Research IndicatorsGraph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (2)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: RAP1GAP (cancer-related)
Maffei R, Bulgarelli J, Fiorcari S, et al.The monocytic population in chronic lymphocytic leukemia shows altered composition and deregulation of genes involved in phagocytosis and inflammation.
Haematologica. 2013; 98(7):1115-23 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Macrophages reside in tissues infiltrated by chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells and the extent of infiltration is associated with adverse prognostic factors. We studied blood monocyte population by flow cytometry and whole-genome microarrays. A mixed lymphocyte reaction was performed to evaluate proliferation of T cells in contact with monocytes from patients and normal donors. Migration and gene modulation in normal monocytes cultured with CLL cells were also evaluated. The absolute number of monocytes increased in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients compared to the number in normal controls (792 ± 86 cells/μL versus 485 ± 46 cells/μL, P=0.003). Higher numbers of non-classical CD14(+)CD16(++) and Tie-2-expressing monocytes were also detected in patients. Furthermore, we performed a gene expression analysis of monocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, showing up-regulation of RAP1GAP and down-regulation of tubulins and CDC42EP3, which would be expected to result in impairment of phagocytosis. We also detected gene alterations such as down-regulation of PTGR2, a reductase able to inactivate prostaglandin E2, indicating immunosuppressive activity. Accordingly, the proliferation of T cells in contact with monocytes from patients was inhibited compared to that of cells in contact with monocytes from normal controls. Finally, normal monocytes in vitro increased migration and up-regulated CD16, RAP1GAP, IL-10, IL-8, MMP9 and down-regulated PTGR2 in response to leukemic cells or conditioned media. In conclusion, altered composition and deregulation of genes involved in phagocytosis and inflammation were found in blood monocytes obtained from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, suggesting that leukemia-mediated "education" of immune elements may also include the establishment of a skewed phenotype in the monocyte/macrophage population.
High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are incurable brain tumors that are characterized by the presence of glioma-initiating cells (GICs). GICs are essential to tumor aggressiveness and retain the capacity for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation as long as they reside in the perivascular niche. ID proteins are master regulators of stemness and anchorage to the extracellular niche microenvironment, suggesting that they may play a role in maintaining GICs. Here, we modeled the probable therapeutic impact of ID inactivation in HGG by selective ablation of Id in tumor cells and after tumor initiation in a new mouse model of human mesenchymal HGG. Deletion of 3 Id genes induced rapid release of GICs from the perivascular niche, followed by tumor regression. GIC displacement was mediated by derepression of Rap1gap and subsequent inhibition of RAP1, a master regulator of cell adhesion. We identified a signature module of 5 genes in the ID pathway, including RAP1GAP, which segregated 2 subgroups of glioma patients with markedly different clinical outcomes. The model-informed survival analysis together with genetic and functional studies establish that ID activity is required for the maintenance of mesenchymal HGG and suggest that pharmacological inactivation of ID proteins could serve as a therapeutic strategy.
MicroRNAs (miRs) play a key role in cancer etiology by coordinately repressing numerous target genes involved in cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The genomic region in chromosome 9p21 that encompasses miR-31 is frequently deleted in solid cancers including melanoma; however the expression and functional role of miR-31 has not been previously studied in melanoma. Here, we queried the expression status and performed functional characterization of miR-31 in melanoma tissues and cell lines. We found that down-regulation of miR-31 was a common event in melanoma tumors and cell lines and was associated with genomic loss in a subset of samples. Down-regulation of miR-31 gene expression was also a result of epigenetic silencing by DNA methylation, and via EZH2-mediated histone methylation. Ectopic overexpression of miR-31 in various melanoma cell lines inhibited cell migration and invasion. miR-31 targets include oncogenic kinases such as SRC, MET, NIK (MAP3K14) and the melanoma specific oncogene RAB27a. Furthermore, miR-31 overexpression resulted in down-regulation of EZH2 and a de-repression of its target gene rap1GAP; increased expression of EZH2 was associated with melanoma progression and overall patient survival. Taken together, our study supports a tumor suppressor role for miR-31 in melanoma and identifies novel therapeutic targets.
The functional significance of decreased RAP1GAP protein expression in human tumors is unclear. To identify targets of RAP1GAP downregulation in the thyroid gland, RAP1 and RAP2 protein expression in human thyroid cells and in primary thyroid tumors were analyzed. RAP1GAP and RAP2 were co-expressed in normal thyroid follicular cells. Intriguingly, RAP1 was not detected in normal thyroid cells, although it was detected in papillary thyroid carcinomas, which also expressed RAP2. Both RAP proteins were detected at the membrane in papillary thyroid tumors, suggesting that they are activated when RAP1GAP is downregulated. To explore the functional significance of RAP1GAP depletion, RAP1GAP was transiently expressed at the lowest level that is sufficient to block endogenous RAP2 activity in papillary and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines. RAP1GAP impaired the ability of cells to spread and migrate on collagen. Although RAP1GAP had no effect on protein tyrosine phosphorylation in growing cells, RAP1GAP impaired phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin at sites phosphorylated by SRC in cells acutely plated on collagen. SRC activity was increased in suspended cells, where it was inhibited by RAP1GAP. Inhibition of SRC kinase activity impaired cell spreading and motility. These findings identify SRC as a target of RAP1GAP depletion and suggest that the downregulation of RAP1GAP in thyroid tumors enhances SRC-dependent signals that regulate cellular architecture and motility.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is the sixth most common cancer, globally. Previously, we showed that Rap1GAP is a tumor suppressor gene that inhibits tumor growth, but promotes invasion in SCCHN. In this work, we discuss the role of Rap1 and Rap1GAP in SCCHN progression in the context of a microRNA-oncogene-tumor suppressor gene axis, and investigate the role of Rap1GAP in EZH2-mediated invasion. Loss of expression of microRNA-101 in SCCHN leads to upregulation of EZH2, a histone methyltransferase. Overexpression of EZH2 silences Rap1GAP via methylation, thereby promoting activation of its target, Rap1. This microRNA-controlled activation of Rap1, via EZH2-mediated silencing of Rap1GAP, is a novel mechanism of Rap1 regulation. In two independent SCCHN cell lines, downregulation of EZH2 inhibits proliferation and invasion. In both cell lines, stable knockdown of EZH2 (shEZH2) recovers Rap1GAP expression and inhibits proliferation. However, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Rap1GAP in these cells rescues proliferation but not invasion. Thus, EZH2 promotes proliferation and invasion via Rap1GAP-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. Although the studies presented here are in the context of SCCHN, our results may have broader implications, given that Rap1GAP acts as a tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer, thyroid cancer, and melanoma.
Qiu T, Qi X, Cen J, Chen ZRap1GAP alters leukemia cell differentiation, apoptosis and invasion in vitro.
Oncol Rep. 2012; 28(2):622-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Rap1GAP which regulates the GTP-GDP form switch of Rap1 is a member of the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) family and has recently received substantial attention. Rap1GAP is thought of as a putative tumor suppressor gene and plays an important role in human tumor progression including pancreatic cancer, thyroid cancer and melanoma. In the current study, we found that the expression of Rap1GAP was lower in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients compared to non-malignant blood disease patients. The expression of Rap1GAP was also low in HL-60, NB4, U937 and SHI-1 myeloid leukemia cell lines. Upregulated Rap1GAP in NB4 and HL-60 cells promoted cell differentiation induced by ATRA or TPA compared to the empty vector control cells. Furthermore, Rap1GAP-transfected cells also showed a higher rate of apoptosis in response to arsenic trioxide compared to the control counterpart cells. In addition, we found that increased expression of Rap1GAP promoted leukemia cell invasion may be due to matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). In conclusion, these results demonstrated that Rap1GAP promoted leukemia cell differentiation and apoptosis, but increased leukemia cell invasion in vitro.
Melanoma is a devastating skin cancer characterized by distinct biological subtypes. Besides frequent mutations in growth- and survival-promoting genes like BRAF and NRAS, melanomas additionally harbor complex non-random genomic alterations. Using an integrative approach, we have analysed genomic and gene expression changes in human melanoma cell lines (N=32) derived from primary tumors and various metastatic sites and investigated the relation to local growth aggressiveness as xenografts in immuno-compromised mice (N=22). Although the vast majority >90% of melanoma models harbored mutations in either BRAF or NRAS, significant differences in subcutaneous growth aggressiveness became obvious. Unsupervised clustering revealed that genomic alterations rather than gene expression data reflected this aggressive phenotype, while no association with histology, stage or metastatic site of the original melanoma was found. Genomic clustering allowed separation of melanoma models into two subgroups with differing local growth aggressiveness in vivo. Regarding genes expressed at significantly altered levels between these subgroups, a surprising correlation with the respective gene doses (>85% accordance) was found. Genes deregulated at the DNA and mRNA level included well-known cancer genes partly already linked to melanoma (RAS genes, PTEN, AURKA, MAPK inhibitors Sprouty/Spred), but also novel candidates like SIPA1 (a Rap1GAP). Pathway mining further supported deregulation of Rap1 signaling in the aggressive subgroup e.g. by additional repression of two Rap1GEFs. Accordingly, siRNA-mediated down-regulation of SIPA1 exerted significant effects on clonogenicity, adherence and migration in aggressive melanoma models. Together our data suggest that an aneuploidy-driven gene expression deregulation drives local aggressiveness in human melanoma.
Cantara S, Capuano S, Capezzone M, et al.Lack of mutations of the telomerase RNA component in familial papillary thyroid cancer with short telomeres.
Thyroid. 2012; 22(4):363-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of familial papillary thyroid cancer (FPTC) is well established but no susceptibility genes for this disease have been discovered. Our group has recently demonstrated that patients with FPTC have shorter telomeres, not associated with mutations in telomerase reverse transcriptase, gene than patients with sporadic papillary thyroid cancer (SPTC), healthy subjects (HS), and unaffected family members (UFMs). Several diseases, however, have short telomeres associated with mutations in the telomerase RNA component (TERC) gene or in the shelterin complex (POT1, RAP1, TIN2, TPP1, TRF1, and TRF2) genes. The objective of the present study was to verify whether short telomeres observed in FPTC patients were related to mutations in TERC or shelterin genes.
METHODS: Sixty-six patients with FPTC, 46 UFMs, 111 patients with SPTC, and 153 HS were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography analysis and direct sequencing for the presence of TERC or shelterin gene mutations. When present, single-nucleotide polymorphisms were tested by χ(2) analysis at the genotypic, allelic, and haplotypic levels.
RESULTS: The entire sequence of the TERC gene was analyzed with particular attention to known mutations known to be associated with short telomeres. All samples appeared to be homozygous wild type for A-771G, C-99G, G305A, G322A, C323T, C408G, G450A, T467C, G508A, A514G, G623A, and C727G substitutions and for the 378Δ→3' deletion in the TERC gene. In addition, upon analysis of all samples for shelterin proteins, we observed a significant decrease in POT1 and RAP1 protein expression in the blood of FPTC patients compared with SPTC subjects. However, no mutations or polymorphisms were found when in the coding sequences of both genes.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first study of TERC mutations or alterations in the shelterin complex in relation to FPTC. Shorter telomeres observed in FPTC are not linked to mutations or polymorphisms in TERC, POT1, or RAP1 genes.
Although patients with localized and regional kidney tumors have a high survival rate, incidence of mortality significantly increases for patients with metastatic disease. It is imperative to decipher the molecular mechanisms of kidney tumor migration and invasion in order to develop effective therapies for patients with advanced cancer. Rap1, a small GTPase protein, has been implicated in cancer cell growth and invasion. Here, we profile migratory and invasive properties of commonly used renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines and correlate that with expression and function of the Rap inactivator Rap1GAP. We report that levels of Rap1GAP inversely correlate with invasion but not migration. We also report that forced over-expression of Rap1GAP decreases invasion of RCC cells but does not impact their rate of proliferation. Low expression levels of Rap1GAP in RCC cells are due, at least in part, to promoter hypermethylation. Rescued expression of Rap1GAP with a demethylating drug, decitabine (5-azadC), decreases the RCC SN12C cell invasion of collagen, fibronectin, and Matrigel matrices. RCC cell lines express distinct levels of cell adhesion proteins and the forced over-expression of Rap1GAP attenuated levels of both cadherins and integrins that are known to regulate the cancer cells invasion. These results demonstrate that targeted restoration of Rap1GAP expression may serve as a potential therapeutic approach to reduce metastasis of kidney cancers.
van Staveren WC, Beeckman S, Tomás G, et al.Role of Epac and protein kinase A in thyrotropin-induced gene expression in primary thyrocytes.
Exp Cell Res. 2012; 318(5):444-52 [PubMed
] Related Publications
cAMP pathway activation by thyrotropin (TSH) induces differentiation and gene expression in thyrocytes. We investigated which partners of the cAMP cascade regulate gene expression modulations: protein kinase A and/or the exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac). Human primary cultured thyrocytes were analysed by microarrays after treatment with the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin, the protein kinase A (PKA) activator 6-MB-cAMP and the Epac-selective cAMP analog 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP (007) alone or combined with 6-MB-cAMP. Profiles were compared to those of TSH. Cultures treated with the adenylate cyclase- or the PKA activator alone or the latter combined with 007 had profiles similar to those induced by TSH. mRNA profiles of 007-treated cultures were highly distinct from TSH-treated cells, suggesting that TSH-modulated gene expressions are mainly modulated by cAMP and PKA and not through Epac in cultured human thyroid cells. To investigate whether the Epac-Rap-RapGAP pathway could play a potential role in thyroid tumorigenesis, the mRNA expressions of its constituent proteins were investigated in two malignant thyroid tumor types. Modulations of this pathway suggest an increased Rap pathway activity in these cancers independent from cAMP activation.
Prognosis for patients with early stage kidney cancer has improved, but the treatment options for patients with locally advanced disease and metastasis remain few. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate invasion and metastasis is critical for developing successful therapies to treat these patients. Proinflammatory prostaglandin E(2) plays an important role in cancer initiation and progression via activation of cognate EP receptors that belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. Here we report that prostaglandin E(2) promotes renal cancer cell invasion through a signal transduction pathway that encompasses EP4 and small GTPase Rap. Inactivation of Rap signaling with Rap1GAP, like inhibition of EP4 signaling with ligand antagonist or knockdown with shRNA, reduces the kidney cancer cell invasion. Human kidney cells evidence increased EP4 and decreased Rap1GAP expression levels in the malignant compared with benign samples. These results support the idea that targeted inhibition of EP4 signaling and restoration of Rap1GAP expression constitute a new strategy to control kidney cancer progression.
The significance of the widespread downregulation of Rap1GAP in human tumors is unknown. In previous studies we demonstrated that silencing Rap1GAP expression in human colon cancer cells resulted in sustained increases in Rap activity, enhanced spreading on collagen and the weakening of cell-cell contacts. The latter finding was unexpected based on the role of Rap1 in strengthening cell-cell adhesion and reports that Rap1GAP impairs cell-cell adhesion. We now show that Rap1GAP is a more effective inhibitor of cell-matrix compared to cell-cell adhesion. Overexpression of Rap1GAP in human colon cancer cells impaired Rap2 activity and the ability of cells to spread and migrate on collagen IV. Under the same conditions, Rap1GAP had no effect on cell-cell adhesion. Overexpression of Rap1GAP did not enhance the dissociation of cell aggregates nor did it impair the accumulation of β-catenin and E-cadherin at cell-cell contacts. To further explore the role of Rap1GAP in the regulation of cell-cell adhesion, Rap1GAP was overexpressed in non-transformed thyroid epithelial cells. Although the formation of cell-cell contacts required Rap1, overexpression of Rap1GAP did not impair cell-cell adhesion. These data indicate that transient, modest expression of Rap1GAP is compatible with cell-cell adhesion and that the role of Rap1GAP in the regulation of cell-cell adhesion may be more complex than is currently appreciated.
Rap1GAP is a critical tumor suppressor gene that is downregulated in multiple aggressive cancers, such as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanistic basis of rap1GAP downregulation in cancers is poorly understood. By employing an integrative approach, we demonstrate polycomb-mediated repression of rap1GAP that involves Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone methyltransferase in head and neck cancers. We further demonstrate that the loss of miR-101 expression correlates with EZH2 upregulation, and the concomitant downregulation of rap1GAP in head and neck cancers. EZH2 represses rap1GAP by facilitating the trimethylation of histone 3 at lysine 27, a mark of gene repression, and also hypermethylation of rap1GAP promoter. These results provide a conceptual framework involving a microRNA-oncogene-tumor suppressor axis to understand head and neck cancer progression.
The Mig-10/RIAM/lamellipodin (MRL) family member Rap1-GTP-interacting adaptor molecule (RIAM) interacts with active Rap1, a small GTPase that is frequently activated in tumors such as melanoma and prostate cancer. We show here that RIAM is expressed in metastatic human melanoma cells and that both RIAM and Rap1 are required for BLM melanoma cell invasion. RIAM silencing in melanoma cells led to inhibition of tumor growth and to delayed metastasis in a severe combined immunodeficiency xenograft model. Defective invasion of RIAM-silenced melanoma cells arose from impairment in persistent cell migration directionality, which was associated with deficient activation of a Vav2-RhoA-ROCK-myosin light chain pathway. Expression of constitutively active Vav2 and RhoA in cells depleted for RIAM partially rescued their invasion, indicating that Vav2 and RhoA mediate RIAM function. These results suggest that inhibition of cell invasion in RIAM-silenced melanoma cells is likely based on altered cell contractility and cell polarization. Furthermore, we show that RIAM depletion reduces β1 integrin-dependent melanoma cell adhesion, which correlates with decreased activation of both Erk1/2 MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, two central molecules controlling cell growth and cell survival. In addition to causing inhibition of cell proliferation, RIAM silencing led to higher susceptibility to cell apoptosis. Together, these data suggest that defective activation of these kinases in RIAM-silenced cells could account for inhibition of melanoma cell growth and that RIAM might contribute to the dissemination of melanoma cells.
Increases in Rap activity have been associated with tumor progression. Although activating mutations in Rap have not been described, downregulation of Rap1GAP is frequent in human tumors including thyroid carcinomas. In this study, we explored whether endogenous Rap1GAP expression could be restored to thyroid tumor cells. The effects of deacetylase inhibitors and a demethylating agent, individually and in combination, were examined in four differentiated and six anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cell lines. Treatment with the structurally distinct histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, sodium butyrate and trichostatin A, increased Rap1GAP expression in all the differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell lines and in four of the six ATC cell lines. The demethylating agent, 5-aza-deoxycytidine, restored Rap1GAP expression in one anaplastic cell line and enhanced the effects of HDAC inhibitors in a second anaplastic cell line. Western blotting indicated that Rap2 was highly expressed in human thyroid cancer cells. Importantly, treatment with HDAC inhibitors impaired Rap2 activity in both differentiated and anaplastic tumor cell lines. The mechanism through which Rap activity is repressed appears to entail effects on the expression of multiple Rap regulators, including RapGEFs and RapGAPs. These results suggest that HDAC inhibitors may provide a tractable approach to impair Rap activity in human tumor cells.
Previously we showed that galanin, a neuropeptide, is secreted by human squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) in which it exhibits an autocrine mitogenic effect. We also showed that rap1, a ras-like signaling protein, is a critical mediator of SCCHN progression. Given the emerging importance of the galanin cascade in regulating proliferation and survival, we investigated the effect of GAL on SCCHN progression via induction of galanin receptor 2 (GALR2)-mediated rap1 activation. Studies were performed in multiple SCCHN cell lines by inducing endogenous GALR2, by stably overexpressing GALR2 and by downregulating endogenous GALR2 with siGALR2. Cell proliferation and survival, mediated by the ERK and AKT signaling cascades, respectively, were evaluated by functional and immunoblot analysis. The role of rap1 in GALR2-mediated proliferation and survival was evaluated by modulating expression. Finally, the effect of GALR2 on tumor growth was determined. GALR2 stimulated proliferation and survival via ERK and AKT activation, respectively. Knockdown or inactivation of rap1 inhibited GALR2-induced, AKT and ERK-mediated survival and proliferation. Overexpression of GALR2 promoted tumor growth in vivo. GALR2 promotes proliferation and survival in vitro, and promotes tumor growth in vivo, consistent with an oncogenic role for GALR2 in SCCHN.
Rap1GAP expression is decreased in human tumors. The significance of its downregulation is unknown. We show that Rap1GAP expression is decreased in primary colorectal carcinomas. To elucidate the advantages conferred on tumor cells by loss of Rap1GAP, Rap1GAP expression was silenced in human colon carcinoma cells. Suppressing Rap1GAP induced profound alterations in cell adhesion. Rap1GAP-depleted cells exhibited defects in cell/cell adhesion that included an aberrant distribution of adherens junction proteins. Depletion of Rap1GAP enhanced adhesion and spreading on collagen. Silencing of Rap expression normalized spreading and restored E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and p120-catenin to cell/cell contacts, indicating that unrestrained Rap activity underlies the alterations in cell adhesion. The defects in adherens junction protein distribution required integrin signaling as E-cadherin and p120-catenin were restored at cell/cell contacts when cells were plated on poly-l-lysine. Unexpectedly, Src activity was increased in Rap1GAP-depleted cells. Inhibition of Src impaired spreading and restored E-cadherin at cell/cell contacts. These findings provide the first evidence that Rap1GAP contributes to cell/cell adhesion and highlight a role for Rap1GAP in regulating cell/matrix and cell/cell adhesion. The frequent downregulation of Rap1GAP in epithelial tumors where alterations in cell/cell and cell/matrix adhesion are early steps in tumor dissemination supports a role for Rap1GAP depletion in tumor progression.
Schönherr C, Yang HL, Vigny M, et al.Anaplastic lymphoma kinase activates the small GTPase Rap1 via the Rap1-specific GEF C3G in both neuroblastoma and PC12 cells.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(19):2817-30 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Many different types of cancer originate from aberrant signaling from the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), arising through different translocation events and overexpression. Further, activating point mutations in the ALK domain have been recently reported in neuroblastoma. To characterize signaling in the context of the full-length receptor, we have examined whether ALK is able to activate Rap1 and contribute to differentiation/proliferation processes. We show that ALK activates Rap1 via the Rap1-specific guanine-nucleotide exchange factor C3G, which binds in a constitutive complex with CrkL to activated ALK. The activation of the C3G/Rap1 pathway results in neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells, which is inhibited by either overexpression of Rap1GAP or siRNA-mediated knockdown of Rap1 itself or the guanine nucleotide exchange factor C3G. Significantly, this pathway also appears to function in the regulation of proliferation of neuroblastoma cells such as SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y, because abrogation of Rap1 activity by Rap1-specific siRNA or overexpression of Rap1GAP reduces cellular growth. These results suggest that ALK activation of Rap1 may contribute to cell proliferation and oncogenesis of neuroblastoma driven by gain-of-function mutant ALK receptors.
Thyroid cancer is the most common type of endocrine malignancy, encompassing tumors with various levels of invasive growth and aggressiveness. Rap1GAP, a Rap1 GTPase-activating protein, inhibits the RAS superfamily protein Rap1 by facilitating hydrolysis of GTP to GDP. In this study, we analyzed 197 thyroid tumor samples and showed that Rap1GAP was frequently lost or downregulated in various types of tumors, particularly in the most invasive and aggressive forms of thyroid cancer. The downregulation was due to promoter hypermethylation and/or loss of heterozygosity, found in the majority of thyroid tumors. Treatment with demethylating agent 5-aza-deoxycytidine and/or histone deacetylation inhibitor trichostatin A induced gene reexpression in thyroid cells. A genetic polymorphism, Y609C, was seen in 7% of thyroid tumors but was not related to gene downregulation. Loss of Rap1GAP expression correlated with tumor invasiveness but not with specific mutations activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Rap1GAP downregulation was required in vitro for cell migration and Matrigel invasion. Recovery of Rap1GAP expression inhibited thyroid cell proliferation and colony formation. Overall, our findings indicate that epigenetic or genetic loss of Rap1GAP is very common in thyroid cancer, where these events are sufficient to promote cell proliferation and invasion.
Ika SA, Qi XF, Chen ZXRegulatory function and expression of rap1gap gene in hematopoietic cells-review.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2009; 17(4):1093-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Rap1 is a small G protein belonging to the RAS superfamily. Rap1 signalling has effects on cell growth, cell proliferation and involves in regulation of the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase or ERK (extracellular signal regulated kinase) cascade. Rap1 will directly activate ERK through B-Raf. B-Raf is a member of Raf family, and presents in neuronal and hematopoietic cells. Oncogenic mutations of gene RAS are most frequent and detected in 20% - 30% of human leukemias and 10% - 15% of MDS cases. The review summarizes the regulatory function of Rap1 in development of hematopoietic cells and effect of Rap1 in hematologic malignancies.
Zheng H, Gao L, Feng Y, et al.Down-regulation of Rap1GAP via promoter hypermethylation promotes melanoma cell proliferation, survival, and migration.
Cancer Res. 2009; 69(2):449-57 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Melanoma is the most serious, highly aggressive form of skin cancer with recent dramatic increases in incidence. Current therapies are relatively ineffective, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms contributing to the disease. We have previously shown that activation of Rap1 promotes melanoma cell proliferation and migration through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and integrin activation. In the present study, we show that expression of Rap1GAP, a specific negative regulator of Rap1, is decreased in human melanoma tumors and cell lines. Overexpression of Rap1GAP in melanoma cells blocks Rap1 activation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and inhibits melanoma cell proliferation and survival. In addition, overexpression of Rap1GAP also inhibits focal adhesion formation and decreases melanoma cell migration. Rap1GAP down-regulation is due to its promoter methylation, a mechanism of gene silencing in tumors. Furthermore, treatment of melanoma cells with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reinduces Rap1GAP expression, followed by decreased Rap1 activity, ERK phosphorylation, and cell proliferation and survival-changes that are significantly blunted in cells transfected by small interfering RNA-mediated Rap1GAP knockdown. Taken together, our findings indicate that down-regulation of Rap1GAP via promoter hypermethylation promotes melanoma cell proliferation, survival, and migration.
Mitra RS, Goto M, Lee JS, et al.Rap1GAP promotes invasion via induction of matrix metalloproteinase 9 secretion, which is associated with poor survival in low N-stage squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(10):3959-69 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of Rap1GAP on invasion and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and the role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 in this process. Rap1GAP functions by switching off Rap1, the Ras-like protein that has been associated with carcinogenesis. Previous findings suggest that Rap1GAP acts as a tumor suppressor protein in SCC by delaying the G(1)-S transition of the cell cycle. However, cells transfected with Rap1GAP exhibit a more invasive phenotype than corresponding vector-transfected control cells. MMP2 and MMP9 are enzymes that mediate SCC invasion via degradation of the extracellular matrix. Using SCC cells transfected with empty vector or Rap1GAP, cell invasion and MMP secretion were determined by Matrigel assays and gelatin zymography, respectively. Rap1GAP up-regulated transcription and secretion of MMP2 and MMP9, as assayed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and zymography. Furthermore, chemical and RNA interference blockade of MMP2/MMP9 inhibited invasion by Rap1GAP-transfected cells. Immunohistochemical staining of a human oropharyngeal SCC tissue microarray showed that Rap1GAP and MMP9 expression and staining intensity are correlated (P < 0.0001) and that, in early N-stage lesions of SCC, high MMP9 is prognostic of poor disease-specific survival (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Rap1GAP staining is correlated with MMP2 (P < 0.03). MMP2 in combination with N stage has a prognostic effect on time to indication of surgery at primary site. MMP2 intensity is also positively correlated with T stage (P < 0.015). In conclusion, Rap1GAP inhibits tumor growth but induces MMP2- and MMP9-mediated SCC invasion and tumor progression, suggesting a role for this protein as a biomarker for early N-stage, aggressive SCCs.
Lefeuvre M, Gunduz M, Nagatsuka H, et al.Fine deletion analysis of 1p36 chromosomal region in oral squamous cell carcinomas.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2009; 38(1):94-8 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common cancer type of the oral cavity and approximately 50% of the patients succumb to the disease. Unfortunately, few are known about the molecular mechanisms involving in the formation of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recently, it has been reported that 1p36 chromosomal region is deleted in various cancer types and is suspected to harbor various tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). However, limited studies exist on genetics alteration on 1p36 in OSCC and the responsible TSG remained unidentified.
METHODS: To investigate area susceptible to harbor TSG(s) involved in OSCC on 1p36 region, paired normal and tumor tissues of 27 patients with diagnosis of OSCC have been analyzed for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) using nine microsatellite markers based on recent gene mapping.
RESULTS: LOH was found at least in one locus in 85% of the cases (23 of 27). Interestingly, microsatellite instability was also found in 7% (two of 27) of the cases analyzed. The higher LOH frequencies were found with the markers D1S243 (25%), D1S468 (22%), D1S450 (25%), D1S228 (38%), D1S199 (28%), and D1S1676 (23%).
CONCLUSIONS: Three preferentially deleted regions have been identified in OSCC: region 1 (D1S468-D1S243), region 2 (D1S450-D1S228), and region 3 (D1S199-D1S1676). Multiple candidate TSGs, such as RIZ1, p73, UBE4B, Rap1GAP, EPHB2, and RUNX3, are located in these three areas. The data obtained in this study can be used for further functional analysis of these genes involved in OSCC carcinogenesis.
Zhang L, Chenwei L, Mahmood R, et al.Identification of a putative tumor suppressor gene Rap1GAP in pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Res. 2006; 66(2):898-906 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Human chromosome 1p35-p36 has long been suspected to harbor a tumor suppressor gene in pancreatic cancer and other tumors. We found that expression of rap1GAP, a gene located in this chromosomal region, is significantly down-regulated in pancreatic cancer. Only a small percentage of preneoplastic pancreatic intraductal neoplasia lesions lost rap1GAP expression, whereas loss of rap1GAP expression occurred in 60% of invasive pancreatic cancers, suggesting that rap1GAP contributes to pancreatic cancer progression. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that loss of rap1GAP promotes pancreatic cancer growth, survival, and invasion, and may function through modulation of integrin activity. Furthermore, we showed a high frequency of loss of heterozygosity of rap1GAP in pancreatic cancer. Collectively, our data identify rap1GAP as a putative tumor suppressor gene in pancreatic cancer.
Johansson FK, Göransson H, Westermark BExpression analysis of genes involved in brain tumor progression driven by retroviral insertional mutagenesis in mice.
Oncogene. 2005; 24(24):3896-905 [PubMed
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Retroviral tagging previously identified putative cancer-causing genes in a mouse brain tumor model where a recombinant Moloney murine leukemia virus encoding the platelet-derived growth factor B-chain (MMLV/PDGFB) was intracerebrally injected in newborn mice. In the present study, expression analysis using cDNA arrays revealed several similarities of virus-induced mouse gliomas with human brain tumors. Brain tumors with short latency contained on average 8.0 retroviral insertions and resembled human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) whereas long-latency gliomas were of lower grade, similar to human oligodendroglioma (OD) and had 2.3 insertions per tumor. Several known and novel genes of tumor progression or cell markers were differentially expressed between OD- and GBM-like tumors. Array and quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated elevated expression similar to Pdgfralpha of retrovirally tagged genes Abhd2, Ddr1, Fos, Ng2, Ppfibp1, Rad51b and Sulf2 in both glioma types compared to neonatal and adult normal brain. The retrovirally tagged genes Plekhb1, Prex1, Prkg2, Sox10 and 1200004M23Rik were upregulated in the tumors but had a different expression profile than Pdgfralpha whereas Rap1gap, Gli1, Neurl and Camk2b were downregulated in the tumors. The present study accentuates the proposed role of the retrovirally tagged genes in PDGF-driven gliomagenesis and indicates that insertional mutagenesis can promote glioma progression.
Desiree-Magloire Bourneville first reported tuberous sclerosis complex as "tuberous sclerosis of the cerebral convolutions" in 1880. This disorder is characterized by multiple hamartomas in several organs, particularly the brain. Commonly recognized clinical features include hypomelanotic skin macules, facial angiofibromas, periungual fibromas, delayed development, and seizures. Abnormalities on brain imaging include subependymal nodules, cortical tubers, and radial white matter lines. The kidney, heart, and retina are among other commonly affected organs. Although the majority of cases (65%) are sporadic, genetic linkage studies of familial cases led to the discovery of two separate genes linked to tuberous sclerosis complex: TSC1, located at chromosome 9q34, encoding a protein called hamartin; and TSC2, located at chromosome 16p13.3, encoding a protein called tuberin. Tuberin has a region of homology to rap1GAP, a guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein. This observation is consistent with the idea of tuberin functioning in a cellular signaling pathway. Hamartin contains a single potential transmembrane domain; orthologues in yeast, drosophila, and rat have been cloned. Hamartin also binds to ezrin and other ezrin-radixin-moesin proteins, which link the cell membrane to the cytoskeleton. Tuberin and hamartin interact directly with each other, and the complex may function together to regulate specific cellular processes. This study reviews current ideas regarding the function of tuberin and hamartin, and the pathogenesis of tuberous sclerosis complex.
Ho SM, Lau KM, Mok SC, Syed VProfiling follicle stimulating hormone-induced gene expression changes in normal and malignant human ovarian surface epithelial cells.
Oncogene. 2003; 22(27):4243-56 [PubMed
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Epidemiological data have implicated the pituitary gonadotropin follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) as both a risk factor for and a protective agent against epithelial ovarian cancer. Yet, little is known about how this hormone could play such opposing roles in ovarian carcinogenesis. Complementary DNA microarrays containing 2400 named genes were used to examine FSH-induced gene expression changes in ovarian cancer (OC) and immortalized normal human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cell lines. Two-way t-statistics analyses of array data identified two distinct sets of FSH-regulated genes in HOSE and in established OC cell lines established from patients (OVCA cell lines). Among the HOSE cell lines, FSH increased expression of 57% of the 312 genes and downregulated 43%. In contrast, FSH diminished expression of 92% of the 177 genes in the OVCA cell lines. All but 18 of the genes affected by FSH in HOSE cell lines were different from those altered in OVCA cell lines. Among the 18 overlapping genes, nine genes exhibited the same direction of change following FSH challenge, while the other nine showed discordance in response between HOSE and OVCA cell lines. The FSH-induced differential expression of seven out of nine genes was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Gene-specific antisense oligonuleotides (ODNs) were used to inhibit the expression of genes encoding GTPase activating protein (rap1GAP), neogenin, and restin in HOSE and OVCA cells. Antisense ODNs to neogenin and restin, but not an antisense ODN to rap1GAP, were effective in inhibiting OVCA cell growth, diminishing proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression, and increasing caspase 3 activities. Furthermore, the ODN to rap1GAP was further shown to be ineffective in altering migration properties of OVCA cell lines. HOSE cell proliferation was not affected by treatment with any of the antisense ODNs. In summary, gene profiling data reveal for the first time that FSH may exert different biological actions on OVCA cells than on HOSE cells, by differential regulation of a set of putative oncogenes/tumor suppressors. Specifically, neogenin and restin were found to exhibit proproliferation/survival action on OC cells.
Bièche I, Khodja A, Lidereau RDeletion mapping of chromosomal region 1p32-pter in primary breast cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1999; 24(3):255-63 [PubMed
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Distal alterations of the short arm of chromosome 1 are among the most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in human breast carcinoma. We studied 96 primary human breast carcinomas for allelic imbalance using a panel of 31 polymorphic microsatellite, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and variable number of tandem repeat markers located mainly in the 1p32-pter region. Allelic imbalance at one or more loci was observed on the short arm of chromosome 1 in 56 (58.3%) of the 96 tumors. The 56 1p-altered tumor DNAs showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH), 12 (21.4%) at all informative loci tested and 44 (78.6%) at some loci. The LOH pattern of these 44 partially deleted tumors identified two distinct consensus regions of deletion on 1p32-pter (1p36.3 and 1p32). These regions match those described by other investigators but are considerably smaller. The 1p32 band is located within one of the two 1p regions of LOH in neuroblastoma, suggesting the involvement of the same unidentified tumor suppressor gene in both human breast cancer and neuroblastoma. The candidate tumor suppressor genes TNFR2, RIZ, DAN, RAP1GA1, FGR, MDGI, EXTL, and hRAD54 were excluded from the two consensus regions of deletion identified at 1p32-pter. Analysis of six polymorphic markers chosen to map within the other deleted regions described in breast tumors confirmed that two additional breast tumor suppressor genes are located in the proximal part (1p22 and 1p13) of chromosome arm 1p. Taken together, these results suggest that several unknown suppressor genes on 1p might be involved in the development of breast cancer. The refinement of the regions of LOH to within a few cM, and the recent publication of transcript maps of the human genome, mean that candidate genes and expressed sequence tags mapping to these deleted regions can now be investigated.
Weiss J, Biwer B, Schliz M, Jung EGClinicopathological and prognostic relevance of Rap1-GAP expression in melanocytic tumors.
Arch Dermatol Res. 1997; 289(10):573-7 [PubMed
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Rap1-GAP protein has been identified as an inactivator of Rap1 activity, a putative endogenous antagonist of Ras proteins. The Rap1-GA1 locus maps to 1p36.1-35, the region which may harbor a gene for familial melanoma. In the present immunohistochemical study we analyzed the clinicopathological and prognostic relevance of Rap1-GAP expression in 60 benign and 103 malignant melanocytic tumors. Cytoplasmic immunoreactivity was detected in the cells of 27/60 nevi (45%) and 59/103 melanomas (57%). In the latter group the frequency of Rap1-GAP expression increased (P < 0.05) with the thickness of primary tumors and was highest in metastatic lesions. Rap1-GAP protein was detected in 15/19 subsequently recurring primary melanomas (79%) but only in 32/67 tumors (47%) of patients who remained free of disease (P < 0.05) for at least 6 years. Five out of six recurring thin melanomas (< 2 mm) were found to be immunoreactive. Although being no indicator for malignant transformation of melanocytic lesions, Rap1-GAP overexpression may represent a useful marker for identifying thin high-risk melanomas. Cytoplasmic expression of Rap1-GAP has also been observed in the cells of skin appendages and in keratinocytes, particularly in suprabasal layers of the epidermis. Therefore, Rap1-GAP is likely to be associated with cellular growth and/or differentiation. However, the present study did not provide evidence that this gene, despite its chromosomal localization, represents an early melanoma gene.
Maheshwar MM, Cheadle JP, Jones AC, et al.The GAP-related domain of tuberin, the product of the TSC2 gene, is a target for missense mutations in tuberous sclerosis.
Hum Mol Genet. 1997; 6(11):1991-6 [PubMed
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Tuberous sclerosis is an autosomal dominant trait in which the dysregulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation results in the development of hamartomatous growths in many organs. The TSC2 gene is one of two genes determining tuberous sclerosis. Inactivating germline mutations of TSC2 in patients with tuberous sclerosis and somatic loss of heterozygosity at the TSC2 locus in the associated hamartomas indicate that TSC2 functions as a tumour suppressor gene and that loss of function is critical to expression of the tuberous sclerosis phenotype. The TSC2 product, tuberin, has a region of homology with the GTPase activating protein rap1GAP and stimulates the GTPase activity of rap1a and rab5a in vitro. Here we show that the region of homology between tuberin and human rap1GAP and the murine GAP mSpa1 is more extensive than previously reported and spans approximately 160 amino acid residues encoded within exons 34-38 of the TSC2 gene. Single strand conformation polymorphism analysis of these exons in 173 unrelated patients with tuberous sclerosis and direct sequencing of variant conformers together with study of additional family members enabled characterisation of disease associated mutations in 14 cases. Missense mutations, which occurred in exons 36, 37 and 38 were identified in eight cases, four of whom shared the same recurrent change P1675L. Each of the five different missense mutations identified was shown to occur de novo in at least one sporadic case of tuberous sclerosis. The high proportion of missense mutations detected in the region of the TSC2 gene encoding the GAP-related domain supports its key role in the regulation of cellular growth.