Gene Summary

Gene:GAPDH; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Aliases: G3PD, GAPD, HEL-S-162eP
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase protein family. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. The product of this gene catalyzes an important energy-yielding step in carbohydrate metabolism, the reversible oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the presence of inorganic phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). The encoded protein has additionally been identified to have uracil DNA glycosylase activity in the nucleus. Also, this protein contains a peptide that has antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans. Studies of a similar protein in mouse have assigned a variety of additional functions including nitrosylation of nuclear proteins, the regulation of mRNA stability, and acting as a transferrin receptor on the cell surface of macrophage. Many pseudogenes similar to this locus are present in the human genome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Source:NCBIAccessed: 10 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 10 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: GAPDH (cancer-related)

Song W, Zhang WH, Zhang H, et al.
Validation of housekeeping genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR expression studies in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line treated by 5 kinds of chemotherapy drugs.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2016; 62(13):29-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become a frequently used strategy in gene expression studies. The relative quantification method is an important and commonly used method for the evaluation of RT-qPCR data. The key of this method is to identify an applicable internal control gene because the usage of different internal control genes may lead to distinct conclusions. Herein, we report the validation of 12 common housekeeping genes for RT-qPCR for gene expression analysis in the Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line (KB and Tca-8113) treated by 5 kinds of Chemotherapy Drugs. The gene expression stability and applicability of the 12 housekeeping gene candidates were determined using the geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper software programs. Comprehensive analyzing the results of the three software, ALAS1/GAPDH, ALAS1 and GUSB were suggested to be the most stable candidate genes for the study of both KB and Tca-8113 cell line together, KB cell line, and Tca-8113 cell line, respectively. This study provides useful information to normalize gene expression accurately for the investigation of target gene profiling in cell lines of OSCC. Further clarification of tumor molecular expression markers with our recommended housekeeping genes may improve the accuracy of diagnosis and estimation of prognostic factors as well as provide novel personalized treatments for OSCC patients.

Stache C, Bils C, Fahlbusch R, et al.
Drug priming enhances radiosensitivity of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma via downregulation of survivin.
Neurosurg Focus. 2016; 41(6):E14 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE In this study, the authors investigated the underlying mechanisms responsible for high tumor recurrence rates of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) after radiotherapy and developed new targeted treatment protocols to minimize recurrence. ACPs are characterized by the activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), known to mediate radioresistance in various tumor entities. The impact of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib or CUDC-101 on radiation-induced cell death and associated regulation of survivin gene expression was evaluated. METHODS The hypothesis that activated EGFR promotes radioresistance in ACP was investigated in vitro using human primary cell cultures of ACP (n = 10). The effects of radiation (12 Gy) and combined radiochemotherapy on radiosensitivity were assessed via cell death analysis using flow cytometry. Changes in target gene expression were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Survivin, identified in qRT-PCR to be involved in radioresistance of ACP, was manipulated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), followed by proliferation and vitality assays to further clarify its role in ACP biology. Immunohistochemically, survivin expression was assessed in patient tumors used for primary cell cultures. RESULTS In primary human ACP cultures, activation of EGFR resulted in significantly reduced cell death levels after radiotherapy. Treatment with TKIs alone and in combination with radiotherapy increased cell death response remarkably, assessed by flow cytometry. CUDC-101 was significantly more effective than gefitinib. The authors identified regulation of survivin expression after therapeutic intervention as the underlying molecular mechanism of radioresistance in ACP. EGFR activation promoting ACP cell survival and proliferation in vitro is consistent with enhanced survivin gene expression shown by qRT-PCR. TKI treatment, as well as the combination with radiotherapy, reduced survivin levels in vitro. Accordingly, ACP showed reduced cell viability and proliferation after survivin downregulation by siRNA. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate an impact of EGFR signaling on radioresistance in ACP. Inhibition of EGFR activity by means of TKI treatment acts as a radiosensitizer on ACP tumor cells, leading to increased cell death. Additionally, the results emphasize the antiapoptotic and pro-proliferative role of survivin in ACP biology and its regulation by EGFR signaling. The suppression of survivin by treatment with TKI and combined radiotherapy represents a new promising treatment strategy that will be further assessed in in vivo models of ACP.

Shahbazi S, Khorasani M, Mahdian R
Gene expression profile of FVII and AR in primary prostate cancer.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 17(3):353-358 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The ectopic expression of coagulation Factor VII has been shown in various cancers. Recently, F7 gene has been identified as a direct target of the androgen receptor in breast cancer. In this study, we examined the mRNA expression of F7 and AR in clinical sample series of prostate cancer and BPH.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the prostate cancer patients were new cases with no medical history of surgery or chemotherapy. The tissue samples were assigned as either prostate cancer tumor (n= 45) harboring at least 80% tumor cell content, or BPH (n= 36). Relative AR and F7 mRNA expression in each tissue sample was normalized to the mean of the Ct values determined for GAPDH and PSA genes.
RESULTS: Mean plasma level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) was 17.82 ± 3.71 ng/ml and 7.71 ± 1.28 ng/ml (Mean ± SEM) in PCa and BPH group, respectively. AR mean expression was up-regulated 22.468 fold in clinical tumor sample cohort (S.E., 0.175-2,916, 95% CI: 0.001-126,764, P= 0.001). The mean expression of F7 gene in tumor tissues relative to PBH samples was 6.981 (S.E., 0.099-413.001, 95% CI: 0.002-34,183, P= 0.012). ANOVA analysis of the gene expression results showed significant correlation between F7 and AR mRNA expression in tumor samples (p< 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study findings suggest a link between FVII and AR in prostate cancer pathogenesis. F7 gene expression could be up-regulated via various AR mediators affecting the promoter region of the F7 gene. Should this be confirmed by further studies, it may be suggested as a potential contributing factor in prostate cancer.

Ramanathan A, Ramanathan A
Interferon Induced Transmembrane Protein-1 Gene Expression as a Biomarker for Early Detection of Invasive Potential of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(4):2297-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Early detection of malignant transformation with expression biomarkers has significant potential to improve the survival rate of patients as such biomarkers enable prediction of progression and assess sensitivity to chemotherapy. The expression of interferon inducible transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) has been associated with early invasion events in several carcinomas, including head and neck cancers, and hence has been proposed as a novel candidate biomarker. As the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is highest in the Indian population, we sought to investigate: 1) the expression pattern of IFITM1 in OSCC tissue samples obtained from Indian patients of Dravidian origin; and 2) the possibility of using IFITM1 expression as a potential biomarker.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total RNA extracted from thirty eight OSCC biopsy samples was subjected to semi-quantitative RT-PCR with IFITM1 and GAPDH specific primers.
RESULTS: Of the thirty eight OSCC samples that were analyzed, IFITM1 overexpression was identified in fifteen (39%). Seven expressed a low level, while the remainder expressed high level of IFITM1.
CONCLUSIONS: The overexpression of IFITM1 in OSCC samples indicates that IFITM1 may be explored for the possibility of use as a high confidence diagnostic biomarker in oral cancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that IFITM1 overexpression is being reported in Indian OSCC samples.

Woliński K, Stangierski A, Szczepanek-Parulska E, et al.
VEGF-C Is a Thyroid Marker of Malignancy Superior to VEGF-A in the Differential Diagnostics of Thyroid Lesions.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0150124 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Thyroid nodular goiter is one of the most common medical conditions affecting even over a half of adult population. The risk of malignancy is rather small but noticeable-estimated by numerous studies to be about 3-10%. The definite differentiation between benign and malignant ones is a vital issue in endocrine practice. The aim of the current study was to assess the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and VEGF-C on the mRNA level in FNAB washouts in case of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and to evaluate the diagnostic value of these markers of malignancy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in our department between January 2013 and May 2014 were included. In case of all patients who gave the written consent, after ultrasonography (US) and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) performed as routine medical procedure the needle was flushed with RNA Later solution, the washouts were frozen in -80 Celsius degrees. Expression of VEGF-A and VEGF-C and GADPH (reference gene) was assessed in washouts on the mRNA level using the real-time PCR technique. Probes of patients who underwent subsequent thyroidectomy and were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC; proved by post-surgical histopathology) were analyzed. Similar number of patients with benign cytology were randomly selected to be a control group.
RESULTS: Thirty one DTCs and 28 benign thyroid lesions were analyzed. Expression of VEGF-A was insignificantly higher in patients with DTCs (p = 0.13). Expression of VEGF-C was significantly higher in patients with DTC. The relative expression of VEGF-C (in comparison with GAPDH) was 0.0049 for DTCs and 0.00070 for benign lesions, medians - 0.0036 and 0.000024 respectively (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of expression VEGF-C on the mRNA level in washouts from FNAB is more useful than more commonly investigated VEGF-A. Measurement of VEGF-C in FNAB washouts do not allow for fully reliable differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and should be interpreted carefully. Further studies on larger groups are indicated. However, measurement of VEGF-C on mRNA level can bring important information without exposing patient for additional risk and invasive procedures.

Ichikawa W, Terashima M, Ochiai A, et al.
Impact of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and amphiregulin expression on survival in patients with stage II/III gastric cancer enrolled in the Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial of S-1 for Gastric Cancer.
Gastric Cancer. 2017; 20(2):263-273 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Exploratory biomarker analysis was conducted to identify factors related to the outcomes of patients with stage II/III gastric cancer using data from the Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial of S-1 for Gastric Cancer, which was a randomized controlled study comparing the administration of an orally active combination of tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil with surgery alone.
METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded surgical specimens from 829 patients were retrospectively examined, and 63 genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR after TaqMan assay-based pre-amplification. Gene expression was normalized to the geometric mean of GAPDH, ACTB, and RPLP0 as reference genes, and categorized into low and high values based on the median. The impact of gene expression on survival was analyzed using 5-year survival data. The Benjamini and Hochberg procedure was used to control the false discovery rate.
RESULTS: IGF1R and AREG were most strongly correlated with overall survival, which was significantly worse in high IGF1R patients than low IGF1R patients, but better in high AREG patients than low AREG patients. The hazard ratio for death in the analysis of overall survival (S-1 vs. surgery alone) was reduced in the high IGF1R group compared with the low IGF1R group and in the low AREG group compared with the high AREG group. There were no significant interaction effects.
CONCLUSION: IGF1R gene expression was associated with poor outcomes after curative resection of stage II/III gastric cancer, whereas AREG gene expression was associated with good outcomes. No significant interaction effect on survival was evident between S-1 treatment and gene expression.

Han L, Ma P, Liu SM, Zhou X
Circulating long noncoding RNA GAS5 as a potential biomarker in breast cancer for assessing the surgical effects.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):6847-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a vital role in tumorigenesis. Until now, the value of circulating lncRNAs in the diagnosis of breast cancer (BC) has remained unknown. Here, we have explored the clinical significance of lncRNAs GAS5 and H19 in BC patients. Total RNA in the plasma was extracted from 90 preoperative BC patients, 39 postoperative BC patients, and 76 healthy controls. The expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The potential associations between GAS5, H19 levels, and patients' clinical characteristics were analyzed. No significant differences were found between the BC patients and the healthy controls in the expression levels of GAS5 (P = 0.441) and H19 (P = 0.554), normalized by GAPDH. Plasma GAS5 exhibited correlations with the Ki67 proliferation index in 90 preoperative BC patients (P = 0.012). Compared with paired preoperative plasma, the postoperative levels of GAS5 and H19 significantly decreased in 71.8 % of BC patients (28/39) and 82.1 % of BC patients (32/39), respectively. Analysis in the 39 paired preoperative and postoperative plasma samples showed that lower GAS5 levels appeared in the patients with a high Ki67 proliferation index before surgery (P = 0.012) and the patients with a positive lymph node metastasis state after surgery (P = 0.029). Plasma lncRNA GAS5 may have the potential to assess the surgical effects and prognosis for BC patients.

Hanihara M, Kawataki T, Oh-Oka K, et al.
Synergistic antitumor effect with indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibition and temozolomide in a murine glioma model.
J Neurosurg. 2016; 124(6):1594-601 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECT Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a key enzyme of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism, is involved in tumor-derived immune suppression through depletion of Trp and accumulation of the metabolite kynurenine, resulting in inactivation of natural killer cells and generation of regulatory T cells (Tregs). It has been reported that high expression of IDO in cancer cells is associated with suppression of the antitumor immune response and is consistent with a poor prognosis. Thus, IDO may be a therapeutic target for malignant cancer. The authors have recently shown that IDO expression is markedly increased in human glioblastoma and secondary glioblastoma with malignant change, suggesting that IDO targeting may also have therapeutic potential for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect of IDO inhibition and to examine the synergistic function of IDO inhibitor and temozolomide (TMZ) in a murine glioma model. METHODS Murine glioma GL261 cells and human glioma U87 cells were included in this study. The authors used 3 mouse models to study glioma cell growth: 1) a subcutaneous ectopic model, 2) a syngeneic intracranial orthotopic model, and 3) an allogenic intracranial orthotopic model. IDO inhibition was achieved via knockdown of IDO in GL261 cells using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and through oral administration of the IDO inhibitor, 1-methyl-l-tryptophan (1-MT). Tumor volume in the subcutaneous model and survival time in the intracranial model were evaluated. RESULTS In the subcutaneous model, oral administration of 1-MT significantly suppressed tumor growth, and synergistic antitumor effects of 1-MT and TMZ were observed (p < 0.01). Mice containing intracranially inoculated IDO knockdown cells had a significantly longer survival period as compared with control mice (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that IDO expression is implicated in immunosuppression and tumor progression in glioma cells. Therefore, combining IDO inhibition with standard TMZ treatment could be an encouraging therapeutic strategy for patients with malignant glioma.

Hyland PL, Zhang H, Yang Q, et al.
Pathway, in silico and tissue-specific expression quantitative analyses of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma genome-wide association studies data.
Int J Epidemiol. 2016; 45(1):206-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in China where essentially all cases are histologically oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Agnostic pathway-based analyses of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data combined with tissue-specific expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and publicly available functional data can identify biological pathways and/or genes enriched with functionally-relevant disease-associated variants.
METHOD: We used the adaptive multilocus joint test to analyse 1827 pathways containing 6060 genes using GWAS data from 1942 ESCC cases and 2111 controls with Chinese ancestry. We examined the function of risk alleles using in silico and eQTL analyses in oesophageal tissues.
RESULTS: Associations with ESCC risk were observed for 36 pathways predominantly involved in apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and DNA repair and containing known GWAS-associated genes. After excluding genes with previous GWAS signals, candidate pathways (and genes) for ESCC risk included taste transduction (KEGG_hsa04742; TAS2R13, TAS2R42, TAS2R14, TAS2R46,TAS2R50), long-patch base excision repair (Reactome_pid; POLD2) and the metabolics pathway (KEGG_hsa01100; MTAP, GAPDH, DCTD, POLD2, AMDHD1). We identified and validated CASP8 rs13016963 and IDH2 rs11630814 as eQTLs, and CASP8 rs3769823 and IDH2 rs4561444 as the potential functional variants in high-linkage disequilibrium with these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), respectively. Further, IDH2 mRNA levels were down-regulated in ESCC (tumour:normal-fold change = 0.69, P =  .75E-14).
CONCLUSION: Agnostic pathway-based analyses and integration of multiple types of functional data provide new evidence for the contribution of genes in taste transduction and metabolism to ESCC susceptibility, and for the functionality of both established and new ESCC risk-related SNPs.

Ujj Z, Buglyó G, Udvardy M, et al.
WT1 Expression in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Assessing its Presence, Magnitude and Temporal Changes as Prognostic Factors.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2016; 22(1):217-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression of the gene Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) has been suggested as a marker of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but literature data are not without controversy. Our aim was to assess the presence, magnitude and temporal changes of WT1 expression as prognostic factors. 60 AML patients were followed until death or the end of the 6-year observation period. Blood samples were taken at diagnosis, post-induction, during remission and in case of a relapse. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we determined WT1 expression from each sample, normalized it against the endogenous control gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and classified samples as negative, moderately positive or highly positive. We divided the patients into groups based on detected WT1 expression values, illustrated overall and disease-free survival on Kaplan-Meier curves, and compared differences between each group by the logrank test. Disappearance of WT1-positivity during chemotherapy had a favorable effect on survival. Interestingly, no difference was seen between the survivals of WT1-positive subgroups that expressed moderate or high levels of WT1 mRNA. A 1-log decrease in WT1 expression without becoming negative did not affect prognosis, either. Our results suggest that defining a cut-off value for WT1-positivity, rather than just using logarithmic figures of changes in gene expression, might have prognostic use in post-induction AML patients. We encourage further, larger-scale studies.

Dyrbye H, Nassehi D, Sørensen LP, et al.
VEGF-A mRNA measurement in meningiomas using a new simplified approach: branched DNA and chemiluminescence.
Clin Neuropathol. 2016 Jan-Feb; 35(1):13-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
For decades, the preferred and almost sole method for measurement of gene expression has been RT-qPCR. The method is robust, inexpensive, and well-studied; however, PCR is also quite laborious and vulnerable to contamination. As part of an investigation of VEGF-A gene expression in meningiomas, an alternative and less laborious method for gene expression analysis based on branched DNA hybridization and chemiluminescence (Lumistar) was tested. Albeit the two methods differ, in principle, cellular mRNA-concentration is measured with both. Because they both determine gene expression via the measurement of mRNA-concentration, they were expected to be comparable. The aim of the present study was to compare Lumistar to the traditional RT-qPCR approach in a routine laboratory setting, where there is emphasis on rapid analysis response. Meningioma (n = 10) and control brain tissue (n = 5) samples were collected and VEGF-A and GAPDH mRNA were quantified using both RT-qPCR and Lumistar. Furthermore, two dilution series of two of the meningioma samples were prepared in order to make quantitative analyses. Both Lumistar and RT-qPCR-results were found to follow concentration dependent linear paths when diluted (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.01). Finally, Lumistar and RT-qPCR analyses were performed with the inclusion of a reference gene (GAPDH), where similar results were obtained with the two methods (R2 = 0.48; p = 0.01). It is intriguing that in spite of the vast difference in handling and assay principles, gene expression results are similar. The preferred method depends on the variability of the samples, budget, and time. Lumistar was less time consuming, while RT-qPCR was less expensive and best suited for data sets with large sample variability.

Sharan RN, Vaiphei ST, Nongrum S, et al.
Consensus reference gene(s) for gene expression studies in human cancers: end of the tunnel visible?
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2015; 38(6):419-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gene expression studies are increasingly used to provide valuable information on the diagnosis and prognosis of human cancers. Also, for in vitro and in vivo experimental cancer models gene expression studies are widely used. The complex algorithms of differential gene expression analyses require normalization of data against a reference or normalizer gene, or a set of such genes. For this purpose, mostly invariant housekeeping genes are used. Unfortunately, however, there are no consensus (housekeeping) genes that serve as reference or normalizer for different human cancers. In fact, scientists have employed a wide range of reference genes across different types of cancer for normalization of gene expression data. As a consequence, comparisons of these data and/or data harmonizations are difficult to perform and challenging. In addition, an inadequate choice for a reference gene may obscure genuine changes and/or result in erroneous gene expression data comparisons.
METHODS: In our effort to highlight the importance of selecting the most appropriate reference gene(s), we have screened the literature for gene expression studies published since the turn of the century on thirteen of the most prevalent human cancers worldwide.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the analysis of the data at hand, we firstly recommend that in each study the suitability of candidate reference gene(s) should carefully be evaluated in order to yield reliable differential gene expression data. Secondly, we recommend that a combination of PPIA and either GAPDH, ACTB, HPRT and TBP, or appropriate combinations of two or three of these genes, should be employed in future studies, to ensure that results from different studies on different human cancers can be harmonized. This approach will ultimately increase the depth of our understanding of gene expression signatures across human cancers.

Hadziabdic N, Kurtovic-Kozaric A, Pojskic N, et al.
Gene-expression analysis of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 and their tissue inhibitors in chronic periapical inflammatory lesions.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2016; 45(3):224-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Periapical inflammatory lesions have been investigated previously, but understanding of pathogenesis of these lesions (granulomas and radicular cysts) at the molecular level is still questionable. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes involved in the development of periapical pathology, specifically inflammation and tissue destruction. To elucidate pathogenesis of periapical granulomas and radicular cysts, we undertook a detailed analysis of gene expression of MMP-1, MMP-2 and their tissue inhibitors, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2.
METHODS: A total of 149 samples were analyzed using real-time PCR (59 radicular cysts, 50 periapical granulomas and 40 healthy gingiva samples as controls) for expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 genes. The determination of best reference gene for expression analysis of periapical lesions was done using a panel of 12 genes.
RESULTS: We have shown that β-actin and GAPDH are not the most stable reference controls for gene expression analysis of inflammatory periapical tissues and healthy gingiva. The most suitable reference gene was determined to be SDHA (a succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein [Fp]). We found that granulomas (n = 50) and radicular cysts (n = 59) exhibited significantly higher expression of all four examined genes, MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, when compared to healthy gingiva (n = 40; P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: This study has confirmed that the expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 genes is important for the pathogenesis of periapical inflammatory lesions. Since the abovementioned markers were not differentially expressed in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts, the challenge of finding the genetic differences between the two lesions still remains.

Fitzgerald KA, Guo J, Tierney EG, et al.
The use of collagen-based scaffolds to simulate prostate cancer bone metastases with potential for evaluating delivery of nanoparticulate gene therapeutics.
Biomaterials. 2015; 66:53-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer bone metastases are a leading cause of cancer-related death in men with current treatments offering only marginally improved rates of survival. Advances in the understanding of the genetic basis of prostate cancer provide the opportunity to develop gene-based medicines capable of treating metastatic disease. The aim of this work was to establish a 3D cell culture model of prostate cancer bone metastasis using collagen-based scaffolds, to characterise this model, and to assess the potential of the model to evaluate delivery of gene therapeutics designed to target bone metastases. Two prostate cancer cell lines (PC3 and LNCaP) were cultured in 2D standard culture and compared to 3D cell growth on three different collagen-based scaffolds (collagen and composites of collagen containing either glycosaminoglycan or nanohydroxyapatite). The 3D model was characterised for cell proliferation, viability and for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzyme and Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) secretion. Chemosensitivity to docetaxel treatment was assessed in 2D in comparison to 3D. Nanoparticles (NPs) containing siRNA formulated using a modified cyclodextrin were delivered to the cells on the scaffolds and gene silencing was quantified. Both prostate cancer cell lines actively infiltrated and proliferated on the scaffolds. Cell culture in 3D resulted in reduced levels of MMP1 and MMP9 secretion in PC3 cells. In contrast, LNCaP cells grown in 3D secreted elevated levels of PSA, particularly on the scaffold composed of collagen and glycosaminoglycans. Both cell lines grown in 3D displayed increased resistance to docetaxel treatment. The cyclodextrin.siRNA nanoparticles achieved cellular uptake and knocked down the endogenous GAPDH gene in the 3D model. In conclusion, development of a novel 3D cell culture model of prostate cancer bone metastasis has been initiated resulting, for the first time, in the successful delivery of gene therapeutics in a 3D in vitro model. Further enhancement of this model will help elucidate the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and also accelerate the design of effective therapies which can penetrate into the bone microenvironment for prostate cancer therapy.

Proença MA, de Oliveira JG, Cadamuro AC, et al.
TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms influence mRNA and protein expression in colorectal cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2015; 21(25):7730-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To evaluate the effect of promoter region polymorphisms of toll-like receptor (TLR)2-196 to -174del and TLR4-1607T/C (rs10759932) on mRNA and protein expression in tumor tissue and of TLR4+896A/G (rs4986790) on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk.
METHODS: The TLR2-196 to -174del polymorphism was investigated using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the TLR4-1607T/C and TLR4+896A/G by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). We genotyped 434 DNA samples from 194 CRC patients and 240 healthy individuals. The mRNA relative quantification (RQ) was performed in 40 tumor tissue samples by quantitative PCR TaqMan assay, using specific probes for TLR2 and TLR4 genes, and ACTB and GAPDH reference genes were used as endogenous controls. Protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry with specific primary antibodies.
RESULTS: No association was found for TLR4-1607T/C and TLR4+896A/G by three statistical models (log-additive, dominant and recessive). However, based on dominant and log-additive models, the polymorphic variant TLR2-196 to -174del was associated with increased CRC risk [dominant: odds ratio (OR) = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.03-2.89; P = 0.038 and log-additive: OR =1.59, 95%CI: 1.02-2.48; P = 0.039]. TLR2 mRNA expression was increased in tumor tissue (RQ = 2.36) when compared to adjacent normal tissue (RQ = 1; P < 0.0001), whereas the TLR4 mRNA showed a basal expression (RQ = 0.74 vs RQ = 1, P = 0.452). Immunohistochemistry analysis of TLR2 and TLR4 protein expression was concordant with the findings of mRNA expression. In addition, the TLR2-196 to -174del variant carriers showed mRNA relative expression 2.19 times higher than wild-genotype carriers. The TLR2 protein expression was also higher for the TLR2-196 to -174del variant carriers [117 ± 10 arbitrary unit (a.u.) vs 95 ± 4 a.u., P = 0.03]. However, for the TLR4 -1607T/C polymorphism no significant difference was found for both mRNA (P = 0.56) and protein expression (P = 0.26).
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that TLR2-196 to -174del polymorphism increases TLR2 mRNA expression and is associated with higher CRC risk, indicating an important role in CRC genetic susceptibility.

Pandey S
Aldose Reductase Inhibitor Fidarestat as a Promising Drug Targeting Autophagy in Colorectal Carcinoma: a Pilot Study.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(12):4981-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Targeting autophagic cell death is emerging as a novel strategy in cancer chemotherapy. Aldose reductase (AR) catalyzes the rate limiting step of the polyol pathway of glucose metabolism; besides reducing glucose to sorbitol, AR reduces lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes and their glutathione conjugates. A complex interplay between autophagic cell death and/or survival may in turn govern tumor metastasis. This exploratory study aimed to investigate the potential role of AR inhibition using a novel inhibitor Fidarestat in the regulation of autophagy in CRC cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: For glucose depletion (GD), HT-29 and SW480 CRC cells were rinsed with glucose-free RPMI-1640, followed by incubation in GD medium+/-Fidarestat (10μM). Proteins were extracted by a RIPA-method followed by Western blotting (35-50 μg of protein; n=3).
RESULTS: Autophagic regulatory markers, primarily, microtubule associated protein light chain (LC) 3, autophagy-related gene (ATG) 5, ATG 7 and Beclin-1 were expressed in CRC cells; glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as an internal reference. LC3 II (14 kDa) expression was relatively high compared to LC3A/B I levels in both CRC cell lines, suggesting occurrence of autophagy. Expression of non-autophagic markers, high mobility group box (HMG)-1 and Bcl-2, was comparatively low.
CONCLUSIONS: GD+/-ARI induced autophagy in HT-29 and SW-480 cells, thereby implicating Fidarestat as a promising therapeutic agent for colorectal cancer; future studies with more potent ARIs are warranted to fully dissect the molecular regulatory networks for autophagy in colorectal carcinoma.

Zhou L, Shang Y, Jin Z, et al.
UHRF1 promotes proliferation of gastric cancer via mediating tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(8):1241-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epigenetic changes play significant roles in cancer development. UHRF1, an epigenetic regulator, has been shown to be overexpressed and to coordinate tumor suppressor gene (TSG) silencing in several cancers. In a previous study, we found that UHRF1 promoted gastric cancer (GC) invasion and metastasis. However, the role and underlying mechanism of UHRF1 in GC carcinogenesis remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated UHRF1 expression and function in GC proliferation and explored its downstream regulatory mechanism. The results demonstrated that UHRF1 overexpression was an independent and significant predictor of GC prognosis. Downregulation of UHRF1 suppressed GC proliferation and growth in vitro and in vivo, and UHRF1 upregulation showed opposite effects. Furthermore, downregulation of UHRF1 reactivated 7 TSGs, including CDX2, CDKN2A, RUNX3, FOXO4, PPARG, BRCA1 and PML, via promoter demethylation. These results provide insight into the GC proliferation process, and suggest that targeting UHRF1 represents a new therapeutic approach to block GC development.

Liu Y, Wang P, Li S, et al.
Interaction of key pathways in sorafenib-treated hepatocellular carcinoma based on a PCR-array.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(3):3027-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study aimed to identify the key pathways and to explore the mechanism of sorafenib in inhibiting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The gene expression profile of GSE33621, including 6 sorafenib treated group and 6 control samples, was downloaded from the GEO (Gene Expression Omnibus) database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HCC samples were screened using the ΔΔCt method with the homogenized internal GAPDH. Also, the functions and pathways of DEGs were analyzed using the DAVID. Moreover, the significant pathways of DEGs that involved in HCC were analyzed based on the Latent pathway identification analysis (LPIA). A total of 44 down-regulated DEGs were selected in HCC samples. Also, there were 84 biological pathways that these 44 DEGs involved in. Also, LPIA showed that Osteoclast differentiation and hsa04664-Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway was the most significant interaction pathways. Moreover, Apoptosis, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, Chagas disease, and T cell receptor signaling pathway were the significant pathways that interacted with hsa04664. In addition, DEGs such as AKT1 (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1), TNF (tumor necrosis factor), SYK (spleen tyrosine kinase), and PIK3R1 (phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (alpha)) were the common genes that involved in the significant pathways. Several pathway interaction pairs that caused by several downregulated genes such as SYK, PI3K, AKT1, and TNF, were identified play curial role in sorafenib treated HCC. Sorafenib played important inhibition roles in HCC by affecting a complicate pathway interaction network.

Rasekhian M, Teimoori-Toolabi L, Amini S, Azadmanesh K
An Enterovirus-Like RNA Construct for Colon Cancer Suicide Gene Therapy.
Iran Biomed J. 2015; 19(3):124-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In gene therapy, the use of RNA molecules as therapeutic agents has shown advantages over plasmid DNA, including higher levels of safety. However, transient nature of RNA has been a major obstacle in application of RNA in gene therapy.
METHODS: Here, we used the internal ribosomal entry site of encephalomyocarditis virus and the 3' non-translated region of Poliovirus to design an enterovirus-like RNA for the expression of a reporter gene (enhanced green fluorescent protein) and a suicide gene (thymidine kinase of herpes simplex virus). The expression of these genes was evaluated by flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assay in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480). We then armed RNA molecules with a target sequence for hsa-miR-143 to regulate their expression by microRNA (miRNA) mimics.
RESULTS: The results showed effective expression of both genes by Entrovirus-like RNA constructs. The data also showed that the restoration of hsa-miR-143 expression in SW480 leads to a significant translation repression of the introduced reporter and suicide genes.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, our data suggest the potential use of Entrovirus-like RNA molecules in suicide gene therapy. Additionally, as a consequence of the possible downregulated miRNA expression in cancerous tissues, a decreased expression of gene therapy constructs armed with target sequences for such miRNA in cancer tissue is expected.

Chen H, Wu Q
Expression of GW112 and GRIM-19 in colorectal cancer tissues.
J BUON. 2015 Mar-Apr; 20(2):438-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the expression of GW112 and GRIM-19 in colorectal cancer tissues.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative PCR were used to simultaneously detect the levels of expression of GW112 and GRIM-19 in colorectal cancer tissues and normal colorectal tissues in 39 cases.
RESULTS: Expression of GW112 protein and mRNA were significantly higher in colorectal cancer tissues than in normal tissues (p<0.05). Expression of GRIM-19 protein and mRNA were significantly lower in colorectal cancer tissues than in normal tissues (p<0.05). GW112 gene mRNA copy number(GAPDH gene mRNA copy number were 0.53 ± 0.21 and 1.81 ± 0.65 in normal colorectal tissues and colorectal cancer tissues respectively, and GRIM-19 gene mRNA copy number/GAPDH gene mRNA copy number were 1.15 ± 0.29 and 1.74 ± 0.0.44 in colorectal cancer tissues and normal colorectal tissues, respectively. Expression of GW112 gene mRNA was significantly higher in colorectal cancer tissues than in normal tissues (p<0.05), and expression of GRIM- 19 gene mRNA was significantly lower in colorectal cancer tissues than in normal tissues (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: High expression of GW112 in colorectal cancer tissues and reduced expression of GRIM-19 in colorectal cancer tissues may be associated with abnormal proliferation of cancer cells and are possibly one of the reasons for development of colorectal cancer, which can provide effective targets for clinical treatment of this disease.

Wang H, Pan JQ, Luo L, et al.
NF-κB induces miR-148a to sustain TGF-β/Smad signaling activation in glioblastoma.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:2 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory cytokines and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) are mutually inhibitory. However, hyperactivation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and TGF-β signaling both emerge in glioblastoma. Here, we report microRNA-148a (miR-148a) overexpression in glioblastoma and that miR-148a directly suppressed Quaking (QKI), a negative regulator of TGF-β signaling.
METHODS: We determined NF-κB and TGF-β/Smad signaling activity using pNF-κB-luc, pSMAD-luc, and control plasmids. The association between an RNA-induced silencing complex and QKI, mitogen-inducible gene 6 (MIG6), S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA was tested with microribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation and real-time PCR. Xenograft tumors were established in the brains of nude mice.
RESULTS: QKI suppression induced an aggressive phenotype of glioblastoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, we found that NF-κB induced miR-148a expression, leading to enhanced-strength and prolonged-duration TGF-β/Smad signaling. Notably, these findings were consistent with the significant correlation between miR-148a levels with NF-κB hyperactivation and activated TGF-β/Smad signaling in a cohort of human glioblastoma specimens.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings uncover a plausible mechanism for NF-κB-sustained TGF-β/Smad activation via miR-148a in glioblastoma, and may suggest a new target for clinical intervention in human cancer.

Fontemaggi G, Bellissimo T, Donzelli S, et al.
Identification of post-transcriptional regulatory networks during myeloblast-to-monocyte differentiation transition.
RNA Biol. 2015; 12(7):690-700 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Treatment of leukemia cells with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 may overcome their differentiation block and lead to the transition from myeloblasts to monocytes. To identify microRNA-mRNA networks relevant for myeloid differentiation, we profiled the expression of mRNAs and microRNAs associated to the low- and high-density ribosomal fractions in leukemic cells and in their differentiated monocytic counterpart. Intersection between mRNAs shifted across the fractions after treatment with putative target genes of modulated microRNAs showed a series of molecular networks relevant for the monocyte cell fate determination, as for example the post-transcriptional regulation of the Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) by miR-22-3p and let-7e-5p.

Ye Z, Shen N, Weng Y, et al.
Low miR-145 silenced by DNA methylation promotes NSCLC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting mucin 1.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(7):1071-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MiR-145 has been implicated in the progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, its exact mechanism is not well established. Here, we report that miR-145 expression is decreased in NSCLC cell lines and tumor tissues and that this low level of expression is associated with DNA methylation. MiR-145 methylation in NSCLC was correlated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype and was associated with poor survival time, as shown by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Additional multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that miR-145 methylation was an independent prognostic factor for poor survival in patients with NSCLC. Furthermore, we found that restoration of miR-145 expression inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of NSCLC by the direct targeting of mucin 1 by miR-145. Our results indicate that low miR-145 expression, due to methylation, promotes NSCLC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting mucin 1. Therefore, miR-145 may be a valuable therapeutic target for NSCLC.

Bazzocco S, Dopeso H, Carton-Garcia F, et al.
Highly Expressed Genes in Rapidly Proliferating Tumor Cells as New Targets for Colorectal Cancer Treatment.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(16):3695-704 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The clinical management of colorectal cancer patients has significantly improved because of the identification of novel therapeutic targets such as EGFR and VEGF. Because rapid tumor proliferation is associated with poor patient prognosis, here we characterized the transcriptional signature of rapidly proliferating colorectal cancer cells in an attempt to identify novel candidate therapeutic targets.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The doubling time of 52 colorectal cancer cell lines was determined and genome-wide expression profiling of a subset of these lines was assessed by microarray analysis. We then investigated the potential of genes highly expressed in cancer cells with faster growth as new therapeutic targets.
RESULTS: Faster proliferation rates were associated with microsatellite instability and poorly differentiated histology. The expression of 1,290 genes was significantly correlated with the growth rates of colorectal cancer cells. These included genes involved in cell cycle, RNA processing/splicing, and protein transport. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) were shown to have higher expression in faster growing cell lines and primary tumors. Pharmacologic or siRNA-based inhibition of GAPDH or PPOX reduced the growth of colon cancer cells in vitro. Moreover, using a mouse xenograft model, we show that treatment with the specific PPOX inhibitor acifluorfen significantly reduced the growth of three of the seven (42.8%) colon cancer lines investigated.
CONCLUSIONS: We have characterized at the transcriptomic level the differences between colorectal cancer cells that vary in their growth rates, and identified novel candidate chemotherapeutic targets for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

Hao L, Zhou X, Liu S, et al.
Elevated GAPDH expression is associated with the proliferation and invasion of lung and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas.
Proteomics. 2015; 15(17):3087-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, is one of the most investigated housekeeping genes and widely used as an internal control in analysis of gene expression levels. The present study was designed to assess whether GAPDH is associated with cancer cell growth and progression and, therefore may not be a good internal control in cancer research. Our results from clinical tissue studies showed that the levels of GAPDH protein were significantly up-regulated in lung squamous cell carcinoma tissues, compared with the adjacent normal lung tissues, and this was confirmed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. GAPDH knockdown by siRNA resulted in significant reductions in proliferation, migration, and invasion of lung squamous carcinoma cells in vitro. In a nude mouse cancer xenograft model, GAPDH knockdown significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and migration/invasion in vivo. In summary, GAPDH may not be an appropriate internal control for gene expression studies, especially in cancer research. The role of GAPDH in cancer development and progression should be further examined in pre-clinical and clinical studies.

Torbidoni AV, Laurent VE, Sampor C, et al.
Association of Cone-Rod Homeobox Transcription Factor Messenger RNA With Pediatric Metastatic Retinoblastoma.
JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015; 133(7):805-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
IMPORTANCE: Disseminated retinoblastoma is usually fatal. Identification of small amounts (minimal dissemination [MD]) of tumor cells in extraocular sites might be a tool for designing appropriate treatments.
OBJECTIVE: To test cone-rod homeobox (CRX) transcription factor as a lineage-specific molecular marker for metastatic retinoblastoma and for evaluation of MD.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In a prospective cohort design study, we evaluated CRX messenger RNA (mRNA) by retrotranscription followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction as a diagnostic test in samples obtained from bone marrow, peripheral blood, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at diagnosis, after induction chemotherapy, and during follow-up. The study was conducted from June 30, 2008, to June 30, 2014. Seventeen retinoblastoma primary tumors, 2 retinoblastoma cell lines, and 47 samples of bone marrow from other cancers (controls) were studied. Seventeen patients with metastatic retinoblastoma (9 at diagnosis, 8 at relapse; age range: 18-41 months) were included.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Detection of CRX mRNA as a marker for metastatic retinoblastoma and MD in bone marrow and CSF and its correlation with clinical findings.
RESULTS: Cone-rod homeobox mRNA was expressed in all tumors (relative expression levels range, 8.1 × 10-5 to 5.6) and cell lines. In control samples, there was no amplification of CRX; only the housekeeping gene (GAPDH) demonstrated amplification. Bone marrow metastatic cells showed expression of CRX mRNA in all 9 children presenting with metastasis at the diagnosis (relative expression levels, 6.0 × 10-5 to 0.67). After induction chemotherapy, no evidence of MD of tumor cells was seen in any of the 8 responding children since only GAPDH showed amplification. In the CSF of children who had a metastatic relapse, CRX mRNA detection was positive in 2 patients in whom no conclusive results were reached by immunocytology for disialoganglioside GD2. Minimal dissemination in the CSF was associated with a clinical relapse in 2 cases. No concomitant MD was evident in the bone marrow in any case.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These data suggest that CRX mRNA is a novel marker for retinoblastoma at extraocular sites. In this study among patients with bone marrow metastasis, there was a quick, complete, and sustained molecular response after induction chemotherapy. In all patients with secondary metastasis, CSF relapse occurred independently from the bone marrow, suggesting a sanctuary site.

Zheng X, Zhou J, Zhang B, et al.
Critical evaluation of Cbx7 downregulation in primary colon carcinomas and its clinical significance in Chinese patients.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:145 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CBX7 is a Polycomb group protein that shows variable expression changes in various cancers that are often contradictive. A mouse knockout experiment has validated the tumor suppressor role in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study is to verify the tumor suppressor role of Cbx7 in human colon carcinomas (CC).
METHODS: Frozen CC and the surgical margin (SM) tissue samples from patients (n = 97) were obtained from the Peking University Cancer Hospital. All patients had follow-up data for at least three years. The level of Cbx7 mRNA and protein was determined by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot, respectively. The association between Cbx7 mRNA level and clinicopathological characteristics of CC patients was then statistically analyzed.
RESULTS: CBX7 expression changes detected through immunohistochemistry and Western blot in 10 pairs of representative CC samples significantly correlated with their corresponding mRNA levels when Alu, but not GAPDH, was used as the endogenous reference control in quantitative RT-PCR. The Alu-normalized Cbx7 mRNA levels were significantly increased in SM tissues when compared with CC tissues or colon biopsies taken from non-cancer patients (Student's t-test, P < 0.036 or 0.007). Furthermore, decreased levels of Cbx7 mRNA positively correlated with lymph metastasis (P = 0.029). Overall survival (OS) of CC patients classified as Cbx7 expression-low was considerably shorter than those classified as Cbx7 expression-high (Hazard ratio = 2.97, 95% CI [1.68 ~ 5.25]; P <0.001). Multiple variant analyses showed that the Cbx7 expression-low was an independent predictor of short OS (Hazard ratio = 3.16, 95% CI [1.58-6.30]; P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Cbx7 is downregulated in CCs, and Cbx7 expression-low tumors correlated with lymph metastasis and poor overall survival of CC patients.

Grube S, Göttig T, Freitag D, et al.
Selection of suitable reference genes for expression analysis in human glioma using RT-qPCR.
J Neurooncol. 2015; 123(1):35-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
In human glioma research, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR is a frequently used tool. Considering the broad variation in the expression of candidate reference genes among tumor stages and normal brain, studies using quantitative RT-PCR require strict definition of adequate endogenous controls. This study aimed at testing a panel of nine reference genes [beta-2-microglobulin, cytochrome c-1 (CYC1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hydroxymethylbilane synthase, hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase 1, ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A), succinate dehydrogenase, TATA-box binding protein and 14-3-3 protein zeta] to identify and validate the most suitable reference genes for expression studies in human glioma of different grades (World Health Organization grades II-IV). After analysis of the stability values calculated using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper algorithms, GAPDH, RPL13A, and CYC1 can be indicated as reference genes applicable for accurate normalization of gene expression in glioma compared with normal brain and anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma alone within this experimental setting. Generally, there are no differences in expression levels and variability of candidate genes in glioma tissue compared to normal brain. But stability analyses revealed just a small number of genes suitable for normalization in each of the tumor subgroups and across these groups. Nevertheless, our data show the importance of validation of adequate reference genes prior to every study.

Navarra M, Ferlazzo N, Cirmi S, et al.
Effects of bergamot essential oil and its extractive fractions on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell growth.
J Pharm Pharmacol. 2015; 67(8):1042-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The goals were to investigate the mechanisms underlying the antiproliferative effects of bergamot essential oil (BEO) and to identify the compounds mainly responsible for its SH-SY5Y cells growth rate inhibition.
METHODS: Five BEO extractive fractions (BEOs) differing in their chemical composition were used. Cell proliferation was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and cell count assays. Trypan blue exclusion test and Annexin V/PI staining were performed to assess their cytotoxic activity. Genotoxicity was detected by comet assay. The cell cycle was checked cytofluorimetrically. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Δψm were measured fluorimetrically. Western blotting analyses for some apoptosis-related proteins were carried out.
KEY FINDINGS: Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with some types of BEOs decreased cell growth rate by a mechanism correlated to both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Coloured BEOs act by increasing ROS generation, responsible for the drop in Δψm, and modulate p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK ½) mitogen-activated protein kinases, p53, Bcl-2 and Bax signalling pathways. Finally, we identify bergamottin and 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin as the bioactive molecules that could play a pivotal role in the antiproliferative effects exerted by coloured BEOs.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides novel insights into the field of the antiproliferative effects of BEO, which could be exploited in the context of a multitarget pharmacological strategy.

Kawada M, Inoue H, Ohba S, et al.
Stromal cells positively and negatively modulate the growth of cancer cells: stimulation via the PGE2-TNFα-IL-6 pathway and inhibition via secreted GAPDH-E-cadherin interaction.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0119415 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fibroblast-like stromal cells modulate cancer cells through secreted factors and adhesion, but those factors are not fully understood. Here, we have identified critical stromal factors that modulate cancer growth positively and negatively. Using a cell co-culture system, we found that gastric stromal cells secreted IL-6 as a growth and survival factor for gastric cancer cells. Moreover, gastric cancer cells secreted PGE2 and TNFα that stimulated IL-6 secretion by the stromal cells. Furthermore, we found that stromal cells secreted glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Extracellular GAPDH, or its N-terminal domain, inhibited gastric cancer cell growth, a finding confirmed in other cell systems. GAPDH bound to E-cadherin and downregulated the mTOR-p70S6 kinase pathway. These results demonstrate that stromal cells could regulate cancer cell growth through the balance of these secreted factors. We propose that negative regulation of cancer growth using GAPDH could be a new anti-cancer strategy.

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