Gene Summary

Gene:LPP; LIM domain containing preferred translocation partner in lipoma
Summary:This gene encodes a member of a subfamily of LIM domain proteins that are characterized by an N-terminal proline-rich region and three C-terminal LIM domains. The encoded protein localizes to the cell periphery in focal adhesions and may be involved in cell-cell adhesion and cell motility. This protein also shuttles through the nucleus and may function as a transcriptional co-activator. This gene is located at the junction of certain disease-related chromosomal translocations, which result in the expression of chimeric proteins that may promote tumor growth. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:lipoma-preferred partner
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (8)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • FISH
  • Messenger RNA
  • Breast Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Transcription
  • Base Sequence
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Protein Binding
  • Gene Fusion
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Chromosome 3
  • Skin Cancer
  • Mycosis Fungoides
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • HMGA Proteins
  • Lung Cancer
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Purpura
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • Hamartoma
  • LPP
  • RNA
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Receptors, CXCR
  • RNA Splice Sites
  • Chromosome 12
  • Promoter Regions
  • Translocation
  • HMGA2
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • LIM Domain Proteins
  • Lipoma
  • Genotype
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Proteins
  • High Mobility Group Proteins
  • Parapsoriasis
  • Molecular Sequence Data
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LPP (cancer-related)

Lian S, Xie R, Ye Y, et al.
Simultaneous blocking of CD47 and PD-L1 increases innate and adaptive cancer immune responses and cytokine release.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 42:281-295 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Treatment multiple tumors by immune therapy can be achieved by mobilizing both innate and adaptive immunity. The programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1; or CD274, B7-H1) is a critical "don't find me" signal to the adaptive immune system. Equally CD47 is a critical "don't eat me" signal to the innate immune system and a regulator of the adaptive immune response.
METHOD: Both of CD47 and PD-L1 are overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells to enable to escape immune-surveillance. We designed EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule)-targeted cationic liposome (LPP-P4-Ep) containing si-CD47 and si-PD-L1 could target high-EpCAM cancer cells and knockdown both CD47 and PD-L1 proteins.
FINDINGS: Efficient silencing of CD47 and PD-L1 versus single gene silencing in vivo by systemic administration of LPP-P4-Ep could significantly inhibited the growth of solid tumors in subcutaneous and reduced lung metastasis in lung metastasis model. Target delivery of the complexes LPP-P4-Ep increased anti-tumor T cell and NK cell response, and release various cytokines including IFN-γ and IL-6 in vivo and in vitro.
INTERPRETATION: This multi-nanoparticles showed significantly high-EpCAM tumor targeting and lower toxicity, and enhanced immune therapeutic efficacy. Our data indicated that dual-blockade tumor cell-specific innate and adaptive checkpoints represents an improved strategy for tumor immunotherapy. FUND: This research supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (grant number 2015CB931804); the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, grant numbers 81703555, U1505225 and 81773063), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (grant number 2017 M620268).

Yan S, Sun R, Wu S, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of LPP is a risk factor for lung cancer: a case-control study.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of genes related with cell-matrix adhesions and migration might affect miRNA binding and potentially affect the risk of cancer. The present study aimed to screen SNPs in 3' UTR of cancer-related genes and investigate their contribution to the susceptibility of lung cancer.
METHODS: Seven SNPs were selected and genotyped in a case-control study (322 lung cancer patients and 384 controls) among Chinese Han population. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression adjusted for age and gender in multiple genetic models.
RESULTS: In stratified analyses by gender, three (rs1064607, rs3796283 and rs2378456) of LPP gene were associated with a significantly increased susceptibility for lung cancer among male population. Besides, LPP rs2378456 weakened lung cancer risk in female. LPP rs1064607 polymorphism was significantly correlated with increased risk of lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, AA genotype of TNS3 rs9876 polymorphism was associated with lymphatic metastasis.
CONCLUSION: Our results provides evidence for the impact of LPP polymorphisms on the susceptibility to lung cancer in Chinese population.

Zhang QY, Ho PY, Tu MJ, et al.
Lipidation of polyethylenimine-based polyplex increases serum stability of bioengineered RNAi agents and offers more consistent tumoral gene knockdown in vivo.
Int J Pharm. 2018; 547(1-2):537-544 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recently we have established a novel approach to produce bioengineered noncoding RNA agents (BERAs) in living cells that carry target RNAi molecules (e.g., siRNA and miRNA) and thus act as "prodrugs". Using GFP-siRNA-loaded BERA (BERA/GFP-siRNA) as a model molecule, this study was to define the in vitro and in vivo knockdown efficiency of BERAs delivered by liposome-polyethylenimine nanocomplex (lipopolyplex or LPP). Compared to in vivo-jetPEI® (IVJ-PEI) and polyplex formulations, LPP offered greater protection of BERA/GFP-siRNA against degradation by serum RNases. Particle sizes and zeta potentials of LPP nanocomplex remained stable over 28 days when stored at 4 °C. Furthermore, comparable levels of BERA/GFP-siRNA were delivered by LPP and IVJ-PEI to luciferase/GFP-expressing human SK-Hep1-Luc-GFP or A549-Luc-GFP cells, which were selectively processed into target GFP-siRNA and subsequently knocked down GFP mRNA and protein levels. In addition, LPP-carried BERA/GFP-siRNA was successfully delivered into xenograft tumors and offered more consistent knockdown of tumoral GFP mRNA level in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) SK-Hep1-Luc-GFP xenograft mouse model, while IVJ-PEI formulation showed larger variation. These findings demonstrated that lipidation of polyplexes improved serum stability of biologic RNAi molecules, which was efficiently delivered to orthotopic HCC tissues to knock down target gene expression.

Leung CS, Yeung TL, Yip KP, et al.
Cancer-associated fibroblasts regulate endothelial adhesion protein LPP to promote ovarian cancer chemoresistance.
J Clin Invest. 2018; 128(2):589-606 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The molecular mechanism by which cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) confer chemoresistance in ovarian cancer is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the roles of CAFs in modulating tumor vasculature, chemoresistance, and disease progression. Here, we found that CAFs upregulated the lipoma-preferred partner (LPP) gene in microvascular endothelial cells (MECs) and that LPP expression levels in intratumoral MECs correlated with survival and chemoresistance in patients with ovarian cancer. Mechanistically, LPP increased focal adhesion and stress fiber formation to promote endothelial cell motility and permeability. siRNA-mediated LPP silencing in ovarian tumor-bearing mice improved paclitaxel delivery to cancer cells by decreasing intratumoral microvessel leakiness. Further studies showed that CAFs regulate endothelial LPP via a calcium-dependent signaling pathway involving microfibrillar-associated protein 5 (MFAP5), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), ERK, and LPP. Thus, our findings suggest that targeting endothelial LPP enhances the efficacy of chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. Our data highlight the importance of CAF-endothelial cell crosstalk signaling in cancer chemoresistance and demonstrate the improved efficacy of using LPP-targeting siRNA in combination with cytotoxic drugs.

Li Z, Wong KY, Chan GC, Chim CS
Epigenetic silencing of LPP/miR-28 in multiple myeloma.
J Clin Pathol. 2018; 71(3):253-258 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: miR-28-5- is a tumour suppressor microRNA implicated in cancers. As a CpG island is absent in miR-28-5- but present in its host gene, LPP (LIM domain containing preferred translocation partner in lipoma), we hypothesized that miR-28-5p is epigenetically silenced by promoter DNA methylation of its host gene in multiple myeloma.
METHODS: Methylation-specific PCR, verified by quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing, was employed to study methylation of LPP/miR-28 in healthy controls (n=10), human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs) (n=15), and primary myeloma marrow samples at diagnosis (n=49) and at relapse (n=18). Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to investigate expression of miR-28-5p, LPP and CCND1.
RESULTS: LPP/miR-28 was completely unmethylated in all healthy controls and 12 (80%) HMCLs, but partially methylated in three (20%) HMCLs. Methylation of LPP/miR-28 correlated with low expression of miR-285p (p=0.012) and LPP (p=0.037) in HMCLs. In RPMI-8226R cells, in which LPP/miR-28 was partially methylated, 5-AzadC treatment led to demethylation of LPP/miR-28 and re-expression of both miR-28-5p (p=0.0007) and LPP (p=0.0007), whereas continuous culture without 5-AzadC restored LPP/miR-28 methylation and reduced expression of both miR-28-5p (p=0.0013) and LPP (p=0.0025). Moreover, a known miR-28-5p target, CCND1, was expressed at higher levels in HMCLs with LPP/miR-28 methylation than those without, consistent with a tumour suppressor role of miR-28-5p in myeloma. However, in primary samples, LPP/miR-28 was methylated in two (4.1%) at diagnosis, whereas none at relapse.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of epigenetic regulation of the intronic miR-28-5p expression by promoter DNA methylation of its host gene, hence warrants further study in different cancers.

Peng M, Zhao G, Yang F, et al.
NCOA1 is a novel susceptibility gene for multiple myeloma in the Chinese population: A case-control study.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(3):e0173298 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable malignancy of mature B-lymphoid cells, and its pathogenesis is only partially understood. Previous studies have demonstrated that a number of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) associated genes also show susceptibility to MM, suggesting malignancies originating from B cells may share similar genetic susceptibility. Several recent large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified HLA-I, HLA-II, CXCR5, ETS1, LPP and NCOA1 genes as genetic risk factors associated with NHL, and this study aimed to investigate whether these genes polymorphisms confer susceptibility with MM in the Chinese Han population. In 827 MM cases and 709 healthy controls of Chinese Han, seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HLA-I region (rs6457327), the HLA-II region (rs2647012 and rs7755224), the CXCR5 gene (rs4938573), the ETS1 gene (rs4937362), the LPP gene (rs6444305), and the NCOA1 region (rs79480871) were genotyped using the Sequenom platform. Our study indicated that genotype and allele frequencies of rs79480871 showed strong associations with MM patients (pa = 3.5×10-4 and pa = 1.5×10-4), and the rs6457327 genotype was more readily associated with MM patients than with controls (pa = 4.9×10-3). This study was the first to reveal the correlation between NCOA1 gene polymorphisms and MM patients, indicating that NCOA1 might be a novel susceptibility gene for MM patients in the Chinese Han population.

Lee NH, Kim M, Oh SY, et al.
Gene expression profiling of hematologic malignant cell lines resistant to oncolytic virus treatment.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(1):1213-1225 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pexa-Vec (pexastimogene devacirpvec; JX-594) has emerged as an attractive tool in oncolytic virotherapy. Pexa-Vec demonstrates oncolytic and immunotherapeutic mechanisms of action. But the determinants of resistance to Pexa-Vec are mostly unknown. We treated hemoatologic malignant cells with Pexa-Vec and examined the gene-expression pattern of sensitive and resistant cells. Human myeloid malignant cell lines (RPMI-8226, IM-9, K562, THP-1) and lymphoid cancer cell lines (MOLT4, CCRF-CEM, Ramos, U937) were treated with Pexa-Vec. Pexa-Vec was cytotoxic on myeloid cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, and fluorescent imaging and qPCR revealed that Pexa-Vec expression was low in RAMOS than IM-9 after 24 hrs and 48 hrs of infection. Gene expression profiles between two groups were analyzed by microarray. Genes with at least 2-fold increase or decrease in their expression were identified. A total of 660 genes were up-regulated and 776 genes were down-regulated in lymphoid cancer cell lines. The up- and down-regulated genes were categorized into 319 functional gene clusters. We identified the top 10 up-regulated genes in lymphoid cells. Among them three human genes (LEF1, STAMBPL1, and SLFN11) strongly correlated with viral replication. Up-regulation of PVRIG, LPP, CECR1, Arhgef6, IRX3, IGFBP2, CD1d were related to resistant to Pexa-Vec. In conclusion, lymphoid malignant cells are resistant to Pexa-Vec and displayed up-regulated genes associated with resistance to oncolytic viral therapy. These data provide potential targets to overcome resistance, and suggest that molecular assays may be useful in selecting patients for further clinical trials with Pexa-Vec.

Sharma P, Bhunia S, Poojary SS, et al.
Global methylation profiling to identify epigenetic signature of gallbladder cancer and gallstone disease.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14687-14699 [PubMed] Related Publications
Promoter methylation in various tumor suppressor genes is reported to influence gallbladder carcinogenesis. Here, we aimed to identify methylation status in gallbladder cancer (GBC) by performing a comprehensive genome-wide DNA methylation profiling. The methylation status of 485,577 CpG sites were investigated using Illumina's Infinium Human Methylation 450 BeadChip array in 24 tissues (eight each of tumor, adjacent non-tumor, and gallstone). About 33,443 differentially methylated sites (DMRs) were obtained in the whole human genome, of which 24,188 (72 %) were hypermethylated and 9255 (28 %) were hypomethylated. The data also revealed that majority of the DMRs are localized on the proximal promoter region [Transcription start sites (TSS200, TSS1500) and 5' untranslated region (5'UTR)] and first exon. Exclusion of first exon detected a total of 10,123 (79 %) hypermethylated and 2703 (21 %) hypomethylated sites. Comparative analysis of the later with our differential proteomics data resulted in identification of 7 hypermethylated or down-regulated (e.g., FBN1, LPP, and SOD3) and 61 hypomethylated or up-regulated markers (e.g., HBE1, SNRPF, TPD52) for GBC. These genes could be further validated on the basis of their methylation/expression status in order to identify their utility to be used as biomarker/s for early diagnosis and management of GBC.

Kuriyama S, Yoshida M, Yano S, et al.
LPP inhibits collective cell migration during lung cancer dissemination.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(8):952-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lipoma preferred partner (LPP) is a LIM domain protein, which has multiple functions as an actin-binding protein and a transcriptional coactivator, and it has been suggested that LPP has some roles in cell migration or invasion, however, its role in cancer cells remains to be elucidated. Here, we showed that LPP degraded N-cadherin in lung cancer, PC14PE6 cells via regulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 15 (MMP-15), and loss-of-LPP increases collective cell migration (CCM) and dissemination consequently. Knockdown of LPP and its functional partner, Etv5, markedly restores the full-length N-cadherin and increases cell-cell adhesion. We investigated the common target of LPP and Etv5, and found that MMP-15 is transcribed as their direct transcriptional target. Furthermore, MMP-15 could directly digest the N-cadherin extracellular domain. LPP knockdown in PC14PE6 cells increases N-cadherin-dependent CCM in the three-dimensional collagen gel invasion assays, and promoted the dissemination of cancer cells when they were orthotopically implanted in nude mice. Immunohistochemistry of lung adenocarcinoma specimens revealed the heterogeneity of LPP intensity and complementary expression of LPP and N-cadherin in the primary tumors. These findings suggest that loss-of-LPP, Etv5 or MMP-15 can be a prognostic marker of increasing malignancy.

Nalluri S, Peirce SK, Tanos R, et al.
EGFR signaling defines Mcl⁻1 survival dependency in neuroblastoma.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(2):276-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The pediatric solid tumor neuroblastoma (NB) often depends on the anti-apoptotic protein, Mcl(-)1, for survival through Mcl(-)1 sequestration of pro-apoptotic Bim. High affinity Mcl(-)1 inhibitors currently do not exist such that novel methods to inhibit Mcl(-)1 clinically are in high demand. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) regulate Mcl(-)1 in many cancers and play a role in NB survival, yet how they regulate Bcl(-)2 family interactions in NB is unknown. We found that NB cell lines derived to resist the Bcl(-)2/-xl/-w antagonist, ABT-737, acquire a dependence on Mcl(-)1 and show increased expression and activation of the RTK, EGFR. Mcl(-)1 dependent NB cell lines derived at diagnosis and from the same tumor following relapse also have increased EGFR expression compared to those dependent on Bcl(-)2. Inhibition of EGFR by shRNA or erlotinib in Mcl(-)1 dependent NBs disrupts Bim binding to Mcl(-)1 and enhances its affinity for Bcl(-)2, restoring sensitivity to ABT-737 as well as cytotoxics in vitro. Mechanistically treatment of NBs with small molecule inhibitors of EGFR (erlotinib, cetuximab) and ERK (U0126) increases Noxa expression and dephosphorylates Bim to promote Bim binding to Bcl(-)2. Thus, EGFR regulates Mcl(-)1 dependence in high-risk NB via ERK-mediated phosphorylation of Bim such that EGFR/ERK inhibition renders Mcl(-)1 dependent tumors now reliant on Bcl(-)2. Clinically, EGFR inhibitors are ineffective as single agent compounds in patients with recurrent NB, likely due to this transferred survival dependence to Bcl(-)2. Likewise, EGFR or ERK inhibitors warrant further testing in combination with Bcl(-)2 antagonists in vivo as a novel future combination to overcome therapy resistance in the clinic.

Severson PL, Vrba L, Stampfer MR, Futscher BW
Exome-wide mutation profile in benzo[a]pyrene-derived post-stasis and immortal human mammary epithelial cells.
Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2014; 775-776:48-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genetic mutations are known to drive cancer progression and certain tumors have mutation signatures that reflect exposures to environmental carcinogens. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) has a known mutation signature and has proven capable of inducing changes to DNA sequence that drives normal pre-stasis human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) past a first tumor suppressor barrier (stasis) and toward immortality. We analyzed normal, pre-stasis HMEC, three independent BaP-derived post-stasis HMEC strains (184Aa, 184Be, 184Ce) and two of their immortal derivatives(184A1 and 184BE1) by whole exome sequencing. The independent post-stasis strains exhibited between 93 and 233 BaP-induced mutations in exons. Seventy percent of the mutations were C:G>A:T transversions, consistent with the known mutation spectrum of BaP. Mutations predicted to impact protein function occurred in several known and putative cancer drivers including p16, PLCG1, MED12, TAF1 in 184Aa; PIK3CG, HSP90AB1, WHSC1L1, LCP1 in 184Be and FANCA, LPP in 184Ce. Biological processes that typically harbor cancer driver mutations such as cell cycle, regulation of cell death and proliferation, RNA processing, chromatin modification and DNA repair were found to have mutations predicted to impact function in each of the post-stasis strains. Spontaneously immortalized HMEC lines derived from two of the BaP-derived post-stasis strains shared greater than 95% of their BaP-induced mutations with their precursor cells. These immortal HMEC had 10 or fewer additional point mutations relative to their post-stasis precursors, but acquired chromosomal anomalies during immortalization that arose independent of BaP. The results of this study indicate that acute exposures of HMEC to high dose BaP recapitulate mutation patterns of human tumors and can induce mutations in a number of cancer driver genes.

Skibola CF, Berndt SI, Vijai J, et al.
Genome-wide association study identifies five susceptibility loci for follicular lymphoma outside the HLA region.
Am J Hum Genet. 2014; 95(4):462-71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of follicular lymphoma (FL) have previously identified human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene variants. To identify additional FL susceptibility loci, we conducted a large-scale two-stage GWAS in 4,523 case subjects and 13,344 control subjects of European ancestry. Five non-HLA loci were associated with FL risk: 11q23.3 (rs4938573, p = 5.79 × 10(-20)) near CXCR5; 11q24.3 (rs4937362, p = 6.76 × 10(-11)) near ETS1; 3q28 (rs6444305, p = 1.10 × 10(-10)) in LPP; 18q21.33 (rs17749561, p = 8.28 × 10(-10)) near BCL2; and 8q24.21 (rs13254990, p = 1.06 × 10(-8)) near PVT1. In an analysis of the HLA region, we identified four linked HLA-DRβ1 multiallelic amino acids at positions 11, 13, 28, and 30 that were associated with FL risk (pomnibus = 4.20 × 10(-67) to 2.67 × 10(-70)). Additional independent signals included rs17203612 in HLA class II (odds ratio [OR(per-allele)] = 1.44; p = 4.59 × 10(-16)) and rs3130437 in HLA class I (OR(per-allele) = 1.23; p = 8.23 × 10(-9)). Our findings further expand the number of loci associated with FL and provide evidence that multiple common variants outside the HLA region make a significant contribution to FL risk.

Girardot M, Pecquet C, Chachoua I, et al.
Persistent STAT5 activation in myeloid neoplasms recruits p53 into gene regulation.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(10):1323-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) transcription factors are constitutively activated in most hematopoietic cancers. We previously identified a target gene, LPP/miR-28 (LIM domain containing preferred translocation partner in lipoma), induced by constitutive activation of STAT5, but not by transient cytokine-activated STAT5. miR-28 exerts negative effects on thrombopoietin receptor signaling and platelet formation. Here, we demonstrate that, in transformed hematopoietic cells, STAT5 and p53 must be synergistically bound to chromatin for induction of LPP/miR-28 transcription. Genome-wide association studies show that both STAT5 and p53 are co-localized on the chromatin at 463 genomic positions in proximal promoters. Chromatin binding of p53 is dependent on persistent STAT5 activation at these proximal promoters. The transcriptional activity of selected promoters bound by STAT5 and p53 was significantly changed upon STAT5 or p53 inhibition. Abnormal expression of several STAT5-p53 target genes (LEP, ATP5J, GTF2A2, VEGFC, NPY1R and NPY5R) is frequently detected in platelets of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) patients, but not in platelets from healthy controls. In conclusion, persistently active STAT5 can recruit normal p53, like in the case of MPN cells, but also p53 mutants, such as p53 M133K in human erythroleukemia cells, leading to pathologic gene expression that differs from canonical STAT5 or p53 transcriptional programs.

Bidkhori G, Narimani Z, Hosseini Ashtiani S, et al.
Reconstruction of an integrated genome-scale co-expression network reveals key modules involved in lung adenocarcinoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e67552 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our goal of this study was to reconstruct a "genome-scale co-expression network" and find important modules in lung adenocarcinoma so that we could identify the genes involved in lung adenocarcinoma. We integrated gene mutation, GWAS, CGH, array-CGH and SNP array data in order to identify important genes and loci in genome-scale. Afterwards, on the basis of the identified genes a co-expression network was reconstructed from the co-expression data. The reconstructed network was named "genome-scale co-expression network". As the next step, 23 key modules were disclosed through clustering. In this study a number of genes have been identified for the first time to be implicated in lung adenocarcinoma by analyzing the modules. The genes EGFR, PIK3CA, TAF15, XIAP, VAPB, Appl1, Rab5a, ARF4, CLPTM1L, SP4, ZNF124, LPP, FOXP1, SOX18, MSX2, NFE2L2, SMARCC1, TRA2B, CBX3, PRPF6, ATP6V1C1, MYBBP1A, MACF1, GRM2, TBXA2R, PRKAR2A, PTK2, PGF and MYO10 are among the genes that belong to modules 1 and 22. All these genes, being implicated in at least one of the phenomena, namely cell survival, proliferation and metastasis, have an over-expression pattern similar to that of EGFR. In few modules, the genes such as CCNA2 (Cyclin A2), CCNB2 (Cyclin B2), CDK1, CDK5, CDC27, CDCA5, CDCA8, ASPM, BUB1, KIF15, KIF2C, NEK2, NUSAP1, PRC1, SMC4, SYCE2, TFDP1, CDC42 and ARHGEF9 are present that play a crucial role in cell cycle progression. In addition to the mentioned genes, there are some other genes (i.e. DLGAP5, BIRC5, PSMD2, Src, TTK, SENP2, PSMD2, DOK2, FUS and etc.) in the modules.

Ngan E, Northey JJ, Brown CM, et al.
A complex containing LPP and α-actinin mediates TGFβ-induced migration and invasion of ErbB2-expressing breast cancer cells.
J Cell Sci. 2013; 126(Pt 9):1981-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is a potent modifier of the malignant phenotype in ErbB2-expressing breast cancers. We demonstrate that epithelial-derived breast cancer cells, which undergo a TGFβ-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), engage signaling molecules that normally facilitate cellular migration and invasion of mesenchymal cells. We identify lipoma preferred partner (LPP) as an indispensable regulator of TGFβ-induced migration and invasion of ErbB2-expressing breast cancer cells. We show that LPP re-localizes to focal adhesion complexes upon TGFβ stimulation and is a critical determinant in TGFβ-mediated focal adhesion turnover. Finally, we have determined that the interaction between LPP and α-actinin, an actin cross-linking protein, is necessary for TGFβ-induced migration and invasion of ErbB2-expressing breast cancer cells. Thus, our data reveal that LPP, which is normally operative in cells of mesenchymal origin, can be co-opted by breast cancer cells during an EMT to promote their migration and invasion.

Strauss U, Bräuer AU
Current views on regulation and function of plasticity-related genes (PRGs/LPPRs) in the brain.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1831(1):133-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Plasticity-related genes (PRGs, Lipid phosphate phosphatase-related proteins LPPRs) are a defined as a subclass of the lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP) superfamily, comprising so far five brain- and vertebrate-specific membrane-spanning proteins. LPPs interfere with lipid phosphate signaling and are thereby involved in mediating the extracellular concentration and signal transduction of lipid phosphate esters such as lysophosphatidate (LPA) and spingosine-1 phosphate (S1P). LPPs dephosphorylate their substrates through extracellular catalytic domains, thus making them ecto-phosphatases. PRGs/LPPRs are structurally similar to the other LPP family members in general. They are predominantly expressed in the CNS in a subtype specific pattern rather than having a wide tissue distribution. In contrast to LPPs, PRGs/LPPRs may act by modifying bioactive lipids and their signaling pathways, rather than possessing an ecto-phosphatase activity. However, the exact functional roles of PRGs/LPPRs have just begun to be explored. Here, we discuss new findings on the neuron-specific transcriptional regulation of PRG1/LPPR4 and new insights into protein-protein interaction and signaling pathway regulation. Further, we start to shed light on the subcellular localization and the resulting functional modulatory influence of PRG1/LPPR4 expression in excitatory synaptic transmission to the established neural effects such as promotion of filopodia formation, neurite extension, axonal sprouting and reorganization after lesion. This range of effects suggests an involvement in the pathogenesis and/or reparation attempts in disease. Therefore, we summarize available data on the association of PRGs/LPPRs with several neurological and other diseases in humans and experimental animals. Finally we highlight important open questions and emerging future directions of research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in Lysophospholipid Research.

Yamamura M, Noguchi K, Nakano Y, et al.
Functional analysis of Zyxin in cell migration and invasive potential of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 42(3):873-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Zyxin is an evolutionarily conserved protein that has been implicated in the regulation of actin assembly and is mainly located at focal adhesions. However, the biological roles of Zyxin in cancer cells are incompletely understood. We analyzed the functions of Zyxin in cell migration and the invasive potential of OSCC. Zyxin expression was examined using eight OSCC cell lines with two different cell morphologies (6 epithelial type and 2 fibroblastic type). To knockdown Zyxin expression, OSCC cells were transfected with Zyxin siRNA and control siRNA. The cell lines were studied by western blot analysis, immunocytochemical analysis and cell migration and invasion assay. Epithelial type OSCC cells showed a high level of E-cadherin expression and a low level of Zyxin expression. N-cadherin as well as Zyxin were strongly expressed in fibroblastic type OSCC cells. Expression levels of LPP and TRIP6, members of the human Zyxin family, did not differ between epithelial type and fibroblastic type. Knockdown of Zyxin expression by siRNA in fibroblastic type OSCC cells was associated with cell morphological changes from spindle (fibroblastic) to polygonal (epithelial) shape and significantly inhibited cell growth as well as cell migration and invasion. Expression levels of Rac1 and Cdc42 were weaker in Zyxin siRNA-treated fibroblastic type OSCC cells than in control siRNA-treated cells, but the expression of RhoA did not differ significantly. Treatment of fibroblastic type OSCC cells with Rac1 inhibitor decreased the expression of Zyxin mRNA and protein. Zyxin is suggested to promote growth, migration and invasiveness of fibroblastic type OSCC cells by upregulating Rac1 and Cdc42.

Zhang B, Zhao H, Li T, et al.
Association study of gene LPP in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e46370 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Han Chinese population has found that SNPs in LPP gene were nominally significant in PCOS patients (P around 10E-05). Replication of the GWAS was applied to further confirm the relationship between LPP gene and PCOS.
METHODS: Three polymorphisms of LPP gene (rs715790, rs4449306, rs6782041) were selected and replicated in additional 1132 PCOS cases and 1142 controls. Genotyping of LPP gene was carried out by Taqman-MGB method.
RESULTS: In rs715790, the allele frequency is significantly different between the PCOS group and the control group. Meta-analysis showed that the allele frequencies of the three SNPs rs715790 (P(meta) =1.89E-05, OR=1.23), rs4449306 (P(meta) =3.0E-04, OR=1.10), rs6782041 (P(meta) = 2.0E-04, OR=1.09), were significantly different between PCOS cases and controls.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that LPP gene might be a novel candidate for PCOS.

Colas E, Muinelo-Romay L, Alonso-Alconada L, et al.
ETV5 cooperates with LPP as a sensor of extracellular signals and promotes EMT in endometrial carcinomas.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(45):4778-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most frequent among infiltrating tumors of the female genital tract, with myometrial invasion representing an increase in the rate of recurrences and a decrease in survival. We have previously described ETV5 transcription factor associated with myometrial infiltration in human ECs. In this work, we further investigated ETV5 orchestrating downstream effects to confer the tumor the invasive capabilities needed to disseminate in the early stages of EC dissemination. Molecular profiling evidenced ETV5 having a direct role on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In particular, ETV5 modulated Zeb1 expression and E-Cadherin repression leading to a complete reorganization of cell-cell and cell-substrate contacts. ETV5-promoted EMT resulted in the acquisition of migratory and invasive capabilities in endometrial cell lines. Furthermore, we identified the lipoma-preferred partner protein as a regulatory partner of ETV5, acting as a sensor for extracellular signals promoting tumor invasion. All together, we propose ETV5-transcriptional regulation of the EMT process through a crosstalk with the tumor surrounding microenvironment, as a principal event initiating EC invasion.

Amitay-Laish I, Sarid R, Ben-Amitai D, et al.
Human herpesvirus 8 is not detectable in lesions of large plaque parapsoriasis, and in early-stage sporadic, familial, and juvenile cases of mycosis fungoides.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012; 66(1):46-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus (HHV) 8, an essential etiologic agent of Kaposi sarcoma, is also associated with several lymphoproliferative disorders. The involvement of HHV 8 in mycosis fungoides (MF) and large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP) is controversial, with contradictory reports from various countries worldwide.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the presence of the HHV 8 genome in skin lesions of LPP and early-stage sporadic, familial, and juvenile MF in patients in Israel.
METHODS: Archival paraffin-embedded and frozen samples from skin biopsies of untreated patients with LPP and early-stage MF performed in 1990 through 2006 were randomly collected from the department of dermatology of a tertiary medical center in central Israel. DNA was extracted, and a TaqMan-based real-time polymerase chain reaction assay specific for the K6 gene region was used to detect the HHV 8 genome.
RESULTS: A total of 46 biopsies were sampled from 11 patients with LPP and 35 with early-stage MF (17 adults with sporadic MF, 10 children, and 8 patients with familial MF). In all, 44 samples were negative for HHV 8 DNA; two samples from adults with sporadic MF were positive.
LIMITATIONS: The presence of HHV 8 antibodies or virus sequences was not assessed in peripheral blood.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study, conducted in a region relatively endemic for HHV 8, support most earlier studies showing a lack of association of HHV 8 infection with LPP and sporadic adult-type MF. To our knowledge, the lack of association of HHV 8 infection with juvenile and familial MF has not been previously reported.

Jin Y, Birlea SA, Fain PR, et al.
Variant of TYR and autoimmunity susceptibility loci in generalized vitiligo.
N Engl J Med. 2010; 362(18):1686-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Generalized vitiligo is an autoimmune disease characterized by melanocyte loss, which results in patchy depigmentation of skin and hair, and is associated with an elevated risk of other autoimmune diseases.
METHODS: To identify generalized vitiligo susceptibility loci, we conducted a genomewide association study. We genotyped 579,146 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1514 patients with generalized vitiligo who were of European-derived white (CEU) ancestry and compared the genotypes with publicly available control genotypes from 2813 CEU persons. We then tested 50 SNPs in two replication sets, one comprising 677 independent CEU patients and 1106 CEU controls and the other comprising 183 CEU simplex trios with generalized vitiligo and 332 CEU multiplex families.
RESULTS: We detected significant associations between generalized vitiligo and SNPs at several loci previously associated with other autoimmune diseases. These included genes encoding major-histocompatibility-complex class I molecules (P=9.05x10(-23)) and class II molecules (P=4.50x10(-34)), PTPN22 (P=1.31x10(-7)), LPP (P=1.01x10(-11)), IL2RA (P=2.78x10(-9)), UBASH3A (P=1.26x10(-9)), and C1QTNF6 (P=2.21x10(-16)). We also detected associations between generalized vitiligo and SNPs in two additional immune-related loci, RERE (P=7.07x10(-15)) and GZMB (P=3.44x10(-8)), and in a locus containing TYR (P=1.60x10(-18)), encoding tyrosinase.
CONCLUSIONS: We observed associations between generalized vitiligo and markers implicating multiple genes, some associated with other autoimmune diseases and one (TYR) that may mediate target-cell specificity and indicate a mutually exclusive relationship between susceptibility to vitiligo and susceptibility to melanoma.

Kubo T, Matsui Y, Naka N, et al.
Specificity of fusion genes in adipocytic tumors.
Anticancer Res. 2010; 30(2):661-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In subsets of adipocytic tumors, specific chromosomal translocations lead to the generation of fusion genes. The high mobility group A2 (HMGA2)-lipoma preferred partner (LPP) and the reciprocal LPP-HMGA2 represent such fusion genes in lipoma, while the human translocation liposarcoma (TLS)-CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) and the Ewing sarcoma (EWS)-CHOP in liposarcoma. However, the specificity of these fusion genes has not been established in a variety of adipocytic tumors.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and seventy-two cases of adipocytic tumors, comprising 98 cases of lipoma and 74 cases of liposarcoma, were analyzed for the possible expression of HMGA2-LPP, LPP-HMGA2, TLS-CHOP and EWS-CHOP fusion genes, using a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction method.
RESULTS: In lipoma, twenty-two cases (22.4%) were associated with either HMGA2-LPP or LPP-HMGA2, while neither TLS-CHOP nor EWS-CHOP transcript was detectable. On the contrary, in liposarcoma, neither HMGA2-LPP nor LPP-HMGA2 transcript was detectable, although twenty-five cases (33.8%) were related to either TLS-CHOP or EWS-CHOP.
CONCLUSION: HMGA2-LPP and LPP-HMGA2 were specific to lipoma, and TLS-CHOP and EWS-CHOP were specific to liposarcoma.

Wang X, Zamolyi RQ, Zhang H, et al.
Fusion of HMGA1 to the LPP/TPRG1 intergenic region in a lipoma identified by mapping paraffin-embedded tissues.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010; 196(1):64-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ordinary lipoma frequently harbors rearrangement of HMGA2. LPP is the most common partner gene to HMGA2, but has not been seen fused to HMGA1. We report the fusion of HMGA1 to the intergenic region between LPP and TPRG1 in a lipoma. Conventional cytogenetic analysis of an abdominal-wall lipoma diagnosed in a 60-year-old woman showed a t(3;6)(q27;p21). Molecular cytogenetic mapping of available paraffin-embedded tissues revealed the fusion of HMGA1 to a 139-kb genomic region between the LPP and TPRG1 loci. No rearrangement of HMGA2 was found. The biological function of this novel fusion could be similar to the role of HMGA2-LPP in tumorigenesis.

Pierron A, Fernandez C, Saada E, et al.
HMGA2-NFIB fusion in a pediatric intramuscular lipoma: a novel case of NFIB alteration in a large deep-seated adipocytic tumor.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2009; 195(1):66-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lipomas are frequently characterized by aberrations of the 12q13 approximately q15 chromosomal region and often by rearrangements of the HMGA2 gene. These rearrangements include the formation of chimeric genes that fuse the 5' region of HMGA2 with a variety of partners, such as LPP (3q28) or NFIB (9p22). We describe here the fourth reported case of lipoma showing a HMGA2-NFIB fusion, and the first one in a child. We found a translocation t(9;12)(p22;q14) in a deep-seated intramuscular lipoma occurring in the buttock of a 5-year-old boy. By fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, we have shown that the translocation t(9;12) resulted in an in-frame fusion of the first four exons of HMGA2 with the last exon of NFIB. Intramuscular lipomas are very rare in childhood. Our results confirm that lipomas containing NFIB rearrangements may be related to peculiar clinicohistologic features, including large size, deep situation, infiltration of surrounding muscles, or precocious occurrence. Both the truncation of HMGA2 and the nature of its fusion partner gene might be relevant in the adipose tissue tumorigenesis.

Kang JU, Koo SH, Kwon KC, et al.
Identification of novel candidate target genes, including EPHB3, MASP1 and SST at 3q26.2-q29 in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.
BMC Cancer. 2009; 9:237 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The underlying genetic alterations for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) carcinogenesis are largely unknown.
METHODS: High-resolution array- CGH was performed to identify the differences in the patterns of genomic imbalances between SCC and AC of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
RESULTS: On a genome-wide profile, SCCs showed higher frequency of gains than ACs (p = 0.067). More specifically, statistically significant differences were observed across the histologic subtypes for gains at 2q14.2, 3q26.2-q29, 12p13.2-p13.33, and 19p13.3, as well as losses at 3p26.2-p26.3, 16p13.11, and 17p11.2 in SCC, and gains at 7q22.1 and losses at 15q22.2-q25.2 occurred in AC (P < 0.05). The most striking difference between SCC and AC was gains at the 3q26.2-q29, occurring in 86% (19/22) of SCCs, but in only 21% (3/14) of ACs. Many significant genes at the 3q26.2-q29 regions previously linked to a specific histology, such as EVI1,MDS1, PIK3CA and TP73L, were observed in SCC (P < 0.05). In addition, we identified the following possible target genes (> 30% of patients) at 3q26.2-q29: LOC389174 (3q26.2),KCNMB3 (3q26.32),EPHB3 (3q27.1), MASP1 and SST (3q27.3), LPP and FGF12 (3q28), and OPA1,KIAA022,LOC220729, LOC440996,LOC440997, and LOC440998 (3q29), all of which were significantly targeted in SCC (P < 0.05). Among these same genes, high-level amplifications were detected for the gene, EPHB3, at 3q27.1, and MASP1 and SST, at 3q27.3 (18, 18, and 14%, respectively). Quantitative real time PCR demonstrated array CGH detected potential candidate genes that were over expressed in SCCs.
CONCLUSION: Using whole-genome array CGH, we have successfully identified significant differences and unique information of chromosomal signatures prevalent between the SCC and AC subtypes of NSCLC. The newly identified candidate target genes may prove to be highly attractive candidate molecular markers for the classification of NSCLC histologic subtypes, and could potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of the squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.

Kubo T, Matsui Y, Naka N, et al.
Expression of HMGA2-LPP and LPP-HMGA2 fusion genes in lipoma: identification of a novel type of LPP-HMGA2 transcript in four cases.
Anticancer Res. 2009; 29(6):2357-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In a subset of lipoma, a specific t(3;12)(q27-28;q14-15) chromosomal translocation leads to the fusion of the high mobility group A2 (HMGA2) gene and the lipoma preferred partner (LPP) gene. Although the expression of HMGA2-LPP fusion gene has been reported in lipomas, the reciprocal LPP-HMGA2 fusion gene has rarely been described.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-eight cases of lipoma were analyzed for the possible expression of HMGA2-LPP and LPP-HMGA2 fusion genes using a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction method.
RESULTS: Ten lipomas (10%) revealed both HMGA2-LPP and LPP-HMGA2 fusion transcripts, nine (9%) only HMGA2-LPP, and three (3%) only LPP-HMGA2. DNA sequencing analysis demonstrated that the HMGA2-LPP transcript in 19 lipomas consisted of exons 1-3 of HMGA2 and exons 9-11 of LPP, which was described previously. Out of 13 lipomas with LPP-HMGA2 transcript, 9 were associated with a previously reported LPP-HMGA2 fusion transcript, which fuses exon 8 of LPP to exon 4 of HMGA2, while 4 with a novel type of LPP-HMGA2 fusion transcript, which fuses exon 7 of LPP to exon 4 of HMGA2.
CONCLUSION: In addition to the HMGA2-LPP fusion gene, the LPP-HMGA2 fusion gene could have some specific roles for lipomagenesis. The biological implications of the expression and the variation of LPP-HMGA2 fusion transcripts need to be elucidated.

Jais JP, Haioun C, Molina TJ, et al.
The expression of 16 genes related to the cell of origin and immune response predicts survival in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with CHOP and rituximab.
Leukemia. 2008; 22(10):1917-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gene expression profiles have been associated with clinical outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Using Affymetrix HU133A microarrays, we analyzed the lymphoma transcriptional profile of 30 patients treated with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) and 23 patients treated with rituximab (R)-CHOP in the Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte clinical centers. We used this data set to select transcripts showing an association with progression-free survival in all patients or showing a differential effect in the two treatment groups. We performed real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in the 23 R-CHOP samples of the screening set and an additional 44 R-CHOP samples set to evaluate the prognostic significance of these transcripts. In these 67 patients, the level of expression of 16 genes and the cell-of-origin classification were significantly associated with overall survival, independently of the International Prognostic Index. A multivariate model comprising four genes of the cell-of-origin signature (LMO2, MME, LPP and FOXP1) and two genes related to immune response, identified for their differential effects in R-CHOP patients (APOBEC3G and RAB33A), demonstrated a high predictive efficiency in this set of patients, suggesting that both features affect outcome in DLBCL patients receiving immunochemotherapy.

Ida CM, Wang X, Erickson-Johnson MR, et al.
Primary retroperitoneal lipoma: a soft tissue pathology heresy?: report of a case with classic histologic, cytogenetics, and molecular genetic features.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2008; 32(6):951-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adipose tissue tumors of the retroperitoneum showing no identifiable cytologic atypia are usually classified as lipomalike well-differentiated liposarcoma. Whether a subset of these tumors represents true examples of retroperitoneal lipoma remains a controversial subject, because the diagnostic liposarcoma cells may be of difficult identification, even after extensive sampling. Herein, we describe a large retroperitoneal lipoma with classic histopathologic, cytogenetic, molecular cytogenetic, and molecular genetic features. Extensive morphologic inspection showed no evidence of cytologic atypia. Cytogenetic analysis performed on fresh tissue material revealed the classic lipoma chromosome t(3;12)(q27;q14-15). Fluorescence in situ hybridization on multiple sections excluded the presence of MDM2 and CDK4 amplification, but showed HMGA2 balanced rearrangement in most cells. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing analysis confirmed the presence of the HMGA2-LPP fusion gene, a characteristic and the most common fusion product found in lipoma. The patient has been followed for 2.5 years without evidence of recurrence or metastasis. These results indicate that retroperitoneal lipomata do exist, but their diagnosis must rely on stringent histologic, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic analysis.

Hatano H, Morita T, Ogose A, et al.
Clinicopathological features of lipomas with gene fusions involving HMGA2.
Anticancer Res. 2008 Jan-Feb; 28(1B):535-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite accumulating knowledge of chimeric genes derived from fusion of the HMGA2 gene with multiple partners in lipomas, the different clinicopathological features of lipomas depending on different gene aberrations have not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical significance of the expression of fusion genes in lipomas.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expressions of three previously reported gene fusion transcripts, including HMGA2/LPP, HMGA2/RDC1 and HMGA2/NFIB, were analyzed in 102 tumors from patients with lipomas.
RESULTS: There were 23 cases (22.5%) expressing HMGA2/LPP, 2 cases (1.9%) expressing HMGA2/RDC1 and no cases of HMGA2/NFIB expression (0%). There were no significant intergroup differences in age, gender, body mass index, tumor size or location. The magnetic resonance images and pathological features were also not different in regard to the status of fusion gene expression.
CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences of clinicopathological features in patients with lipoma with or without these fusion gene transcripts.

Kandolf Sekulović L, Cikota B, Stojadinović O, et al.
TCRgamma gene rearrangement analysis in skin samples and peripheral blood of mycosis fungoides patients.
Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat. 2007; 16(4):149-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing mycosis fungoides (MF) can be challenging in the early stage of the disease because histopathological features may simulate a variety of benign inflammatory skin diseases. Assessment of T-cell clonality was found to be useful in diagnosis and follow-up of patients.
OBJECTIVE: In this study, PCR-based TCRgamma gene rearrangement analysis was performed in skin and peripheral blood samples of patients with MF treated at the two largest referral centers in Serbia, and the results obtained were correlated with clinical and follow-up data.
METHODS: Skin and peripheral blood samples were obtained with informed consent from 37 patients treated at the Department of Dermatology of the Military Medical Academy and the Medical Center of Serbia from 2001 to 2006. The median time of follow-up was 4 years. Multiplex PCR was used for TCRgamma gene rearrangement analysis in skin and peripheral blood samples. Clonality results were correlated with the clinical data and disease course data.
RESULTS: Monoclonality was detected in skin samples of 30/37 patients (81%), in 2/5 patients with large-plaque parapsoriasis (LPP), in 28/32 (88%) patients with histologically proven MF, and in 1/16 (6%) patients with benign inflammatory dermatoses. A monoclonal pattern in both skin and peripheral blood was detected in 7/16 (44%) patients in the late stage of the disease, and in 1/7 (14%) patients in the early stage of the disease. A dominant clone was found in both skin and peripheral blood in 1/4 patients in remission, 2/5 with a stable disease, and 4/9 (44%) with disease progression.
CONCLUSION: TCR-gamma gene rearrangement analysis can be regarded as a useful adjunct to diagnosis of epidermotropic lymphoproliferative disorders. The presence of a dominant clone in both the skin and peripheral blood was more frequently detected in late stages and in patients with disease progression, confirming the usefulness of clonality detection by TCR-gamma gene rearrangement analysis in follow-up of patients with primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.

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