomarkers. We identified a 1p36.3 TSG candidate CHD5 as a methylated target in RCC through epigenome study. As the role of CHD5 in RCC pathogenesis remains elusive, we further studied its expression and molecular functions in RCC cells. We found that CHD5 was broadly expressed in most normal genitourinary tissues including kidney, but frequently silenced or downregulated by promoter CpG methylation in 78% of RCC cell lines and 44% (24/55) of primary tumors. In addition, CHD5 mutations appear to be rare in RCC tumors through genome database mining. In methylated/silenced RCC cell lines, CHD5 expression could be restored with azacytidine demethylation treatment. Ectopic expression of CHD5 in RCC cells significantly inhibited their clonogenicity, migration and invasion. Moreover, we found that CHD5, as a chromatin remodeling factor, suppressed the expression of multiple targets including oncogenes (MYC, MDM2, STAT3, CCND1, YAP1), epigenetic master genes (Bmi-1, EZH2, JMJD2C), as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem cell markers (SNAI1, FN1, OCT4). Further chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the binding of CHD5 to target gene promoters. Thus, we demonstrate that CHD5 functions as a novel TSG for RCC, but is predominantly inactivated by promoter methylation in primary tumors.

Naraparaju K, Kolla V, Zhuang T, et al.
Role of microRNAs in epigenetic silencing of the CHD5 tumor suppressor gene in neuroblastomas.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(13):15977-85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma (NB), a tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. We and others have identified distinct patterns of genomic change that underlie diverse clinical behaviors, from spontaneous regression to relentless progression. We first identified CHD5 as a tumor suppressor gene that is frequently deleted in NBs. Mutation of the remaining CHD5 allele is rare in these tumors, yet expression is very low or absent, so expression is likely regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. In order to understand the potential role of miRNA regulation of CHD5 protein expression in NBs, we examined all miRNAs that are predicted to target the 3'-UTR using miRanda, TargetScan and other algorithms. We identified 18 miRNAs that were predicted by 2 or more programs: miR-204, -211, -216b, -17, -19ab, -20ab, -93, -106ab, -130ab, -301ab, -454, -519d, -3666. We then performed transient transfections in two NB cell lines, NLF (MYCN amplified) and SY5Y (MYCN non-amplified), with the reporter plasmid and miRNA mimic, as well as appropriate controls. We found seven miRNAs that significantly downregulated CHD5 expression in NB: miR-211, 17, -93, -20b, -106b, -204, and -3666. Interestingly, MYCN upregulates several of the candidates we identified: miR-17, -93, -106b & -20b. This suggests that miRNAs driven by MYCN and other genes represent a potential epigenetic mechanism to regulate CHD5 expression.

Liu JB, Zhou QB, Xu JZ, et al.
Influence of colorectal cancer tumor suppressor gene CHD5 methylation on its clinical and pathological characteristics.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2015 Oct-Dec; 29(4):889-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, abnormal tumor suppressor gene (TSG) methylation has become a hotspot in the research on colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to explore the influence of CHD5 methylation of CRC TSG on its clinical and pathological characteristics. A total of 40 operation samples as well as corresponding tissue specimens were collected from CRC patients treated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January to December in 2014. CHD5 gene methylation in tissue specimens was detected with methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP); moreover, messenger ribose nucleic acid (mRNA) expression of CHD5 in each tissue was tested using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blot was applied to detect the expression of CHD5 protein in those tissues and to analyze the correlation between mRNA and protein of cancer tissue CHD5 as well as the relationship between CHD5 methylation and protein expression. Results revealed that the expression rate of CHD5 methylation in 40 normal mucosal tissues, para-carcinoma tissues, adenoma tissues and CRC tissues was 12.5% (5/40), 22.5% (9/40), 47.5% (19/40) and 72.5% (33/40), respectively. The mRNA expression of CHD5 in the above tissues was 0.225±0.276, 0.169±0.231, 0.147±0.159 and 0.013±0.011 and the protein expression of CHD5 was 0.438±0.205, 0.398±0.180, 0.156±0.1 and 0.024±0.311, respectively. Methylation rate of CHD5 was 87% (20/23) in 23 cases of CHD5 protein loss expression and 52.9% (9/17) in 17 cases of CHD5 protein expression. Results of chi-squared test indicated that there was a significant difference in methylation rate (P less than 0.05), that is, the methylation rate of negatively expressed CHD5 protein was obviously higher than positively expressed protein. Thus, it can be concluded that the CHD5 methylation rate rises gradually in the evolution of CRC, which is related to the occurrence and development of CRC. Furthermore, CHD5 mRNA is positively correlated with protein expression and CHD5 gene methylation is associated with protein loss expression. Therefore, TSG CHD5 methylation of rectal cancer has a great effect in influencing its clinical and pathological features.

Xie CR, Li Z, Sun HG, et al.
Mutual regulation between CHD5 and EZH2 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(38):40940-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) acts as a tumor suppressor in many cancers. In the present study, we demonstrated that reduced levels of CHD5 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues were significantly associated with metastasis and poor prognosis. Gain-of-function assays revealed that CHD5 suppressed motility and invasion of HCC cells. Subsequent investigations showed that CHD5 was epigenetically silenced by polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)-mediated the trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in HCC cells. Furthermore, overexpression of CHD5 repressed enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and activated PRC2 target genes, such as p16 and p21. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays also showed that CHD5 and EZH2 bind to each other's promoters and inhibit transcription. These findings uncovered, for the first time, a mutual suppression regulation between CHD5 and EZH2, which may provide new insights into their potential therapeutic significance for HCC.

Yu L, Gong X, Sun L, et al.
miR-454 functions as an oncogene by inhibiting CHD5 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(36):39225-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous studies showed that miR-454 acted as an oncogene or tumor suppressor in cancer. However, its function in HCC remains unknown. In this study, we found that miR-454 expression was upregulated in HCC cell lines and tissues. Knockdown of miR-454 inhibited HCC cell proliferation and invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereas overexpression of miR-454 promoted HCC cell proliferation and invasion and EMT. Furthermore, we identified the CHD5 as a direct target of miR-454. CHD5 was downregulated in HCC tissues and cell lines and the expression level of CHD5 was inversely correlated with the expression of miR-454 in HCC tissues. In addition, knockdown of miR-454 inhibited the growth of HepG2-engrafted tumors in vivo. Taken together, these results indicated that miR-454 functioned as an oncogene in HCC.

Higashi M, Kolla V, Iyer R, et al.
Retinoic acid-induced CHD5 upregulation and neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:150 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chromodomain-helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) is an important tumor suppressor gene deleted from 1p36.31 in neuroblastomas (NBs). High CHD5 expression is associated with a favorable prognosis, but deletion or low expression is frequent in high-risk tumors. We explored the role of CHD5 expression in the neuronal differentiation of NB cell lines.
METHODS: NB cell lines SH-SY5Y (SY5Y), NGP, SK-N-DZ, IMR5, LAN5, SK-N-FI, NB69 and SH-EP were treated with 1-10 μM 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA) for 3-12 days. qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses were performed to measure mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. Morphological differences were examined by both phase contrast and immunofluorescence studies.
RESULTS: Treatment of SY5Y cells with 13cRA caused upregulation of CHD5 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner (1, 5, or 10 μM for 7 or 12 days) and also induced neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, both NGP and SK-N-DZ cells showed CHD5 upregulation and neuronal differentiation after 13cRA treatment. In contrast, 13cRA treatment of IMR5, LAN5, or SK-N-FI induced neither CHD5 expression nor neuronal differentiation. NB69 cells showed two different morphologies (neuronal and substrate adherent) after 12 days treatment with 10 μM of 13cRA. CHD5 expression was high in the neuronal cells, but low/absent in the flat, substrate adherent cells. Finally, NGF treatment caused upregulation of CHD5 expression and neuronal differentiation in SY5Y cells transfected to express TrkA (SY5Y-TrkA) but not in TrkA-null parental SY5Y cells, and both changes were blocked by a pan-TRK inhibitor.
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with 13cRA induces neuronal differentiation only in NB cells that upregulate CHD5. In addition, NGF induced CHD5 upregulation and neuronal differentiation only in TrkA expressing cells. Together, these results suggest that CHD5 is downstream of TrkA, and CHD5 expression may be crucial for neuronal differentiation induced by either 13cRA or TrkA/NGF signaling.

Schramm A, Köster J, Assenov Y, et al.
Mutational dynamics between primary and relapse neuroblastomas.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(8):872-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is a malignancy of the developing sympathetic nervous system that is often lethal when relapse occurs. We here used whole-exome sequencing, mRNA expression profiling, array CGH and DNA methylation analysis to characterize 16 paired samples at diagnosis and relapse from individuals with neuroblastoma. The mutational burden significantly increased in relapsing tumors, accompanied by altered mutational signatures and reduced subclonal heterogeneity. Global allele frequencies at relapse indicated clonal mutation selection during disease progression. Promoter methylation patterns were consistent over disease course and were patient specific. Recurrent alterations at relapse included mutations in the putative CHD5 neuroblastoma tumor suppressor, chromosome 9p losses, DOCK8 mutations, inactivating mutations in PTPN14 and a relapse-specific activity pattern for the PTPN14 target YAP. Recurrent new mutations in HRAS, KRAS and genes mediating cell-cell interaction in 13 of 16 relapse tumors indicate disturbances in signaling pathways mediating mesenchymal transition. Our data shed light on genetic alteration frequency, identity and evolution in neuroblastoma.

Kolla V, Naraparaju K, Zhuang T, et al.
The tumour suppressor CHD5 forms a NuRD-type chromatin remodelling complex.
Biochem J. 2015; 468(2):345-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Eukaryotic gene expression is developmentally regulated, in part by chromatin remodelling, and its dysregulation has been linked to cancer. CHD5 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 5) is a tumour suppressor gene (TSG) that maps to a region of consistent deletion on 1p36.31 in neuroblastomas (NBs) and other tumour types. CHD5 encodes a protein with chromatin remodelling, helicase and DNA-binding motifs that is preferentially expressed in neural and testicular tissues. CHD5 is highly homologous to CHD3 and CHD4, which are the core subunits of nucleosome remodelling and deacetylation (NuRD) complexes. To determine if CHD5 forms a similar complex, we performed studies on nuclear extracts from NBLS, SY5Y (both with endogenous CHD5 expression), NLF (CHD5 null) and NLF cells stably transfected with CHD5 cDNA (wild-type and V5-histidine-tagged). Immunoprecipitation (IP) was performed with either CHD5 antibody or antibody to V5/histidine-tagged protein. We identified NuRD components both by GST-FOG1 (Friend Of GATA1) pull-down and by IP. We also performed MS/MS analysis to confirm the presence of CHD5 or other protein components of the NuRD complex, as well as to identify other novel proteins. CHD5 was clearly associated with all canonical NuRD components, including metastasis-associated protein (MTA)1/2, GATA zinc finger domain containing 2A (GATAD2A), histone deacetylase (HDAC)1/2, retinoblastoma-binding protein (RBBP)4/7 and methyl DNA-binding domain protein (MBD)2/3, as determined by Western blotting and MS/MS. Our data suggest CHD5 forms a NuRD complex similar to CHD4. However, CHD5-NuRD may also have unique protein associations that confer functional specificity and may contribute to normal development and to tumour suppression in NB and other cancers.

Fang QL, Yin YR, Xie CR, et al.
Mechanistic and biological significance of DNA methyltransferase 1 upregulated by growth factors in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 46(2):782-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dysregulation of growth factor signaling plays a pivotal role in controlling the malignancy phenotype and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the precise oncogenic mechanisms underlying transcription regulation of certain tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) by growth factors are poorly understood. In the present study, we report a novel insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) pathway that mediates de novo DNA methylation and TSG (such as DLC1 and CHD5) silencing by upregulation of the DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) via an AKT/β-transducin repeat-containing protein (βTrCP)-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in HCC. Analysis of DNA methylation in CpG islands of target genes revealed high co-localization of DNMT1 and DNMT3B on the promoters of TSGs associated with enhanced CpG hypermethylation. Our results point to a novel epigenetic mechanism for growth factor-mediated repression of TSG transcription that involves DNA methylation.

Quan J, Adelmant G, Marto JA, et al.
The chromatin remodeling factor CHD5 is a transcriptional repressor of WEE1.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e108066 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Loss of the chromatin remodeling ATPase CHD5 has been linked to the progression of neuroblastoma tumors, yet the underlying mechanisms behind the tumor suppressor role of CHD5 are unknown. In this study, we purified the human CHD5 complex and found that CHD5 is a component of the full NuRD transcriptional repressor complex, which also contains methyl-CpG binding proteins and histone deacetylases. The CHD5/NuRD complex appears mutually exclusive with the related CHD4/NuRD complex as overexpression of CHD5 results in loss of the CHD4 protein in cells. Following a search for genes that are regulated by CHD5 in neuroblastoma cells, we found that CHD5 binds to and represses the G2/M checkpoint gene WEE1. Reintroduction of CHD5 into neuroblastoma cells represses WEE1 expression, demonstrating that CHD5 can function as a repressor in cells. A catalytically inactive mutant version of CHD5 is able to associate with a NuRD cofactor but fails to repress transcription. Our study shows that CHD5 is a NuRD-associated transcriptional repressor and identifies WEE1 as one of the CHD5-regulated genes that may link CHD5 to tumor suppression.

Zhao R, Wang N, Huang H, et al.
CHD5 a tumour suppressor is epigenetically silenced in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Liver Int. 2014; 34(6):e151-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) has recently been identified as a potent tumour suppressor by acting as a master regulator of a tumour-suppressive network. Its inactivation resulted from aberrant methylation in the promoter occurs in several types of human malignancy and is associated with malignant tumour behaviour. In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), CHD5 gene expression, methylation status and tumour-suppressive function have not been elucidated.
AIMS: In this study, we focused on the epigenetic modification and tumour-suppressive mechanism of CHD5 gene in HCC.
METHODS: CHD5 expression in nine HCC cell lines and 30 pairs of HCC specimens and adjacent non-cancerous tissues were analysed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting. Methylation-specific sequencing and methylation-specific PCR were performed to examine DNA methylation status of the CHD5 promoter in HCC cell lines and samples. The effect of CHD5 restoration on proliferation, colony formation, senescence, apoptosis and tumourigenicity were examined.
RESULTS: CHD5 expression was sinificantly down-regulated in HCC cell lines and tissues examined, and the -841 to -470 region of CHD5 promoter was hypermethylated in these samples. Treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine resulted in a striking regional demethylation of the -841 to -470 region of CHD5 promoter and an increase in CHD5 expression. The restoration of CHD5 expression inhibited tumour cell proliferation, colony formation and tumourigenicity and caused cellular senescence.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that CHD5 is a potential tumour suppressor gene epigenetically silenced in HCC.

Zhao R, Meng F, Wang N, et al.
Silencing of CHD5 gene by promoter methylation in leukemia.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e85172 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) was previously proposed to function as a potent tumor suppressor by acting as a master regulator of a tumor-suppressive network. CHD5 is down-regulated in several cancers, including leukemia and is responsible for tumor generation and progression. However, the mechanism of CHD5 down-regulation in leukemia is largely unknown. In this study, quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses revealed that CHD5 was down-regulated in human leukemia cell lines and samples. Luciferase reporter assays showed that most of the baseline regulatory activity was localized from 500 to 200 bp upstream of the transcription start site. Bisulfite DNA sequencing of the identified regulatory element revealed that the CHD5 promoter was hypermethylated in human leukemia cells and samples. Thus, CHD5 expression was inversely correlated with promoter DNA methylation in these samples. Treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) activates CHD5 expression in human leukemia cell lines. In vitro luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that methylation of the CHD5 promoter repressed its promoter activity. Furthermore, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay combined with qualitative PCR identified activating protein 2 (AP2) as a potential transcription factor involved in CHD5 expression and indicated that treatment with DAC increases the recruitment of AP2 to the CHD5 promoter. In vitro transcription-factor activity studies showed that AP2 over-expression was able to activate CHD5 promoter activity. Our findings indicate that repression of CHD5 gene expression in human leukemia is mediated in part by DNA methylation of its promoter.

Kolla V, Zhuang T, Higashi M, et al.
Role of CHD5 in human cancers: 10 years later.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(3):652-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CHD5 was first identified because of its location on 1p36 in a region of frequent deletion in neuroblastomas. CHD5 (chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding-5) is the fifth member of a family of chromatin remodeling proteins, and it probably functions by forming a nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation (NuRD) complex that regulates transcription of particular genes. CHD5 is preferentially expressed in the nervous system and testis. On the basis of its position, pattern of expression, and function in neuroblastoma cells and xenografts, CHD5 was identified as a tumor suppressor gene (TSG). Evidence soon emerged that CHD5 also functioned as a TSG in gliomas and a variety of other tumor types, including breast, colon, lung, ovary, and prostate cancers. Although one copy of CHD5 is deleted frequently, inactivating mutations of the remaining allele are rare. However, DNA methylation of the CHD5 promoter is found frequently, and this epigenetic mechanism leads to biallelic inactivation. Furthermore, low CHD5 expression is strongly associated with unfavorable clinical and biologic features as well as outcome in neuroblastomas and many other tumor types. Thus, based on its likely involvement as a TSG in neuroblastomas, gliomas, and many common adult tumors, CHD5 may play an important developmental role in many other tissues besides the nervous system and testis.

Hall WA, Petrova AV, Colbert LE, et al.
Low CHD5 expression activates the DNA damage response and predicts poor outcome in patients undergoing adjuvant therapy for resected pancreatic cancer.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(47):5450-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The DNA damage response (DDR) promotes genome integrity and serves as a cancer barrier in precancerous lesions but paradoxically may promote cancer survival. Genes that activate the DDR when dysregulated could function as useful biomarkers for outcome in cancer patients. Using a siRNA screen in human pancreatic cancer cells, we identified the CHD5 tumor suppressor as a gene, which, when silenced, activates the DDR. We evaluated the relationship of CHD5 expression with DDR activation in human pancreatic cancer cells and the association of CHD5 expression in 80 patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) by immunohistochemical analysis with clinical outcome. CHD5 depletion and low CHD5 expression in human pancreatic cancer cells lead to increased H2AX-Ser139 and CHK2-Thr68 phosphorylation and accumulation into nuclear foci. On Kaplan-Meier log-rank survival analysis, patients with low CHD5 expression had a median recurrence-free survival (RFS) of 5.3 vs 15.4 months for patients with high CHD5 expression (P=0.03). In 59 patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, low CHD5 expression was associated with decreased RFS (4.5 vs 16.3 months; P=0.001) and overall survival (OS) (7.2 vs 21.6 months; P=0.003). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, low CHD5 expression remained associated with worse OS (HR: 3.187 (95% CI: 1.49-6.81); P=0.003) in patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. Thus, low CHD5 expression activates the DDR and predicts for worse OS in patients with resected PAC receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Our findings support a model in which dysregulated expression of tumor suppressor genes that induce DDR activation can be utilized as biomarkers for poor outcome.

Fatemi M, Paul TA, Brodeur GM, et al.
Epigenetic silencing of CHD5, a novel tumor-suppressor gene, occurs in early colorectal cancer stages.
Cancer. 2014; 120(2):172-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) is a family member of chromatin remodeling factors. The epigenetic silencing mechanisms of CHD5 in colorectal cancer have not been well studied.
METHODS: Here we analyzed CHD5 methylation and mRNA expression in vitro and in clinical samples from African American patients. DNA and RNA were isolated from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) colon tissues. DNA was tested for methylation using methylation-specific polymerase chain reation (PCR) and bisulfite sequencing. RNA was used for mRNA quantification using qRT-PCR. The RKO cell line was treated with 5-Aza-dC and SAHA. RKO cells were also stably transfected with a CHD5-expressing vector. The transcriptional activity was studied in the 1 kb upstream region of the CHD5 promoter using the dual reporter assay. We performed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion assays using the RKO cell line.
RESULTS: In most adenoma samples, CHD5 expression was not detected in contrast to normal tissues. In RKO cells, CHD5 silencing was associated with DNA methylation and repressive histone modifications. CHD5 expression was restored after treatment with 5-Aza-dC and SAHA. CHD5 reactivation reduced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. The reporter assay indicated that the main regulatory region of the CHD5 promoter is encompassed in the -489 to -823 region with important transcriptional regulatory sites (TCF/LEF, SP1, and AP-2).
CONCLUSIONS: The CHD5 gene is repressed in all types of adenomas, either epigenetically or by chromosomal deletion. CHD5 activity is regulated by DNA methylation and repressive histone modifications. CHD5 likely acts as a tumor-suppressor gene in early colorectal carcinogenesis.

Egan CM, Nyman U, Skotte J, et al.
CHD5 is required for neurogenesis and has a dual role in facilitating gene expression and polycomb gene repression.
Dev Cell. 2013; 26(3):223-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
The chromatin remodeler CHD5 is expressed in neural tissue and is frequently deleted in aggressive neuroblastoma. Very little is known about the function of CHD5 in the nervous system or its mechanism of action. Here we report that depletion of Chd5 in the developing neocortex blocks neuronal differentiation and leads to an accumulation of undifferentiated progenitors. CHD5 binds a large cohort of genes and is required for facilitating the activation of neuronal genes. It also binds a cohort of Polycomb targets and is required for the maintenance of H3K27me3 on these genes. Interestingly, the chromodomains of CHD5 directly bind H3K27me3 and are required for neuronal differentiation. In the absence of CHD5, a subgroup of Polycomb-repressed genes becomes aberrantly expressed. These findings provide insights into the regulatory role of CHD5 during neurogenesis and suggest how inactivation of this candidate tumor suppressor might contribute to neuroblastoma.

Wang L, He S, Tu Y, et al.
Downregulation of chromatin remodeling factor CHD5 is associated with a poor prognosis in human glioma.
J Clin Neurosci. 2013; 20(7):958-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 5 (CHD5), a member of the CHD family, is involved in key cellular processes including chromatin remodeling, cell cycle regulation, and cellular adhesion. Recent studies have demonstrated that CHD5 is the product of a novel tumor suppressor gene and is implicated in certain tumor types. However, the clinicopathological significance of CHD5 expression in human malignant gliomas remains unclear. To address this problem, CHD5 expression in human gliomas and non-neoplastic brain tissues was measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The association of CHD5 immunostaining with clinicopathological factors or prognosis of glioma patients was statistically analyzed. Genetic and protein expression of CHD5 were downregulated in glioma tissues compared to corresponding non-neoplastic brain tissues (both p<0.001). Additionally, decreased expression of CHD5 in glioma was significantly associated with pathological grade (p=0.007); high pathological grade was associated with low CHD5 expression. Loss of CHD5 protein expression was also significantly correlated with a low Karnofsky performance scale score (p=0.01). Moreover, overall survival of patients with low CHD5 protein expression was dramatically shorter than those of patients with high CHD5 protein expression (p=0.003). Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that CHD5 expression was an independent prognostic factor for patients with gliomas (p=0.01). In conclusion, these data offer convincing evidence for the first time that CHD5 might act as a tumor suppressor in glioma, may act as a regulator of aggressive development, and is a candidate prognostic marker for this malignancy.

Qu Y, Dang S, Hou P
Gene methylation in gastric cancer.
Clin Chim Acta. 2013; 424:53-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field.

Paul S, Kuo A, Schalch T, et al.
Chd5 requires PHD-mediated histone 3 binding for tumor suppression.
Cell Rep. 2013; 3(1):92-102 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromodomain Helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) is a tumor suppressor mapping to 1p36, a genomic region that is frequently deleted in human cancer. Although CHD5 belongs to the CHD family of chromatin-remodeling proteins, whether its tumor-suppressive role involves an interaction with chromatin is unknown. Here we report that Chd5 binds the unmodified N terminus of H3 through its tandem plant homeodomains (PHDs). Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation studies reveal preferential binding of Chd5 to loci lacking the active mark H3K4me3 and also identify Chd5 targets implicated in cancer. Chd5 mutations that abrogate H3 binding are unable to inhibit proliferation or transcriptionally modulate target genes, which leads to tumorigenesis in vivo. Unlike wild-type Chd5, Chd5-PHD mutants are unable to induce differentiation or efficiently suppress the growth of human neuroblastoma in vivo. Our work defines Chd5 as an N-terminally unmodified H3-binding protein and provides functional evidence that this interaction orchestrates chromatin-mediated transcriptional programs critical for tumor suppression.

Henrich KO, Schwab M, Westermann F
1p36 tumor suppression--a matter of dosage?
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(23):6079-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
A broad range of human malignancies is associated with nonrandom 1p36 deletions, suggesting the existence of tumor suppressors encoded in this region. Evidence for tumor-specific inactivation of 1p36 genes in the classic "two-hit" manner is scarce; however, many tumor suppressors do not require complete inactivation but contribute to tumorigenesis by partial impairment. We discuss recent data derived from both human tumors and functional cancer models indicating that the 1p36 genes CHD5, CAMTA1, KIF1B, CASZ1, and miR-34a contribute to cancer development when reduced in dosage by genomic copy number loss or other mechanisms. We explore potential interactions among these candidates and propose a model where heterozygous 1p36 deletion impairs oncosuppressive pathways via simultaneous downregulation of several dosage-dependent tumor suppressor genes.

Mallette FA, Richard S
JMJD2A promotes cellular transformation by blocking cellular senescence through transcriptional repression of the tumor suppressor CHD5.
Cell Rep. 2012; 2(5):1233-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Senescence is a cellular response preventing tumorigenesis. The Ras oncogene is frequently activated or mutated in human cancers, but Ras activation is insufficient to transform primary cells. In a search for cooperating oncogenes, we identify the lysine demethylase JMJD2A/KDM4A. We show that JMJD2A functions as a negative regulator of Ras-induced senescence and collaborates with oncogenic Ras to promote cellular transformation by negatively regulating the p53 pathway. We find CHD5, a known tumor suppressor regulating p53 activity, as a target of JMJD2A. The expression of JMJD2A inhibits Ras-mediated CHD5 induction leading to a reduced activity of the p53 pathway. In addition, we show that JMJD2A is overexpressed in mouse and human lung cancers. Depletion of JMJD2A in the human lung cancer cell line A549 bearing an activated K-Ras allele triggers senescence. We propose that JMJD2A is an oncogene that represents a target for Ras-expressing tumors.

Li H, Xu W, Huang Y, et al.
Genistein demethylates the promoter of CHD5 and inhibits neuroblastoma growth in vivo.
Int J Mol Med. 2012; 30(5):1081-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a type of tumor usually found in children under 5 years of age, which originates from lesions in the nervous system and has fast growth and early transformation characteristics. Similar to other cancer types, some typical tumor suppressor genes (TSGs), such as P53 and CHD5 are silenced in NB because of high methylation at promoter zones. In the present study, our results showed that genistein, an element found in soy, is an epigenetic modifier able to decrease hypermethylation levels of CHD5, and enhances the expression of CHD5 as well as p53, possibly contributing to inhibition of NB growth in vivo and tumor microvessel formation. Furthermore, genistein acts as a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor to significantly decrease the expression of DNMT3b. Our study indicates that genistein plays an important role in inhibiting NB growth in vivo, probably preventing tumorigenesis risk as a kind of therapeutic agent for NB treatment in the future.

Wu X, Zhu Z, Li W, et al.
Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 plays a tumor suppressor role in human breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2012; 14(3):R73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) has recently been identified as a tumor suppressor in a mouse model. The CHD5 locus at 1p36 is deleted, and its mutation has been detected in breast cancer. We, therefore, evaluated whether CHD5 plays a role in human breast cancer.
METHODS: We screened mutations in 55 tumors, determined promoter methylation in 39 tumors, measured RNA expression in 90 tumors, analyzed protein expression in 289 tumors, and correlated expression changes with clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer. Functional effects of CHD5 on cell proliferation, invasion and tumorigenesis were also tested.
RESULTS: Although only one mutation was detected, CHD5 mRNA expression was significantly reduced, accompanied by frequent genomic deletion and promoter methylation, in breast cancer. The extent of methylation was significantly associated with reduced mRNA expression, and demethylating treatment restored CHD5 expression. Lower CHD5 mRNA levels correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.026). CHD5 protein expression was also reduced in breast cancer, and lack of CHD5 expression significantly correlated with higher tumor stage, ER/PR-negativity, HER2 positivity, distant metastasis and worse patient survival (P ≤ 0.01). Functionally, ectopic expression of CHD5 in breast cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumorigenesis in nude mice. Consistent with the inhibition of invasion, CHD5 down-regulated mesenchymal markers vimentin, N-cadherin and ZEB1 in breast cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: Down-regulation of CHD5, mediated at least in part by promoter methylation, contributes to the development and progression of human breast cancer.

Garcia I, Mayol G, Ríos J, et al.
A three-gene expression signature model for risk stratification of patients with neuroblastoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(7):2012-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumor with contrasting clinical courses. Despite elaborate stratification strategies, precise clinical risk assessment still remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to develop a PCR-based predictor model to improve clinical risk assessment of patients with neuroblastoma.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The model was developed using real-time PCR gene expression data from 96 samples and tested on separate expression data sets obtained from real-time PCR and microarray studies comprising 362 patients.
RESULTS: On the basis of our prior study of differentially expressed genes in favorable and unfavorable neuroblastoma subgroups, we identified three genes, CHD5, PAFAH1B1, and NME1, strongly associated with patient outcome. The expression pattern of these genes was used to develop a PCR-based single-score predictor model. The model discriminated patients into two groups with significantly different clinical outcome [set 1: 5-year overall survival (OS): 0.93 ± 0.03 vs. 0.53 ± 0.06, 5-year event-free survival (EFS): 0.85 ± 0.04 vs. 0.042 ± 0.06, both P < 0.001; set 2 OS: 0.97 ± 0.02 vs. 0.61 ± 0.1, P = 0.005, EFS: 0.91 ± 0.8 vs. 0.56 ± 0.1, P = 0.005; and set 3 OS: 0.99 ± 0.01 vs. 0.56 ± 0.06, EFS: 0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 0.43 ± 0.05, both P < 0.001]. Multivariate analysis showed that the model was an independent marker for survival (P < 0.001, for all). In comparison with accepted risk stratification systems, the model robustly classified patients in the total cohort and in different clinically relevant risk subgroups.
CONCLUSION: We propose for the first time in neuroblastoma, a technically simple PCR-based predictor model that could help refine current risk stratification systems.

Koyama H, Zhuang T, Light JE, et al.
Mechanisms of CHD5 Inactivation in neuroblastomas.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(6):1588-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Neuroblastomas (NBs) have genomic, biological, and clinical heterogeneity. High-risk NBs are characterized by several genomic changes, including MYCN amplification and 1p36 deletion. We identified the chromatin-remodeling gene CHD5 as a tumor suppressor gene that maps to 1p36.31. Low or absent CHD5 expression is associated with a 1p36 deletion and an unfavorable outcome, but the mechanisms of CHD5 inactivation in NBs are unknown.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined (i) the CHD5 sequence in 188 high-risk NBs investigated through the TARGET initiative, (ii) the methylation status of the CHD5 promoter in 108 NBs with or without 1p36 deletion and/or MYCN amplification, and (iii) mRNA expression of CHD5 and MYCN in 814 representative NBs using TaqMan low-density array microfluidic cards.
RESULTS: We found no examples of somatically acquired CHD5 mutations, even in cases with 1p36 deletion, indicating that homozygous genomic inactivation is rare. Methylation of the CHD5 promoter was common in the high-risk tumors, and it was generally associated with both 1p deletion and MYCN amplification. High CHD5 expression was a powerful predictor of favorable outcome, and it showed prognostic value even in multivariable analysis after adjusting for MYCN amplification, 1p36 deletion, and/or 11q deletion.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that (i) somatically acquired CHD5 mutations are rare in primary NBs, so inactivation probably occurs by deletion and epigenetic silencing; (ii) CHD5 expression and promoter methylation are associated with MYCN amplification, suggesting a possible interaction between these 2 genes; and (iii) high CHD5 expression is strongly correlated with favorable clinical/biological features and outcome.

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