LMNA

Gene Summary

Gene:LMNA; lamin A/C
Aliases: FPL, IDC, LFP, CDDC, EMD2, FPLD, HGPS, LDP1, LMN1, LMNC, PRO1, CDCD1, CMD1A, FPLD2, LMNL1, CMT2B1, LGMD1B
Location:1q22
Summary:The nuclear lamina consists of a two-dimensional matrix of proteins located next to the inner nuclear membrane. The lamin family of proteins make up the matrix and are highly conserved in evolution. During mitosis, the lamina matrix is reversibly disassembled as the lamin proteins are phosphorylated. Lamin proteins are thought to be involved in nuclear stability, chromatin structure and gene expression. Vertebrate lamins consist of two types, A and B. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Mutations in this gene lead to several diseases: Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, familial partial lipodystrophy, limb girdle muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:lamin
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LMNA (cancer-related)

Arfaoui A, Douik H, Kablouti G, et al.
Role of p53 Codon72 SNP in breast cancer risk and anthracycline resistance.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(3):1763-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: We undertook a case-control and a case-case study to examine the possible association of p53 codon72 polymorphism with the breast cancer risk and resistance to anthracycline-based chemotherapy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Case-control study: This study enrolled 175 patients with breast cancer treated at the Salah Aziez Institute and 159 healthy Tunisian women (matched for age, ethnicity and origin), used as a control, with no clinical evidence of any neoplastic disorder. Case-Case study: 400 breast cancer patients, with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) treated with anthracycline based-chemotherapy. Genomic DNA was isolated from whole-blood leucocytes using the phenol-chloroform method. Anthracycline response was scored according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. P53 codon72 polymorphism was genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with the TaqMan method. Data were statistically analyzed using the Chi-square test.
RESULTS: Clinical data revealed that among the 400 patients, one quarter was resistant to chemotherapy treatment. Genetic data revealed that the p53 Arg72Pro genotype was found to be greatly associated with breast cancer risk (p<0.001), as well as tumor site (p=0.046). However, resistance to anthracycline-based chemotherapy does not seem to be correlated with p53 codon72 polymorphism in our population. Also, the distribution of tumor size, lymph node involvement and tumor grade was not significantly different among the polymorphic variants.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that p53 codon72 polymorphism is involved in susceptibility to developing breast cancer. It may be a factor of progression when breast sites are taken into account. However, there is no evidence indicating that Arg72Pro SNP may influence response to anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

Li J, Li L, Li Z, et al.
The role of miR-205 in the VEGF-mediated promotion of human ovarian cancer cell invasion.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 137(1):125-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate a miRNA pathway that acts downstream of VEGF-induced invasion of ovarian cancer cells.
METHOD: We used two paired high and low metastatic serous ovarian cancer cells to demonstrate the role of miR-205 in VEGF-induced invasion of ovarian cancer cells and to investigate the gene targets of miR-205.
RESULTS: Our previous comparative proteomics studies showed that VEGF decreased the expression of Ezrin and Lamin A/C, and this result was validated in the present study using qPCR and Western blotting. Then we found that VEGF enhanced the invasiveness of and inhibited apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells as assessed by transwell invasion assays and Annexin V-FITC immunostaining, respectively. VEGFR was also expressed in ovarian cancer cells, as assessed by immunocytochemical staining. Furthermore, using the dual-luciferase report assay system, we demonstrated that miR-205 targeted Ezrin and Lamin A/C. MiR-205 was up-regulated in ovarian cancer cells exposed to VEGF, as determined by miRNA microarray analysis and verified by qPCR. MiR-205 promoted the invasion and proliferation of ovarian cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: Our data reveal a new potential pathway in which VEGF promotes the invasion of ovarian cancer cells, partially via the down-regulation of Ezrin and Lamin A/C caused by increased expression of miR-205.

Xu X, Tang X, Lu M, et al.
Overexpression of MAGE-A9 predicts unfavorable outcome in breast cancer.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2014; 97(3):579-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma-associated antigens (MAGEs) are a group of well-characterized members of the cancer/testis antigen (CTA) family, which is one of the largest groups of human tumor-associated antigens. MAGE-A9 is a particular member in the context of the MAGE-A gene family and was defined as presenting prognostic relevance in certain type of human cancer. However, the expression of MAGE-A9 in invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC) and the relationship with the clinical attributes of IDC, especially prognostic characteristic, remain poorly understood. In this present study, one-step quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (18 fresh-frozen IDC tissues and corresponding non-cancerous tissues) and immunohistochemistry by tissue microarrays (82 IDC tissue samples and 70 matched tumor-adjacent non-cancerous tissue samples) were performed to characterize expression of the MAGE-A9 gene in IDC. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the prognosis of IDC. The results of qPCR and IHC analysis showed that the expression of MAGE-A9 in IDC was significantly higher than that in corresponding non-cancerous tissue. Moreover, the expression level of MAGE-A9 protein in IDC was significantly related to histological grade (p = 0.011) and distant metastasis (p = 0.019). Multivariate analysis with the Cox regression model showed that MAGE-A9 protein expression (p = 0.009), histological grade (p = 0.014), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.012) and distant metastasis (p = 0.011) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival of IDC patients. The data suggest that MAGE-A9 expression is correlated with malignant attributes of IDC and it may serve as a novel prognostic factor and an ideal candidate for targeted therapy in IDC treatment.

Kondo Y, Kikuchi T, Esteban JC, et al.
Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER2 protein and amplification of HER2 gene in salivary duct carcinoma.
Pathol Int. 2014; 64(9):453-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is an aggressive adenocarcinoma of the salivary glands, and accounts for 1-3% of all malignant salivary gland tumors, resembling morphologically invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. In contrast to IDC of the breast and gastric carcinoma (GC), the study of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in SDC has not progressed. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between HER2 protein expression and amplification of the HER2 gene, and compared them in terms of intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) in 13 cases of SDC using immunohistochemistry and dual color in situ hybridization. We found seven cases with protein overexpression (53.8%) and five cases with gene amplification (38.5%) in accordance with ASCO/CAP guidelines. ITH of HER2 protein expression was seen in seven cases (53.8%). Interestingly, the ratio of the HER2 gene showed homogenous distribution with or without the presence of ITH of HER2 protein expression. SDC tends to have more ITH of HER2 protein similarly to GC, in contrast to IDC of the breast. ITH of HER2 protein in SDC has no heterogeneity of the HER2 gene amplification. The mechanism of HER2 protein expression in SDC might proceed through a more complex pathway relative to that of IDC of the breast.

Pula B, Olbromski M, Owczarek T, et al.
Nogo-B receptor expression correlates negatively with malignancy grade and ki-67 antigen expression in invasive ductal breast carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(9):4819-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nogo-B receptor (NgBR) has been shown to be involved in endothelial cell chemotaxis and morphogenesis. However, few studies analyzing its expression in cancer cells have been performed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined NgBR expression in 233 patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC) and corresponding non-malignant breast tissues (NMBT) on mRNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and protein levels (immunohistochemistry; IHC and western-blot analysis). NgBR expression was found also analyzed in breast cancer cell lines of varying invasiveness.
RESULTS: NgBR expression was increased in IDC compared to NMBT on the mRNA (p=0.0007) and protein level (p=0.018). NgBR expression decreased significantly with IDC malignancy grade and correlated negatively with the Ki-67 antigen expression (r=-0.18; p=0.0005). High NgBR mRNA expression was associated with estrogen receptor negativity (p=0.0023) and the triple-negative phenotype of the tumors (p=0.0129).
CONCLUSION: NgBR may be involved in IDC development, however, its role in its progression requires further research.

Zhang F, Li C, Liu H, et al.
The functional proteomics analysis of VEGF-treated human epithelial ovarian cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(12):12379-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the most important angiogenic factor, can impact the tumor cell proliferation and invasion, but the mechanism remains unclear. This study is to investigate the key proteins which may play an important role in the VEGF-induced progress of ovarian cancer cells. The total protein from HO-8910 cells was separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), and differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and PDQuest image analysis software. Furthermore, real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry were also used to confirm different expression levels of differential proteins. Morphological changes and invasion capability were evaluated by electron microscope and Matrigel invasion assay, respectively. The highly reproducible and well-resolved 2-DE patterns of both HO-8910/VEGF and HO-8910 cells were acquired. A total of 17 expressed differential proteins were identified, 8 proteins were upregulated (ACTB, TIM, PDIA3, PDIA1, DCTN2, KIC17, SIAS, and KIC10) and 9 downregulated (KIC18, GRP78, CAPG, PPIA, ROA2, LMNA, EZRI, ADRM1, and ENOA). Ultrastructure of VEGF-treated group showed more malignant characteristic compared with control group, an obvious increase in the number of cells penetrating the Matrigel membrane in VEGF-treated group (P < 0.05). These results suggested that VEGF could impact ovarian cancer's malignant progression by regulating expression of associated proteins.

Tanaka N, Yoshida H, Suzuki Y, Harigaya K
Relative expression of hMena11a and hMenaINV splice isoforms is a useful biomarker in development and progression of human breast carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(5):1921-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alternative splicing provides additional genomic complexity by producing multiple mRNAs and protein variants from any given gene. Splice variants have been identified in a large variety of cancer genes, suggesting that widespread aberrant and alternative splicing may be a consequence or even a cause of cancer. Human ortholog of mammalian enabled (hMena), a family of enabled/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoproteins (Ena/VASP), is an actin regulatory protein involved in the regulation of cell motility. hMena has been shown to have several splice variants, including the hMena(INV) isoform, expressed in invasive cancer cells, and the epithelial-specific isoform, hMena(11a). We assessed the relative mRNA expression of hMena splice variants in 50 cases of invasive ductal breast carcinoma of no special type (IDC-NST) and 45 cases of ductal breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS) with special reference to non-neoplastic breast epithelial tissues. The samples were dissected from their respective regions by laser microdissection. Our results confirmed previous reports that hMena(INV) expression is augmented during tumor progression, while hMena(11a) is downregulated. Furthermore, simultaneous expression of hMena(11a) and hMena(INV) was found only in malignant lesions, while their expression was hardly detected in normal breast tissue and benign proliferative breast lesions. These results indicate that the higher relative expression of hMena(11a) compared with hMena(INV) may predict malignant transformation in breast epithelial cells, and, furthermore, a reversal of expression of hMena(11a) and hMena(INV) may dictate the state of cancer progression. Here, we demonstrate that determination of hMena(11a) and hMena(INV) expression could be a useful biomarker for predicting malignant behavior in breast epithelial lesions, and show that their relative expression is linked to adverse prognostic factors. Although the biological activity of the majority of alternatively spliced isoforms and their contribution to cancer biology has yet to be determined, their elucidation will have a large impact on therapeutic strategies for cancer.

Arthur LM, Turnbull AK, Webber VL, et al.
Molecular changes in lobular breast cancers in response to endocrine therapy.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(19):5371-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) accounts for approximately 10% to 15% of breast carcinomas, and although it responds poorly to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, it appears to respond well to endocrine therapy. Pre- and on-treatment (after 2 weeks and 3 months) biopsies and surgical samples were obtained from 14 postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) histologically confirmed ILC who responded to 3 months of neoadjuvant letrozole and were compared with a cohort of 14 responding invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) matched on clinicopathologic features. RNA was extracted and processed for whole human genome expression microarray. Dynamic clinical response was assessed using periodic three-dimensional ultrasound measurements performed during treatment and defined as a reduction of >70% in tumor volume by 3 months. Pretreatment profiles of ILC and IDC tumors showed distinctive expression of genes associated with E-cadherin signaling, epithelial adhesion, and stromal rearrangement. The changes in gene expression in response to letrozole were highly similar between responding ILC and IDC tumors; genes involved in proliferation were downregulated and those involved with immune function and extracellular matrix remodeling were upregulated. However, molecular differences between the histologic subtypes were maintained upon treatment. This is the first study of molecular changes in ILC in response to endocrine therapy to date. The genes that change on letrozole are highly consistent between ILC and IDC. Differences in gene expression between ILC and IDC at diagnosis are maintained at each time point on treatment.

Rizwani W, Schaal C, Kunigal S, et al.
Mammalian lysine histone demethylase KDM2A regulates E2F1-mediated gene transcription in breast cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e100888 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It is established that histone modifications like acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination affect chromatin structure and modulate gene expression. Lysine methylation/demethylation on Histone H3 and H4 is known to affect transcription and is mediated by histone methyl transferases and histone demethylases. KDM2A/JHDM1A/FBXL11 is a JmjC-containing histone demethylase that targets mono- and dimethylated Lys36 residues of Histone H3; its function in breast cancer is not fully understood. Here we show that KDM2A is strongly expressed in myoepithelial cells (MEPC) in breast cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry. Ductal cells from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) show positive staining for KDM2A, the expression decreases with disease progression to metastasis. Since breast MEPCs have tumor-suppressive and anti-angiogenic properties, we hypothesized that KDM2A could be contributing to some of these functions. Silencing KDM2A with small interfering RNAs demonstrated increased invasion and migration of breast cancer cells by suppressing a subset of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, -9, -14 and -15), as seen by real-time PCR. HUVEC cells showed increased angiogenic tubule formation ability in the absence of KDM2A, with a concomitant increase in the expression of VEGF receptors, FLT-1 and KDR. KDM2A physically bound to both Rb and E2F1 in a cell cycle dependent manner and repressed E2F1 transcriptional activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that KDM2A associates with E2F1-regulated proliferative promoters CDC25A and TS in early G-phase and dissociates in S-phase. Further, KDM2A could also be detected on MMP9, 14 and 15 promoters, as well as promoters of FLT1 and KDR. KDM2A could suppress E2F1-mediated induction of these promoters in transient transfection experiments. These results suggest a regulatory role for KDM2A in breast cancer cell invasion and migration, through the regulation of E2F1 function.

Fujihira A, Suzuki T, Chang MO, et al.
Antitumor effects of baculovirus-infected dendritic cells against human pancreatic carcinoma.
Gene Ther. 2014; 21(9):849-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, we showed that baculovirus (BV)-infected dendritic cells (DCs) (BV-DCs) induced antitumor immunity against established tumors in mice. These antitumor effects were CD8(+) T-cell and natural killer (NK) cell dependent but CD4(+) T-cell independent. In the current study, we examined the antitumor effect of BV-DCs on human pancreatic cancer cells (AsPC-1). After treatment with BV-infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), human pancreatic tumors caused by AsPC-1 cells in a nude mouse model were significantly reduced in size, and the survival of the mice was improved compared with that of non-immature BMDC (iDC)- and BV-DC-immunized mice. We also found that wild-type BV could activate human DCs (HDCs) and that NK cells were activated by BV-infected HDCs (BHDCs). Our findings show that BV-DCs can induce antitumor immunity, which paves the way for the use of this technique as an effective tool for DC immunotherapy against malignancies.

Zhao Q, Yang Y, Liang X, et al.
The clinicopathological significance of neurogenesis in breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:484 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent reports support a novel biological phenomenon about cancer related neurogenesis. However, little is known about the clinicopathological significance of neurogenesis in breast cancer.
METHODS: A total of 196 cases, including 20 of normal tissue, 14 of fibroadenoma, 18 of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 144 of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast were used. The tissue slides were immunostained for protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 and S 100 to identify nerves. The correlation between the expression of PGP 9.5 and clinicopathological characteristics in IDC of the breast was assessed.
RESULTS: While the PGP 9.5 positive nerve fibers are identified in all cases of normal breast tissue controls and in the tumor stroma of 61% (89/144) cases of invasive ductal carcinomas, PGP 9.5 positive nerve fibers are not seen in the tumor stroma of cases of fibroadenoma and DCIS. The percentage of tumors that exhibited neurogenesis increased from tumor grade I to tumor grade II and III (29.4% vs 71.8%, p < 0.0001). In addition, patients with less than 3 years of disease-free survival tended to have a higher positive expression of PGP 9.5 compared to patients with an equal or more than 3 years of disease-free survival (64.8% vs 46.7%, p = 0.035). Furthermore, moderate/strong expression of PGP 9.5 was found to be significantly related to microvessel density (MVD, p = 0.014). Interestingly, PGP 9.5 expression was significantly associated with higher MVD in the ER-negative (p = 0.045) and node-negative (p = 0.039) subgroups of IDC of the breast.
CONCLUSIONS: This data indicates that neurogenesis is associated with some aggressive features of IDC including tumor grade and patient survival as well as angiogenesis, especially in ER-negative and node-negative subtypes of IDC of the breast. Thus, neurogenesis appears to be associated with breast cancer progression and may play a role in therapeutic guidance for patients with ER-negative and node-negative invasive breast cancer.

Asch-Kendrick RJ, Samols MA, Lilo MT, et al.
NKX3.1 is expressed in ER-positive and AR-positive primary breast carcinomas.
J Clin Pathol. 2014; 67(9):768-71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: NKX3.1 is an androgen-regulated tumour suppressor gene that is downregulated in prostate carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry for NKX3.1 is primarily specific for prostatic-derived tumours and tissue but is reported in a small number of breast carcinomas. NKX3.1 is also shown to inhibit estrogen receptor (ER) signalling in breast carcinoma models. Here, we investigate labelling of NKX3.1 in invasive ductal (IDC) and lobular (ILC) carcinomas of the breast with full characterisation of ER, progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor (AR) and Her2 status.
METHODS: Tissue microarrays of 86 primary IDC and 37 ILC were labelled for NKX3.1. The IDC consisted of 20 luminal A, 7 luminal B, 14 Her2, and 45 triple negative carcinomas. The ILC consisted of 34 luminal A and 3 luminal B cases. NKX3.1 expression was scored as percentage nuclear labelling and labelling intensity.
RESULTS: Nuclear NKX3.1 labelling was seen in 2 IDC (2%) and 10 ILCs (27%). labelling intensity was weak in all cases (1–100% nuclear positivity). Positive NKX3.1 labelling was significantly associated with ILC (p<0.0001). NKX3.1 labelling was seen only in ER and AR-positive carcinomas, which showed a significant correlation (p=0.0003 and p=0.0079, respectively). Expression was not correlated with tumour stage, size, Her2 expression, presence of lymph node metastases or age.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to evaluate NKX3.1 expression in breast carcinomas with known ER, PR, AR and Her2 status. Further studies are needed to evaluate what potential role NKX3.1 plays in ER and AR signalling and hormonal treatment response in breast carcinomas.

Pape-Zambito D, Jiang Z, Wu H, et al.
Identifying a highly-aggressive DCIS subgroup by studying intra-individual DCIS heterogeneity among invasive breast cancer patients.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e100488 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The heterogeneity among multiple ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions within the same patient also diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) has not been well evaluated, leaving research implications of intra-individual DCIS heterogeneity yet to be explored. In this study formalin-fixed paraffin embedded sections from 36 patients concurrently diagnosed with DCIS and IDC were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Ten DCIS lesions from each patient were then randomly selected and scored. Our results showed that expression of PR, HER2, Ki-67, and p16 varied significantly within DCIS lesions from a single patient (P<0.05 for PR; P<1×10(-8) for HER2, Ki-67 and p16). In addition, seventy-two percent of the individuals had heterogeneous expression of at least 2/6 markers. Importantly, by evaluating the expression of promising DCIS risk biomarkers (Ki-67, p53 and p16) among different DCIS subgroups classified by comparing DCIS molecular subtypes with those of adjacent normal terminal duct lobular units (TDLU) and IDC, our results suggest the existence of a highly-aggressive DCIS subgroup, which had the same molecular subtype as the adjacent IDC but not the same subtype as the adjacent normal TDLU. By using a systematic approach, our results clearly demonstrate that intra-individual heterogeneity in DCIS is very common in patients concurrently diagnosed with IDC. Our novel findings of a DCIS subpopulation with aggressive characteristics will provide a new paradigm for mechanistic studies of breast tumor progression and also have broad implications for prevention research as heterogeneous pre-invasive lesions are present in many other cancer types.

Aggarwal A, Al-Rohil RN, Batra A, et al.
Expression of integrin α3β1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) are positively correlated in human breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:459 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Expression of integrin α3β1 is associated with tumor progression, metastasis, and poor prognosis in several cancers, including breast cancer. Moreover, preclinical studies have revealed important pro-tumorigenic and pro-metastatic functions for this integrin, including tumor growth, survival, invasion, and paracrine induction of angiogenesis. Our previously published work in a preclinical breast cancer model showed that integrin α3β1 promotes expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2/PTGS2), a known driver of breast cancer progression. However, the clinical significance of this regulation was unknown. The objective of the current study was to assess the clinical relevance of the relationship between integrin α3β1 and COX2 by testing for their correlated expression among various forms of human breast cancer.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess co-expression of α3 and COX2 in specimens of human invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), either on a commercial tissue microarray (n = 59 samples) or obtained from Albany Medical Center archives (n = 68 samples). Immunostaining intensity for the integrin α3 subunit or COX2 was scored, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analysis was performed to assess their co-expression across and within different tumor subtypes or clinicopathologic criteria.
RESULTS: Although expression of integrin α3 or COX2 varied among clinical IDC samples, a statistically significant, positive correlation was detected between α3 and COX2 in both tissue microarrays (r(s) = 0.49, p < 0.001, n = 59) and archived samples (r(s) = 0.59, p < 0.0001, n = 68). In both sample sets, this correlation was independent of hormone receptor status, histological grade, or disease stage.
CONCLUSIONS: COX2 and α3 are correlated in IDC independently of hormone receptor status or other clinicopathologic features, supporting the hypothesis that integrin α3β1 is a determinant of COX2 expression in human breast cancer. These results support the clinical relevance of α3β1-dependent COX2 gene expression that we reported previously in breast cancer cells. The findings also suggest that COX2-positive breast carcinomas of various subtypes might be vulnerable to therapeutic strategies that target α3β1, and that α3 expression might serve as an independent prognostic biomarker.

Tajiri R, Inokuchi M, Sawada-Kitamura S, et al.
Clonal profiling of mixed lobular and ductal carcinoma revealed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Pathol Int. 2014; 64(5):231-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
A needle biopsy of a mass in the right breast of a 36-year-old woman revealed invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and approximately 20% of cancer cells showed unequivocal membranous staining with the HercepTest. After systemic therapy with trastuzumab and paclitaxel followed by FEC (fluorouracil + epirubicin + cyclophosphamide), a right mastectomy was performed. By histological and immunohistochemical examinations, the resected tumor consisted mainly of E-cadherin-negative invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), and the rest was ERBB2-positive IDC; thus, the diagnosis was mixed ductal and lobular carcinoma. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses revealed that ILC and IDC shared high-level amplification of CCND1 in homogeneously staining regions (HSR) and that IDC had an additional HSR-type amplicon of ERBB2. These findings strongly indicate that IDC and ILC had a common precursor cell with CCND1 amplification. Review of the biopsy specimen with FISH showed IDC with gene amplifications of CCND1 and ERBB2 as a minor component, IDC without amplification of CCND1 or ERBB2 as a major component, and a minute portion of ILC with CCND1 amplification. We speculate that chemotherapy and trastuzumab caused a marked reduction in IDC; however, ILC with CCND1 amplification was resistant to chemotherapy and grew.

Gruel N, Benhamo V, Bhalshankar J, et al.
Polarity gene alterations in pure invasive micropapillary carcinomas of the breast.
Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16(3):R46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Pure invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) is a special type of breast carcinoma characterised by clusters of cells presenting polarity abnormalities. The biological alterations underlying this pattern remain unknown.
METHODS: Pangenomic analysis (n=39), TP53 (n=43) and PIK3CA (n=41) sequencing in a series of IMPCs were performed. A subset of cases was also analysed with whole-exome sequencing (n=4) and RNA sequencing (n=6). Copy number variation profiles were compared with those of oestrogen receptors and grade-matched invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) of no special type.
RESULTS: Unsupervised analysis of genomic data distinguished two IMPC subsets: one (Sawtooth/8/16) exhibited a significant increase in 16p gains (71%), and the other (Firestorm/Amplifier) was characterised by a high frequency of 8q (35%), 17q (20% to 46%) and 20q (23% to 30%) amplifications and 17p loss (74%). TP53 mutations (10%) were more frequently identified in the amplifier subset, and PIK3CA mutations (4%) were detected in both subsets. Compared to IDC, IMPC exhibited specific loss of the 6q16-q22 region (45%), which is associated with downregulation of FOXO3 and SEC63 gene expression. SEC63 and FOXO3 missense mutations were identified in one case each (2%). Whole-exome sequencing combined with RNA sequencing of IMPC allowed us to identify somatic mutations in genes involved in polarity, DNAH9 and FMN2 (8% and 2%, respectively) or ciliogenesis, BBS12 and BBS9 (2% each) or genes coding for endoplasmic reticulum protein, HSP90B1 and SPTLC3 (2% each) and cytoskeleton, UBR4 and PTPN21 (2% each), regardless of the genomic subset. The intracellular biological function of the mutated genes identified by gene ontology analysis suggests a driving role in the clinicopathological characteristics of IMPC.
CONCLUSION: In our comprehensive molecular analysis of IMPC, we identified numerous genomic alterations without any recurrent fusion genes. Recurrent somatic mutations of genes participating in cellular polarity and shape suggest that they, together with other biological alterations (such as epigenetic modifications and stromal alterations), could contribute to the morphological pattern of IMPC. Though none of the individual abnormalities demonstrated specificity for IMPC, whether their combination in IMPC may have a cumulative effect that drives the abnormal polarity of IMPC needs to be examined further with in vitro experiments.

Takagi K, Moriguchi T, Miki Y, et al.
GATA4 immunolocalization in breast carcinoma as a potent prognostic predictor.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(5):600-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcriptional GATA factors are known lineage selector genes and regulate a variety of biological processes including specification and differentiation of tissues. In the present study, we examined expression profiles of six GATA factor genes in invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) of the breast using microarray analysis (n = 20) and found that GATA4 expression was closely correlated with recurrence in patients. Because the significance of GATA4 has remained largely unknown in breast carcinoma, we further immunolocalized GATA4 in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast (n = 48) and IDC (n = 163). GATA4 immunoreactivity was detected in the nuclei of carcinoma cells and was positive in 27% of DCIS and 31% of IDC cases. GATA4 status was significantly associated with nuclear grade and van Nuys classification in DCIS and was positively associated with distant metastasis, histological grade and HER2 status, but negatively correlated with progesterone receptor labeling index in IDC. Subsequent multivariate analysis demonstrated that GATA4 status was an independent prognostic factor for both disease-free and breast cancer-specific survival of IDC patients. All of these results indicate that GATA4 plays important roles in the progression of breast carcinoma from an early stage and that immunohistochemical GATA4 status is considered a potent prognostic factor in human breast cancer patients.

Mohamed MM, Sabet S, Peng DF, et al.
Promoter hypermethylation and suppression of glutathione peroxidase 3 are associated with inflammatory breast carcinogenesis.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2014; 2014:787195 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in breast cancer initiation, promotion, and progression. Inhibition of antioxidant enzymes that remove ROS was found to accelerate cancer growth. Studies showed that inhibition of glutathione peroxidase-3 (GPX3) was associated with cancer progression. Although the role of GPX3 has been studied in different cancer types, its role in breast cancer and its epigenetic regulation have not yet been investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate GPX3 expression and epigenetic regulation in carcinoma tissues of breast cancer patients' in comparison to normal breast tissues. Furthermore, we compared GPX3 level of expression and methylation status in aggressive phenotype inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) versus non-IBC invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). We found that GPX3 mRNA and protein expression levels were downregulated in the carcinoma tissues of IBC compared to non-IBC. However, we did not detect significant correlation between GPX3 and patients' clinical-pathological prosperities. Promoter hypermethylation of GPX3 gene was detected in carcinoma tissues not normal breast tissues. In addition, IBC carcinoma tissues showed a significant increase in the promoter hypermethylation of GPX3 gene compared to non-IBC. Our results propose that downregulation of GPX3 in IBC may play a role in the disease progression.

Paul A, Gunewardena S, Stecklein SR, et al.
PKCλ/ι signaling promotes triple-negative breast cancer growth and metastasis.
Cell Death Differ. 2014; 21(9):1469-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a distinct breast cancer subtype defined by the absence of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), and the patients with TNBC are often diagnosed with higher rates of recurrence and metastasis. Because of the absence of ER, PR and HER2/neu expressions, TNBC patients are insensitive to HER2-directed and endocrine therapies available for breast cancer treatment. Here, we report that expression of atypical protein kinase C isoform, PKCλ/ι, significantly increased and activated in all invasive breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma or IDC) subtypes including the TNBC subtype. Because of the lack of targeted therapies for TNBC, we choose to study PKCλ/ι signaling as a potential therapeutic target for TNBC. Our observations indicated that PKCλ/ι signaling is highly active during breast cancer invasive progression, and metastatic breast cancers, the advanced stages of breast cancer disease that developed more frequently in TNBC patients, are also characterized with high levels of PKCλ/ι expression and activation. Functional analysis in experimental mouse models revealed that depletion of PKCλ/ι significantly reduces TNBC growth as well as lung metastatic colonization. Furthermore, we have identified a PKCλ/ι-regulated gene signature consisting of 110 genes, which are significantly associated with indolent to invasive progression of human breast cancer and poor prognosis. Mechanistically, cytokines such as TGFβ and IL1β could activate PKCλ/ι signaling in TNBC cells and depletion of PKCλ/ι impairs NF-κB p65 (RelA) nuclear localization. We observed that cytokine-PKCλ/ι-RelA signaling axis, at least in part, involved in modulating gene expression to regulate invasion of TNBC cells. Overall, our results indicate that induction and activation of PKCλ/ι promote TNBC growth, invasion and metastasis. Thus, targeting PKCλ/ι signaling could be a therapeutic option for breast cancer, including the TNBC subtype.

Ramos CS, Gonçalves AS, Marinho LC, et al.
Analysis of HLA-G gene polymorphism and protein expression in invasive breast ductal carcinoma.
Hum Immunol. 2014; 75(7):667-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
The human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is a non-classical HLA class I molecule predominantly expressed in trophoblastic placental cells to protect the fetus during pregnancy. However, evidence has shown that this molecule may be implicated in the immune escape mechanism of tumor cells. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of 14-bp insertion/deletion HLA-G polymorphism, as well as the expression of this molecule in patients with invasive breast ductal carcinoma (IDC). A significant association between the expression of HLA-G and the presence of metastasis in lymph nodes (p=0.01) was observed and the expression of HLA-G was significantly higher in patients with shorter survival time (p=0.03). The analysis suggests that the polymorphism observed in patients with IDC may be inducing a higher expression of the HLA-G molecule, which may possibly contribute to shorter survival time and a worse clinical prognosis for such patients.

Ruan X, Liu H, Boardman L, Kocher JP
Genome-wide analysis of loss of heterozygosity in breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma distant normal tissue highlights arm specific enrichment and expansion across tumor stages.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e95783 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Studies have shown concurrent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) and adjacent or distant normal tissue. However, the overall extent of LOH in normal tissue and their significance to tumorigenesis remain unknown, as existing studies are largely based on selected microsatellite markers. Here we present the first autosome-wide study of LOH in IDC and distant normal tissue using informative loci deduced from SNP array-based and sequencing-based techniques. We show a consistently high LOH concurrence rate in IDC (mean = 24%) and distant normal tissue (m = 54%), suggesting for most patients (31/33) histologically normal tissue contains genomic instability that can be a potential marker of increased IDC risk. Concurrent LOH is more frequent in fragile site related genes like WWOX (9/31), NTRK2 (10/31), and FHIT (7/31) than traditional genetic markers like BRCA1 (0/23), BRCA2 (2/29) and TP53 (1/13). Analysis at arm level shows distant normal tissue has low level but non-random enrichment of LOH (topped by 8p and 16q) significantly correlated with matched IDC (Pearson r = 0.66, p = 3.5E-6) (topped by 8p, 11q, 13q, 16q, 17p, and 17q). The arm-specific LOH enrichment was independently observed in tumor samples from 548 IDC patients when stratified by tumor size based T stages. Fine LOH structure from sequencing data indicates LOH in low order tissues non-randomly overlap (∼67%) with LOH that usually has longer tract length (the length of genomic region affected by LOH) in high order tissues. The consistent observations from multiple datasets suggest progressive LOH in the development of IDC potentially through arm-specific pile up effect with discernible signature in normal tissue. Our finding also suggests that LOH detected in IDC by comparing to paired adjacent or distant normal tissue are more likely underestimated.

Merdad A, Karim S, Schulten HJ, et al.
Expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in primary human breast cancer: MMP-9 as a potential biomarker for cancer invasion and metastasis.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(3):1355-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common type of cancer in Saudi women. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are endopeptidases with the ability to degrade extracellular matrix proteins. In healthy individual tissue disruption is prevented by precised regulation of MMPs; however, in cancer a number of MMPs are overexpressed causing tissue disruption and making tumor cells capable of invasion and metastasis. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of BCs are classified into grade 1 (G1), grade 2 (G2) and grade 3 (G3) tumors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a transcriptomic profiling of 38 surgically-resected breast tumors (4 G1, 17 G2 and 17 G3) using Affymetrix Gene 1.0 ST microarrays. Differentially expressed genes for each grade were identified by the Partek Genomic Suite 6.4 and expression analysis results were validated by immunohistochemistry at the protein level. Pathway analyses and establishment of clinical significance of findings were performed using the appropriate software.
RESULTS: We identified 1,593 differentially expressed genes in BC grades in comparison to normal samples using a cut-off of p<0.05 and fold change >2. Out of these genes 429 were expressed throughout in all grades along with tumor progression while many others associated with specific grades (440 genes in G1, 203 in G2 and 394 in G3 only) were exclusively. Microarray results indicate that mRNA expression of MMP-1, -9,-11,-12, and -13 were up-regulated in higher BC grades when compared to normal breast tissues. MMP-9 was expressed in most IDC (97.5%) samples and was highly expressed in 55% of the tumors. Differential expression of MMP-9 significantly correlated with histological BC grades of (p=0.03) and strongly correlated with overall survival (p=0.08).
CONCLUSION: Gene expression signatures are unique for specific grades. Overexpression of MMPs in higher grades might be associated with BC tumor invasion and metastasis. Therefore, MMPs, and MMP-9 in particular, are reliable candidates for diagnostic biomarker and drug target and further functional analyses have to be performed in order to confirm their role in BC. Our results also suggest the incidence of MMP-9 expression is high in IDC, but it is of limited prognostic value.

Zhao H, Chen D, Wang J, et al.
Downregulation of the transcription factor, FoxD3, is associated with lymph node metastases in invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(2):670-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
FoxD3 is a transcription factor of the forkhead gene family. We investigated its expression in invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) of the breast and its association with metastasis. The expression of FoxD3, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2), estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Ki67 was examined by immunohistochemistry in samples from 121 patients with IDC. Non-tumorous breast adenosis tissues served as controls. HER2 expression was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The expression levels of FoxD3 in IDC tissues and the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were additionally measured by western blotting. A greater percentage of total IDC patients and patients with lymph node metastases showed reduced FoxD3 expression compared to adenosis controls (p<0.05). Overall, FoxD3 was associated with metastatic status of IDC but not with age, pathological or clinical staging, or status of HER-2, ER, or PR. In particular, FoxD3 protein expression was down-regulated in the tumor epithelia of IDC samples from patients with metastases. Furthermore, FoxD3 protein expression was decreased in the metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line relative to the non-metastatic cell line, MCF-7. A greater number of patients with invasive, triple-negative breast cancer were also negative for FoxD3 expression than in other, non-triple-negative tumor types. These results suggest an inverse relationship between FoxD3 expression and tumor metastasis and warrants further investigation.

Blancato J, Graves A, Rashidi B, et al.
SYK allelic loss and the role of Syk-regulated genes in breast cancer survival.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e87610 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Heterozygotic loss of SYK, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, gives rise to mouse mammary tumor formation where Syk protein levels are reduced by about half; loss of SYK mRNA is correlated with invasive cell behavior in in vitro models; and SYK loss has been correlated with distant metastases in patients. Here, allelic loss of the SYK gene was explored in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) using fluorescence in situ hybridization and pyrosequencing, respectively, and in infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) using genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Allelic loss was present in a subset of DCIS cases where adjacent IDC was present. SYK copy number loss was found in about 26% of 1002 total breast cancer cases and 30% of IDC cases. Quantitative immunofluorescence revealed Syk protein to be six-fold higher in infiltrating immune cells compared with epithelial cells. This difference distorted tumor cell mRNA and protein levels in extracts. 20% of 1002 IDC cases contained elevated immune cell infiltration as estimated by elevated immune-specific mRNAs. In cases without immune cell infiltration, loss of SYK copy number was associated with a significant reduction of SYK mRNA. Here we define a 55 Gene Set consisting of Syk interacting, motility- and invasion-related genes. We found that overall survival was significantly reduced in IDC and Luminal A+B cases where copy number and mutations of these 55 genes were affected (Kaplan-Meier, Logrank test p-value 0.007141 and Logrank test p-value 0.001198, respectively). We conclude that reduction in Syk expression and contributions of genomic instability to copy number and mutations in the 55 Syk interacting genes significantly contribute to poorer overall patient survival. A closer examination of the role of Syk interacting motility and invasion genes and their prognostic and/or causative association with metastatic disease and patient outcome is warranted.

Liu T, Zhang XY, He XH, et al.
High levels of BCOX1 expression are associated with poor prognosis in patients with invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e86952 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
This study was to examine the breast cancer-overexpressed gene 1 (BCOX1) expression in invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) of the breast and its value in the prognosis of the disease. The levels of BCOX1 expression in 491 paired IDC and surrounding non-tumor breast tissues as well as 40 paired fresh specimens were evaluated by tissue microarray, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. The potential associations of high BCOX1 expression with clinicopathological variables and the overall survival of these patients were analyzed. The relative levels of BCOX1 mRNA transcripts in the IDC breast tissues were significantly higher than that in the corresponding non-tumor tissues (P = 0.005). The anti-BCOX1 was predominantly stained in the cytoplasm of breast tissue cells and the levels of BCOX1 expression in the majority of breast cancer tissues were obviously higher than that in the corresponding non-tumor breast tissues. High levels of BCOX1 expression were found in 59.5% (292/491) of breast cancer tissues. The high BCOX1 expression was significantly associated with high histological grade (P = 0.037), positive expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, P = 0.031) and triple negative breast cancer (P = 0.027). The high BCOX1 expression in breast cancers was significantly associated with a shorter overall survival of these patients (P = 0.023), particularly in patients with triple negative breast cancer (P = 0.005). Therefore, the high BCOX1 expression may serve as a novel marker of poor prognosis and a potential therapeutic target for patients with IDC of the breast.

Chirico V, Ferraù V, Loddo I, et al.
LMNA gene mutation as a model of cardiometabolic dysfunction: from genetic analysis to treatment response.
Diabetes Metab. 2014; 40(3):224-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: This report highlights the metabolic, endocrine and cardiovascular comorbidities in a case of familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), and also evaluates the efficacy and safety of metformin therapy.
METHODS: Mutational analysis was carried out of the LMNA gene in a teenage girl with an FPLD phenotype. Insulin resistance, sex hormones and metabolic parameters were also evaluated, and echocardiography, electrocardiography and 24-h blood pressure monitoring were also done.
RESULTS: The patient showed atypical fat distribution, insulin resistance and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Physical examination revealed muscle hypertrophy with a paucity of fat in the extremities, trunk and gluteal regions, yet excess fat deposits in the face, neck and dorsal cervical region. LMNA sequencing revealed a heterozygous missense mutation (c.1543A>G) in exon 9, leading to substitution of lysine by glutamic acid at position 515 (K515E). Moderate hypertension and secondary polycystic ovary syndrome were also assessed. Treatment with metformin resulted in progressive improvement of metabolic status, while blood pressure values normalized with atenolol therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Very rapid and good results with no side-effects were achieved with metformin therapy for FPLD. The association of an unusual mutation in the LMNA gene was also described.

Faghih Z, Rezaeifard S, Safaei A, et al.
IL-17 and IL-4 producing CD8+ T cells in tumor draining lymph nodes of breast cancer patients: positive association with tumor progression.
Iran J Immunol. 2013; 10(4):193-204 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes have been recently divided based on their cytokine expression profile.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the percentages of CD8+ lymphocytes and their effector subsets including Tc1, Tc2 and Tc17 in the tumor draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) of patients with breast cancer.
METHODS: Single cell suspensions were obtained from TDLNs of 42 patients with breast cancer. Staining of the cell surface markers and intracellular cytokines was performed using appropriate fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies. The data was acquired on a four-color flow cytometer and was analyzed by CellQuestPro software package. The percentages of different CD8+ cell subtypes (Tc1, Tc2 and Tc17) were quantified in CD8+ T lymphocytes. The comparison was made between LN+ versus LN- patients, as well as patients in different clinico-pathological status.
RESULTS: The percentage of Tc1, Tc2 and Tc17 subsets were not significantly different between LN+ and LN- patients. Despite no difference in the percentages of Tc1 cells in LN+ patients with infiltrative ductal carcinoma (IDC), the mean expression of IFN-γ by Tc1 cells decreased significantly in comparison to LN- patients. On the other hand, the percentages of Tc2 and Tc17 effector subsets were increased in advanced stages (p=0.018 and p=0.009, respectively).
CONCLUSION: As the first study to investigate various effector subtypes of CD8+ lymphocytes in TDLNs of patients with breast cancer, our data collectively suggests a positive association between IL-17- and IL-4-producing CD8+ T cell percentages (Tc2 and Tc17) in TDLNs with breast cancer progression. Although the number of Tc1 cells seems not to be affected by cancer progression, down-regulation of IFN-γ by these cells seems to be associated with tumor metastasis to TDLNs. These findings may have implications in cancer immunotherapy based on CD8+ effector subsets.

Shindo K, Aishima S, Ohuchida K, et al.
Podoplanin expression in cancer-associated fibroblasts enhances tumor progression of invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas.
Mol Cancer. 2013; 12(1):168 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Interactions between cancer cells and surrounding cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play an important role in cancer progression. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the pancreas is characterized by abundant fibrous connective tissue called desmoplasia. Podoplanin (PDPN) is a lymphatic vessel marker (D2-40), and expression of PDPN by stromal CAFs has been reported to be a prognostic indicator in various types of cancer.
METHODS: Expression of PDPN in pancreatic IDCs was assessed by immunohistochemical examination in 105 patients who underwent pancreatic resection. Primary CAFs were established from pancreatic cancer tissue obtained by surgery. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometric analysis were performed to investigate PDPN expression in CAFs. We sorted CAFs according to PDPN expression, and analyzed the functional differences between PDPN+ CAFs and PDPN- CAFs using indirect co-culture with pancreatic cancer cell lines. We also investigated the culture conditions to regulate PDPN expression in CAFs.
RESULTS: PDPN expression in stromal fibroblasts was associated with lymphatic vessel invasion (P = 0.0461), vascular invasion (P = 0.0101), tumor size ≥ 3 cm (P = 0.0038), histological grade (P = 0.0344), Union for International Cancer Control classification T stage (P = 0.029), and shorter survival time (P < 0.0001). Primary CAFs showed heterogeneous PDPN expression in vitro. Moreover, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cell lines (PANC-1 and SUIT-2) were associated with PDPN expression in CAFs (P < 0.01) and expression of CD10, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, and MMP3. In cultured CAFs, PDPN positivity changed over time under several conditions including co-culture with cancer cells, different culture media, and addition of growth factor.
CONCLUSIONS: PDPN-expressing CAFs enhance the progression of pancreatic IDC, and a high ratio of PDPN-expressing CAFs is an independent predictor of poor outcome. Understanding the regulation of the tumor microenvironment is an important step towards developing new therapeutic strategies.

Thakur C, Lu Y, Sun J, et al.
Increased expression of mdig predicts poorer survival of the breast cancer patients.
Gene. 2014; 535(2):218-24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among women of all races and Hispanic origin populations in the United States. In the present study, we reported that the survival time of the breast cancer patients is influenced by the expression level of mdig, a previously identified lung cancer-associated oncogene encoding a JmjC-domain protein. By checking the expression levels of mRNA and protein of mdig through both RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in samples from 204 patients, we noticed that about 30% of breast cancer samples showed increased expression of mdig. Correlation of the mdig expression levels with the survival time of the breast cancer patients indicated a clear inverse relationship between mdig expression and patient survival, including poorer overall survival, distant metastasis free survival, relapse free survival, and post-progression survival. Taken together, these data suggest that an increased expression of mdig is an important prognostic factor for poorer survival time of the breast cancer patients.

Wazir U, Ahmed MH, Bridger JM, et al.
The clinicopathological significance of lamin A/C, lamin B1 and lamin B receptor mRNA expression in human breast cancer.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2013; 18(4):595-611 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lamin A/C (LMNA), lamin B1 (LMNB1) and lamin B receptor (LBR) have key roles in nuclear structural integrity and chromosomal stability. In this study, we have studied the relationships between the mRNA expressions of A-type lamins, LMNB1 and LBR and the clinicopathological parameters in human breast cancer. Samples of breast cancer tissues (n = 115) and associated non-cancerous tissue (ANCT; n = 30) were assessed using reverse transcription and quantitative PCR. Transcript levels were correlated with clinicopathological data. Higher levels of A-type lamins and LMNB1 mRNA expression were seen in ANCT. Higher lamin A/C expression was associated with the early clinical stage (TNM1 vs. TNM3 - 13 vs. 0.21; p = 0.0515), with better clinical outcomes (disease-free survival vs. mortality - 11 vs. 1; p = 0.0326), and with better overall (p = 0.004) and disease-free survival (p = 0.062). The expression of LMNB1 declined with worsening clinical outcome (disease-free vs. mortalities - 0.0011 vs. 0.000; p = 0.0177). LBR mRNA expression was directly associated with tumor grade (grade 1 vs. grade 3 - 0.00 vs. 0.00; p = 0.0479) and Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI1 vs. NPI3 - 0.00 vs. 0.00; p = 0.0551). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest such a role for A-type lamins, lamin B1 and LBR in human breast cancer, identifying an important area for further research.

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