|Gene:||EPHA3; EPH receptor A3|
|Aliases: || EK4, ETK, HEK, ETK1, HEK4, TYRO4 |
|Summary:||This gene belongs to the ephrin receptor subfamily of the protein-tyrosine kinase family. EPH and EPH-related receptors have been implicated in mediating developmental events, particularly in the nervous system. Receptors in the EPH subfamily typically have a single kinase domain and an extracellular region containing a Cys-rich domain and 2 fibronectin type III repeats. The ephrin receptors are divided into 2 groups based on the similarity of their extracellular domain sequences and their affinities for binding ephrin-A and ephrin-B ligands. This gene encodes a protein that binds ephrin-A ligands. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]|
|Databases:||OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene|
|Protein:||ephrin type-A receptor 3|
|Updated:||14 December, 2014|
What does this gene/protein do?
What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- Axon guidance
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: EPHA3 (cancer-related)
Lu CY, Yang ZX, Zhou L, et al.High levels of EphA3 expression are associated with high invasive capacity and poor overall survival in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(5):2179-86 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Although EphA3 expression has been associated with progression or prognosis in several types of tumors, the role of EphA3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. This study sought to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic relevance of EphA3 expression in HCC as well as the underlying mechanisms responsible. EphA3 protein was mainly localized within the cytoplasm and at the cell membrane. High EphA3 expression was correlated with tumor size, tumor grade, metastasis, venous invasion and AJCC TNM stage (P<0.05), and patients with high levels of EphA3 expression were at a significantly increased risk for shortened survival time (P<0.05). In vitro, the downregulation of EphA3 expression decreased the invasive capacity of HCC cells via the regulation of VEGF. EphA3 may represent a novel candidate marker for patient prognosis as well a molecular target for HCC therapy.Related: Liver Cancer VEGFA
Inherited factors predisposing individuals to breast and ovarian cancer are largely unidentified in a majority of families with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). We aimed to identify germline copy number variations (CNVs) contributing to HBOC susceptibility in the Finnish population.METHODS:
A cohort of 84 HBOC individuals (negative for BRCA1/2-founder mutations and pre-screened for the most common breast cancer genes) and 36 healthy controls were analysed with a genome-wide SNP array. CNV-affecting genes were further studied by Gene Ontology term enrichment, pathway analyses, and database searches to reveal genes with potential for breast and ovarian cancer predisposition. CNVs that were considered to be important were validated and genotyped in 20 additional HBOC individuals (6 CNVs) and in additional healthy controls (5 CNVs) by qPCR.RESULTS:
An intronic deletion in the EPHA3 receptor tyrosine kinase was enriched in HBOC individuals (12 of 101, 11.9%) compared with controls (27 of 432, 6.3%) (OR = 1.96; P = 0.055). EPHA3 was identified in several enriched molecular functions including receptor activity. Both a novel intronic deletion in the CSMD1 tumor suppressor gene and a homozygous intergenic deletion at 5q15 were identified in 1 of 101 (1.0%) HBOC individuals but were very rare (1 of 436, 0.2% and 1 of 899, 0.1%, respectively) in healthy controls suggesting that these variants confer disease susceptibility.CONCLUSION:
This study reveals new information regarding the germline CNVs that likely contribute to HBOC susceptibility in Finland. This information may be used to facilitate the genetic counselling of HBOC individuals but the preliminary results warrant additional studies of a larger study group.Related: BRCA1 BRCA2
Day BW, Stringer BW, Al-Ejeh F, et al.EphA3 maintains tumorigenicity and is a therapeutic target in glioblastoma multiforme.
Cancer Cell. 2013; 23(2):238-48 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Significant endeavor has been applied to identify functional therapeutic targets in glioblastoma (GBM) to halt the growth of this aggressive cancer. We show that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA3 is frequently overexpressed in GBM and, in particular, in the most aggressive mesenchymal subtype. Importantly, EphA3 is highly expressed on the tumor-initiating cell population in glioma and appears critically involved in maintaining tumor cells in a less differentiated state by modulating mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. EphA3 knockdown or depletion of EphA3-positive tumor cells reduced tumorigenic potential to a degree comparable to treatment with a therapeutic radiolabelled EphA3-specific monoclonal antibody. These results identify EphA3 as a functional, targetable receptor in GBM.Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Apoptosis
Activation of a cellular senescence program is a common response to prolonged oncogene activation or tumor suppressor loss, providing a physiological mechanism for tumor suppression in premalignant cells. The link between senescence and tumor suppression supports the hypothesis that a loss-of-function screen measuring bona fide senescence marker activation should identify candidate tumor suppressors. Using a high-content siRNA screening assay for cell morphology and proliferation measures, we identify 12 senescence-regulating kinases and determine their senescence marker signatures, including elevation of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, DNA damage and p53 or p16 (INK4a) expression. Consistent with our hypothesis, SNP array CGH data supports loss of gene copy number of five senescence-suppressing genes across multiple tumor samples. One such candidate is the EPHA3 receptor tyrosine kinase, a gene commonly mutated in human cancer. We demonstrate that selected intracellular EPHA3 tumor-associated point mutations decrease receptor expression level and/or receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity. Our study therefore describes a new strategy to mine for novel candidate tumor suppressors and provides compelling evidence that EPHA3 mutations may promote tumorigenesis only when key senescence-inducing pathways have been inactivated.Related: Signal Transduction TP53
Determining the functional impact of somatic mutations is crucial to understanding tumorigenesis and metastasis. Recent sequences of several cancers have provided comprehensive lists of somatic mutations across entire genomes, enabling investigation of the functional impact of somatic mutations in non-coding regions. Here, we study somatic mutations in 3'UTRs of genes that have been identified in four cancers and computationally predict how they may alter miRNA targeting, potentially resulting in dysregulation of the expression of the genes harboring these mutations. We find that somatic mutations create or disrupt putative miRNA target sites in the 3'UTRs of many genes, including several genes, such as MITF, EPHA3, TAL1, SCG3, and GSDMA, which have been previously associated with cancer. We also integrate the somatic mutations with germline mutations and results of association studies. Specifically, we identify putative miRNA target sites in the 3'UTRs of BMPR1B, KLK3, and SPRY4 that are disrupted by both somatic and germline mutations and, also, are in linkage disequilibrium blocks with high scoring markers from cancer association studies. The somatic mutation in BMPR1B is located in a target site of miR-125b; germline mutations in this target site have previously been both shown to disrupt regulation of BMPR1B by miR-125b and linked with cancer.Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction
High-resolution image guidance for resection of residual tumor cells would enable more precise and complete excision for more effective treatment of cancers, such as medulloblastoma, the most common pediatric brain cancer. Numerous studies have shown that brain tumor patient outcomes correlate with the precision of resection. To enable guided resection with molecular specificity and cellular resolution, molecular probes that effectively delineate brain tumor boundaries are essential. Therefore, we developed a bioinformatics approach to analyze micro-array datasets for the identification of transcripts that encode candidate cell surface biomarkers that are highly enriched in medulloblastoma. The results identified 380 genes with greater than a two-fold increase in the expression in the medulloblastoma compared with that in the normal cerebellum. To enrich for targets with accessibility for extracellular molecular probes, we further refined this list by filtering it with gene ontology to identify genes with protein localization on, or within, the plasma membrane. To validate this meta-analysis, the top 10 candidates were evaluated with immunohistochemistry. We identified two targets, fibrillin 2 and EphA3, which specifically stain medulloblastoma. These results demonstrate a novel bioinformatics approach that successfully identified cell surface and extracellular candidate markers enriched in medulloblastoma versus adjacent cerebellum. These two proteins are high-value targets for the development of tumor-specific probes in medulloblastoma. This bioinformatics method has broad utility for the identification of accessible molecular targets in a variety of cancers and will enable probe development for guided resection.Related: Childhood Medulloblastoma / PNET
Cancer genome sequencing efforts recently identified EPHA3, which encodes the EPHA3 receptor tyrosine kinase, as one of the most frequently mutated genes in lung cancer. Although receptor tyrosine kinase mutations often drive oncogenic conversion and tumorigenesis, the oncogenic potential of the EPHA3 mutations in lung cancer remains unknown.METHODS:
We used immunoprecipitation, western blotting, and kinase assays to determine the activity and signaling of mutant EPHA3 receptors. A mutation-associated gene signature was generated from one large dataset, mapped to another training dataset with survival information, and tested in a third independent dataset. EPHA3 expression levels were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in paired normal-tumor clinical specimens and by immunohistochemistry in human lung cancer tissue microarrays. We assessed tumor growth in vivo using A549 and H1299 human lung carcinoma cell xenografts in mice (n = 7-8 mice per group). Tumor cell proliferation was measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and apoptosis by multiple assays. All P values are from two-sided tests.RESULTS:
At least two cancer-associated EPHA3 somatic mutations functioned as dominant inhibitors of the normal (wild type) EPHA3 protein. An EPHA3 mutation-associated gene signature that was associated with poor patient survival was identified. Moreover, EPHA3 gene copy numbers and/or expression levels were decreased in tumors from large cohorts of patients with lung cancer (eg, the gene was deleted in 157 of 371 [42%] primary lung adenocarcinomas). Reexpression of wild-type EPHA3 in human lung cancer lines increased apoptosis by suppression of AKT activation in vitro and inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts (eg, for H1299 cells, mean tumor volume with wild-type EPHA3 = 437.4 mm(3) vs control = 774.7 mm(3), P < .001). Tumor-suppressive effects of wild-type EPHA3 could be overridden in trans by dominant negative EPHA3 somatic mutations discovered in patients with lung cancer.CONCLUSION:
Cancer-associated EPHA3 mutations attenuate the tumor-suppressive effects of normal EPHA3 in lung cancer.Related: Apoptosis Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer AKT1
Keane N, Freeman C, Swords R, Giles FJEPHA3 as a novel therapeutic target in the hematological malignancies.
Expert Rev Hematol. 2012; 5(3):325-40 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The Eph receptors are the largest family of tyrosine kinases and are of increasing interest in developmental therapeutics. Their unique method of interaction with their ligands, the ephrins, via bidirectional signaling, and their variable expression in different tissues are well documented. Ephs are upregulated in, and critical to, embryological processes, most notably development of the neurological system. They are central in many processes involving cell motility and adhesion. Recent findings on elevated expression of Eph receptors in human malignancies as well as in stem cell environments are of particular interest. With increasing focus on molecularly targeted anticancer therapies, exploration of the potential of Eph receptors as therapeutic targets in both solid and hematologic malignancies has begun. The most promising of the Eph receptors in this regard is EPHA3, which is overexpressed in many hematologic malignancies. Preclinical data support the value of pursuing this target for further development, and lead compounds are now entering the clinic.Related: Haematological Malignancies & Realted Disorders
X-ray irradiation influences metastatic properties of tumor cells and, moreover, metastasis and cellular motility can be modified by members of the Eph receptor/ephrin family of receptor tyrosine kinases. We hypothesized that irradiation-induced changes in cellular properties relevant for metastasis in melanoma cells could be mediated by Eph receptor/ephrin signaling. In this pilot study, we analyzed one pre-metastatic (Mel-Juso) and three metastatic human melanoma (Mel-Juso-L3, A375, and A2058) cells lines and predominantly found anti-metastatic effects of X-ray irradiation with impaired cell growth, clonal growth and motility. Additionally, we observed an irradiation-induced increase in adhesion paralleled by a decrease in migration in Mel-Juso and Mel-Juso-L3 cells and, in part, also in A375 cells. We further demonstrate a decrease of EphA2 both in expression and activity at 7 d after irradiation paralleled by an upregulation of EphA3. Analyzing downstream signaling after irradiation, we detected decreased Src kinase phosphorylation, but unchanged focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, indicating, in part, irradiation-induced downregulation of signaling via the EphA2-Src-FAK axis in melanoma cells. However, to which extent this finding contributes to the modification of metastasis-relevant cellular properties remains to be elucidated.Related: Melanoma
Nettersheim D, Westernströer B, Haas N, et al.Establishment of a versatile seminoma model indicates cellular plasticity of germ cell tumor cells.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2012; 51(7):717-26 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In western countries, 60% of all malignancies diagnosed in men between 17-45 years of age are germ cell tumors (GCT). GCT arise from the common precursor lesion carcinoma in situ, which transforms within an average of 9 years into invasive Type-II GCTs. Seminomas are considered to be the default developmental pathway of carcinoma in situ cells and the seminoma-like cell line TCam-2 has been used to study seminoma biology in vitro. However, the generation of an animal model, which would allow for the in vivo analysis of seminoma formation, remained elusive. We applied transplantation approaches using TCam-2 cell transfer into ectopic (skin, brain) and orthopic (testis) sites of immunodeficient mice. We demonstrate that a transplantation into the seminiferous tubules results in formation of a carcinoma in situ/seminoma. In contrast, TCam-2 cells adopt an embryonal carcinoma-like fate when grafted to the flank or corpus striatum and display downregulation of the seminoma marker SOX17 and upregulation of the embryonal carcinoma markers SOX2 and CD30. Grafted TCam-2 cells reduce AKT-, ERK-, EphA3-, and Tie2/TEK-signaling to levels comparable to embryonal carcinoma cells. Hence, TCam-2 cell transplantation into the testis generated a carcinoma in situ/seminoma mouse model, which enables addressing the biology of these tumors in vivo. The fact that TCam-2 cells give rise to a carcinoma in situ/seminoma or embryonal carcinoma in a transplantation site specific manner implies that conversion of carcinoma in situ/seminoma to an embryonal carcinoma does not require additional genetic aberrations but relies on signals from the tumor-microenvironment.Related: Testicular Cancer
Mammalian Bre1 complexes (BRE1A/B (RNF20/40) in humans and Bre1a/b (Rnf20/40) in mice) function similarly to their yeast homolog Bre1 as ubiquitin ligases in monoubiquitination of histone H2B. This ubiquitination facilitates methylation of histone H3 at K4 and K79, and accounts for the roles of Bre1 and its homologs in transcriptional regulation. Recent studies by others suggested that Bre1 acts as a tumor suppressor, augmenting expression of select tumor suppressor genes and suppressing select oncogenes. In this study, we present an additional mechanism of tumor suppression by Bre1 through maintenance of genomic stability. We track the evolution of genomic instability in Bre1-deficient cells from replication-associated double-strand breaks (DSB) to specific genomic rearrangements that explain a rapid increase in DNA content and trigger breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. We show that aberrant RNA-DNA structures (R-loops) constitute a significant source of DSBs in Bre1-deficient cells. Combined with a previously reported defect in homologous recombination, generation of R-loops is a likely initiator of replication stress and genomic instability in Bre1-deficient cells. We propose that genomic instability triggered by Bre1 deficiency may be an important early step that precedes acquisition of an invasive phenotype, as we find decreased levels of BRE1A/B and dimethylated H3K79 in testicular seminoma and in the premalignant lesion in situ carcinoma.Related: Apoptosis Testicular Cancer
Xi HQ, Wu XS, Wei B, Chen LAberrant expression of EphA3 in gastric carcinoma: correlation with tumor angiogenesis and survival.
J Gastroenterol. 2012; 47(7):785-94 [PubMed
] Related Publications
EphA3, a member of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinases, plays important roles in tumor angiogenesis and progression. However, the function of EphA3 in solid tumors has not been widely studied. We aimed to explore EphA3 expression in gastric carcinoma and analyze its role as a potential prognostic factor.METHODS:
Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to assess EphA3 mRNA in a normal gastric mucosa cell line and carcinoma cell lines. Immunohistochemistry for EphA3 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was performed in 318 cases of gastric carcinoma. CD34 immunohistochemical staining was used for microvessel density (MVD) counting. Western blotting was used to analyze EphA3 expression in the cell lines and to determine the expression of EphA3 and VEGF in 75 cases of gastric carcinoma and matched normal mucosa.RESULTS:
EphA3 mRNA and protein expression was significantly higher in gastric cancer than that in normal mucosa (all P < 0.001). EphA3 was significantly correlated with TNM stage and poor prognosis (all P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that EphA3 had an independent effect on survival (P = 0.037). EphA3 was positively correlated with VEGF (P < 0.001), and MVD (P < 0.001). According to Western blot analysis, both EphA3 and VEGF expression were significantly higher in carcinoma than that in normal mucosa (all P < 0.001). A positive correlation was observed between EphA3 and VEGF expression in cancer (P < 0.001, r = 0.513).CONCLUSIONS:
EphA3 may play important roles in the angiogenesis and prognosis of gastric carcinoma, and thus may become a useful target for therapeutic intervention and a potential indicator for clinical assessment of tumor prognosis.Related: Angiogenesis and Cancer Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer VEGFA
Liu DZ, Ander BP, Tian Y, et al.Integrated analysis of mRNA and microRNA expression in mature neurons, neural progenitor cells and neuroblastoma cells.
Gene. 2012; 495(2):120-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Mature neurons (MNs), neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and neuroblastoma cells (NBCs) are all neural-derived cells. However, MNs are unable to divide once differentiated; NPCs are able to divide a limited number of times and differentiate to normal brain cell types; whereas NBCs can divide an unlimited number of times but rarely differentiate. Here, we perform whole transcriptome (mRNA, miRNA) profiling of these cell types and compare expression levels of each cell type to the others. Integrated mRNA-miRNA functional analyses reveal that: 1) several very highly expressed genes (e.g., Robo1, Nrp1, Epha3, Unc5c, Dcc, Pak3, Limk4) and a few under-expressed miRNAs (e.g., miR-152, miR-146b, miR-339-5p) in MNs are associated with one important cellular process-axon guidance; 2) some very highly expressed mitogenic pathway genes (e.g., Map2k1, Igf1r, Rara, Runx1) and under-expressed miRNAs (e.g., miR-370, miR-9, miR-672) in NBCs are associated with cancer pathways. These results provide a library of negative mRNAmiRNA networks that are likely involved in the cellular processes of differentiation and division.Related: Neuroblastoma
The Eph receptor tyrosine kinases make up an important family of signal transduction molecules that control many cellular processes, including cell adhesion and movement, cell shape, and cell growth. All of these are important aspects of cancer progression, but the relationship between Eph receptors and cancer is complex and not fully understood. Genetic screens of tumor specimens from cancer patients have revealed somatic mutations in many Eph receptors. The most highly mutated Eph receptor is EphA3, but its functional role in cancer is currently not well established. Here we show that many EphA3 mutations identified in lung, colorectal, and hepatocellular cancers, melanoma, and glioblastoma impair kinase activity or ephrin ligand binding and/or decrease the level of receptor cell surface localization. These results suggest that EphA3 has ephrin- and kinase-dependent tumor suppressing activities, which are disrupted by somatic cancer mutations.Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction Signal Transduction
Eph receptors interact with ephrin ligands on adjacent cells to facilitate tissue patterning during normal and oncogenic development, in which unscheduled expression and somatic mutations contribute to tumor progression. EphA and B subtypes preferentially bind A- and B-type ephrins, respectively, resulting in receptor complexes that propagate via homotypic Eph-Eph interactions. We now show that EphA and B receptors cocluster, such that specific ligation of one receptor promotes recruitment and cross-activation of the other. Remarkably, coexpression of a kinase-inactive mutant EphA3 with wild-type EphB2 can cause either cross-activation or cross-inhibition, depending on relative expression. Our findings indicate that cellular responses to ephrin contact are determined by the EphA/EphB receptor profile on a given cell rather than the individual Eph subclass. Importantly, they imply that in tumor cells coexpressing different Ephs, functional mutations in one subtype may cause phenotypes that are a result of altered signaling from heterotypic rather from homotypic Eph clusters.Related: Prostate Cancer Signal Transduction
To identify molecular markers shared across South African esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines using cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array copy number analysis.METHODS:
We used conventional cytogenetics, FISH, and multicolor FISH to characterize the chromosomal rearrangements of five ESCC cell lines established in South Africa. The whole genome copy number profile was established from 250K SNP arrays, and data was analyzed with the CNAT 4.0 and GISTIC software.RESULTS:
We detected common translocation breakpoints involving chromosomes 1p11-12 and 3p11.2, the latter correlated with the deletion, or interruption of the EPHA3 gene. The most significant amplifications involved the following chromosomal regions and genes: 11q13.3 (CCND1, FGF3, FGF4, FGF19, MYEOV), 8q24.21(C-MYC, FAM84B), 11q22.1-q22.3 (BIRC2, BIRC3), 5p15.2 (CTNND2), 3q11.2-q12.2 (MINA) and 18p11.32 (TYMS, YES1). The significant deletions included 1p31.2-p31.1 (CTH, GADD45α, DIRAS3), 2q22.1 (LRP1B), 3p12.1-p14.2 (FHIT), 4q22.1-q32.1 (CASP6, SMAD1), 8p23.2-q11.1 (BNIP3L) and 18q21.1-q21.2 (SMAD4, DCC). The 3p11.2 translocation breakpoint was shared across four cell lines, supporting a role for genes involved at this site, in particular, the EPHA3 gene which has previously been reported to be deleted in ESCC.CONCLUSION:
The finding that a significant number of genes that were amplified (FGF3, FGF4, FGF19, CCND1 and C-MYC) or deleted (SFRP2 gene) are involved in the Wnt and fibroblast growth factor signaling pathways, suggests that these pathways may be activated in these cell lines.Related: Chromosome 1 Chromosome 3 Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer FISH Signal Transduction
Valsesia A, Rimoldi D, Martinet D, et al.Network-guided analysis of genes with altered somatic copy number and gene expression reveals pathways commonly perturbed in metastatic melanoma.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(4):e18369 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer genomes frequently contain somatic copy number alterations (SCNA) that can significantly perturb the expression level of affected genes and thus disrupt pathways controlling normal growth. In melanoma, many studies have focussed on the copy number and gene expression levels of the BRAF, PTEN and MITF genes, but little has been done to identify new genes using these parameters at the genome-wide scale. Using karyotyping, SNP and CGH arrays, and RNA-seq, we have identified SCNA affecting gene expression ('SCNA-genes') in seven human metastatic melanoma cell lines. We showed that the combination of these techniques is useful to identify candidate genes potentially involved in tumorigenesis. Since few of these alterations were recurrent across our samples, we used a protein network-guided approach to determine whether any pathways were enriched in SCNA-genes in one or more samples. From this unbiased genome-wide analysis, we identified 28 significantly enriched pathway modules. Comparison with two large, independent melanoma SCNA datasets showed less than 10% overlap at the individual gene level, but network-guided analysis revealed 66% shared pathways, including all but three of the pathways identified in our data. Frequently altered pathways included WNT, cadherin signalling, angiogenesis and melanogenesis. Additionally, our results emphasize the potential of the EPHA3 and FRS2 gene products, involved in angiogenesis and migration, as possible therapeutic targets in melanoma. Our study demonstrates the utility of network-guided approaches, for both large and small datasets, to identify pathways recurrently perturbed in cancer.Related: CGH FISH Melanoma MDM2 gene Signal Transduction
Guan M, Liu L, Zhao X, et al.Copy number variations of EphA3 are associated with multiple types of hematologic malignancies.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2011; 11(1):50-3 [PubMed
] Related Publications
EphA3 is a component of the Eph receptor family, the largest subgroup of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family. A recent array-based study implicated the presence of copy-number variations (CNVs) of EphA3 in the genomes of acute myelogenous leukemia. CNVs are present in the general population at varying degrees, and have been found to associate with various types of diseases including hematologic malignancies. However, most of the current studies focused on the genome-wide screening of CNVs, and the functional impact of such regions needs to be extensively investigated in large number of clinical samples.PATIENTS AND METHODS:
In our study, we collected 617 bone marrow samples from multiple types of hematologic malignancies as well as healthy controls. DNA copy numbers and mRNA levels of EphA3 in these samples were examined.RESULTS:
We found significant association between the CNVs of EphA3 and these hematologic malignancies including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), multiple myeloma (MM), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We also observed a positive correlation between the relative mRNA level and gene dosage of EphA3.CONCLUSION:
The CNVs of EphA3 were associated with multiple types of hematologic malignancies including ALL, AML, CLL, CML, MM, and MDS.Related: Haematological Malignancies & Realted Disorders
Xi HQ, Zhao PClinicopathological significance and prognostic value of EphA3 and CD133 expression in colorectal carcinoma.
J Clin Pathol. 2011; 64(6):498-503 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To investigate clinicopathological significance and prognostic implications of EphA3, CD133 and Ki-67 expression in colorectal cancer.METHODS:
EphA3, CD133 and Ki-67 expression was assessed in 201 cases of paraffin-embedded colorectal carcinoma and 60 cases of distal normal mucosal tissue by immunohistochemistry. Medical records were reviewed and clinicopathological analysis was performed. The differential expression of EphA3 and CD133 protein was detected in 20 cases of fresh resected colorectal carcinoma and 20 cases of matched normal mucosal tissue adjacent to the carcinoma by western blot.RESULTS:
The expression of EphA3 and CD133 in carcinoma was significantly higher than that in normal mucosal tissue (p=0.008; p=0.004). EphA3 and CD133 were positively correlated with tumour size (p=0.029; p=0.017), histological grade (all p=0.001), infiltrative depth (all p=0.00), lymph node metastasis (all p=0.00), distant metastasis (p=0.017; p=0.030) and TNM stage (all p=0.001). Patients with high expression of EphA3 and CD133 had the lowest survival (all p=0.001) (median survival time of EphA3 positive and negative cases: 34.0 and 72.0 months; median survival time of CD133 positive and negative cases: 34.0 and 77.0 months). Multivariate survival analysis showed that EphA3 and CD133 expression was correlated significantly with shortened survival in patients with colorectal cancer (Cox regression: p=0.001, HR=4.722, 95% CI 2.667 to 8.361; p=0.001, HR=5.224, 95% CI 2.622 to 10.405). EphA3, CD133 and Ki-67 expression in colorectal cancer had positive correlations with each other (all p=0.001).CONCLUSIONS:
EphA3 and CD133 may play an important role in the development and progression of tumours, and thus become useful indicators for clinical assessment of tumour biological behaviour and prognosis in patients with colorectal carcinoma.Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer MKI67
Fritsche-Guenther R, Noske A, Ungethüm U, et al.De novo expression of EphA2 in osteosarcoma modulates activation of the mitogenic signalling pathway.
Histopathology. 2010; 57(6):836-50 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In osteosarcoma patients the development of metastases, often to the lungs, is the most frequent cause of death. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms governing osteosarcoma development and dissemination and, thereby, to identify possible novel drug targets for improved treatment.METHODS AND RESULTS:
Osteosarcoma samples were characterized using genome-wide microarrays: increased expression of the EphA2 receptor and its ligand EFNA1 was detected. In addition, increased expression of EFNB1, EFNB3 and EphA3 was suggested. Immunohistochemistry revealed an absence of EphA2 in normal bone, and de novo expression in osteosarcomas. EFNA1 was expressed in normal bone, but was significantly elevated in tumours. Further in vitro investigations on the functional role of EphA2 and EFNA1 showed that EFNA1 ligand binding induced increased tyrosine phosphorylation, receptor degradation and downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Interference with the MAPK pathway unravelled a potential autoregulatory loop governing mainly EFNA1 expression via the same pathway.CONCLUSION:
Upregulation and de novo expression of ephrins in osteosarcomas are involved in oncogenic signalling and thus might stimulate osteosarcoma metastasis.Related: Bone Cancers Lung Cancer Osteosarcoma Signal Transduction
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified candidate genes contributing to cancer risk through low-penetrance mutations. Many of these genes were unexpected and, intriguingly, included well-known players in carcinogenesis at the somatic level. To assess the hypothesis of a germline-somatic link in carcinogenesis, we evaluated the distribution of somatic gene labels within the ordered results of a breast cancer risk GWAS. This analysis suggested frequent influence on risk of genetic variation in loci encoding for "driver kinases" (i.e., kinases encoded by genes that showed higher somatic mutation rates than expected by chance and, therefore, whose deregulation may contribute to cancer development and/or progression). Assessment of these predictions using a population-based case-control study in Poland replicated the association for rs3732568 in EPHB1 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63-0.98; P(trend) = 0.031). Analyses by early age at diagnosis and by estrogen receptor α (ERα) tumor status indicated potential associations for rs6852678 in CDKL2 (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.10-1.00; P(recessive) = 0.044) and rs10878640 in DYRK2 (OR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.32-4.30; P(dominant) = 0.003), and for rs12765929, rs9836340, rs4707795 in BMPR1A, EPHA3 and EPHA7, respectively (ERα tumor status P(interaction)<0.05). The identification of three novel candidates as EPH receptor genes might indicate a link between perturbed compartmentalization of early neoplastic lesions and breast cancer risk and progression. Together, these data may lay the foundations for replication in additional populations and could potentially increase our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis.Related: Breast Cancer BMPR1A
Corbo V, Ritelli R, Barbi S, et al.Mutational profiling of kinases in human tumours of pancreatic origin identifies candidate cancer genes in ductal and ampulla of vater carcinomas.
PLoS One. 2010; 5(9):e12653 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein kinases are key regulators of cellular processes (such as proliferation, apoptosis and invasion) that are often deregulated in human cancers. Accordingly, kinase genes have been the first to be systematically analyzed in human tumors leading to the discovery that many oncogenes correspond to mutated kinases. In most cases the genetic alterations translate in constitutively active kinase proteins, which are amenable of therapeutic targeting. Tumours of the pancreas are aggressive neoplasms for which no effective therapeutic strategy is currently available.METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:
We conducted a DNA-sequence analysis of a selected set of 35 kinase genes in a panel of 52 pancreatic exocrine neoplasms, including 36 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and 16 ampulla of Vater cancer. Among other changes we found somatic mutations in ATM, EGFR, EPHA3, EPHB2, and KIT, none of which was previously described in cancers.CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:
Although the alterations identified require further experimental evaluation, the localization within defined protein domains indicates functional relevance for most of them. Some of the mutated genes, including the tyrosine kinases EPHA3 and EPHB2, are clearly amenable to pharmacological intervention and could represent novel therapeutic targets for these incurable cancers.Related: Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. There has been a great interest in finding specific genomic changes which contribute to HNSCC tumorigenesis, especially within the chromosome 3p area, where high frequency of LOH (loss of heterozygosity) has been reported. However, tumor-suppressor genes that may account for the frequent LOH remain to be identified. Recently, one systematic study of genomic sequencing was performed on breast and colorectal cancers and 189 candidate cancer genes (CAN-genes) were reported. Among those CAN-genes, 13 genes are located on chromosome 3p. To investigate whether any of the 13 CAN-genes on chromosome 3p is relevant to HNSCC tumorigenesis, we examined their mutational profiles in eight HNSCC cell lines and 12 tumor-normal pairs of human HNSCC in this study. Three of the 13 CAN-genes, ALS2CL, EPHA3, and CMYA1, each was found to harbor a missense mutation (1/20, 5% for each of the three genes). The mutations appeared hemizygous and SNP array analyses showed that these missense mutations are accompanied by LOH on the remaining allele. In summary, our data offer further support that ALS2CL, EPHA3, and CMYA1 are bona-fide tumor-suppressor genes and contribute to the tumorigenesis of HNSCC. Our data suggest that multiple tumor-suppressor genes are likely to be involved in accounting for the high LOH on chromosome 3p in HNSCC.Related: Chromosome 3 Head and Neck Cancers Head and Neck Cancers - Molecular Biology
A CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is displayed by a distinct subset of colorectal cancers with a high frequency of DNA hypermethylation in a specific group of CpG islands. Recent studies have shown that an activating mutation of BRAF (BRAF(V600E)) is tightly associated with CIMP, raising the question of whether BRAF(V600E) plays a causal role in the development of CIMP or whether CIMP provides a favorable environment for the acquisition of BRAF(V600E). We employed Illumina GoldenGate DNA methylation technology, which interrogates 1,505 CpG sites in 807 different genes, to further study this association. We first examined whether expression of BRAF(V600E) causes DNA hypermethylation by stably expressing BRAF(V600E) in the CIMP-negative, BRAF wild-type COLO 320DM colorectal cancer cell line. We determined 100 CIMP-associated CpG sites and examined changes in DNA methylation in eight stably transfected clones over multiple passages. We found that BRAF(V600E) is not sufficient to induce CIMP in our system. Secondly, considering the alternative possibility, we identified genes whose DNA hypermethylation was closely linked to BRAF(V600E) and CIMP in 235 primary colorectal tumors. Interestingly, genes that showed the most significant link include those that mediate various signaling pathways implicated in colorectal tumorigenesis, such as BMP3 and BMP6 (BMP signaling), EPHA3, KIT, and FLT1 (receptor tyrosine kinases) and SMO (Hedgehog signaling). Furthermore, we identified CIMP-dependent DNA hypermethylation of IGFBP7, which has been shown to mediate BRAF(V600E)-induced cellular senescence and apoptosis. Promoter DNA hypermethylation of IGFBP7 was associated with silencing of the gene. CIMP-specific inactivation of BRAF(V600E)-induced senescence and apoptosis pathways by IGFBP7 DNA hypermethylation might create a favorable context for the acquisition of BRAF(V600E) in CIMP+ colorectal cancer. Our data will be useful for future investigations toward understanding CIMP in colorectal cancer and gaining insights into the role of aberrant DNA hypermethylation in colorectal tumorigenesis.Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer BRAF gene
Bae HJ, Song JH, Noh JH, et al.Low frequency mutation of the Ephrin receptor A3 gene in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Neoplasma. 2009; 56(4):331-4 [PubMed
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EphA3 is a component of the Eph/ephrin tyrosine kinase system, which participates in vasculature development. This receptor/ligand system is associated with various signaling pathways related to cell growth and viability, cytoskeletal organization, cell migration, and anti-apoptosis. Accumulated evidence suggests that aberrant regulation of EphA3 and its genetic alterations are implicated in the development and progression of various cancers. However, despite a high incidence of EphA3 over-expression, no such investigation has been performed in hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, we investigated genetic alterations of the EphA3 gene in 73 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma by single-strand conformational polymorphism and sequencing. One novel D219V missense mutation was found in the extracellular domain of EphA3, and two genetic alterations in the intracellular sterile-alpha-motif (SAM) domain of EphA3 appeared to be polymorphisms. Although the functional assessments of this mutant are incomplete, it is believed that this novel EphA3 mutation may contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.Related: Liver Cancer
Cody NA, Shen Z, Ripeau JS, et al.Characterization of the 3p12.3-pcen region associated with tumor suppression in a novel ovarian cancer cell line model genetically modified by chromosome 3 fragment transfer.
Mol Carcinog. 2009; 48(12):1077-92 [PubMed
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The genetic analysis of nontumorigenic radiation hybrids generated by transfer of chromosome 3 fragments into the tumorigenic OV-90 ovarian cancer cell line identified the 3p12.3-pcen region as a candidate tumor suppressor gene (TSG) locus. In the present study, polymorphic microsatellite repeat analysis of the hybrids further defined the 3p12.3-pcen interval to a 16.1 Mb common region containing 12 known or hypothetical genes: 3ptel-ROBO2-ROBO1-GBE1-CADM2-VGLL3-CHMP2B-POU1F1-HTR1F-CGGBP1-ZNF654-C3orf38-EPHA3-3pcen. Seven of these genes, ROBO1, GBE1, VGLL3, CHMP2B, CGGBP1, ZNF654, and C3orf38, exhibited gene expression in the hybrids, placing them as top TSG candidates for further analysis. The expression of all but one (VGLL3) of these genes was also detected in the parental OV-90 cell line. Mutations were not identified in a comparative sequence analysis of the predicted protein coding regions of these candidates in OV-90 and donor normal chromosome 3 contig. However, the nondeleterious sequence variants identified in the transcribed regions distinguished parent of origin alleles for ROBO1, VGLL3, CHMP2B, and CGGBP1 and cDNA sequencing of the hybrids revealed biallelic expression of these genes. Interestingly, underexpression of VGLL3 and ZNF654 were observed in malignant ovarian tumor samples as compared with primary cultures of normal ovarian surface epithelial cells or benign ovarian tumors, and this occurred regardless of allelic content of 3p12.3-pcen. The results taken together suggest that dysregulation of VGLL3 and/or ZNF654 expression may have affected pathways important in ovarian tumorigenesis which was offset by the transfer of chromosome 3 fragments in OV-90, a cell line hemizygous for 3p.Related: Chromosome 3 Ovarian Cancer
Determining the genetic basis of cancer requires comprehensive analyses of large collections of histopathologically well-classified primary tumours. Here we report the results of a collaborative study to discover somatic mutations in 188 human lung adenocarcinomas. DNA sequencing of 623 genes with known or potential relationships to cancer revealed more than 1,000 somatic mutations across the samples. Our analysis identified 26 genes that are mutated at significantly high frequencies and thus are probably involved in carcinogenesis. The frequently mutated genes include tyrosine kinases, among them the EGFR homologue ERBB4; multiple ephrin receptor genes, notably EPHA3; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR; and NTRK genes. These data provide evidence of somatic mutations in primary lung adenocarcinoma for several tumour suppressor genes involved in other cancers--including NF1, APC, RB1 and ATM--and for sequence changes in PTPRD as well as the frequently deleted gene LRP1B. The observed mutational profiles correlate with clinical features, smoking status and DNA repair defects. These results are reinforced by data integration including single nucleotide polymorphism array and gene expression array. Our findings shed further light on several important signalling pathways involved in lung adenocarcinoma, and suggest new molecular targets for treatment.Related: Lung Cancer
Clifford N, Smith LM, Powell J, et al.The EphA3 receptor is expressed in a subset of rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines and suppresses cell adhesion and migration.
J Cell Biochem. 2008; 105(5):1250-9 [PubMed
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Elevated expression of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase EphA3 is associated with lymphocytic leukaemia, but little is known about its expression or function in solid tumours. Out of a panel of cancer cell lines, we found that EphA3 was expressed only on two rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines of the embryonal histological subtype and on one of the alveolar RMS subtype, whereas it was not detected on two other cell lines of the alveolar subtype. Other EphA receptors (1-7) were, either not expressed in any, or expressed in all five RMS cell lines. Stimulation of EphA3-expressing TE671 and RD RMS cells with ephrinA5 resulted in loss of adhesion to fibronectin, decreased migration towards the stromal cell-derived growth factor-I (SDF-I), increased EphA3 phosphorylation, and increased Rho GTPase activity. In contrast, ectopic expression of EphA3 in the EphA3 negative CRL2061 cell line resulted in decreased cell adhesion. Finally, suppression of EphA3 expression by siRNA in RD cells results in increased SDF-I-mediated motility. These data indicate that EphA3 expression may define subsets of RMS tumours, and that EphA3 suppresses motility through regulation of Rho GTPases in RMS cells.Related: Rhabdomyosarcoma
This study evaluated methylation patterns of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) sequences from 17 loci in several cell types, including squamous cell cancer cell lines, normal oral epithelium (NOE), white blood cells and head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCC). Although sequences of each LINE-1 are homologous, LINE-1 methylation levels at each locus are different. Moreover, some loci demonstrate the different methylation levels between normal tissue types. Interestingly, in some chromosomal regions, wider ranges of LINE-1 methylation levels were observed. In cancerous cells, the methylation levels of most LINE-1 loci demonstrated a positive correlation with each other and with the genome-wide levels. Therefore, the loss of genome-wide methylation in cancerous cells occurs as a generalized process. However, different LINE-1 loci showed different incidences of HNSCC hypomethylation, which is a lower methylation level than NOE. Additionally, we report a closer direct association between two LINE-1s in different EPHA3 introns. Finally, hypermethylation of some LINE-1s can be found sporadically in cancer. In conclusion, even though the global hypomethylation process that occurs in cancerous cells can generally deplete LINE-1 methylation levels, LINE-1 methylation can be influenced differentially depending on where the particular sequences are located in the genome.Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction
Wimmer-Kleikamp SH, Nievergall E, Gegenbauer K, et al.Elevated protein tyrosine phosphatase activity provokes Eph/ephrin-facilitated adhesion of pre-B leukemia cells.
Blood. 2008; 112(3):721-32 [PubMed
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Signaling by Eph receptors and cell-surface ephrin ligands modulates adhesive cell properties and thereby coordinates cell movement and positioning in normal and oncogenic development. While cell contact-dependent Eph activation frequently leads to cell-cell repulsion, also the diametrically opposite response, cell-cell adhesion, is a probable outcome. However, the molecular principles regulating such disparate functions have remained controversial. We have examined cell-biologic mechanisms underlying this switch by analyzing ephrin-A5-induced cell-morphologic changes of EphA3-positive LK63 pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Their exposure to ephrin-A5 surfaces leads to a rapid conversion from a suspended/nonpolarized to an adherent/polarized cell type, a transition that relies on EphA3 functions operating in the absence of Eph-kinase signaling. Cell morphology change and adhesion of LK63 cells are effectively attenuated by endogenous protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity, whereby PTP inhibition and productive EphA3-phosphotyrosine signaling reverse the phenotype to nonadherent cells with a condensed cytoskeleton. Our findings suggest that Eph-associated PTP activities not only control receptor phosphorylation levels, but as a result switch the response to ephrin contact from repulsion to adhesion, which may play a role in the pathology of hematopoietic tumors.Related: Signal Transduction
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