Gene Summary

Gene:ERCC6; ERCC excision repair 6, chromatin remodeling factor
Summary:This gene encodes a DNA-binding protein that is important in transcription-coupled excision repair. The encoded protein has ATP-stimulated ATPase activity, interacts with several transcription and excision repair proteins, and may promote complex formation at DNA repair sites. Mutations in this gene are associated with Cockayne syndrome type B and cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome 1. Alternative splicing occurs between a splice site from exon 5 of this gene to the 3' splice site upstream of the open reading frame (ORF) of the adjacent gene, piggyback-derived-3 (GeneID:267004), which activates the alternative polyadenylation site downstream of the piggyback-derived-3 ORF. The resulting transcripts encode a fusion protein that shares sequence with the product of each individual gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA excision repair protein ERCC-6; ERCC6-PGBD3 fusion protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (33)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Chromosome 10
  • Skin Cancer
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Risk Factors
  • X-ray Repair Cross Complementing Protein 1
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Protein
  • Up-Regulation
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum
  • Taiwan
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group D Protein
  • Breast Cancer
  • Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins
  • Endonucleases
  • Smoking
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • DNA Repair Enzymes
  • siRNA
  • p53 Protein
  • DNA Helicases
  • Cockayne Syndrome
  • DNA Repair
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Messenger RNA
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Polymorphism
  • von Hippel-Lindau Disease
  • Werner Syndrome Helicase
  • Genotype
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Lung Cancer
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Transcription
  • Alleles
  • Genetic Variation
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ERCC6 (cancer-related)

Luo SS, Liao XW, Zhu XD
Prognostic Value of Excision Repair Cross-Complementing mRNA Expression in Gastric Cancer.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:6204684 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Except for excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), mRNA expression of the remaining ERCC genes has not been investigated in the prognosis of gastric cancer (GC). The present study aimed to explore the mRNA expression and prognostic values of each member of the ERCC family in GC patients by using the Kaplan-Meier (KM) plotter tool. The details of each ERCC family member were entered into a database and GC patients were separated into high and low expression to draw survival plots using the KM plotter. In the present study, we observed that high expression of ERCC1 mRNA was significantly associated with longer overall survival (OS) for all GC patients (hazard ratio [HR]=0.77, 95% confidence intervals [CI]=0.63-0.95, P=0.016) compared with low expression. High expression of ERCC4 and ERCC6 mRNA indicated a worse OS for all GC patients (HR=1.28, 95% CI=1.02-1.6, P=0.035 and HR=1.25, 95% CI=1.02-1.54, P=0.029, respectively) and especially for patients with intestinal-type GC (HR=1.87, 95% CI=1.26-2.79, P=0.0018 and HR=1.62, 95% CI=1.04-2.54, P=0.033, respectively). High ERCC8 mRNA expression indicated a worse OS for all GC patients (HR=1.34, 95% CI=1.02-1.76, P=0.034) and especially for patients with diffuse-type GC (HR=2.25, 95% CI=1.36-3.75, P=0.0013). In conclusion, our findings indicate that ERCC4, ERCC6, and ERCC8 may be potential biomarkers for GC prognosis and may serve as potential therapeutic targets for GC. However, these findings still need further verification.

Suo C, Deng W, Vu TN, et al.
Accumulation of potential driver genes with genomic alterations predicts survival of high-risk neuroblastoma patients.
Biol Direct. 2018; 13(1):14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is the most common pediatric malignancy with heterogeneous clinical behaviors, ranging from spontaneous regression to aggressive progression. Many studies have identified aberrations related to the pathogenesis and prognosis, broadly classifying neuroblastoma patients into high- and low-risk groups, but predicting tumor progression and clinical management of high-risk patients remains a big challenge.
RESULTS: We integrate gene-level expression, array-based comparative genomic hybridization and functional gene-interaction network of 145 neuroblastoma patients to detect potential driver genes. The drivers are summarized into a driver-gene score (DGscore) for each patient, and we then validate its clinical relevance in terms of association with patient survival. Focusing on a subset of 48 clinically defined high-risk patients, we identify 193 recurrent regions of copy number alterations (CNAs), resulting in 274 altered genes whose copy-number gain or loss have parallel impact on the gene expression. Using a network enrichment analysis, we detect four common driver genes, ERCC6, HECTD2, KIAA1279, EMX2, and 66 patient-specific driver genes. Patients with high DGscore, thus carrying more copy-number-altered genes with correspondingly up- or down-regulated expression and functional implications, have worse survival than those with low DGscore (P = 0.006). Furthermore, Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis shows that, adjusted for age, tumor stage and MYCN amplification, DGscore is the only significant prognostic factor for high-risk neuroblastoma patients (P = 0.008).
CONCLUSIONS: Integration of genomic copy number alteration, expression and functional interaction-network data reveals clinically relevant and prognostic putative driver genes in high-risk neuroblastoma patients. The identified putative drivers are potential drug targets for individualized therapy.
REVIEWERS: This article was reviewed by Armand Valsesia, Susmita Datta and Aleksandra Gruca.

Song X, Wang S, Hong X, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms of nucleotide excision repair pathway are significantly associated with outcomes of platinum-based chemotherapy in lung cancer.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):11785 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway plays critical roles in repairing DNA disorders caused by platinum. To comprehensively understand the association between variants of NER and clinical outcomes of platinum-based chemotherapy, 173 SNPs in 27 genes were selected to evaluate association with toxicities and efficiency in 1004 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The results showed that consecutive significant signals were observed in XPA, RPA1, POLD1, POLD3. Further subgroup analysis showed that GTF2H4 presented consecutive significant signals in clinical benefit among adenocarcimoma. In squamous cell carcinoma, rs4150558, rs2290280, rs8067195 were significantly associated with anemia, rs3786136 was significantly related to thrombocytopenia, ERCC5 presented consecutive significant signals in response rate. In patients receiving TP regimen, significant association presented in neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and gastrointestinal toxicity. Association with anemia and neutropenia were found in GP regimen. rs4150558 showed significant association with anemia in NP regimen. In patients > 58, ERCC5 showed consecutive significant signals in gastrointestinal toxicity. Survival analysis showed SNPs in POLD2, XPA, ERCC6 and POLE were significantly associated with progression free survival, SNPs in GTF2H4, ERCC6, GTF2HA, MAT1, POLD1 were significantly associated with overall survival. This study suggests SNPs in NER pathway could be potential predictors for clinical outcomes of platinum-based chemotherapy among NSCLC.

Fu X, Mao X, Wang Y, et al.
Let-7c-5p inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis by targeting ERCC6 in breast cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(3):1851-1856 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we found that let-7c-5p expression was clearly downregulated in breast cancer tissues compared with that of corresponding adjacent tissues. Furthermore, overexpression of let-7c-5p in MCF-7 breast cancer cells could significantly inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. The target genes of let-7c-5p were predicted by the way of bioinformatics, and validated by dual luciferase reporter assay and western blotting demonstrating that excision repair cross complementing 6 (ERCC6) gene was a direct target. Collectively, the present study suggested that let-7c-5p acted as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer possibly by negatively regulating ERCC6, which took an important part in nucleotide excision repair and it may provide a new potential strategy for breast cancer therapy.

Savina NV, Nikitchenko NV, Kuzhir TD, et al.
The Involvement of ERCC2/XPD and ERCC6/CSB Wild Type Alleles in Protection Against Aging and Cancer.
Curr Aging Sci. 2018; 11(1):45-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA helicases maintain genome stability, and their deficiency is associated with disorders resembling premature aging as well as contributes to carcinogenesis. Their functions are determined by the respective genes encoding nucleotide excision repair initiating proteins, e.g. XPD and CSB.
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the influence of genetic variations in ERCC2/XPD (rs1799793, rs13181) and ERCC6/CSB (rs2228526, rs2228528) loci on lifespan and developing age-related bladder cancer focusing on homozygous wild type alleles.
METHOD: The allelic variants were identified in 354 clinically healthy controls and 418 bladder cancer patients using the PCR-RFLP method.
RESULTS: The age-depended increase in frequencies of homozygous carriers of wild-type XPD 312Asp and XPD 751Lys alleles was observed among controls, especially among subjects over 80 years (r = 0.67, p = 0.012). The statistically significant correlation was also found between the frequency of homozygous wild type alleles at all tested loci and age in healthy population over 60 years (r = 0.35, p = 0.046) suggesting the relationship between lifespan and longevity, on one hand, and normal functioning of these genes and their products, on the other hand. Homozygous carriers of wild type alleles were less susceptible to bladder cancer, tumor invasion, increase in grade of malignancy and recurrence, but their effects were specific with respect to clinicopathological and lifestyle characteristics.
CONCLUSION: Homozygous wild type alleles encoding XPD and CSB proteins with optimal properties were shown to affect human lifespan, risk of developing bladder cancer, its progression and recurrence under certain conditions.

Cui JJ, Wang LY, Zhu T, et al.
Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions influence platinum-based chemotherapy response and toxicity in non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):5082 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Platinum-based chemotherapy is a major therapeutic regimen of lung cancer. Various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported were associated with platinum-based chemotherapy response and drug toxicity. However, neither of the studies explored this association from SNP-SNP interaction perspective nor taking into effects of SNP-environment consideration simultaneously. We genotyped 504 polymorphisms and explore the association of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions with platinum-based chemotherapy response and toxicity in 490 NSCLC patients. 16 SNPs were found significantly associated with platinum-based chemotherapy, and they were picked out as study object in the validation cohort. We recruited 788 patients in the validation cohort. We found that HSPD1 rs17730989-SUMF1 rs2633851 interaction was associated with platinum-based chemotherapy-induced hematologic toxicity (adjusted OR = 0.233, P = 0.018). In addition, the combined effect of ABCG2 rs2231142-CES5A rs3859104 was significantly associated with overall toxicity (adjusted OR = 8.044, P = 4.350 × 10

Zhao Z, Zhang G, Li W
Elevated Expression of ERCC6 Confers Resistance to 5-Fluorouracil and Is Associated with Poor Patient Survival in Colorectal Cancer.
DNA Cell Biol. 2017; 36(9):781-786 [PubMed] Related Publications
Excision repair cross-complementation (ERCC) enzymes are key members of the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Dysregulation of ERCC family members has been shown to be involved in chemoresistance in several malignancies. However, the function of ERCC6 in regulating chemo response has not been evaluated in colorectal cancer (CRC). We stably knocked down ERCC6 expression using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in HCT116 and DLD1 human colon cancer cell lines, followed by chemosensitivity assay. In vivo chemosensitizing effects of ERCC6 were examined in xenograft experiments. Downregulation of ERCC6 conferred sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in HCT116 and DLD1 cells. Stable knockdown of ERCC6 significantly enhanced antitumor activity of 5-FU in HCT116 xenograft mouse model. ERCC6 was upregulated in CRC tissues compared to matched noncancerous adjacent tissues and was also upregulated in patients who were resistant to 5-FU treatment. In addition, high expression of ERCC6 was associated with poor overall survival in CRC patients with or without receiving 5-FU therapy. Elevated expression of ERCC6 contributes to chemoresistance in CRC cells. Low ERCC6 expression is associated with better chemo response and survival in CRC patients. Therefore, this protein represents a novel therapeutic target for improvement of chemotherapeutic efficacy and predictive biomarker for patient survival.

Jing JJ, Lu YZ, Sun LP, et al.
Epistatic SNP interaction of ERCC6 with ERCC8 and their joint protein expression contribute to gastric cancer/atrophic gastritis risk.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(26):43140-43152 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Excision repair cross-complementing group 6 and 8 (ERCC6 and ERCC8) are two indispensable genes for the initiation of transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair pathway. This study aimed to evaluate the interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms of ERCC6 (rs1917799) and ERCC8 (rs158572 and rs158916) in gastric cancer and its precancerous diseases. Besides, protein level analysis were performed to compare ERCC6 and ERCC8 expression in different stages of gastric diseases, and to correlate SNPs jointly with gene expression. Sequenom MassARRAY platform method was used to detect polymorphisms of ERCC6 and ERCC8 in 1916 subjects. In situ ERCC6 and ERCC8 protein expression were detected by immunohistochemistry in 109 chronic superficial gastritis, 109 chronic atrophic gastritis and 109 gastric cancer cases. Our results demonstrated pairwise epistatic interactions between ERCC6 and ERCC8 SNPs that ERCC6 rs1917799-ERCC8 rs158572 combination was associated with decreased risk of chronic atrophic gastritis and increased risk of gastric cancer. ERCC6 rs1917799 also showed a significant interaction with ERCC8 rs158916 to reduce gastric cancer risk. The expressions of ERCC6, ERCC8 and ERCC6-ERCC8 combination have similarities that higher positivity was observed in chronic superficial gastritis compared with chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. As for the effects of ERCC6 and ERCC8 SNPs on the protein expression, single SNP had no correlation with corresponding gene expression, whereas the ERCC6 rs1917799-ERCC8 rs158572 pair had significant influence on ERCC6 and ERCC6-ERCC8 expression. In conclusion, ERCC6 rs1917799, ERCC8 rs158572 and rs158916 demonstrated pairwise epistatic interactions to associate with chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer risk. The ERCC6 rs1917799-ERCC8 rs158572 pair significantly influence ERCC6 and ERCC6-ERCC8 expression.

Jalkh N, Chouery E, Haidar Z, et al.
Next-generation sequencing in familial breast cancer patients from Lebanon.
BMC Med Genomics. 2017; 10(1):8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Familial breast cancer (BC) represents 5 to 10% of all BC cases. Mutations in two high susceptibility BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes explain 16-40% of familial BC, while other high, moderate and low susceptibility genes explain up to 20% more of BC families. The Lebanese reported prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 deleterious mutations (5.6% and 12.5%) were lower than those reported in the literature.
METHODS: In the presented study, 45 Lebanese patients with a reported family history of BC were tested using Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) technique followed by Sanger sequencing validation.
RESULTS: Nineteen pathogenic mutations were identified in this study. These 19 mutations were found in 13 different genes such as: ABCC12, APC, ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, ERCC6, MSH2, POLH, PRF1, SLX4, STK11 and TP53.
CONCLUSIONS: In this first application of WES on BC in Lebanon, we detected six BRCA1 and BRCA2 deleterious mutations in seven patients, with a total prevalence of 15.5%, a figure that is lower than those reported in the Western literature. The p.C44F mutation in the BRCA1 gene appeared twice in this study, suggesting a founder effect. Importantly, the overall mutation prevalence was equal to 40%, justifying the urgent need to deploy WES for the identification of genetic variants responsible for familial BC in the Lebanese population.

Das A, McDonald D, Lowe S, et al.
Immunological low-dose radiation modulates the pediatric medulloblastoma antigens and enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.
Childs Nerv Syst. 2017; 33(3):429-436 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy can be an effective treatment for pediatric medulloblastoma (MB) patients. However, major subpopulations do not respond to immunotherapy, due to the lack of antigenic mutations or the immune-evasive properties of MB cells. Clinical observations suggest that radiation therapy (RT) may expand the therapeutic reach of immunotherapy. The aim of the present investigation is to study the effect of low-dose X-ray radiation (LDXR, 1 Gy) on the functional immunological responses of MB cells (DAOY, D283, and D341).
METHODS: Induction of MB cell death was examined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by fluorescent probes. Changes in the expression of  human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules and caspase-3 activities during treatment were analyzed using Western blotting and caspase-3 assay.
RESULTS: Western blot analysis demonstrated that LDXR upregulated the expression of HLA class I and HLA II molecules by more than 20% compared with control and high-dose (12 Gy) groups in vitro. Several of these HLA subtypes, such as MAGE C1, CD137, and ICAM-1, have demonstrated upregulation. In addition, LDXR increases ROS production in association with phosphorylation of NF-κB and cell surface expression of mAb target molecules (HER2 and VEGF). These data suggest that a combined LDXR and mAb therapy can create a synergistic effect in vitro.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that LDXR modulates HLA molecules, leading to alterations in T-cell/tumor-cell interaction and enhancement of T-cell-mediated MB cell death. Also, low-dose radiotherapy combined with monoclonal antibody therapy may one day augment the standard treatment for MB, but more investigation is needed to prove its utility as a new therapeutic combination for MB patients.

Scheibye-Knudsen M, Tseng A, Borch Jensen M, et al.
Cockayne syndrome group A and B proteins converge on transcription-linked resolution of non-B DNA.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(44):12502-12507 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cockayne syndrome is a neurodegenerative accelerated aging disorder caused by mutations in the CSA or CSB genes. Although the pathogenesis of Cockayne syndrome has remained elusive, recent work implicates mitochondrial dysfunction in the disease progression. Here, we present evidence that loss of CSA or CSB in a neuroblastoma cell line converges on mitochondrial dysfunction caused by defects in ribosomal DNA transcription and activation of the DNA damage sensor poly-ADP ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1). Indeed, inhibition of ribosomal DNA transcription leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in a number of cell lines. Furthermore, machine-learning algorithms predict that diseases with defects in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription have mitochondrial dysfunction, and, accordingly, this is found when factors involved in rDNA transcription are knocked down. Mechanistically, loss of CSA or CSB leads to polymerase stalling at non-B DNA in a neuroblastoma cell line, in particular at G-quadruplex structures, and recombinant CSB can melt G-quadruplex structures. Indeed, stabilization of G-quadruplex structures activates PARP1 and leads to accelerated aging in Caenorhabditis elegans In conclusion, this work supports a role for impaired ribosomal DNA transcription in Cockayne syndrome and suggests that transcription-coupled resolution of secondary structures may be a mechanism to repress spurious activation of a DNA damage response.

Hong Z, Wu J, Li Q, et al.
Meta-analysis reveals no significant association between ERCC6 polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk.
Int J Biol Markers. 2017; 32(1):e113-e117 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between excision repair cross-complementing group 6 (ERCC6) gene polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk, but their findings have been inconsistent. Here we performed a meta-analysis to attempt to clarify this association.
METHODS: Studies were retrieved from the PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases up to October 1, 2015, with strict selection and exclusion criteria. A total of 5,032 samples, comprising samples from 2,475 bladder cancer patients and 2,557 controls from 5 studies, were included in the meta-analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to evaluate the strength of the associations.
RESULTS: Regarding the Met1097Val polymorphism, no significant association with bladder cancer risk was found in any of the genetic models evaluated (Val vs. Met: OR = 1.10, 95% CI, 0.97-1.25; Val/Val vs. Met/Met: OR = 1.23, 95% CI, 0.86-1.75; Val/Val + Val/Met vs. Met/Met: OR = 1.12, 95% CI, 0.96-1.30; Val/Val vs. Met/Met + Val/Met: OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.57-1.14). Similarly, as regards the Arg1230Pro polymorphism, we also found no positive results.
CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of our meta-analysis, there is no evidence of a link between the ERCC6 gene polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. Well-designed further studies, with larger sample sizes and adjustment for confounders such as smoking status, are needed to confirm these conclusions.

Liu J, Deng N, Xu Q, et al.
Polymorphisms of multiple genes involved in NER pathway predict prognosis of gastric cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(30):48130-48142 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a versatile system that repairs various DNA damage. Polymorphisms of core NER genes could change NER ability and affect gastric cancer (GC) prognosis. We systematically analyzed the association between 43 SNPs of ten key NER pathway genes (ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, ERCC6, ERCC8, XPA, XPC, and DDB2) and overall survival (OS) of 373 GC patients in Chinese. Genotyping was performed by Sequenom MassARRAY platform. We found for the first time that carriers of ERCC2 rs50871 GG genotype demonstrated significantly increased hazards of death than GT/TT individuals (HR=2.55, P=0.002); ERCC6 rs1917799 heterozygote GT were associated with significantly shorter OS than wild-type TT (adjusted HR=1.68, P=0.048); patients with DDB2 rs3781619 GG genotype suffered higher hazards of death compared with AG/AA carriers (adjusted HR=2.30, P=0.003). Patients with ERCC1 rs3212961 AA/AC genotype exhibited longer OS than CC genotype (adjusted HR=0.63, P=0.028); ERCC5 rs2094258 AA/AG genotype revealed significantly favorable OS compared with GG genotype (adjusted HR=0.65, P=0.033); DDB2 rs830083 CG genotype could increase OS compared with GG genotype (adjusted HR=0.61, P=0.042). Furthermore, patients simultaneously carrying two "hazard" genotypes exhibited even significantly worse survival with HR of 3.75, 3.76 and 6.30, respectively. Similarly, combination of "favorable" genotypes predicted better prognosis with HR of 0.56, 0.49 and 0.33, respectively. In conclusion, ERCC2 rs50871 G/T, ERCC6 rs1917799 G/T, DDB2 rs3781619 A/G polymorphisms could predict shorter OS while ERCC1 rs3212961 A/C, ERCC5 rs2094258 A/G, DDB2 rs830083 C/G polymorphisms could predict longer OS of GC, which might serve as promising biomarkers for GC prognosis.

Rainey RN, Ng SY, Llamas J, et al.
Mutations in Cockayne Syndrome-Associated Genes (Csa and Csb) Predispose to Cisplatin-Induced Hearing Loss in Mice.
J Neurosci. 2016; 36(17):4758-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Cisplatin is a common and effective chemotherapeutic agent, yet it often causes permanent hearing loss as a result of sensory hair cell death. The causes of sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents in nondividing cell populations, such as cochlear hair and supporting cells, are poorly understood, as are the specific DNA repair pathways that protect these cells. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a conserved and versatile DNA repair pathway for many DNA-distorting lesions, including cisplatin-DNA adducts. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss is observed in a subset of NER-associated DNA repair disorders including Cockayne syndrome and some forms of xeroderma pigmentosum. We investigated whether either of the two overlapping branches that encompass NER, transcription-coupled repair or global genome repair, which are implicated in Cockayne syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum group C, respectively, modulates cisplatin-induced hearing loss and cell death in the organ of Corti, the auditory sensory epithelium of mammals. We report that cochlear hair cells and supporting cells in transcription-coupled repair-deficient Cockayne syndrome group A (Csa(-/-)) and group B (Csb(-/-)) mice are hypersensitive to cisplatin, in contrast to global genome repair-deficient Xpc(-/-) mice, both in vitro and in vivo We show that sensory hair cells in Csa(-/-) and Csb(-/-) mice fail to remove cisplatin-DNA adducts efficiently in vitro; and unlike Xpc(-/-) mice, Csa(-/-) and Csb(-/-) mice lose hearing and manifest outer hair cell degeneration after systemic cisplatin treatment. Our results demonstrate that Csa and Csb deficiencies predispose to cisplatin-induced hearing loss and hair/supporting cell damage in the mammalian organ of Corti, and emphasize the importance of transcription-coupled DNA repair in the protection against cisplatin ototoxicity.
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The utility of cisplatin in chemotherapy remains limited due to serious side effects, including sensorineural hearing loss. We show that mouse models of Cockayne syndrome, a progeroid disorder resulting from a defect in the transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR) branch of nucleotide excision repair, are hypersensitive to cisplatin-induced hearing loss and sensory hair cell death in the organ of Corti, the mammalian auditory sensory epithelium. Our work indicates that Csa and Csb, two genes involved in TCR, are preferentially required to protect against cisplatin ototoxicity, relative to global genome repair-specific elements of nucleotide excision repair, and suggests that TCR is a major force maintaining DNA integrity in the cochlea. The Cockayne syndrome mice thus represent a model for testing the contribution of DNA repair mechanisms to cisplatin ototoxicity.

Borghi A, D'Accolti M, Rizzo R, et al.
High prevalence of specific KIR types in patients with HHV-8 positive cutaneous vascular lesions: a possible predisposing factor?
Arch Dermatol Res. 2016; 308(5):373-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) has been hypothesized to be a potential cofactor for the development of diverse cutaneous vascular proliferative lesions, including eruptive cherry angiomas. Recent reports evidenced the influence of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene diversity in defining the susceptibility to symptomatic herpesvirus infections. In this study, skin samples from vascular lesions and healthy controls were characterized simultaneously for the presence of HHV8 and for the KIR genotype, focusing upon the presence of the KIR2DL2/DS2 and KIR2DL3 genes, which have been associated to herpesvirus susceptibility. The results showed that about 64 % of the vascular lesions resulted positive for the presence of HHV8, whereas no control healthy skin samples harbored HHV8 DNA. HHV8-positive patients had a significantly increased frequency of KIR2DL2/DS2 homozigosity and a concomitant decrease of the homozygous KIR2DL3 genotype, compared to healthy controls or HHV8-negative patients. Notably, the simultaneous presence of KIR2DL2/DS2 homozygosity and HHV8 infection resulted in a significantly increased risk to develop cutaneous lesions (OR 5.7) compared to the individual factors alone, suggesting that specific KIR genotypes might predispose to HHV8 symptomatic infection, allowing the virus to exert its angioproliferative activity at skin level.

Savina NV, Nikitchenko NV, Kuzhir TD, et al.
The Cellular Response to Oxidatively Induced DNA Damage and Polymorphism of Some DNA Repair Genes Associated with Clinicopathological Features of Bladder Cancer.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016; 2016:5710403 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome instability and impaired DNA repair are hallmarks of carcinogenesis. The study was aimed at evaluating the DNA damage response in H2O2-treated lymphocytes using the alkaline comet assay in bladder cancer (BC) patients as compared to clinically healthy controls, elderly persons, and individuals with chronic inflammations. Polymorphism in DNA repair genes involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) and base excision repair (BER) was studied using the PCR-RFLP method in the Belarusian population to elucidate the possible association of their variations with both bladder cancer risk and clinicopathological features of tumors. The increased level of H2O2-induced DNA damage and a higher proportion of individuals sensitive to oxidative stress were found among BC patients as compared to other groups under study. Heterozygosity in the XPD gene (codon 751) increased cancer risk: OR (95% CI) = 1.36 (1.03-1.81), p = 0.031. The frequency of the XPD 312Asn allele was significantly higher in T ≥ 2 high grade than in T ≥ 2 low grade tumors (p = 0.036); the ERCC6 1097Val/Val genotype was strongly associated with muscle-invasive tumors. Combinations of homozygous wild type alleles occurred with the increased frequency in patients with non-muscle-invasive tumors suggesting that the maintenance of normal DNA repair activity may prevent cancer progression.

Arora S, Yan H, Cho I, et al.
Genetic Variants That Predispose to DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Lymphocytes From a Subset of Patients With Familial Colorectal Carcinomas.
Gastroenterology. 2015; 149(7):1872-1883.e9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: DNA structural lesions are prevalent in sporadic colorectal cancer. Therefore, we proposed that gene variants that predispose to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) would be found in patients with familial colorectal carcinomas of an undefined genetic basis (UFCRC).
METHODS: We collected primary T cells from 25 patients with UFCRC and matched patients without colorectal cancer (controls) and assayed for DSBs. We performed exome sequence analyses of germline DNA from 20 patients with UFCRC and 5 undiagnosed patients with polyposis. The prevalence of identified variants in genes linked to DNA integrity was compared with that of individuals without a family history of cancer. The effects of representative variants found to be associated with UFCRC was confirmed in functional assays with HCT116 cells.
RESULTS: Primary T cells from most patients with UFCRC had increased levels of the DSB marker γ(phosphorylated)histone2AX (γH2AX) after treatment with DNA damaging agents, compared with T cells from controls (P < .001). Exome sequence analysis identified a mean 1.4 rare variants per patient that were predicted to disrupt functions of genes relevant to DSBs. Controls (from public databases) had a much lower frequency of variants in the same genes (P < .001). Knockdown of representative variant genes in HCT116 CRC cells increased γH2AX. A detailed analysis of immortalized patient-derived B cells that contained variants in the Werner syndrome, RecQ helicase-like gene (WRN, encoding T705I), and excision repair cross-complementation group 6 (ERCC6, encoding N180Y) showed reduced levels of these proteins and increased DSBs, compared with B cells from controls. This phenotype was rescued by exogenous expression of WRN or ERCC6. Direct analysis of the recombinant variant proteins confirmed defective enzymatic activities.
CONCLUSIONS: These results provide evidence that defects in suppression of DSBs underlie some cases of UFCRC; these can be identified by assays of circulating lymphocytes. We specifically associated UFCRC with variants in WRN and ERCC6 that reduce the capacity for repair of DNA DSBs. These observations could lead to a simple screening strategy for UFCRC, and provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of colorectal carcinogenesis.

Pei N, Cao L, Liu Y, et al.
XAB2 tagSNPs contribute to non-small cell lung cancer susceptibility in Chinese population.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:560 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: XPA-binding protein 2 (XAB2) interacts with Cockayne syndrome complementation group A (CSA), group B (CSB) and RNA polymerase II to initiate nucleotide excision repair. This study aims to evaluate the association of XAB2 genetic variants with the risk of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using a tagging approach.
METHODS: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in 470 patients with NSCLC and 470 controls in Chinese population. Totally, 5 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in XAB2 gene were selected by Haploview software using Hapmap database. Genotyping was performed using iPlex Gold Genotyping Asssy and Sequenom MassArray. Unconditional logistic regression was conducted to estimate odd ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI).
RESULTS: Unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that the XAB2 genotype with rs794078 AA or at least one rs4134816 C allele were associated with the decreased risk of NSCLC with OR (95 % CI) of 0.12 (0.03-0.54) and 0.46 (0.26-0.84). When stratified by gender, we found that the subjects carrying rs4134816 CC or CT genotype had a decreased risk for developing NSCLC among males with OR (95 % CI) of 0.39 (0.18-0.82), but not among females. In age stratification analysis, we found that younger subjects (age ≤ 60) with at least one C allele had a decreased risk of NSCLC with OR (95 % CI) of 0.35 (0.17-0.74), but older subjects didn't. We didn't find that XAB2 4134816 C > T variant effect on the risk of NSCLC when stratified by smoking status. The environmental factors, such as age, sex and smoking had no effect on the risk of NSCLC related to XAB2 genotypes at other polymorphic sites.
CONCLUSIONS: The XAB2 tagSNPs (rs794078 and rs4134816) were significantly associated with the risk of NSCLC in Chinese population, which supports the XAB2 plays a significant role in the development of NSCLC.

Al-Kateb H, Nguyen TT, Steger-May K, Pfeifer JD
Identification of major factors associated with failed clinical molecular oncology testing performed by next generation sequencing (NGS).
Mol Oncol. 2015; 9(9):1737-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: DNA analysis by NGS has become important to direct the clinical care of cancer patients. However, NGS is not successful in all cases, and the factors responsible for test failures have not been systematically evaluated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A series of 1528 solid and hematolymphoid tumor specimens was tested by an NGS comprehensive cancer panel during 2012-2014. DNA was extracted and 2×101 bp paired-end sequence reads were generated on cancer-related genes utilizing Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq platforms.
RESULTS: Testing was unsuccessful in 343 (22.5%) specimens. The failure was due to insufficient tissue (INST) in 223/343 (65%) cases, insufficient DNA (INS-DNA) in 99/343 (28.9%) cases, and failed library (FL) in 21/343 (6.1%) cases. 87/99 (88%) of the INS-DNA cases had below 10 ng DNA available for testing. Factors associated with INST and INS-DNA failures were site of biopsy (SOB) and type of biopsy (TOB) (both p < 0.0001), and clinical setting of biopsy (CSB, initial diagnosis or recurrence) (p < 0.0001). Factors common to INST and FL were age of specimen (p ≤ 0.006) and tumor viability (p ≤ 0.05). Factors common to INS-DNA and FL were DNA purity and DNA degradation (all p ≤ 0.005). In multivariate analysis, common predictors for INST and INS-DNA included CSB (p = 0.048 and p < 0.0001) and TOB (both p ≤ 0.003), respectively. SOB (p = 0.004) and number of cores (p = 0.001) were specific for INS-DNA, whereas TOB and DNA degradation were associated with FL (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Pre-analytical causes (INST and INS-DNA) accounted for about 90% of all failed cases; independent of test design. Clinical setting; site and type of biopsy; and number of cores used for testing all correlated with failure. Accounting for these factors at the time of tissue biopsy acquisition could improve the analytic success rate.

Merdad A, Gari MA, Hussein S, et al.
Characterization of familial breast cancer in Saudi Arabia.
BMC Genomics. 2015; 16 Suppl 1:S3 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The contribution of genetic factors to the development of breast cancer in the admixed and consanguineous population of the western region of Saudi Arabia is thought to be significant as the disease is early onset. The current protocols of continuous clinical follow-up of relatives of such patients are costly and cause a burden on the usually over-stretched medical resources. Discovering the significant contribution of BRCA1/2 mutations to breast cancer susceptibility allowed for the design of genetic tests that allows the medical practitioner to focus the care for those who need it most. However, BRCA1/2 mutations do not account for all breast cancer susceptibility genes and there are other genetic factors, known and unknown that may play a role in the development of such disease. The advent of whole-exome sequencing is offering a unique opportunity to identify the breast cancer susceptibility genes in each family of sufferers. The polymorphisms/mutations identified will then allow for personalizing the genetic screening tests accordingly. To this end, we have performed whole-exome sequencing of seven breast cancer patients with positive family history of the disease using the Agilent SureSelect™ Whole-Exome Enrichment kit and sequencing on the SOLiD™ platform.
RESULTS: We have identified several coding single nucleotide variations that were either novel or rare affecting genes controlling DNA repair in the BRCA1/2 pathway.
CONCLUSION: The disruption of DNA repair pathways is very likely to contribute to breast cancer susceptibility in the Saudi population.

Ceccaldi R, O'Connor KW, Mouw KW, et al.
A unique subset of epithelial ovarian cancers with platinum sensitivity and PARP inhibitor resistance.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(4):628-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Platinum and PARP inhibitor (PARPi) sensitivity commonly coexist in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) due to the high prevalence of alterations in the homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair pathway that confer sensitivity to both drugs. In this report, we describe a unique subset of EOC with alterations in another DNA repair pathway, the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, which may exhibit a discordance in sensitivities to these drugs. Specifically, 8% of high-grade serous EOC from The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset exhibited NER alterations, including nonsynonymous or splice site mutations and homozygous deletions of NER genes. Tumors with NER alterations were associated with improved overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), compared with patients without NER alterations or BRCA1/2 mutations. Furthermore, patients with tumors with NER alterations had similar OS and PFS as BRCA1/2-mutated patients, suggesting that NER pathway inactivation in EOC conferred enhanced platinum sensitivity, similar to BRCA1/2-mutated tumors. Moreover, two NER mutations (ERCC6-Q524* and ERCC4-A583T), identified in the two most platinum-sensitive tumors, were functionally associated with platinum sensitivity in vitro. Importantly, neither NER alteration affected HR or conferred sensitivity to PARPi or other double-strand break-inducing agents. Overall, our findings reveal a new mechanism of platinum sensitivity in EOC that, unlike defective HR, may lead to a discordance in sensitivity to platinum and PARPi, with potential implications for previously reported and ongoing PARPi trials in this disease.

Ramaniuk VP, Nikitchenko NV, Savina NV, et al.
Polymorphism of DNA repair genes OGG1, XRCC1, XPD and ERCC6 in bladder cancer in Belarus.
Biomarkers. 2014; 19(6):509-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: The study of DNA base and nucleotide excision repair gene polymorphisms in bladder cancer seems to have a predictive value because of the evident relationship between the DNA damage response induced by environmental mutagens and cancer predisposition.
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine OGG1 Ser326Cys, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XPD Asp312Asn, and ERCC6 Met1097Val polymorphisms in bladder cancer patients as compared to controls.
METHODS: Both groups were predominantly represented by Belarusians and Eastern Slavs. DNA samples from 336 patients and 370 controls were genotyped using a PCR-RFLP method.
RESULTS: The genotype distributions were in agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The minor allele frequencies in the control population were in the range of those in Caucasians in contrast to Asians. The OGG1 326 Ser/Cys and XPD 312 Asp/Asn heterozygous genotypes were inversely associated with cancer risk (OR [95% CI] = 0.69 [0.50-0.95] and 1.35 [1.0-1.82], respectively). The contrasting effects of these genotypes were potentiated due to their interactions with smoking habit or age.
CONCLUSIONS: Among four DNA repair gene polymorphisms, the OGG1 326 Ser/Cys and XPD 312 Asp/Asn heterozygous genotypes might be recognized as potential genetic markers modifying susceptibility to bladder cancer in Belarus.

Huhn S, Bevier M, Pardini B, et al.
Colorectal cancer risk and patients' survival: influence of polymorphisms in genes somatically mutated in colorectal tumors.
Cancer Causes Control. 2014; 25(6):759-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The first two studies aiming for the high-throughput identification of the somatic mutation spectrum of colorectal cancer (CRC) tumors were published in 2006 and 2007. Using exome sequencing, they described 69 and 140 candidate cancer genes (CAN genes), respectively. We hypothesized that germline variants in these genes may influence CRC risk, similar to APC, which is causing CRC through germline and somatic mutations.
METHODS: After excluding the well-established CRC genes APC, KRAS, TP53, and ABCA1, we analyzed 35 potentially functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 CAN genes (OBSCN, MLL3, PKHD1, SYNE1, ERCC6, FBXW7, EPHB6/TRPV6, ELAC1/SMAD4, EPHA3, and ADAMTSL3) using KBiosciences Competitive Allele-Specific PCR™ genotyping assays. In addition to CRC risk (1,399 CRC cases, 838 controls), we also considered the influence of the SNPs on patients' survival (406 cases).
RESULTS: In spite of the fact that our in silico analyses suggested functional relevance for the studied genes and SNPs, our data did not support a strong influence of the studied germline variants on CRC risk and survival. The strongest association with CRC risk and survival was found for MLL3 (rs6464211, OR 1.50, p = 0.002, dominant model; HR 2.12, p = 0.020, recessive model). Two SNPs in EPHB6/TRPV6 (dominant model) showed marginal associations with survival (rs4987622 HR 0.58 p = 0.028 and rs6947538 HR 0.64, p = 0.036, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Although somatic mutations in the CAN genes have been related to the development and progression of various types of cancers in several next-generation sequencing or expression analyses, our study suggests that the studied potentially functional germline variants are not likely to affect CRC risk or survival.

Zhang XJ, Liu P, Zhu F
Polymorphisms of DNA repair-related genes with susceptibility and prognosis of prostate cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2014; 13(2):4419-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
We aimed to investigate the association between genetic variants of the DNA repair genes XPG, CSB, XPC, CCNH, and MMS19L in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway and risk of prostate cancer in a population in China. This study included 229 patients with newly diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed primary prostate cancer and 238 healthy controls. Genotyping of XPG, CSB, XPC, CCNH, and MMS19L were performed on a 384-well plate on the MassARRAY platform. Associations between the polymorphisms of the six genes and risk of prostate cancer were analyzed using conditional logistical regression. We found that the variant genotype TT of the XPG rs2296147 polymorphism was moderately significantly associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer compared to the wild-type genotype CC [odds ratio (OR)=1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-3.25], and individuals carrying the GG genotype of the CSB rs2228526 polymorphism were associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (OR=1.95, 95%CI=1.02-3.74). The combination genotype of the XPG T allele and the CSB G allele was associated with a moderately higher risk of prostate cancer risk (OR=1.84, 95%CI=1.06-3.20). In conclusion, we found that polymorphisms in XPG rs2296147 and CSB rs2228526 were significantly associated with prostate cancer susceptibility in the Chinese population analyzed. Our results support the hypothesis that naturally occurring genetic variation of DNA repair genes increases susceptibility to prostate cancer.

Xu Q, Liu JW, He CY, et al.
The interaction effects of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 with PGC and ERCC6 gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e89203 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction effects of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 with pepsinogen C (PGC) and excision repair cross complementing group 6 (ERCC6) gene polymorphisms and its association with the risks of gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis. We hoped to identify miRNA polymorphism or a combination of several polymorphisms that could serve as biomarkers for predicting the risk of gastric cancer and its precancerous diseases.
METHODS: Sequenom MassARRAY platform method was used to detect polymorphisms of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 G → A, PGC rs4711690 C → G, PGC rs6458238 G → A, PGC rs9471643 G → C, and ERCC6 rs1917799 in 471 gastric cancer patients, 645 atrophic gastritis patients and 717 controls.
RESULTS: An interaction effect of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism with ERCC6 rs1917799 polymorphism was observed for the risk of gastric cancer (P interaction = 0.026); and interaction effects of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism with PGC rs6458238 polymorphism (P interaction = 0.012) and PGC rs9471643 polymorphism (P interaction = 0.039) were observed for the risk of atrophic gastritis.
CONCLUSION: The combination of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism and ERCC6 and PGC polymorphisms could provide a greater prediction potential than a single polymorphism on its own. Large-scale studies and molecular mechanism research are needed to confirm our findings.

Brim H, Abu-Asab MS, Nouraie M, et al.
An integrative CGH, MSI and candidate genes methylation analysis of colorectal tumors.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e82185 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Different DNA aberrations processes can cause colorectal cancer (CRC). Herein, we conducted a comprehensive molecular characterization of 27 CRCs from Iranian patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Array CGH was performed. The MSI phenotype and the methylation status of 15 genes was established using MSP. The CGH data was compared to two established lists of 41 and 68 cancer genes, respectively, and to CGH data from African Americans. A maximum parsimony cladogram based on global aberrations was established.
RESULTS: The number of aberrations seem to depend on the MSI status. MSI-H tumors displayed the lowest number of aberrations. MSP revealed that most markers were methylated, except RNF182 gene. P16 and MLH1 genes were primarily methylated in MSI-H tumors. Seven markers with moderate to high frequency of methylation (SYNE1, MMP2, CD109, EVL, RET, LGR and PTPRD) had very low levels of chromosomal aberrations. All chromosomes were targeted by aberrations with deletions more frequent than amplifications. The most amplified markers were CD248, ERCC6, ERGIC3, GNAS, MMP2, NF1, P2RX7, SFRS6, SLC29A1 and TBX22. Most deletions were noted for ADAM29, CHL1, CSMD3, FBXW7, GALNS, MMP2, NF1, PRKD1, SMAD4 and TP53. Aberrations targeting chromosome X were primarily amplifications in male patients and deletions in female patients. A finding similar to what we reported for African American CRC patients.
CONCLUSION: This first comprehensive analysis of CRC Iranian tumors reveals a high MSI rate. The MSI tumors displayed the lowest level of chromosomal aberrations but high frequency of methylation. The MSI-L were predominantly targeted with chromosomal instability in a way similar to the MSS tumors. The global chromosomal aberration profiles showed many similarities with other populations but also differences that might allow a better understanding of CRC's clinico-pathological specifics in this population.

Cao W, Zhang JL, Feng DY, et al.
The effect of adenovirus-conjugated NDRG2 on p53-mediated apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma cells through attenuation of nucleotide excision repair capacity.
Biomaterials. 2014; 35(3):993-1003 [PubMed] Related Publications
NDRG2 mRNA and protein levels can be upregulated in a p53-dependent manner. NDRG2 enhances p53-mediated apoptosis, whereas overexpression of NDRG2 suppresses tumor cell growth, regardless of whether p53 is mutated. However, the complicated mechanism by which NDRG2 suppresses tumor cell growth and enhances apoptosis mediated by p53 is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that Ad-NDRG2 enhanced the apoptosis of HepG2 cells (wild-type p53). Additionally, Ad-NDRG2 combined with rAd-p53 enhanced the apoptosis of Huh7 cells (mutant p53) after chemotherapy, and the expression of the ERCC6 gene (Cockayne syndrome group B protein gene) was suppressed in this process. Ad-NDRG2 combined with rAd-p53 induced the apoptosis of tumor cells (HepG2 and Huh7 cells); however, apoptosis was attenuated after transfection with ERCC6. Our results indicate that Ad-NDRG2 enhances the p53-mediated apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2 and Huh7) by attenuating the nucleotide excision repair capacity (i.e., by downregulating ERCC6), and ERCC6 is a NDRG2-inducible target gene that is involved in the p53-mediated apoptosis pathway.

Rodriguez-Hernandez I, Perdomo S, Santos-Briz A, et al.
Analysis of DNA repair gene polymorphisms in glioblastoma.
Gene. 2014; 536(1):79-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Despite several factors such as ionizing radiation exposure or rare genetic syndromes have been associated with the development of glioblastoma, no underlying cause has been identified for the majority of cases. We thus aimed to investigate the role of DNA repair polymorphisms in modulating glioblastoma risk.
METHODS: Genotypic and allelic frequencies of seven common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes involved in nucleotide excision repair (ERCC1 rs11615, ERCC2 rs13181, ERCC6 rs4253079), base excision repair (APEX1 rs1130409, XRCC1 rs25487), double-strand break repair (XRCC3 rs861539) and mismatch repair (MLH1 rs1800734) pathways were analyzed in 115 glioblastoma patients and 200 healthy controls. Haplotype analysis was also performed for ERCC1 rs11615 and ERCC2 rs13181 polymorphisms, located on the same chromosomal region (19q13.32).
RESULTS: Our results indicated that carriers of the ERCC2 Gln/Gln genotype were associated with a lower glioblastoma risk (OR=0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.89; P=0.028), whereas carriers of the MLH1 AA genotype were associated with an increased risk of glioblastoma (OR=3.14, 95% CI 1.09-9.06; P=0.034). Furthermore, the haplotype containing the C allele of ERCC2 rs13181 polymorphism and the T allele of ERCC1 rs11615 polymorphism was significantly associated with a protective effect of developing glioblastoma (OR=0.34, 95% CI 0.16-0.71; P=0.004).
CONCLUSIONS: These results pointed out that MLH1 rs1800734 and ERCC2 rs13181 polymorphisms might constitute glioblastoma susceptibility factors, and also suggested that the chromosomal region 19q could be important in glioblastoma pathogenesis.

Liu JW, He CY, Sun LP, et al.
The DNA repair gene ERCC6 rs1917799 polymorphism is associated with gastric cancer risk in Chinese.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(10):6103-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Excision repair cross-complementing group 6 (ERCC6) is a major component of the nucleotide excision repair pathway that plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability and integrity. Several recent studies suggested a link of ERCC6 polymorphisms with susceptibility to various cancers. However, the relation of ERCC6 polymorphism with gastric cancer (GC) risk remains elusive. In this sex- and age- matched case-control study including 402 GC cases and 804 cancer-free controls, we aimed to investigate the association between a potentially functional polymorphism (rs1917799 T>G) in the ERCC6 regulatory region and GC risk.
METHODS: The genotypes of rs1917799 were determined by Sequenom MassARRAY platform and the status of Helicobacter pylori infection was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidential interval (CI) were calculated by logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: Compared with the common TT genotype, the ERCC6 rs1917799 GG genotype was associated with increased GC risk (adjusted OR=1.46, 95%CI: 1.03-2.08, P=0.035). When compared with (GT+TT) genotypes, the GG genotype also demonstrated a statistical association with increased GC risk (adjusted OR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.01-1.89, P=0.044). This was also observed for the male subpopulation (GG vs. TT: adjusted OR=1.71, 95%CI: 1.12-2.62, P=0.013; G allele vs. T allele: adjusted OR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.07-1.62, P=0.009). Genetic effects on increased GC risk tended to be enhanced by H. pylori infection, smoking and drinking, but their interaction effects on GC risk did not reach statistical significance.
CONCLUSIONS: ERCC6 rs1917799 GG genotype might be associated with increased GC risk in Chinese, especially in males.

Yang B, Chen WH, Wen XF, et al.
Role of DNA repair-related gene polymorphisms in susceptibility to risk of prostate cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(10):5839-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: We assessed the association between genetic variants of XPG, XPA, XPD, CSB, XPC and CCNH in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway and risk of prostate cancer.
METHODS: We genotyped the XPG, XPA, XPD, CSB, XPC and CCNH polymorphisms by a 384-well plate format on the MassARRAY® platform. Multivariate logistical regression analysis was used to assess the associations between the six gene polymorphisms and risk of prostate cancer.
RESULTS: Individuals carrying the XPG rs229614 TT (OR=2.01, 95%CI=1.35-3.27) genotype and T allele (OR=1.73, 95%CI=1.37-2.57) were moderately significantly associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer. Subjects with XPD rs13181 G allele had a marginally increased risk of prostate cancer, with adjusted OR(95%CI) of 1.53 (1.04-2.37). Moreover, individuals carrying with CSB rs2228526 GG genotype (OR=2.05, 95% CI=1.23-3.52) and G allele (OR=1.56, 95%CI=1.17-2.05) were associated with a higher increased risk of prostate cancer. The combination genotype of XPG rs2296147 T and CSB rs2228526 G allele had accumulative effect on the risk of this cancer, with an OR (95% CI) of 2.23(1.37-3.59).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that XPG rs2296147 and CSB rs2228526 polymorphisms are significantly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, and that combination of XPG rs2296147 T allele and CSB rs2228526 G allele is strongly associated with an increased risk.

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