KLF5

Gene Summary

Gene:KLF5; Kruppel like factor 5
Aliases: CKLF, IKLF, BTEB2
Location:13q22.1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the Kruppel-like factor subfamily of zinc finger proteins. The encoded protein is a transcriptional activator that binds directly to a specific recognition motif in the promoters of target genes. This protein acts downstream of multiple different signaling pathways and is regulated by post-translational modification. It may participate in both promoting and suppressing cell proliferation. Expression of this gene may be changed in a variety of different cancers and in cardiovascular disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:Krueppel-like factor 5
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (12)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Retinoic Acid
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Chromosome 13
  • Trans-Activators
  • Whole Body Imaging
  • Lung Cancer
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Risk Factors
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Spheroids, Cellular
  • Promoter Regions
  • RTPCR
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Down-Regulation
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Protein Binding
  • Transcription
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Apoptosis
  • Breast Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Transcription Factors
  • Gene Expression
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Signal Transduction
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cell Differentiation
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: KLF5 (cancer-related)

Mihara N, Chiba T, Yamaguchi K, et al.
Minimal essential region for krüppel-like factor 5 expression and the regulation by specificity protein 3-GC box binding.
Gene. 2017; 601:36-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) transcriptionally controls the proliferation-differentiation balance of epithelium and is overexpressed in carcinomas. Although genomic region modifying KLF5 expression is widespread in different types of cells, the region that commonly regulates basal expression of the genes across cell-types is uncertain. In this study we determined the minimal essential region for the expression and its regulatory transcription factors using oral carcinoma cells. A reporter assay defined a 186bp region downstream of the transcription start site and a cluster of six GC boxes (GC1-GC6) as the minimal essential region. Mutation in the GC1 or GC6 regions but not other GC boxes significantly decreased the reporter expression. The decrease by the GC1 mutation was reproduced in the 2kbp full-length promoter, but not by the GC6 mutation. Additionally, specificity proteins (Sp) that can be expressed in epithelial cells and bind GC box, Sp3 co-localized with KLF5 in oral epithelium and carcinomas and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed Sp3 as the prime GC1-binding protein. Inhibition of Sp-GC box binding by mithramycin A and knockdown of Sp3 by the short interfering RNA decreased expression of the reporter gene and endogenous KLF5. These data demonstrate that a 186bp region is the minimal essential region and that Sp3-GC1 binding is essential to the basal expression of KLF5.

Shen Z, Chen X, Li Q, et al.
Elevated methylation of CMTM3 promoter in the male laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients.
Clin Biochem. 2016; 49(16-17):1278-1282 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing 3 (CMTM3), as a tumor suppressor gene, plays an important role in the suppression of cell growth and apoptosis. The goal of our study is to investigate the association between CMTM3 promoter methylation and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC).
DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the bisulfite pyrosequencing technology, DNA methylation levels of seven CpG sites in CMTM3 promoter are measured in tumor tissues and their adjacent tissues of 76 male LSCC patients.
RESULTS: Our results reveal a significantly elevated promoter methylation of CMTM3 in tumor tissues compared with their adjacent tissues (P<0.001). A breakdown analysis by age shows that significant association of CMTM3 promoter methylation with cancer risk is specific to the LSCC patients older than 55years (P<0.001) but not in the younger patients (P=0.305). Moreover, the association is only observed in the LSCC patients with smoking behavior (P=0.001). Breakdown analysis also shows that CMTM3 promoter methylation is associated with cancer risk among patients with stage I LSCC (P<0.001).
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study indicates that elevated CMTM3 methylation is a risk factor in male LSCC patients, especially in the patients with age over 55years and with smoking behavior.

Mays AC, Feng X, Browne JD, Sullivan CA
Chemokine and Chemokine Receptor Profiles in Metastatic Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):4013-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To characterize the chemokine pattern in metastatic salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to compare chemokine and chemokine receptor gene expression in two SACC cell lines: SACC-83 and SACC-LM (lung metastasis). Chemokines and receptor genes were then screened and their expression pattern characterized in human tissue samples of non-recurrent SACC and recurrent SACC with perineural invasion.
RESULTS: Expression of chemokine receptors C5AR1, CCR1, CCR3, CCR6, CCR7, CCR9, CCR10, CXCR4, CXCR6, CXCR7, CCRL1 and CCRL2 were higher in SACC-83 compared to SACC-LM. CCRL1, CCBP2, CMKLR1, XCR1 and CXCR2 and 6 chemokine genes (CCL13, CCL27, CXCL14, CMTM1, CMTM2, CKLF) were more highly expressed in tissues of patients without tumor recurrence/perineural invasion compared to those with tumor recurrence. CCRL1 (receptor), CCL27, CMTM1, CMTM2, and CKLF (chemokine) genes were more highly expressed in SACC-83 and human tissues of patients without tumor recurrence/perineural invasion.
CONCLUSION: CCRL1, CCL27, CMTM1, CMTM2 and CKLF may play important roles in the development of tumor metastases in SACC.

Lu J, Wu QQ, Zhou YB, et al.
Cancer Research Advance in CKLF-like MARVEL Transmembrane Domain Containing Member Family (Review).
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(6):2741-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing family (CMTM) is a novel family of genes first reported at international level by Peking University Human Disease Gene Research Center. The gene products are between chemokines and the transmembrane-4 superfamily. Loaceted in several human chromosomes, CMTMs, which are unregulated in kinds of tumors, are potential tumor suppressor genes consisting of CKLF and CMTM1 to CMTM8. CMTMs play important roles in immune, male reproductive and hematopoietic systems. Also, it has been approved that CMTM family has strong connection with diseases of autoimmunity, haematopoietic system and haematopoietic system. The in-depth study in recent years found the close relation between CMTMs and umorigenesis, tumor development and metastasis. CMTM family has a significant clinical value in diagnosis and treatment to the diseases linking to tumor and immune system.

Liu R, Shi P, Nie Z, et al.
Mifepristone Suppresses Basal Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Stem Cells by Down-regulating KLF5 Expression.
Theranostics. 2016; 6(4):533-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is currently the most malignant subtype of breast cancers without effective targeted therapies. Mifepristone (MIF), a drug regularly used for abortion, has been reported to have anti-tumor activity in multiple hormone-dependent cancers, including luminal type breast cancers. In this study, we showed that MIF suppressed tumor growth of the TNBC cell lines and patient-derived xenografts in NOD-SCID mice. Furthermore, MIF reduced the TNBC cancer stem cell (CSC) population through down-regulating KLF5 expression, a stem cell transcription factor over-expressed in basal type TNBC and promoting cell proliferation, survival and stemness. Interestingly, MIF suppresses the expression of KLF5 through inducing the expression of miR-153. Consistently, miR-153 decreases CSC and miR-153 inhibitor rescued MIF-induced down-regulation of the KLF5 protein level and CSC ratio. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIF inhibits basal TNBC via the miR-153/KLF5 axis and MIF may be used for the treatment of TNBC.

Du C, Gao Y, Xu S, et al.
KLF5 promotes cell migration by up-regulating FYN in bladder cancer cells.
FEBS Lett. 2016; 590(3):408-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) promotes cell proliferation of bladder cancer. However, whether KLF5 regulates other cell processes in bladder cancer is not clear. We found that KLF5 increases cell migration and lamellipodia formation, expression of FYN and phosphorylation of FAK in bladder cancer cells. In addition, KLF5 promotes transcription of FYN through binding to its promoter. FYN overexpression rescues cell migration and lamellipodia formation reduced by KLF5 knockdown. Furthermore, the KLF5/FYN/p-FAK axis is necessary for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to promote cell migration. Our findings indicate that both KLF5 and FYN are important in the regulation of cell migration in bladder cancer cells. We propose the KLF5/FYN/p-FAK axis as a potential therapeutic target in bladder cancer.

Diaferia GR, Balestrieri C, Prosperini E, et al.
Dissection of transcriptional and cis-regulatory control of differentiation in human pancreatic cancer.
EMBO J. 2016; 35(6):595-617 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
The histological grade of carcinomas describes the ability of tumor cells to organize in differentiated epithelial structures and has prognostic and therapeutic impact. Here, we show that differential usage of the genomic repertoire of transcriptional enhancers leads to grade-specific gene expression programs in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). By integrating gene expression profiling, epigenomic footprinting, and loss-of-function experiments in PDAC cell lines of different grade, we identified the repertoires of enhancers specific to high- and low-grade PDACs and the cognate set of transcription factors acting to maintain their activity. Among the candidate regulators of PDAC differentiation, KLF5 was selectively expressed in pre-neoplastic lesions and low-grade primary PDACs and cell lines, where it maintained the acetylation of grade-specific enhancers, the expression of epithelial genes such as keratins and mucins, and the ability to organize glandular epithelia in xenografts. The identification of the transcription factors controlling differentiation in PDACs will help clarify the molecular bases of its heterogeneity and progression.

Ajiro M, Jia R, Yang Y, et al.
A genome landscape of SRSF3-regulated splicing events and gene expression in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2016; 44(4):1854-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
Alternative RNA splicing is an essential process to yield proteomic diversity in eukaryotic cells, and aberrant splicing is often associated with numerous human diseases and cancers. We recently described serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3 or SRp20) being a proto-oncogene. However, the SRSF3-regulated splicing events responsible for its oncogenic activities remain largely unknown. By global profiling of the SRSF3-regulated splicing events in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells, we found that SRSF3 regulates the expression of 60 genes including ERRFI1, ANXA1 and TGFB2, and 182 splicing events in 164 genes, including EP300, PUS3, CLINT1, PKP4, KIF23, CHK1, SMC2, CKLF, MAP4, MBNL1, MELK, DDX5, PABPC1, MAP4K4, Sp1 and SRSF1, which are primarily associated with cell proliferation or cell cycle. Two SRSF3-binding motifs, CCAGC(G)C and A(G)CAGCA, are enriched to the alternative exons. An SRSF3-binding site in the EP300 exon 14 is essential for exon 14 inclusion. We found that the expression of SRSF1 and SRSF3 are mutually dependent and coexpressed in normal and tumor tissues/cells. SRSF3 also significantly regulates the expression of at least 20 miRNAs, including a subset of oncogenic or tumor suppressive miRNAs. These data indicate that SRSF3 affects a global change of gene expression to maintain cell homeostasis.

Zhang X, Choi PS, Francis JM, et al.
Identification of focally amplified lineage-specific super-enhancers in human epithelial cancers.
Nat Genet. 2016; 48(2):176-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
Whole-genome analysis approaches are identifying recurrent cancer-associated somatic alterations in noncoding DNA regions. We combined somatic copy number analysis of 12 tumor types with tissue-specific epigenetic profiling to identify significant regions of focal amplification harboring super-enhancers. Copy number gains of noncoding regions harboring super-enhancers near KLF5, USP12, PARD6B and MYC are associated with overexpression of these cancer-related genes. We show that two distinct focal amplifications of super-enhancers 3' to MYC in lung adenocarcinoma (MYC-LASE) and endometrial carcinoma (MYC-ECSE) are physically associated with the MYC promoter and correlate with MYC overexpression. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated repression or deletion of a constituent enhancer within the MYC-LASE region led to significant reductions in the expression of MYC and its target genes and to the impairment of anchorage-independent and clonogenic growth, consistent with an oncogenic function. Our results suggest that genomic amplification of super-enhancers represents a common mechanism to activate cancer driver genes in multiple cancer types.

Ruiz de Sabando A, Wang C, He Y, et al.
ML264, A Novel Small-Molecule Compound That Potently Inhibits Growth of Colorectal Cancer.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(1):72-83 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in Western civilization. Studies have shown that colorectal cancer arises as a consequence of the modification of genes that regulate important cellular functions. Deregulation of the WNT and RAS/MAPK/PI3K signaling pathways has been shown to be important in the early stages of colorectal cancer development and progression. Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) is a transcription factor that is highly expressed in the proliferating intestinal crypt epithelial cells. Previously, we showed that KLF5 is a mediator of RAS/MAPK and WNT signaling pathways under homeostatic conditions and that it promotes their tumorigenic functions during the development and progression of intestinal adenomas. Recently, using an ultrahigh-throughput screening approach we identified a number of novel small molecules that have the potential to provide therapeutic benefits for colorectal cancer by targeting KLF5 expression. In the current study, we show that an improved analogue of one of these screening hits, ML264, potently inhibits proliferation of colorectal cancer cells in vitro through modifications of the cell-cycle profile. Moreover, in an established xenograft mouse model of colon cancer, we demonstrate that ML264 efficiently inhibits growth of the tumor within 5 days of treatment. We show that this effect is caused by a significant reduction in proliferation and that ML264 potently inhibits the expression of KLF5 and EGR1, a transcriptional activator of KLF5. These findings demonstrate that ML264, or an analogue, may hold a promise as a novel therapeutic agent to curb the development and progression of colorectal cancer.

Yang H, Schramek D, Adam RC, et al.
ETS family transcriptional regulators drive chromatin dynamics and malignancy in squamous cell carcinomas.
Elife. 2015; 4:e10870 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
Tumor-initiating stem cells (SCs) exhibit distinct patterns of transcription factors and gene expression compared to healthy counterparts. Here, we show that dramatic shifts in large open-chromatin domain (super-enhancer) landscapes underlie these differences and reflect tumor microenvironment. By in vivo super-enhancer and transcriptional profiling, we uncover a dynamic cancer-specific epigenetic network selectively enriched for binding motifs of a transcription factor cohort expressed in squamous cell carcinoma SCs (SCC-SCs). Many of their genes, including Ets2 and Elk3, are themselves regulated by SCC-SC super-enhancers suggesting a cooperative feed-forward loop. Malignant progression requires these genes, whose knockdown severely impairs tumor growth and prohibits progression from benign papillomas to SCCs. ETS2-deficiency disrupts the SCC-SC super-enhancer landscape and downstream cancer genes while ETS2-overactivation in epidermal-SCs induces hyperproliferation and SCC super-enhancer-associated genes Fos, Junb and Klf5. Together, our findings unearth an essential regulatory network required for the SCC-SC chromatin landscape and unveil its importance in malignant progression.

Gao Y, Wu K, Chen Y, et al.
Beyond proliferation: KLF5 promotes angiogenesis of bladder cancer through directly regulating VEGFA transcription.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(41):43791-805 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
Abundant evidence has demonstrated critical roles of KLF5 in regulating cell proliferation in various cancers, however, its additional roles in other aspects of cancer development remain to be further clarified. In this study, we found that KLF5 was essential for cancer cell-endothelial cell interaction in vitro and tumor angiogenesis in nude mice based on lentivirus-mediated KLF5 knockdown bladder cancer cell models. Moreover, KLF5 insufficiency abolished the ability of bladder cancer cells to induce neovascularization in rabbit cornea. Mechanistically, the pro-angiogenic factor VEGFA was identified as a direct downstream target of KLF5, which bound to GC-boxes and CACCC elements of VEGFA promoter and regulated its transcriptional activity. In addition, there was a positive correlation between KLF5 and VEGFA expression in human bladder cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry assay and statistical analysis from TCGA and GEO data. Furthermore, we found that two pivotal pathways in bladder cancer, RTKs/RAS/MAPK and PI3K/Akt, might convey their oncogenic signaling through KLF5-VEGFA axis. Taken together, our results indicate that KLF5 promotes angiogenesis of bladder cancer through directly regulating VEGFA transcription and suggest that KLF5 could be a novel therapeutic target for angiogenesis inhibition in bladder cancer.

Gao D, Hu H, Wang Y, et al.
CMTM8 inhibits the carcinogenesis and progression of bladder cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(6):2853-63 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
Bladder cancer is the most common tumor of the urinary tract. The incidence of bladder cancer has increased in the last few decades, thus novel molecular markers for early diagnosis and more efficacious treatment are urgently needed. Chemokine‑like factor (CKLF)‑like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing 8 (CMTM8) is downregulated in several types of cancers and is associated with tumor progression. However, CMTM8 expression has been unexplored in bladder cancer to date. Our results revealed that the expression of CMTM8 was negative in 46 of 74 (62.2%) bladder cancer samples via immunohistochemistry assay. CMTM8 downregulation was associated with advancing tumor stage and tumor grade. CMTM8 was successfully overexpressed by lentivirus in EJ and T24 cells, and the CCK‑8 and Transwell assays showed that CMTM8 overexpression decreased cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. In tumor xenografts upregulation of CMTM8 inhibited tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in vivo. In conclusion, overexpression of CMTM8 in bladder cancer results in reduced malignant cell growth, migration and invasion, which could make it a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of bladder cancer.

Nakajima Y, Osakabe A, Waku T, et al.
Estrogen Exhibits a Biphasic Effect on Prostate Tumor Growth through the Estrogen Receptor β-KLF5 Pathway.
Mol Cell Biol. 2016; 36(1):144-56 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
Estrogens are effective in the treatment of prostate cancer; however, the effects of estrogens on prostate cancer are enigmatic. In this study, we demonstrated that estrogen (17β-estradiol [E2]) has biphasic effects on prostate tumor growth. A lower dose of E2 increased tumor growth in mouse xenograft models using DU145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells, whereas a higher dose significantly decreased tumor growth. We found that anchorage-independent apoptosis in these cells was inhibited by E2 treatment. Similarly, in vivo angiogenesis was suppressed by E2. Interestingly, these effects of E2 were abolished by knockdown of either estrogen receptor β (ERβ) or Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor 5 (KLF5). Ιn addition, E2 suppressed KLF5-mediated transcription through ERβ, which inhibits proapoptotic FOXO1 and proangiogenic PDGFA expression. Furthermore, we revealed that a nonagonistic ER ligand GS-1405 inhibited FOXO1 and PDGFA expression through the ERβ-KLF5 pathway and regulated prostate tumor growth without ERβ transactivation. Therefore, these results suggest that E2 biphasically modulates prostate tumor formation by regulating KLF5-dependent transcription through ERβ and provide a new strategy for designing ER modulators, which will be able to regulate prostate cancer progression with minimal adverse effects due to ER transactivation.

Shi Q, Gao Y, Xu S, et al.
Krüppel-like factor 5 promotes apoptosis triggered by tumor necrosis factor α in LNCaP prostate cancer cells via up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7.
Urol Oncol. 2016; 34(2):58.e11-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) modulates multiple cell processes in different cancers. It is frequently deleted and inactivated in prostate cancer and may exert a tumor suppressor function. However, how KLF5 inhibits the progression of prostate cancer is still not clear. In the present study, we identified how KLF5 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) pathway, which can induce apoptosis in cancer, regulate each other in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of messenger RNA and protein was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay and western blot analysis, respectively. To identify whether KLF5 regulates the activity of TNFα downstream pathway, we constructed a stable KLF5 knockdown or KLF5 overexpressing cell line with lentivirus-containing short hairpin RNA targeting KLF5 or full-length KLF5 in LNCaP cells. Cell apoptosis was determined through flow cytometry assay. In addition, the regulation of KLF5 on target gene transcription was detected by reporter luciferase activity assay, and the binding of KLF5 on target promoter was detected through oligonucleotides pull-down analysis.
RESULTS: We found that TNFα induced the expression of KLF5 at both messenger RNA and protein levels; moreover, TNFα up-regulated KLF5 through TNF receptor 1 but not through TNF receptor 2 in LNCaP cells. Knockdown of KLF5 decreased apoptosis induced by TNFα, whereas cell apoptosis was increased by KLF5 overexpression. Consistently, expression of cleaved PARP and caspase-3 induced by TNFα was decreased by KLF5 knockdown, whereas it was increased by overexpressed KLF5. JNK activity is essential for the apoptosis induced by TNFα. We found that knockdown of KLF5 not only decreased the phosphorylation of JNK induced by TNFα, but also down-regulated the transcription of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (MKK7), an upstream kinase of JNK, by binding to the MKK7 promoter.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that KLF5 is an essential transcription regulator of MKK7 kinase and promotes the apoptosis induced by TNFα in LNCaP cells. Loss of KLF5 in prostate cancer may decrease cell response to TNFα-inducing apoptosis and facilitate cancer initiation and progression; moreover, KLF5 could be a potential molecular marker for predicting the effect of high-dose TNFα on tumor growth inhibition in prostate cancer.

Li T, Cheng Y, Wang P, et al.
CMTM4 is frequently downregulated and functions as a tumour suppressor in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 34:122 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chemokine-like factor (CKLF)-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing family (CMTM) is a gene family involved in multiple malignancies. CMTM4 is a member of this family and is located at chromosome 16q22.1, a locus that harbours a number of tumour suppressor genes. It has been defined as a regulator of cell cycle and division in HeLa cells; however, its roles in tumourigenesis remain poorly studied.
METHODS: An integrated bioinformatics analysis based on the array data from the GEO database was conducted to view the differential expression of CMTM4 across multiple cancers and their corresponding control tissues. Primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and the paired adjacent non-tumour tissues were then collected to examine the expression of CMTM4 by western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative RT-PCR. The ccRCC cell lines A498 and 786-O and the normal renal tubular epithelial cell line HK-2 were also tested for CMTM4 expression by western blotting. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and viable cell counting assays were used to delineate the growth curves of 786-O cells after CMTM4 overexpression or knockdown. Wound healing and transwell assays were performed to assess the cells' ability to migrate. The effects of CMTM4 on cellular apoptosis and cell cycle progression were analysed by flow cytometry, and cell cycle hallmarks were detected by western blotting and RT-PCR. The xenograft model in nude mice was used to elucidate the function of CMTM4 in tumourigenesis ex vivo.
RESULTS: By omic data analysis, we found a substantial downregulation of CMTM4 in ccRCC. Western blotting then confirmed that CMTM4 was dramatically reduced in 86.9 % (53/61) of ccRCC tissues compared with the paired adjacent non-tumour tissues, as well as in the 786-O and A498 ccRCC cell lines. Restoration of CMTM4 significantly suppressed 786-O cell growth by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest and p21 upregulation, and cell migration was also inhibited. However, knockdown of CMTM4 led to a completely opposite effect on these cell behaviours. Overexpression of CMTM4 also markedly inhibited the tumour xenograft growth in nude mice.
CONCLUSIONS: CMTM4 is downregulated and exhibits tumour-suppressor activities in ccRCC, and could be exploited as a target for ccRCC treatment.

Shi W, Yang J, Li S, et al.
Potential involvement of miR-375 in the premalignant progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma mediated via transcription factor KLF5.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(37):40172-85 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
To elucidate the genetic effect involved in the premalignant progression of chronic inflammation to cancer, we performed microRNA and mRNA profiling in oral lichen planus (OLP), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and normal tissue from the same patients. We demonstrate the involvement of a suppressive microRNA, miR-375, in the regulation of this premalignant progression via KLF5, a transcription factor that modulates the expression of genes contributing to proliferation and apoptosis. We found that miR-375 abundance decreased in tissues with progression from the normal state to OLP and subsequently to OSCC. Restoration of miR-375 by transduction of a synthetic mimic into OSCC cells repressed cellular proliferation and promoted apoptosis, with concomitant down-regulation of KLF5, and vice versa. The direct binding of miR-375 to the 3'-untranslated region of KLF5 was further confirmed. Additionally, Survivin (BIRC5), a target of KLF5, was also regulated by miR-375, explaining the susceptibility of miR-375-mimic transfected cells to apoptosis. Further analysis of clinical specimens suggested that expression of KLF5 and BIRC5 is up-regulated during the progression from inflammation to cancer. Our findings provide novel insights into the involvement of microRNAs in progression of inflammation to carcinoma and suggest a potential early-stage biomarker or therapy target for oral carcinoma.

Qin J, Zhou Z, Chen W, et al.
BAP1 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and metastasis by deubiquitinating KLF5.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:8471 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
The transcription factor KLF5 is highly expressed in basal-like breast cancer and promotes breast cancer cell proliferation, survival, migration and tumour growth. Here we show that, in breast cancer cells, KLF5 is stabilized by the deubiquitinase (DUB) BAP1. With a genome-wide siRNA library screen of DUBs, we identify BAP1 as a bona fide KLF5 DUB. BAP1 interacts directly with KLF5 and stabilizes KLF5 via deubiquitination. KLF5 is in the BAP1/HCF-1 complex, and this newly identified complex promotes cell cycle progression partially by inhibiting p27 gene expression. Furthermore, BAP1 knockdown inhibits tumorigenicity and lung metastasis, which can be rescued partially by ectopic expression of KLF5. Collectively, our findings not only identify BAP1 as the DUB for KLF5, but also reveal a critical mechanism that regulates KLF5 expression in breast cancer. Our findings indicate that BAP1 could be a potential therapeutic target for breast and other cancers.

Zhang Y, Liu K, Zhang Y, et al.
ABL-N may induce apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells through suppression of KLF5, ICAM-1 and Stat5b, and upregulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio: An in vitro and in vivo study.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(6):2953-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Identification of novel botanicals that can selectively induce apoptosis and arrest growth of cancer cells without producing cytotoxic effects is highly appreciable for cancer therapy. The present study aimed to investigate the possibility of acetylbritannilactone (ABL) derivative 5-(5-(ethylperoxy)pentan-2-yl)-6-methyl-3-methylene-2-oxo-2,3,3a,4,7,7a‑hexahydroben-zofuran-4-yl2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) propanoate (ABL-N) as a therapeutic agent in human prostate cancer and potential mechanisms. Human prostate cancer cells were treated with ABL-N of different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 µmol/l). Cell viability, migration and apoptosis were determined. Activities of caspases were assayed, as well as protein expression of cancer‑related proteins KLF5, Stat5b and ICAM-1 in PC3 cells. The therapeutic effect of ABL-N was further evaluated in our tumor xenografts. ABL-N inhibited growth of prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner, without obvious effect on normal human prostate epithelial PrEC cells. ABL-N administration induced apoptosis of PC3 cells in a dose-dependent manner, along with the enhanced activity of caspases and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Expression of KLF5, Stat5b and ICAM-1 was significantly downregulated in PC3 cells. Our in vivo study further confirmed that ABL-N significantly inhibited the tumor growth of PC3 cells in the xenograft mouse model. ABL-N induces apoptosis of prostate cancer cells through activation of caspases, increasing the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, as well as suppression of KLF5, Stat5b and ICAM-1 expressions. The present study indicated that ABL-N may be a potential therapeutic drug for human prostate cancer, and our data supported further studies to explore the therapeutic potential of ABL-N in other types of human cancer.

Jia L, Zhou Z, Liang H, et al.
KLF5 promotes breast cancer proliferation, migration and invasion in part by upregulating the transcription of TNFAIP2.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(16):2040-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Kruppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) transcription factor is highly expressed in high-grade and basal-like breast cancers. However, the mechanism by which KLF5 promotes cell migration and invasion is still not completely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that TNFAIP2, a tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-induced gene, is a direct KLF5 target gene. The expression of TNFAIP2 is highly correlated with the expression of KLF5 in breast cancers. The manipulation of KLF5 expression positively alters TNFAIP2 expression levels. KLF5 directly binds to the TNFAIP2 gene promoter and activates its transcription. Functionally, KLF5 promotes cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in part through TNFAIP2. TNFAIP2 interacts with the two small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42, thereby increasing their activities to change actin cytoskeleton and cell morphology. These findings collectively suggest that TNFAIP2 is a direct KLF5 target gene, and both KLF5 and TNFAIP2 promote breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion through Rac1 and Cdc42.

Maehara O, Sato F, Natsuizaka M, et al.
A pivotal role of Krüppel-like factor 5 in regulation of cancer stem-like cells in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(10):1453-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), there exists a highly tumorigenic subset of cells defined by high expression of CD44 and CD133 that has been reported to contain cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) regulates many factors involved in cell cycle, migration, inflammation, angiogenesis and stemness and has cancer-promoting effects in some cancers. While some reports have indicated that KLF5 may have important roles in regulation of CSCs, what role, if any, KLF5 plays in regulation of CSCs in HCC remains to be elucidated. Flow cytometric analysis of CD44 and CD133 in HCC cell lines revealed subpopulations of CD44(High)/CD133(High) and CD44(Low)/CD133(Low) cells. We subsequently sorted these subpopulations and identified KLF5 as a gene that is significantly upregulated in CD44(High)/CD44(High) cells via RNA sequencing using next generation sequencing technology. Moreover, KLF5 overexpression enriched the CD44(High)/CD133(High) subpopulation and, consistent with the up-regulation of CD44(High)/CD133(High) cells, KLF5 overexpressing cells were more resistant to anti-cancer drugs and displayed enhanced colony-formation capacity. By contrast, knock-down of KLF5 by siRNA diminished the CD44(High)/CD133(High) subpopulation. When KLF5 was acetylated by TGF-β1, the KLF5-mediated CD44(High)/CD133(High) subpopulation enrichment was abrogated. Oppositely, ectopic expression of an acetylation-deficient KLF5 mutant further increased CD44(High)/CD133(High) subpopulations as compared to cell expressing wild-type KLF5. These findings provide novel mechanistic insight into a pivotal role for KLF5 in the regulation of CSCs in HCC.

Childs EJ, Mocci E, Campa D, et al.
Common variation at 2p13.3, 3q29, 7p13 and 17q25.1 associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(8):911-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the developed world. Both inherited high-penetrance mutations in BRCA2 (ref. 2), ATM, PALB2 (ref. 4), BRCA1 (ref. 5), STK11 (ref. 6), CDKN2A and mismatch-repair genes and low-penetrance loci are associated with increased risk. To identify new risk loci, we performed a genome-wide association study on 9,925 pancreatic cancer cases and 11,569 controls, including 4,164 newly genotyped cases and 3,792 controls in 9 studies from North America, Central Europe and Australia. We identified three newly associated regions: 17q25.1 (LINC00673, rs11655237, odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-1.34, P = 1.42 × 10(-14)), 7p13 (SUGCT, rs17688601, OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.84-0.92, P = 1.41 × 10(-8)) and 3q29 (TP63, rs9854771, OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85-0.93, P = 2.35 × 10(-8)). We detected significant association at 2p13.3 (ETAA1, rs1486134, OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.09-1.19, P = 3.36 × 10(-9)), a region with previous suggestive evidence in Han Chinese. We replicated previously reported associations at 9q34.2 (ABO), 13q22.1 (KLF5), 5p15.33 (TERT and CLPTM1), 13q12.2 (PDX1), 1q32.1 (NR5A2), 7q32.3 (LINC-PINT), 16q23.1 (BCAR1) and 22q12.1 (ZNRF3). Our study identifies new loci associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

Ge F, Chen W, Qin J, et al.
Ataxin-3 like (ATXN3L), a member of the Josephin family of deubiquitinating enzymes, promotes breast cancer proliferation by deubiquitinating Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5).
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(25):21369-78 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
The Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) has been suggested to promote breast cell proliferation, survival and tumorigenesis. KLF5 protein degradation is increased by several E3 ubiquitin ligases, including WWP1 and SCFFbw7, through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. However, the deubiquitinase (DUB) of KLF5 has not been demonstrated. In this study, we identified ATXN3L as a KLF5 DUB by genome-wide siRNA screening. ATXN3L directly binds to KLF5, decreasing its ubiquitination and thus degradation. Functionally, knockdown of ATXN3L inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation partially through KLF5. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized role of ATXN3L in the regulation of KLF5 stability in breast cancer. ATXN3L might be a therapeutic target for breast cancer.

Hu F, Yuan W, Wang X, et al.
CMTM3 is reduced in prostate cancer and inhibits migration, invasion and growth of LNCaP cells.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2015; 17(8):632-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: A novel tumor suppressor gene CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing member 3 (CMTM3) is reduced or undetectable in many kinds of cancers and relates tumor malignant features. We detected its role in prostate cancer for possibility of target therapy as accumulating evidence has shown that CMTM3 is a promising tumor suppressor gene (TSG) for gene therapy.
METHODS: The expression of CMTM3 detected in prostate tissue microarray, specimens and cell lines were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. After being transfected with CMTM3 adenovirus or vector (mock), the proliferation and migration and invasion of LNCaP cells were detected by transwell assay and matrigel assay, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of CMTM3 on tumor growth were performed in nude mice xenograft in vivo.
RESULTS: We found CMTM3 was reduced in PCa tissues and cells compared with BPH tissues, and its expression in PCa tissues was related to the Gleason score. Moreover, after being transfected with adenovirus, ectopic expression of CMTM3 in LNCaP cells led to significant inhibition of cell proliferation and migration and invasion compared with the control (P < 0.05), which may be attributed to decreased Erk1/2 activity as p-Erk1/2 was remarkably reduced when CMTM3 was overexpressed. Finally, restoration of CMTM3 significantly suppressed xenograft tumor growth in vivo (P < 0.01).

Wang C, Nie Z, Zhou Z, et al.
The interplay between TEAD4 and KLF5 promotes breast cancer partially through inhibiting the transcription of p27Kip1.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(19):17685-97 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
Growing evidence suggests that YAP/TAZ are mediators of the Hippo pathway and promote breast cancer. However, the roles of YAP/TAZ transcription factor partners TEADs in breast cancer remain unclear. Here we found that TEAD4 was expressed in breast cancer cell lines, especially in triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) cell lines. TEAD4 binds to KLF5. Knockdown of either TEAD4 or KLF5 in HCC1937 and HCC1806 cells induced the expression of CDK inhibitor p27. Depletion of either TEAD4 or KLF5 activated the p27 gene promoter and increased the p27 mRNA levels. Depletion of p27 partially prevents growth inhibition caused by TEAD4 and KLF5 knockdown. TEAD4 overexpression stimulated proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in mice, while stable knockdown of TEAD4 inhibited proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in mice. Thus TEAD4 and KLF5, in collaboration, promoted TNBC cell proliferation and tumor growth in part by inhibiting p27 gene transcription. TEAD4 is a potential target and biomarker for the development of novel therapeutics for breast cancer.

Zhang X, Lou Y, Zheng X, et al.
Wnt blockers inhibit the proliferation of lung cancer stem cells.
Drug Des Devel Ther. 2015; 9:2399-407 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous study has confirmed that the occurrence of Wnt pathway activation is associated with risk of non-small-cell lung cancer recurrence. However, whether the pharmacologic blocking of the Wnt signaling pathway could provide therapeutic possibility remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic functions of the Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor pyrvinium pamoate (PP) on lung cancer stem cells (LCSCs) in vitro.
METHODS: Colony formation and sphere culture were performed to enrich LCSCs from three lung cancer cell lines: PC9, SPC-A1, and A549. After confirming stemness by immunofluorescence, PP was employed for cell viability assay by comparison with three other kinds of Wnt signaling inhibitor: salinomycin, ICG-001, and silibinin. The effect of PP on LCSCs was further verified by colony formation assay and gene expression analysis.
RESULTS: LCSCs were successfully generated by sphere culture from SPC-A1 and PC9 cells, but not A549 cells. Immunofluorescence assay showed that LCSCs could express pluripotent stem cell markers, including NANOG, Oct4, KLF5, and SOX2, and Wnt signaling pathway molecules β-catenin and MYC. Half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of PP on SPC-A1, PC9, and A549 were 10 nM, 0.44 nM, and 0.21 nM, respectively, which are much lower than those of salinomycin, ICG-001, and silibinin. Moreover, significantly decreased colony formation and downregulation of pluripotent stem cell signaling pathway were observed in lung cancer cells after treatment with PP.
CONCLUSION: Wnt signaling inhibitor PP can inhibit proliferation of LCSCs, and the Wnt signaling pathway could be considered a promising therapeutic or interventional target in lung adenocarcinoma.

Zhang H, Zhang J, Nan X, et al.
CMTM3 inhibits cell growth and migration and predicts favorable survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(10):7849-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Downregulation of CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing member 3 (CMTM3) has been reported in a number of human tumors. However, the role of CMTM3 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains largely unknown. In this study, we showed that the expression of CMTM3 was significantly reduced in OSCC cell lines and primary tumor specimens (P < 0.001). Methylation-specific PCR showed hypermethylation in CMTM3 promoter in a significant proportion of tumor tissues (61 %). The expression of CMTM3 was associated with T stage, lymph node metastasis, tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, and recurrence of OSCC patients (P < 0.05, n = 201). More importantly, CMTM3 expression was associated with the prognosis of OSCC patients (P < 0.001) and was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 0.593, 95 % confidence interval, 0.272-1.292; P = 0.039). Overexpression of CMTM3 inhibited the growth and migration of OSCC cells. In vivo experiments also showed that the growth of OSCC xenografts in nude mice was significantly inhibited by CMTM3 overexpression. These findings indicate that downregulation of CMTM3 due to promoter hypermethylation contributed to the proliferation and migration of OSCC cells and suggest that CMTM3 is an independent prognostic factor for the evaluation of the survival of OSCC patients.

Delic S, Thuy A, Schulze M, et al.
Systematic investigation of CMTM family genes suggests relevance to glioblastoma pathogenesis and CMTM1 and CMTM3 as priority targets.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(7):433-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
The novel CKLF-like Marvel Transmembrane Domain-containing gene family (CMTM) consists of 8 members (CMTM1-8). As little is known about the oncogenic impact of these genes, we aimed to systematically investigate the relevance of CMTMs to glioblastoma pathogenesis. We performed mRNA expression analyses and survival correlations in glioblastoma patients. Moreover, we analyzed the impact of RNAi-based silencing and overexpression of CMTM family genes on tumor cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. CMTMs appeared to be widely regulated in the group of glioblastomas relative to non-neoplastic brain (NB) tissue (significant upregulation for CMTM2, 3, and 6 and significant downregulation for CMTM 4 and 8). For CMTM1, 5 and 7, we found aberrant expression levels in individual tumors. Functionally, CMTM1, 3, and 7 promoted tumor cell invasion, while CMTM1 additionally enhanced cell proliferation. In a large clinically annotated dataset, higher CMTM1 and 3 expression was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival. Our data thus suggest CMTM1 and 3 as priority targets in glioblastomas. Using a human phosphokinase protein expression profiling assay, we can provide first insights into signalling of these two genes that might be conveyed by growth factor receptor, Src family kinase and WNT activation.

Ci X, Xing C, Zhang B, et al.
KLF5 inhibits angiogenesis in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer by attenuating AKT activation and subsequent HIF1α accumulation.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: KLF5 is a basic transcriptional factor that regulates multiple physiopathological processes. Our recent study showed that deletion of Klf5 in mouse prostate promotes tumorigenesis initiated by the deletion of Pten. While molecular characterization of Klf5-null tumors suggested that angiogenesis was partially responsible for tumor promotion, the precise function and mechanism of KLF5 deletion in prostate tumor angiogenesis remain unclear.
RESULTS: Applying histological staining to Pten-null mouse prostates, we observed that deletion of Klf5 significantly increased the number of microvessels, accompanied by the upregulation of multiple angiogenesis-related genes based on microarray analysis with MetaCore software. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HuVECs), tube formation and migration, both of which are indicators of angiogenic activities, were decreased by conditioned media from PC-3 and DU 145 human prostate cancer cells with KLF5 overexpression, but increased by media from cells with KLF5 knockdown. HIF1α, a key angiogenesis inducer, was upregulated by KLF5 loss at the protein but not the mRNA level in both mouse tissues and human cell lines, as determined by immunohistochemical staining, real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Consistently, KLF5 loss also upregulated VEGF and PDGF, two pro-angiogenic mediators of HIF1α function, as analyzed by immunohistochemical staining in mouse tissues and ELISA in conditioned media. Mechanistically, AKT activity, which caused the accumulation of HIF1α, was increased by KLF5 knockout or knockdown but decreased by KLF5 overexpression. PI3K/AKT inhibitors consistently abolished the effects of KLF5 knockdown on angiogenic activity, HIF1α accumulation, and VEGF and PDGF expression.
CONCLUSION: KLF5 loss enhances tumor angiogenesis by attenuating PI3K/AKT signaling and subsequent accumulation of HIF1α in PTEN deficient prostate tumors.

Farrugia MK, Sharma SB, Lin CC, et al.
Regulation of anti-apoptotic signaling by Kruppel-like factors 4 and 5 mediates lapatinib resistance in breast cancer.
Cell Death Dis. 2015; 6:e1699 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
The Kruppel-like transcription factors (KLFs) 4 and 5 (KLF4/5) are coexpressed in mouse embryonic stem cells, where they function redundantly to maintain pluripotency. In mammary carcinoma, KLF4/5 can each impact the malignant phenotype, but potential linkages to drug resistance remain unclear. In primary human breast cancers, we observed a positive correlation between KLF4/5 transcript abundance, particularly in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-enriched subtype. Furthermore, KLF4/5 protein was rapidly upregulated in human breast cancer cells following treatment with the HER2/epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, lapatinib. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between these factors in the primary tumors of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs). In particular, the levels of both factors were enriched in the basal-like tumors of the C3(1) TAg (SV40 large T antigen transgenic mice under control of the C3(1)/prostatein promoter) GEMM. Using tumor cells derived from this model as well as human breast cancer cells, suppression of KLF4 and/or KLF5 sensitized HER2-overexpressing cells to lapatinib. Indicating cooperativity, greater effects were observed when both genes were depleted. KLF4/5-deficient cells had reduced basal mRNA and protein levels of the anti-apoptotic factors myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1) and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (BCL-XL). Moreover, MCL1 was upregulated by lapatinib in a KLF4/5-dependent manner, and enforced expression of MCL1 in KLF4/5-deficient cells restored drug resistance. In addition, combined suppression of KLF4/5 in cultured tumor cells additively inhibited anchorage-independent growth, resistance to anoikis and tumor formation in immunocompromised mice. Consistent with their cooperative role in drug resistance and other malignant properties, KLF4/5 levels selectively stratified human HER2-enriched breast cancer by distant metastasis-free survival. These results identify KLF4 and KLF5 as cooperating protumorigenic factors and critical participants in resistance to lapatinib, furthering the rationale for combining anti-MCL1/BCL-XL inhibitors with conventional HER2-targeted therapies.

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