Research IndicatorsGraph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: EPOR (cancer-related)
Johnson C, Segovia B, Kandpal RPEPHA7 and EPHA10 Physically Interact and Differentially Co-localize in Normal Breast and Breast Carcinoma Cell Lines, and the Co-localization Pattern Is Altered in EPHB6-expressing MDA-MB-231 Cells.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2016 09-10; 13(5):359-68 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma cell (EPH) receptors comprise the most abundant receptor tyrosine kinase family characterized to date in mammals including humans. These proteins are involved in axon guidance, tissue organization, vascular development and the intricate process of various diseases including cancer. These diverse functions of EPH receptors are attributed, in part, to their abilities for heterodimerization. While the interacting partners of kinase-deficient EPHB6 receptor have been characterized, the interaction of the kinase-dead EPHA10 with any other receptor has not been identified. By using co-immunoprecipitation, we demonstrated physical interaction between kinase-deficient EPHA10 with kinase-sufficient EPHA7 receptor. Immunocytochemical analyses have revealed that these two receptors co-localize on the cell surface, and soluble portions of the receptors exist as a complex in the cytoplasm as well as the nuclei. While EPHA7 and EPHA10 co-localize similarly on the membrane in MCF10A and MCF7 cells, they were differentially co-localized in MDA-MB-231 cells stably transfected with empty pcDNA vector (MDA-MB-231-PC) or an expression construct of EPHB6 (MDA-MB-231-B6). The full-length isoforms of these receptors were co-localized on the cell surface, and the soluble forms were present as a complex in the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus in MDA-MB-231-PC cells. MDA-MB-231-B6 cells, on the other hand, were distinguished by the absence of any signal in the nuclei. Our results represent the first demonstration of physical interaction between EPHA10 and EPHA7 and their cellular co-localization. Furthermore, these observations also suggest gene-regulatory functions of the complex of the soluble forms of these receptors in breast carcinoma cells of differential invasiveness.
Hu W, Zhang Y, Jiang Z, et al.The tumor promoting roles of erythropoietin/erythropoietin receptor signaling pathway in gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):11523-33 [PubMed
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Erythropoietin (EPO), binding with its receptor (EPOR), plays an important role in erythropoiesis. EPOR is reported to be expressed in various non-hematopoietic cancers, including gastric cancer. Although recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) has been widely used clinically in anemia patients, it remains controversial whether it would promote tumor progression. In this study, we used siRNA interference method to downregulate EPOR expression to investigate the function of EPO/EPOR pathway in human gastric cancer cells. We found EPOR expressed significantly higher in gastric cancer tissues, and also in most gastric cancer cell lines. RhEPO promoted gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration in AGS cells, and promoted cells from G0/G1 stage to G2/M stage, but had no regulation on AGS cell apoptosis. Downregulation of EPOR expression by siRNA interference in AGS cells resulted in no significant effects on proliferation and invasiveness of the cells, but induced apoptosis (p < 0.05). Xenografted gastric tumor model was used to explore the effect of EPOR-overexpression on gastric cancer cells in vivo. Our result showed that overexpression of EPOR enhanced tumor formation in nude mice (p < 0.01). Our results suggest that EPO/EPOR pathway promotes gastric cancer formation, proliferation, migration, and decreases apoptosis.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous disease at the genetic level. Chromosomal abnormalities are used as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers to provide subtype, outcome and drug response information. t(12;21)/ETV6-RUNX1 and high hyper-diploidy are good-risk prognostic biomarkers whereas KMT2A(MLL) translocations, t(17;19)/TCF3-HLF, haploidy or low hypodiploidy are high-risk biomarkers. t(9;22)/BCR-ABL1 patients require targeted treatment (imatinib/dasatinib), whereas iAMP21 patients achieve better outcomes when treated intensively. High-risk genetic biomarkers are four times more prevalent in adults compared to children. The application of genomic technologies to cases without an established abnormality (B-other) reveals copy number alterations which can be used either individually or in combination as prognostic biomarkers. Transcriptome sequencing studies have identified a network of fusion genes involving kinase genes -ABL1,ABL2,PDGFRB,CSF1R,CRLF2,JAK2 and EPOR in-vitro and in-vivo studies along with emerging clinical observations indicate that patients with a kinase-activating aberration may respond to treatment with small molecular inhibitors like imatinib/dasatinib and ruxolitinib. Further work is required to determine the true frequency of these abnormalities across the age spectrum and the optimal way to incorporate such inhibitors into protocols. In conclusion, genetic biomarkers are playing an increasingly important role in the management of patients with ALL.
Chromosomal rearrangements are a hallmark of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are important ALL initiating events. We describe four different rearrangements of the erythropoietin receptor gene EPOR in Philadelphia chromosome-like (Ph-like) ALL. All of these rearrangements result in truncation of the cytoplasmic tail of EPOR at residues similar to those mutated in primary familial congenital polycythemia, with preservation of the proximal tyrosine essential for receptor activation and loss of distal regulatory residues. This resulted in deregulated EPOR expression, hypersensitivity to erythropoietin stimulation, and heightened JAK-STAT activation. Expression of truncated EPOR in mouse B cell progenitors induced ALL in vivo. Human leukemic cells with EPOR rearrangements were sensitive to JAK-STAT inhibition, suggesting a therapeutic option in high-risk ALL.
Jin Q, Li XJ, Cao PGMicroRNA-26b Enhances the Radiosensitivity of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Targeting EphA2.
Tohoku J Exp Med. 2016; 238(2):143-51 [PubMed
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Sensitizing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells to irradiation is important to achieve satisfactory therapeutic effect with low-dose radiotherapy. Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma A2 (EphA2) is a member of the Eph receptor family that constitutes the largest family of tyrosine kinase receptors. EphA2 overexpression is one of the poor prognostic factors in many progressive cancers. Importantly, EphA2 is a potential target of microRNA-26b (miR-26b), and miR-26b expression is down-regulated in several types of cancer. In this study, we measured the expression levels of miR-26b and EphA2 protein in seven human HCC cell lines by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Overall, lower miR-26b expression levels tended to be associated with higher EphA2 levels in HCC cell lines. Among the cell lines examined, 97H HCC cells expressed the lowest level of miR-26b and highest level of EphA2 protein. Thus, using 97H HCC cells, EphA2 mRNA was verified as the target of miR-26b by the luciferase reporter assay. Accordingly, a synthetic miR-26b, miR-26b mimics, was used to mimic the function of endogenous miR-26b. In 97H HCC cells transfected with miR-26b mimics or short-hairpin RNA targeting EphA2 mRNA, expression of EphA2 protein was reduced, which was associated with significantly lower proliferation rate and invasion ability and with higher apoptosis rate in response to low-dose irradiation, compared to control cells. In contrast, 97H HCC cells over-expressing EphA2 showed higher proliferation rate and invasion ability and lower apoptosis rate upon irradiation. These data suggest that miR-26b enhances the radiosensitivity of 97H HCC cells by targeting EphA2 protein.
While recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo) has been widely used to treat anemia in cancer patients, concerns about its adverse effects on patient survival have emerged. A lack of correlation between expression of the canonical EpoR and rhEpo's effects on cancer cells prompted us to consider the existence of an alternative Epo receptor. Here, we identified EphB4 as an Epo receptor that triggers downstream signaling via STAT3 and promotes rhEpo-induced tumor growth and progression. In human ovarian and breast cancer samples, expression of EphB4 rather than the canonical EpoR correlated with decreased disease-specific survival in rhEpo-treated patients. These results identify EphB4 as a critical mediator of erythropoietin-induced tumor progression and further provide clinically significant dimension to the biology of erythropoietin.
The erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) is expressed by cells from the erythroid lineage; however, evidence has accumulated that it is also expressed by some solid tumors. This is an important observation, because recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) is employed in cancer patients to treat anemia related to chemo/radiotherapy. In our studies we employed eight rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines (three alveolar-type RMS cell lines and five embrional-type RMS cell lines), and mRNA samples obtained from positive, PAX7-FOXO1-positive, and fusion-negative RMS patient samples. Expression of EpoR was evaluated by RT-PCR, gene array and FACS. The functionality of EpoR in RMS cell lines was evaluated by chemotaxis, adhesion, and direct cell proliferation assays. In some of the experiments, RMS cells were exposed to vincristine (VCR) in the presence or absence of EPO to test whether EPO may impair the therapeutic effect of VCR. We report for a first time that functional EpoR is expressed in human RMS cell lines as well as by primary tumors from RMS patients. Furthermore, EpoR is detectably expressed in both embryonal and alveolar RMS subtypes. At the functional level, several human RMS cell lines responded to EPO stimulation by enhanced proliferation, chemotaxis, cell adhesion, and phosphorylation of MAPKp42/44 and AKT. Moreover, RMS cells became more resistant to VCR treatment in the presence of EPO. Our findings have important potential clinical implications, indicating that EPO supplementation in RMS patients may have the unwanted side effect of tumor progression.
Yano M, Imamura T, Asai D, et al.Identification of novel kinase fusion transcripts in paediatric B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with IKZF1 deletion.
Br J Haematol. 2015; 171(5):813-7 [PubMed
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Activating tyrosine kinase mutations or cytokine receptor signalling alterations have attracted attention as therapeutic targets for high-risk paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We identified two novel kinase fusions, OFD1-JAK2 and NCOR1-LYN, in paediatric ALL patients with IKZF1 deletion, by mRNA sequencing. The patient with CSF2RA-CRLF2 also harboured IGH-EPOR. All these patients had high-risk features, such as high initial white blood cell counts and initial poor response to prednisolone. The functional analysis of these novel fusions is on-going to determine whether these genetic alterations can be targeted by drugs.
Dimasi N, Fleming R, Hay C, et al.Development of a Trispecific Antibody Designed to Simultaneously and Efficiently Target Three Different Antigens on Tumor Cells.
Mol Pharm. 2015; 12(9):3490-501 [PubMed
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Targeting Eph (erythropoietin producing hepatoma) receptors with monoclonal antibodies is being explored as therapy for several types of cancer. To test whether simultaneous targeting of EphA2, EphA4, and EphB4 would be an effective approach to cancer therapy, we generated a recombinant trispecific antibody using the variable domain genes of anti-EphA2, anti-EphA4, and anti-EphB4 monoclonal antibodies. A multidisciplinary approach combining biochemical, biophysical, and cellular-based assays was used to characterize the trispecific antibody in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that the trispecific antibody is expressed at high levels by mammalian cells, monodispersed in solution, thermostable, capable of simultaneously binding the three receptors, and able to activate the three targets effectively as evidenced by receptor internalization and degradation both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analysis using tumor-bearing nude mice showed that the trispecific antibody remains in the circulation similarly to its respective parental antibodies. These results indicate that simultaneous blockade of EphA2, EphA4, and EphB4 could be an attractive approach to cancer therapy.
The aim of this study is to explore a cause-oriented therapy for patients with uterine cervical cancer that expresses erythropoietin (Epo) and its receptor (EpoR). Epo, by binding to EpoR, stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells into hemoglobin-containing red blood cells. In this study, we report that the HeLa cells in the xenografts expressed ε, γ, and α globins as well as myoglobin (Mb) to produce tetrameric α2ε2 and α2γ2 and monomeric Mb, most of which were significantly suppressed with an EpoR antagonist EMP9. Western blotting revealed that the EMP9 treatment inhibited the AKT-pAKT, MAPKs-pMAPKs, and STAT5-pSTAT5 signaling pathways. Moreover, the treatment induced apoptosis and suppression of the growth and inhibited the survival through disruption of the harmonized hemoprotein syntheses in the tumor cells concomitant with destruction of vascular nets in the xenografts. Furthermore, macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells with intense HIF-1α expression recruited significantly more in the degenerating foci of the xenografts. These findings were associated with the enhanced expressions of nNOS in the tumor cells and iNOS in macrophages and NK cells in the tumor sites. The treated tumor cells exhibited a substantial number of perforations on the cell surface, which indicates that the tumors were damaged by both the nNOS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in the tumor cells as well as the iNOS-induced NO production in the innate immune cells. Taken together, these data suggest that HeLa cells constitutively acquire ε, γ and Mb synthetic capacity for their survival. Therefore, EMP9 treatment might be a cause-oriented and effective therapy for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
Mali SBReview of STAT3 (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) in head and neck cancer.
Oral Oncol. 2015; 51(6):565-9 [PubMed
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STATs can be activated independently of JAKs, most notably by c-Src kinases. In cancer cells, STAT3 and STAT5 activation leads to the increased expression of downstream target genes, leading to increased cell proliferation, cell survival, angiogenesis, and immune system evasion. STAT3 and STAT5 are expressed and activated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma where they contribute to cell survival and proliferation. STATs can be activated by a number of signal transduction pathways, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), nicotinic receptor, interleukin (IL) receptor, and erythropoietin receptor pathways. Identifying agents that inhibit STAT-3, a cytosolic transcription factor involved in the activation of various genes implicated in tumor progression is a promising strategy for cancer chemoprevention. Several approaches have been used to inhibit STAT3 in the hope of developing an antitumor agent. Although several STAT3-specific agents are promising, none are in clinical development, mostly because of drug delivery and stability issues.
Pérès EA, Gérault AN, Valable S, et al.Silencing erythropoietin receptor on glioma cells reinforces efficacy of temozolomide and X-rays through senescence and mitotic catastrophe.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(4):2101-19 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypoxia-inducible genes may contribute to therapy resistance in glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive and hypoxic brain tumours. It has been recently reported that erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) are involved in glioma growth. We now investigated whether EPOR signalling may modulate the efficacy of the GBM current treatment based on chemotherapy (temozolomide, TMZ) and radiotherapy (X-rays). Using RNA interference, we showed on glioma cell lines (U87 and U251) that EPOR silencing induces a G2/M cell cycle arrest, consistent with the slowdown of glioma growth induced by EPOR knock-down. In vivo, we also reported that EPOR silencing combined with TMZ treatment is more efficient to delay tumour recurrence and to prolong animal survival compared to TMZ alone. In vitro, we showed that EPOR silencing not only increases the sensitivity of glioma cells to TMZ as well as X-rays but also counteracts the hypoxia-induced chemo- and radioresistance. Silencing EPOR on glioma cells exposed to conventional treatments enhances senescence and induces a robust genomic instability that leads to caspase-dependent mitotic death by increasing the number of polyploid cells and cyclin B1 expression. Overall these data suggest that EPOR could be an attractive target to overcome therapeutic resistance toward ionising radiation or temozolomide.
UNLABELLED: BRAF(V600E) is the most common oncogenic lesion in melanoma and results in constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway and uncontrolled cell growth. Selective BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib have been shown to neutralize oncogenic signaling, restrain cellular growth, and improve patient outcome. Although several mechanisms of vemurafenib resistance have been described, directed solutions to overcome these resistance lesions are still lacking. Herein, we found that vemurafenib resistance can be (i) mediated by EPHA2, a member of the largest receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) subfamily erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular (EPH) receptors, and (ii) associated with a greater phenotypic dependence on EPHA2. Furthermore, we developed a series of first-in-class EPHA2 inhibitors and show that these new compounds potently induce apoptosis, suppress viability, and abrogate tumorigenic growth of melanoma cells, including those that are resistant to vemurafenib. These results provide proof of concept that RTK-guided growth, and therapeutic resistance, can be prospectively defined and selectively targeted.
SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, we show that resistance to selective BRAF inhibitors can be mediated by the RTK EPHA2. Furthermore, direct targeting of EPHA2 can successfully suppress melanoma growth and mitigate therapeutic resistance.
Yang C, Zhuang Z, Fliedner SM, et al.Germ-line PHD1 and PHD2 mutations detected in patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma-polycythemia.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2015; 93(1):93-104 [PubMed
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UNLABELLED: We have investigated genetic/pathogenetic factors associated with a new clinical entity in patients presenting with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL) and polycythemia. Two patients without hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2A) mutations, who presented with similar clinical manifestations, were analyzed for other gene mutations, including prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) mutations. We have found for the first time a germ-line mutation in PHD1 in one patient and a novel germ-line PHD2 mutation in a second patient. Both mutants exhibited reduced protein stability with substantial quantitative protein loss and thus compromised catalytic activities. Due to the unique association of patients' polycythemia with borderline or mildly elevated erythropoietin (EPO) levels, we also performed an in vitro sensitivity assay of erythroid progenitors to EPO and for EPO receptor (EPOR) expression. The results show inappropriate hypersensitivity of erythroid progenitors to EPO in these patients, indicating increased EPOR expression/activity. In addition, the present study indicates that HIF dysregulation due to PHD mutations plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these tumors and associated polycythemia. The PHD1 mutation appears to be a new member contributing to the genetic landscape of this novel clinical entity. Our results support the existence of a specific PHD1- and PHD2-associated PHEO/PGL-polycythemia disorder.
KEY MESSAGE: • A novel germ-l i n e PHD1 mutation causing heochromocytoma/paraganglioma and polycythemia. • Increased EPOR activity and inappropriate hypersensitivity of erythroid progenitors to EPO.
BACKGROUND: Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) is characterized by a gene-expression profile similar to that of BCR-ABL1-positive ALL, alterations of lymphoid transcription factor genes, and a poor outcome. The frequency and spectrum of genetic alterations in Ph-like ALL and its responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibition are undefined, especially in adolescents and adults.
METHODS: We performed genomic profiling of 1725 patients with precursor B-cell ALL and detailed genomic analysis of 154 patients with Ph-like ALL. We examined the functional effects of fusion proteins and the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in mouse pre-B cells and xenografts of human Ph-like ALL.
RESULTS: Ph-like ALL increased in frequency from 10% among children with standard-risk ALL to 27% among young adults with ALL and was associated with a poor outcome. Kinase-activating alterations were identified in 91% of patients with Ph-like ALL; rearrangements involving ABL1, ABL2, CRLF2, CSF1R, EPOR, JAK2, NTRK3, PDGFRB, PTK2B, TSLP, or TYK2 and sequence mutations involving FLT3, IL7R, or SH2B3 were most common. Expression of ABL1, ABL2, CSF1R, JAK2, and PDGFRB fusions resulted in cytokine-independent proliferation and activation of phosphorylated STAT5. Cell lines and human leukemic cells expressing ABL1, ABL2, CSF1R, and PDGFRB fusions were sensitive in vitro to dasatinib, EPOR and JAK2 rearrangements were sensitive to ruxolitinib, and the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion was sensitive to crizotinib.
CONCLUSIONS: Ph-like ALL was found to be characterized by a range of genomic alterations that activate a limited number of signaling pathways, all of which may be amenable to inhibition with approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Trials identifying Ph-like ALL are needed to assess whether adding tyrosine kinase inhibitors to current therapy will improve the survival of patients with this type of leukemia. (Funded by the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities and others.).
Michiels JJ, Berneman Z, Schroyens W, De Raeve HChanging concepts of diagnostic criteria of myeloproliferative disorders and the molecular etiology and classification of myeloproliferative neoplasms: from Dameshek 1950 to Vainchenker 2005 and beyond.
Acta Haematol. 2015; 133(1):36-51 [PubMed
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The Polycythemia Vera Study Group (PVSG) and WHO classifications distinguished the Philadelphia (Ph(1)) chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia from the Ph(1)-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (MF) or primary megakaryocytic granulocytic myeloproliferation (PMGM). Half of PVSG/WHO-defined ET patients show low serum erythropoietin levels and carry the JAK2(V617F) mutation, indicating prodromal PV. The positive predictive value of a JAK2(V617F) PCR test is 95% for the diagnosis of PV, and about 50% for ET and MF. The WHO-defined JAK2(V617F)-positive ET comprises three ET phenotypes at clinical and bone marrow level when the integrated WHO and European Clinical, Molecular and Pathological (ECMP) criteria are applied: normocellular ET (WHO-ET), hypercellular ET due to increased erythropoiesis (prodromal PV) and hypercellular ET associated with megakaryocytic granulocytic myeloproliferation (EMGM). Four main molecular types of clonal MPN can be distinguished: JAK2(V617F)-positive ET and PV; JAK2 wild-type ET carrying the MPL(515); mutations in the calreticulin (CALR) gene in JAK2/MPL wild-type ET and MF, and a small proportion of JAK2/MPL/CALR wild-type ET and MF patients. The JAK2(V617F) mutation load is low in heterozygous normocellular WHO-ET. The JAK2(V617F) mutation load in hetero-/homozygous PV and EMGM is clearly related to MPN disease burden in terms of splenomegaly, constitutional symptoms and fibrosis. The JAK2 wild-type ET carrying the MPL(515) mutation is featured by clustered small and giant megakaryocytes with hyperlobulated stag-horn-like nuclei, in a normocellular bone marrow (WHO-ET), and lacks features of PV. JAK2/MPL wild-type, CALR mutated hypercellular ET associated with PMGM is featured by dense clustered large immature dysmorphic megakaryocytes and bulky (cloud-like) hyperchromatic nuclei, which are never seen in WHO-ECMP-defined JAK2(V617F) mutated ET, EMGM and PV, and neither in JAK2 wild-type ET carrying the MPL(515) mutation. Two thirds of JAK2/MPL wild-type ET and MF patients carry one of the CALR mutations as the cause of the third distinct MPN entity. WHO-ECMP criteria are recommended to diagnose, classify and stage the broad spectrum of MPN of various molecular etiologies.
The JAK2V617F mutation is found in the majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Transgenic expression of the mutant gene causes MPN-like phenotypes in mice. We have produced JAK2V617F mice with p53 null background. Some of these mice developed acute erythroleukemia. From one of these mice, we derived a cell line designated J53Z1. J53Z1 cells were stained positive for surface markers CD71 and CD117 but negative for Sca-1, TER-119, CD11b, Gr-1, F4/80, CD11c, CD317, CD4, CD8a, CD3e, B220, CD19, CD41, CD42d, NK-1.1, and FceR1. Real time PCR analyses demonstrated expressions of erythropoietin receptor EpoR, GATA1, and GATA2 in these cells. J53Z1 cells grew rapidly in suspension culture containing fetal bovine serum with a doubling time of ∼18 hours. When transplanted into C57Bl/6 mice, J53Z1 cells induced acute erythroleukemia with massive infiltration of tumor cells in the spleen and liver. J53Z1 cells were responsive to stimulation with erythropoietin and stem cell factor and were selectively inhibited by JAK2 inhibitors which induced apoptosis of the cells. Together, J53Z1 cells belong to the erythroid lineage, and they may be useful for studying the role of JAK2V617F in proliferation and differentiation of erythroid cells and for identifying potential therapeutic drugs targeting JAK2.
Takahashi Y, Itoh M, Nara N, Tohda SEffect of EPH-ephrin signaling on the growth of human leukemia cells.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(6):2913-8 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Signaling induced by binding of erythropoietin-producing hepatoma-amplified sequence (EPH) receptors to their cell-surface ephrin ligands is implicated in hematopoiesis and growth of various cancer cells. However, the roles of EPH-ephrin signaling in leukemia have not been elucidated. We investigated the effects of EPHB4 and ephrin B2 on the growth of leukemia cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven human leukemia cell lines were used to examine the effects of recombinant ephrin B2 and EPHB4 on cell proliferation by colorimetric WST-1 assay and colony assays; on protein tyrosine phosphorylation; and on mRNA expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and microarray analysis.
RESULTS: In an erythroid leukemia-derived cell line AA, exogenous ephrin B2 induced proliferation and colony formation; in addition, it up-regulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation and the expression of growth-related genes such as FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B and v-src avian sarcoma viral oncogene homolog.
CONCLUSION: Growth-promoting effects of ephrin B2 were observed in an erythroid leukemia cell line, suggesting that the EPH-ephrin signaling may be involved in the pathology of leukemia.
Peng L, Tu P, Wang X, et al.Loss of EphB6 protein expression in human colorectal cancer correlates with poor prognosis.
J Mol Histol. 2014; 45(5):555-63 [PubMed
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Erythropoietin-producing hepatocyte (Eph) receptor family constitutes the largest family of tyrosine kinase receptors in the human genome. Loss of EphB6, a kinase-deficient receptor, correlated with a negative outcome in several carcinomas. This study aimed to investigate the expression of EphB6 protein and mRNA levels in colorectal cancers (CRCs) and possible correlations with clinicopathological variables and prognosis. To assess protein expression level, 124 CRCs and 57 colorectal adenomas samples were examined by immunostaining, the mRNA level of 43 paired CRC and the adjacent normal tissues were detected by using SYBR Green real-time PCR method. Decreased expression of EphB6 protein was found in CRC as compared with adenoma and normal tissues (χ(2) = 10.146, P = 0.001 and χ(2) = 45.333, P < 0.001, respectively). Low EphB6 mRNA expression was detected in 83.8% of cancers with negative or low EphB6 protein expression. The loss of EphB6 protein in CRC was positively associated with poorly differentiation (P < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.006), Dukes stage (P = 0.002) and depth of invasion (P = 0.016). The patients with lymph node metastasis had a worse prognosis independently of gender, age, tumor site, stage and differentiation (RR = 0.404, CI 0.267-0.213, P < 0.001). Low levels of EphB6 protein expression are associated with a shorter mean duration of survival in colorectal cancer. Our results demonstrated that EphB6 may represent a novel, useful tissue biomarker for the prediction of survival rate in CRC.
Krebs S, Chow KK, Yi Z, et al.T cells redirected to interleukin-13Rα2 with interleukin-13 mutein--chimeric antigen receptors have anti-glioma activity but also recognize interleukin-13Rα1.
Cytotherapy. 2014; 16(8):1121-31 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AIMS: Outcomes for patients with glioblastoma remain poor despite aggressive multimodal therapy. Immunotherapy with genetically modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting interleukin (IL) 13Rα2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, epidermal growth factor variant III or erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma A2 has shown promise for the treatment of glioma in preclinical models. On the basis of IL13Rα2 immunotoxins that contain IL13 molecules with one or two amino acid substitutions (IL13 muteins) to confer specificity to IL13Rα2, investigators have constructed CARS with IL13 muteins as antigen-binding domains. Whereas the specificity of IL13 muteins in the context of immunotoxins is well characterized, limited information is available for CAR T cells.
METHODS: We constructed four second-generation CARs with IL13 muteins with one or two amino acid substitutions, and evaluated the effector function of IL13-mutein CAR T cells in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: T cells expressing all four CARs recognized IL13Rα1 or IL13Rα2 recombinant protein in contrast to control protein (IL4R) as judged by interferon-γ production. IL13 protein produced significantly more IL2, indicating that IL13 mutein-CAR T cells have a higher affinity to IL13Rα2 than to IL13Rα1. In cytotoxicity assays, CAR T cells killed IL13Rα1- and/or IL13Rα2-positive cells in contrast to IL13Rα1- and IL13Rα2-negative controls. Although we observed no significant differences between IL13 mutein-CAR T cells in vitro, only T cells expressing IL13 mutein-CARs with an E13K amino acid substitution had anti-tumor activity in vivo that resulted in a survival advantage of treated animals.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights that the specificity/avidity of ligands is context-dependent and that evaluating CAR T cells in preclinical animal model is critical to assess their potential benefit.
To investigate signal regulation models of gastric cancer, databases and literature were used to construct the signaling network in humans. Topological characteristics of the network were analyzed by CytoScape. After marking gastric cancer-related genes extracted from the CancerResource, GeneRIF, and COSMIC databases, the FANMOD software was used for the mining of gastric cancer-related motifs in a network with three vertices. The significant motif difference method was adopted to identify significantly different motifs in the normal and cancer states. Finally, we conducted a series of analyses of the significantly different motifs, including gene ontology, function annotation of genes, and model classification. A human signaling network was constructed, with 1643 nodes and 5089 regulating interactions. The network was configured to have the characteristics of other biological networks. There were 57,942 motifs marked with gastric cancer-related genes out of a total of 69,492 motifs, and 264 motifs were selected as significantly different motifs by calculating the significant motif difference (SMD) scores. Genes in significantly different motifs were mainly enriched in functions associated with cancer genesis, such as regulation of cell death, amino acid phosphorylation of proteins, and intracellular signaling cascades. The top five significantly different motifs were mainly cascade and positive feedback types. Almost all genes in the five motifs were cancer related, including EPOR, MAPK14, BCL2L1, KRT18, PTPN6, CASP3, TGFBR2, AR, and CASP7. The development of cancer might be curbed by inhibiting signal transductions upstream and downstream of the selected motifs.
Aguilar C, Aguilar C, Lopez-Marure R, et al.Co-stimulation with stem cell factor and erythropoietin enhances migration of c-Kit expressing cervical cancer cells through the sustained activation of ERK1/2.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 9(5):1895-902 [PubMed
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The cytokines erythropoietin (Epo) and stem cell factor (SCF), coupled with the cooperation between their receptors (EpoR and c-Kit), are essential components of normal physiological erythropoiesis. In earlier studies, we demonstrated the expression of c-Kit and EpoR in cervical cancer cells. It was identified that SCF is a survival factor, whereas Epo promotes cell proliferation. Cooperation between EpoR and SCF in cervical cancer has rarely been studied, despite the fact that cell migration and anchorage independent growth are considered initial steps in metastasis. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the effect of SCF and Epo alone, or in combination, on the migration and anchorage independent growth of two cervical cancer-derived cell lines. First, we demonstrated the expression of EpoR and c-Kit in the cell lines. Next, we evaluated anchorage independent growth, and identified that Epo and SCF produced a modest number of colonies, whereas the combination Epo/SCF induced a significantly higher number of colonies. Migration was then evaluated in Boyden chambers. Co-stimulation with Epo/SCF induced a significantly higher number of migrating cells than either cytokine alone. SCF-, Epo- and Epo/SCF-induced migration was inhibited by blocking phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). Accordingly, western blot analysis demonstrated that the JAK2/signal transducer and activator of transcription-5 (STAT5) axis was activated in all cases. By contrast, inhibition of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) 1/2 abrogated migration induced by SCF and Epo/SCF only. Concurrently, Epo induced a modest, transient activation of ERK1/2, whereas SCF and Epo/SCF prompted a strong, sustained phosphorylation of ERK1/2. The results from this study have revealed that co-stimulation with Epo/SCF promotes migration and anchorage independent cell growth, and that co-signalling from EpoR and c-Kit converge on JAK2/STAT5 activation. Furthermore, SCF- and Epo/SCF-induced migration depends on the sustained activation of ERK1/2. These results indicate that co-signalling from different cytokine receptors induces migration, and this suggests that migratory behaviour may be regulated by the cooperative activity of Epo and SCF in cells expressing their cognate receptors.
Minami T, Minami T, Shimizu N, et al.Identification of erythropoietin receptor-derived peptides having the potential to induce cancer-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes from HLA-A24(+) patients with renal cell carcinoma.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2014; 20(1):59-65 [PubMed
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Molecular targeting therapy with anti-angiogenic agents, including sunitinib and sorafenib, has been proven to be the first- and second-line standard treatments for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) worldwide. Despite their significant antitumor effects, most of the patients with mRCC have not been cured. Under such circumstances, anti-cancer immunotherapy has been considered as a promising treatment modality for mRCC, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are the most powerful effectors among several immune cells and molecules. Therefore, we previously conducted anti-cancer vaccine therapy with peptides derived from carbonic anhydrase-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 as phase-I/II trials for mRCC patients and reported their clinical benefits. Alternatively, up-regulated expression of erythropoietin (Epo) and its receptor (EpoR) in RCC has been reported, and their co-expression is involved in tumorigenesis. In order to increase options for peptide-based vaccination therapy, we searched for novel EpoR-peptides for HLA-A24(+) RCC patients. Among 5 peptides derived from EpoR, which were prepared based on the binding motif to the HLA-A24 allele, EpoR52-60 peptide had the potential to induce peptide-specific CTLs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HLA-A24(+) RCC patients. Cytotoxicity toward HLA-A24(+) and EpoR-expressing RCC cells was ascribed to peptide-specific CD8(+) T cells. These results indicate that the EpoR52-60 peptide could be a promising candidate for a peptide-based anti-cancer vaccine for HLA-A24(+) mRCC patients.
Reinbothe S, Larsson AM, Vaapil M, et al.EPO-independent functional EPO receptor in breast cancer enhances estrogen receptor activity and promotes cell proliferation.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 445(1):163-9 [PubMed
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The main function of Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) is the stimulation of erythropoiesis. Recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) is therefore used to treat anemia in cancer patients. However, clinical trials have indicated that rhEPO treatment might promote tumor progression and has a negative effect on patient survival. In addition, EPOR expression has been detected in several cancer forms. Using a newly produced anti-EPOR antibody that reliably detects the full-length isoform of the EPOR we show that breast cancer tissue and cells express the EPOR protein. rhEPO stimulation of cultured EPOR expressing breast cancer cells did not result in increased proliferation, overt activation of EPOR (receptor phosphorylation) or a consistent activation of canonical EPOR signaling pathway mediators such as JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, or AKT. However, EPOR knockdown experiments suggested functional EPO receptors in estrogen receptor positive (ERα(+)) breast cancer cells, as reduced EPOR expression resulted in decreased proliferation. This effect on proliferation was not seen in ERα negative cells. EPOR knockdown decreased ERα activity further supports a mechanism by which EPOR affects proliferation via ERα-mediated mechanisms. We show that EPOR protein is expressed in breast cancer cells, where it appears to promote proliferation by an EPO-independent mechanism in ERα expressing breast cancer cells.
Baltaziak M, Wincewicz A, Kanczuga-Koda L, et al.The relationships between hypoxia-dependent markers: HIF-1alpha, EPO and EPOR in colorectal cancer.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2013; 51(4):320-5 [PubMed
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Hypoxia triggers production of several cytoprotective proteins. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1α) is a powerful stimulator of transcription of many genes, including erythropoietin (EPO) in hypoxia-affected cells. Recent data have also implicated signaling by EPO receptor (EPOR) as a new factor influencing tumor progression. The aim of the study was to detect by immunohistochemistry the presence of HIF-1α, EPO and EPOR in colorectal cancer (CRC) in reference to clinicopathological variables. We found the presence of the studied proteins in specimens of all 125 CRC patients which is suggestive of the occurrence of hypoxia in colorectal cancer tissues. The expression of HIF-1α correlated significantly with the presence of EPO and EPOR in all samples (P < 0.001, r = 0.549 and P < 0.001, r = 0.536, respectively). Significant correlations (from P < 0.024 to P < 0.001) were found in the analyses of CRC subgroups such as histopathological type tumor, tumor grade, tumor stage and patients with lymph nodes metastases. The same high significant correlations (P < 0.001) were observed in group of sex, age and tumor location. However, the values of the correlation coefficients (r) which usually ranged from 0.5 to 0.6 suggest the existence of independent or concurrent mechanism stimulating generation of these proteins in colorectal cancer.
Oguro A, Koyama C, Xu J, Imaoka SA cellular stress response (CSR) that interacts with NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR) is a new regulator of hypoxic response.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 445(1):43-7 [PubMed
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NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR) was previously found to contribute to the hypoxic response of cells, but the mechanism was not clarified. In this study, we identified a cellular stress response (CSR) as a new factor interacting with NPR by a yeast two-hybrid system. Overexpression of CSR enhanced the induction of erythropoietin and hypoxia response element (HRE) activity under hypoxia in human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (Hep3B), while knockdown of CSR suppressed them. This new finding regarding the interaction of NPR with CSR provides insight into the function of NPR in hypoxic response.
Mirkina I, Hadzijusufovic E, Krepler C, et al.Phenotyping of human melanoma cells reveals a unique composition of receptor targets and a subpopulation co-expressing ErbB4, EPO-R and NGF-R.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e84417 [PubMed
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Malignant melanoma is a life-threatening skin cancer increasingly diagnosed in the western world. In advanced disease the prognosis is grave. Growth and metastasis formation in melanomas are regulated by a network of cytokines, cytokine-receptors, and adhesion molecules. However, little is known about surface antigens and target expression profiles in human melanomas. We examined the cell surface antigen profile of human skin melanoma cells by multicolor flow cytometry, and compared their phenotype with 4 melanoma cell lines (A375, 607B, Mel-Juso, SK-Mel28). Melanoma cells were defined as CD45-/CD31- cells co-expressing one or more melanoma-related antigens (CD63, CD146, CD166). In most patients, melanoma cells exhibited ErbB3/Her3, CD44/Pgp-1, ICAM-1/CD54 and IGF-1-R/CD221, but did not express CD20, ErbB2/Her2, KIT/CD117, AC133/CD133 or MDR-1/CD243. Melanoma cell lines were found to display a similar phenotype. In most patients, a distinct subpopulation of melanoma cells (4-40%) expressed the erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) and ErbB4 together with PD-1 and NGF-R/CD271. Both the EPO-R+ and EPO-R- subpopulations produced melanoma lesions in NOD/SCID IL-2Rgamma(null) (NSG) mice in first and secondary recipients. Normal skin melanocytes did not express ErbB4 or EPO-R, but expressed a functional KIT receptor (CD117) as well as NGF-R, ErbB3/Her3, IGF-1-R and CD44. In conclusion, melanoma cells display a unique composition of surface target antigens and cytokine receptors. Malignant transformation of melanomas is accompanied by loss of KIT and acquisition of EPO-R and ErbB4, both of which are co-expressed with NGF-R and PD-1 in distinct subfractions of melanoma cells. However, expression of EPO-R/ErbB4/PD-1 is not indicative of a selective melanoma-initiating potential.
Emara M, Turner AR, Allalunis-Turner JHypoxia differentially upregulates the expression of embryonic, fetal and adult hemoglobin in human glioblastoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(3):950-8 [PubMed
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Hemoglobin is produced mainly in erythroid cells. However, it has been reported in non-erythroid cells of human and rodents. We have shown previously that neuroglobin, cytoglobin and hemoglobin are expressed in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells. We sought to determine whether hemoglobin expression is upregulated by hypoxia, and whether its expression is restricted to the cancer stem cell populations in different GBM cell lines or GBM brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs). Flow cytometry, magnetic cell sorting and qRT-PCR were used to examine the hypoxic upregulation of hemoglobins as well as erythropoietin (EPO) and erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) in GBM cell lines (M006x, M059J, M059K, U87R and U87T) and GBM-BTICs. The data showed significantly increased expression in globins (α, β, γ, δ, ζ and ε), EPO and EPOR mRNA levels under hypoxia. Globin expression is not limited to the stem cell populations or GBM-BTICs but is a property of the entire GBM population. We assumed that the total expression of mRNA of different normalized globins (α, β, γ, δ, ζ and ε) at different time‑points for the same cell line is 100%. Under aerobic conditions, ε globin was predominantly expressed, and then decreased gradually with increasing time in hypoxia. This was coupled to a concomitant increase in α and γ globins. Our findings suggest that hypoxic upregulation of hemoglobin expression in GBM cells may be a part of a repertoire of active defence and adaptation mechanisms enabling these cells to acquire resistance to aggressive multimodality treatments of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. New therapeutic strategies to interfere with hemoglobin expression or function in GBM cells are required.
Patients with essential thrombocythemia may carry JAK2 (V617F), an MPL substitution, or a calreticulin gene (CALR) mutation. We studied biologic and clinical features of essential thrombocythemia according to JAK2 or CALR mutation status and in relation to those of polycythemia vera. The mutant allele burden was lower in JAK2-mutated than in CALR-mutated essential thrombocythemia. Patients with JAK2 (V617F) were older, had a higher hemoglobin level and white blood cell count, and lower platelet count and serum erythropoietin than those with CALR mutation. Hematologic parameters of patients with JAK2-mutated essential thrombocythemia or polycythemia vera were related to the mutant allele burden. While no polycythemic transformation was observed in CALR-mutated patients, the cumulative risk was 29% at 15 years in those with JAK2-mutated essential thrombocythemia. There was no significant difference in myelofibrotic transformation between the 2 subtypes of essential thrombocythemia. Patients with JAK2-mutated essential thrombocythemia and those with polycythemia vera had a similar risk of thrombosis, which was twice that of patients with the CALR mutation. These observations are consistent with the notion that JAK2-mutated essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera represent different phenotypes of a single myeloproliferative neoplasm, whereas CALR-mutated essential thrombocythemia is a distinct disease entity.
UNLABELLED: The clinical experience with BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) provides compelling evidence for oncogene addiction. Yet, the molecular basis of oncogene addiction remains elusive. Through unbiased quantitative phosphoproteomic analyses of CML cells transiently exposed to BCR-ABL TKI, we identified persistent downregulation of growth factor receptor (GF-R) signaling pathways. We then established and validated a tissue-relevant isogenic model of BCR-ABL-mediated addiction, and found evidence for myeloid GF-R signaling pathway rewiring that profoundly and persistently dampens physiologic pathway activation. We demonstrate that eventual restoration of ligand-mediated GF-R pathway activation is insufficient to fully rescue cells from a competing apoptotic fate. In contrast to previous work with BRAF(V600E) in melanoma cells, feedback inhibition following BCR-ABL TKI treatment is markedly prolonged, extending beyond the time required to initiate apoptosis. Mechanistically, BCR-ABL-mediated oncogene addiction is facilitated by persistent high levels of MAP-ERK kinase (MEK)-dependent negative feedback.
SIGNIFICANCE: We found that BCR–ABL can confer addiction in vitro by rewiring myeloid GF-R signaling through establishment of MEK-dependent negative feedback. Our findings predict that deeper, more durable responses to targeted agents across a range of malignancies may be facilitated by maintaining negative feedback concurrently with oncoprotein inhibition.