MECP2

Gene Summary

Gene:MECP2; methyl-CpG binding protein 2
Aliases: RS, RTS, RTT, PPMX, MRX16, MRX79, MRXSL, AUTSX3, MRXS13
Location:Xq28
Summary:DNA methylation is the major modification of eukaryotic genomes and plays an essential role in mammalian development. Human proteins MECP2, MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, and MBD4 comprise a family of nuclear proteins related by the presence in each of a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD). Each of these proteins, with the exception of MBD3, is capable of binding specifically to methylated DNA. MECP2, MBD1 and MBD2 can also repress transcription from methylated gene promoters. In contrast to other MBD family members, MECP2 is X-linked and subject to X inactivation. MECP2 is dispensible in stem cells, but is essential for embryonic development. MECP2 gene mutations are the cause of most cases of Rett syndrome, a progressive neurologic developmental disorder and one of the most common causes of mental retardation in females. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2015]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:methyl-CpG-binding protein 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 13 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (63)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 13 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Apoptosis
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Messenger RNA
  • Epigenetics
  • Protein Binding
  • X Chromosome
  • Azacitidine
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • RT-PCR
  • Tristetraprolin
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2
  • Genome, Human
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
  • DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase
  • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Acetylation
  • Transfection
  • Base Sequence
  • Gene Silencing
  • Promoter Regions
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Western Blotting
  • Chromatin
  • Transcription Factors
  • CpG Islands
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • DNA Methylation
  • Histones
  • Down-Regulation
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • VEGFA
  • Rett Syndrome
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Upstream Stimulatory Factors
  • Hydroxamic Acids
Tag cloud generated 13 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MECP2 (cancer-related)

Mezzomo LC, Pesce FG, Marçal JM, et al.
Decreased TAp63 and ΔNp63 mRNA Levels in Most Human Pituitary Adenomas Are Correlated with Notch3/Jagged1 Relative Expression.
Endocr Pathol. 2017; 28(1):13-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite recent advances in molecular genetics, the pituitary adenoma initiation, development, progress, and the molecular basis of their unique features are still poorly understood. In this sense, it is proposed that stem cell could be involved in pituitary adenoma tumorigenesis. It is suggested that TP63 has important functions in stem cells, and it may have interplay of TP63 and Notch and its ligand Jagged in this process. This study aimed to evaluate the distinct expression of TP63 isoforms (TAp63 and ΔNp63), as well as its correlation with Notch3 receptor and its ligand Jagged1 in human pituitary adenomas at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level. We included 77 pituitary adenoma tumor samples from patients who underwent surgical resection. The expression levels of TP63 isoforms (TAp63 and ΔNp63) and Notch3 and its ligand Jagged1 were evaluated by qRT-PCR using isoform-specific primers. We also evaluated proliferation index immunohistochemically using KI-67 antibody. The expression levels were associated with clinical outcomes, as age, gender, tumor size, and tumor subtype. In summary, we found that mRNA expression of both TP63 isoforms decreased in pituitary adenomas compared with normal pituitary control. On the other hand, there was an increase of relative Notch3 and Jagged1 mRNA expression in the majority of examined samples. The mRNA expression of three genes evaluated was correlated and statistically significantly. There was no significant association between gene expression and the analyzed clinical data. The current study has provided the first time evidence that Tap63 and ΔNp63 isoforms are underexpressed in most pituitary adenomas. These results are correlated with Notch3 and its ligand Jagged1 overexpression, corroborating previous studies pointing its antagonistic interactions.

Gao XH, Li J, Liu Y, et al.
ZNF148 modulates TOP2A expression and cell proliferation via ceRNA regulatory mechanism in colorectal cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(1):e5845 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulation is a novel hypothesized mechanism that states RNA molecules share common target microRNAs (miRNAs) and may competitively combine into the same miRNA pool.
METHODS: Zinc finger protein 148 (ZNF148) and TOP2A expression were analyzed in 742 colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC). ZNF148 mRNA, TOP2A mRNA, miR101, miR144, miR335, and miR365 expression were estimated in 53 fresh frozen CRC tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Mechanisms underpinning ceRNA were examined using bioinformatics, correlation analysis, RNA interference, gene over-expression, and luciferase assays.
RESULTS: Protein levels of ZNF148 and TOP2A detected by IHC positively correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient [rs] = 0.431, P < 0.001); mRNA levels of ZNF148 and TOP2A also positively correlated (r = 0.591, P < 0.001). Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that ZNF148 and TOP2A mRNA had 13 common target miRNAs, including miR101, miR144, miR335, and miR365. Correlation analysis demonstrated that levels of ZNF148 mRNA were negatively associated with levels of miR144, miR335, and miR365. Knockdown and overexpression tests showed that ZNF148 mRNA and TOP2A mRNA regulated each other in HCT116 cells, respectively, but not in Dicer-deficient HCT116 cells. Luciferase assays demonstrated that ZNF148 and TOP2A regulated each other through 3'UTR. Overexpression of ZNF148 mRNA and TOP2A mRNA caused significant downregulation of miR101, miR144, miR335, and miR365 in the HCT116 cells. We also found that knockdown of ZNF148 and TOP2A significantly promoted cell growth, and overexpression of ZNF148 and TOP2A inhibited cell proliferation, which was abrogated in Dicer-deficient HCT116 cells.
CONCLUSION: ZNF148 and TOP2A regulate each other through ceRNA regulatory mechanism in CRC, which has biological effects on cell proliferation.

Yang L, Liu Z, Yuan X, et al.
Random Subspace Aggregation for Cancer Prediction with Gene Expression Profiles.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:4596326 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background. Precisely predicting cancer is crucial for cancer treatment. Gene expression profiles make it possible to analyze patterns between genes and cancers on the genome-wide scale. Gene expression data analysis, however, is confronted with enormous challenges for its characteristics, such as high dimensionality, small sample size, and low Signal-to-Noise Ratio. Results. This paper proposes a method, termed RS_SVM, to predict gene expression profiles via aggregating SVM trained on random subspaces. After choosing gene features through statistical analysis, RS_SVM randomly selects feature subsets to yield random subspaces and training SVM classifiers accordingly and then aggregates SVM classifiers to capture the advantage of ensemble learning. Experiments on eight real gene expression datasets are performed to validate the RS_SVM method. Experimental results show that RS_SVM achieved better classification accuracy and generalization performance in contrast with single SVM, K-nearest neighbor, decision tree, Bagging, AdaBoost, and the state-of-the-art methods. Experiments also explored the effect of subspace size on prediction performance. Conclusions. The proposed RS_SVM method yielded superior performance in analyzing gene expression profiles, which demonstrates that RS_SVM provides a good channel for such biological data.

Ozbayer C, Degirmenci I, Ustuner D, et al.
miRSNPs of miR1274 and miR3202 Genes that Target MeCP2 and DNMT3b Are Associated with Lung Cancer Risk: A Study Conducted on MassARRAY Genotyping.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2016; 35(3):223-236 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic variants of miRNAs that target DNMTs and MBDs involved in DNA methylation were scanned with current databases, and 35 miRSNPs in 22 miRNA genes were identified. The aim of the study was to determine the association between these variants of miRNA genes and lung cancer (LC). DNA samples were isolated from blood samples and genotyped using a Sequenom MassARRAY System. An association between the rs188912830 gene variant of miR3202 that targets the MeCP2 protein and LC was indicated in both subtypes. The presence of the C-allele in patients with LC and its subtypes was significantly lower, and the absence of the C-allele was determined to increase the risk of LC by 7,429-times compared to the presence (p=0,010). The rs318039 gene variant of miR1274 that targets DNMT3b was found to be associated with LC subtypes. When allele distributions were compared, the numbers of individuals with the C-allele were significantly lower in the NSCLC and SCLC groups. No significant associations were found for the rs72563729 variant of the miR200b gene that targets DNMT3a or for the rs145416750 variant of the miR513c gene that targets TRDMT1. The other 33 variants were found to be ancestral genotypes. Consequently, rs188912830 and rs318039 variations were associated with LC subtypes. Importantly, this study is the first to indicate the functional characterisation of miRSNPs of genes that target DNA methylation.

Dragoj M, Milosevic Z, Bankovic J, et al.
Targeting CXCR4 and FAK reverses doxorubicin resistance and suppresses invasion in non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2017; 40(1):47-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Current high lung cancer mortality rates are mainly due to the occurrence of metastases and therapeutic resistance. Therefore, simultaneous targeting of these processes may be a valid approach for the treatment of this type of cancer. Here, we assessed relationships between CXC chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) gene expression levels and expression levels of the drug resistance-related genes ABCB1 and ABCC1, and tested the potential of CXCR4 and FAK inhibitors to reverse doxorubicin (DOX) resistance and to decrease the invasive capacity of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells.
METHODS: qRT-PCR was used for gene expression analyses in primary lung tissue samples obtained from 30 NSCLC patients and the human NSCLC-derived cell lines NCI-H460, NCI-H460/R and COR-L23. MTT, flow cytometry, cell death and β-galactosidase activity assays were used to assess the in vitro impact of CXCR4 and FAK inhibitors on DOX sensitivity. In addition, invasion and gelatin degradation assays were used to assess the in vitro impact of the respective inhibitors on metastasis-related processes in combination with DOX treatment.
RESULTS: We found that ABCB1 over-expression was significantly associated with CXCR4 and FAK over-expression, whereas ABCC1 over-expression was associated with increased FAK expression. We also found that CXCR4 and FAK inhibitors strongly synergized with DOX in reducing cell viability, arresting the cell cycle in the S or G2/M phases and inducing senescence. Additionally, we found that DOX enhanced the anti-invasive potential of CXCR4 and FAK inhibitors by reducing gelatin degradation and invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: From our data we conclude that targeting of CXCR4 and FAK may overcome ABCB1 and ABCC1-dependent DOX resistance in NSCLC cells and that simultaneous treatment of these cells with DOX may potentiate the anti-invasive effects of CXCR4 and FAK inhibitors.

Yan L, Zhan C, Wang S, et al.
Genetic analysis of radiation-specific biomarkers in sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12001-12009 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the gene expression profiles of radiation-sensitive (RS) and radiation-resistant (RR) sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) and to identify prognostic markers for the radiation reaction of SNSCC. We first examined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in RS and RR SNSCC tissues by analyzing clinical samples with GeneChip Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 (HTA 2.0).To understand the functional significance of the molecular changes, we examined the DEGs with Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analyses to identify the core genes. The expression of several core genes (CCND2, COL5A2, GADD45B, and THBS2) was confirmed with reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in a larger series of tissues. We identified 208 DEGs, of which 76 were upregulated and 132 downregulated in the RS tissues relative to the RR tissues. The DEGs were mainly involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, the NF-kappaB signaling pathway, the cell adhesion molecule signaling pathway, and the extracellular matrix-receptor interaction signaling pathway. RT-qPCR confirmed that the CCND2, COL5A2, GADD45B, and THBS2 genes were significantly differentially expressed in the RS and RR tissues, consistent with the GeneChip data. These results extend our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the sensitivity of SNSCC to radiation. The DEGs are involved in the differential response to radiation therapy and the dysregulated core genes identified in this study can be used to predict radiation sensitivity in SNSCC.

Sun L, Xu JC, Wang W, Yin Y
Locally linear embedding and neighborhood rough set-based gene selection for gene expression data classification.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(3) [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer subtype recognition and feature selection are important problems in the diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Here, we propose a novel gene selection approach applied to gene expression data classification. First, two classical feature reduction methods including locally linear embedding (LLE) and rough set (RS) are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms were analyzed and an optimized model for tumor gene selection was developed based on LLE and neighborhood RS (NRS). Bhattacharyya distance was introduced to delete irrelevant genes, pair-wise redundant analysis was performed to remove strongly correlated genes, and the wavelet soft threshold was determined to eliminate noise in the gene datasets. Next, prior optimized search processing was carried out. A new approach combining dimension reduction of LLE and feature reduction of NRS (LLE-NRS) was developed for selecting gene subsets, and then an open source software Weka was applied to distinguish different tumor types and verify the cross-validation classification accuracy of our proposed method. The experimental results demonstrated that the classification performance of the proposed LLE-NRS for selecting gene subset outperforms those of other related models in terms of accuracy, and our proposed approach is feasible and effective in the field of high-dimensional tumor classification.

Kammerer S, Jahn SW, Winter E, et al.
Critical evaluation of KCNJ3 gene product detection in human breast cancer: mRNA in situ hybridisation is superior to immunohistochemistry.
J Clin Pathol. 2016; 69(12):1116-1121 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increased expression levels of KCNJ3 have been correlated with lymph node metastases and poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer, suggesting a prognostic role of KCNJ3 We aimed to establish protocols for the detection of KCNJ3 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast cancer tissue. Several antibodies were tested for sensitivity and specificity by western blot, followed by optimisation of the immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure and establishment of KCNJ3 mRNA in situ hybridisation (ISH). Methods were validated by processing 15 FFPE breast cancer samples for which microarray data were available. Spearman's rank correlation analysis resulted in borderline significant correlation for IHC versus ISH (rS: 0.625; p<0.05) and IHC versus microarray (rS: 0.668; p<0.01), but in significant correlation for ISH versus microarray (rS: 0.861; p<0.001). The ISH method was superior to IHC, regarding robustness, sensitivity and specificity and will aid to further study expression levels of KCNJ3 in both malignant and physiological conditions.

Kulcheski FR, Christoff AP, Margis R
Circular RNAs are miRNA sponges and can be used as a new class of biomarker.
J Biotechnol. 2016; 238:42-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are involved in transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene expression regulation. The development of deep sequencing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-depleted RNA libraries, associated with improved computational tools, has provided the identification of several new circRNAs in all sorts of organisms, from protists, plants and fungi to animals. Recently, it was discovered that endogenous circRNAs can work as microRNA (miRNA) sponges. This means that the circRNAs bind to miRNAs and consequently repress their function, providing a new model of action for this class of ncRNA, as well as indicating another mechanism that regulates miRNA activity. As miRNAs control a large set of biological processes, circRNA sponge activity will also affect these pathways. Several studies have associated miRNA sponges with human diseases, including osteoarthritis, diabetes, neurodegenerative pathologies and several types of cancer. Additionally, high stability, abundance and tissue-specific expression patterns make circRNA sponges very attractive for clinical research. Herein, we review the biogenesis, properties and function of endogenous circRNA sponges, with a special focus on those related to human cancer. A list of web tools available for the study of circRNAs is also given. Additionally, we discuss the possibility of using circRNAs as molecular markers for the diagnosis of diseases.

Bur H, Haapasaari KM, Turpeenniemi-Hujanen T, et al.
Strong KDM4B and KDM4D Expression Associates with Radioresistance and Aggressive Phenotype in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(9):4677-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic regulators, including Jumonji domain 2 (JMJD2/KDM4) proteins are involved in post-translational modification of histone demethylation and have a major role in carcinogenesis of many solid tumors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed immunohistochemically the expression of lysine (K)-specific demethylase 4 (KDM4)A, KDM4B and KDM4D in tumors from 91 patients of adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, darcabazine (ABVD)-treated classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
RESULTS: Strong cytoplasmic KDM4B expression in the reactive cellular infiltrate and also in Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells predicted poor relapse-free survival (RFS) (p=0.020 and p=0.022, respectively) in patients with limited-stage disease. Strong KDM4B expression in RS cells was also related to B-symptoms (p=0.007) and advanced stage (p=0.024). Strong KDM4D expression in the cytoplasm of RS cells was also associated with poor RFS in limited-stage patients RFS (p=0.043) and, most significantly, in patients receiving involved-field radiotherapy (p=0.007).
CONCLUSION: KDM4B and KDM4D expression may associate with an aggressive subtype of classical Hodgkin lymphoma and be linked with radioresistance.

Gong C, Tan W, Chen K, et al.
Prognostic Value of a BCSC-associated MicroRNA Signature in Hormone Receptor-Positive HER2-Negative Breast Cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 11:199-209 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients with high proportion of cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have unfavorable clinical outcomes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate key features of BCSCs. We hypothesized that a biology-driven model based on BCSC-associated miRNAs could predict prognosis for the most common subtype, hormone receptor (HR)-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: After screening candidate miRNAs based on literature review and a pilot study, we built a miRNA-based classifier using LASSO Cox regression method in the training group (n=202) and validated its prognostic accuracy in an internal (n=101) and two external validation groups (n=308).
RESULTS: In this multicenter study, a 10-miRNA classifier incorporating miR-21, miR-30c, miR-181a, miR-181c, miR-125b, miR-7, miR-200a, miR-135b, miR-22 and miR-200c was developed to predict distant relapse free survival (DRFS). With this classifier, HR+HER2- patients were scored and classified into high-risk and low-risk disease recurrence, which was significantly associated with 5-year DRFS of the patients. Moreover, this classifier outperformed traditional clinicopathological risk factors, IHC4 scoring and 21-gene Recurrence Score (RS). The patients with high-risk recurrence determined by this classifier benefit more from chemotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Our 10-miRNA-based classifier provides a reliable prognostic model for disease recurrence in HR+HER2- breast cancer patients. This model may facilitate personalized therapy-decision making for HR+HER2- individuals.

Marjanovic I, Kostic J, Stanic B, et al.
Parallel targeted next generation sequencing of childhood and adult acute myeloid leukemia patients reveals uniform genomic profile of the disease.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13391-13401 [PubMed] Related Publications
The age-specific differences in the genetic mechanisms of myeloid leukemogenesis have been observed and studied previously. However, NGS technology has provided a possibility to obtain a large amount of mutation data. We analyzed DNA samples from 20 childhood (cAML) and 20 adult AML (aAML) patients, using NGS targeted sequencing. The average coverage of high-quality sequences was 2981 × per amplicon. A total of 412 (207 cAML, 205 aAML) variants in the coding regions were detected; out of which, only 122 (62 cAML and 60 aAML) were potentially protein-changing. Our results confirmed that AML contains small number of genetic alterations (median 3 mutations/patient in both groups). The prevalence of the most frequent single gene AML associated mutations differed in cAML and aAML patient cohorts: IDH1 (0 % cAML, 5 % aAML), IDH2 (0 % cAML, 10 % aAML), NPM1 (10 % cAML, 35 % aAML). Additionally, potentially protein-changing variants were found in tyrosine kinase genes or genes encoding tyrosine kinase associated proteins (JAK3, ABL1, GNAQ, and EGFR) in cAML, while among aAML, the prevalence is directed towards variants in the methylation and histone modifying genes (IDH1, IDH2, and SMARCB1). Besides uniform genomic profile of AML, specific genetic characteristic was exclusively detected in cAML and aAML.

Brégnard C, Guerra J, Déjardin S, et al.
Upregulated LINE-1 Activity in the Fanconi Anemia Cancer Susceptibility Syndrome Leads to Spontaneous Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 8:184-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a genetic disorder characterized by elevated cancer susceptibility and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Using SLX4(FANCP) deficiency as a working model, we questioned the trigger for chronic inflammation in FA. We found that absence of SLX4 caused cytoplasmic DNA accumulation, including sequences deriving from active Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1), triggering the cGAS-STING pathway to elicit interferon (IFN) expression. In agreement, absence of SLX4 leads to upregulated LINE-1 retrotransposition. Importantly, similar results were obtained with the FANCD2 upstream activator of SLX4. Furthermore, treatment of FA cells with the Tenofovir reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTi), that prevents endogenous retrotransposition, decreased both accumulation of cytoplasmic DNA and pro-inflammatory signaling. Collectively, our data suggest a contribution of endogenous RT activities to the generation of immunogenic cytoplasmic nucleic acids responsible for inflammation in FA. The additional observation that RTi decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production induced by DNA replication stress-inducing drugs further demonstrates the contribution of endogenous RTs to sustaining chronic inflammation. Altogether, our data open perspectives in the prevention of adverse effects of chronic inflammation in tumorigenesis.

Halifu Y, Liang JQ, Zeng XW, et al.
Wnt1 and SFRP1 as potential prognostic factors and therapeutic targets in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
The Wnt signaling pathway plays a key role in insurgence and progression of many different forms of cancer. Some crucial components of the Wnt pathway have been proposed to be novel targets for cancer therapy. To date, the Wnt signaling pathway has not been studied in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). This study was designed to investigate the expression of Wnt1 and SFRP1 from the Wnt pathway in CSCC. Tissue samples were obtained from 35 patients with CSCC and 30 controls admitted to the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region People's Hospital at Urumchi City, China. Gene and protein expressions of Wnt1 and SFRP1 were quantified by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Wnt1 expression was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in CSCC samples than in normal skin cells of the control subjects; in contrast, SFRP1 expression was significantly lower in CSCC tissues than that in tissues of control subjects (P < 0.05). Moreover, Wnt1 expression (P < 0.05) was found to be correlated with histopathological differentiation in CSCC, and negatively correlated with SFRP1 expression in CSCC (rs = -0.473, P = 0.015). Therefore, we concluded that Wnt1 and SFRP1 play important roles in the development of CSCC and could be potent markers for diagnosis, prevention, and therapy of CSCC.

Qiu X, Huang Y, Zhou Y, Zheng F
Aberrant methylation of TRIM58 in hepatocellular carcinoma and its potential clinical implication.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(2):811-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
TRIM58 (tripartite motif containing 58) has been reported as a novel methylated gene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by methylation microarrays. However, its associations with mRNA expression and clinicopathological characteristics have not been evaluated. In this study, we explored the potential clinical implications of TRIM58 methylation in HCC. We analyzed the methylation level of TRIM58 in 181 HCC tissues, 172 matched adjacent non-tumor tissues and 13 normal liver tissues using methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme based quantitative PCR and bisulfite genomic sequencing. Further, the mRNA expression level of TRIM58 was measured in 46 paired HCC and adjacent non-tumor tissues by quantitative real-time PCR. Moreover, the relationship between TRIM58 methylation and mRNA expression, the clinicopathological features, as well as prognostic value were evaluated. The results showed that TRIM58 methylation was significantly higher in HCC tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues and normal liver tissues (both p<0.0001). Using 10% as the cut-off value, hypermethylation of TRIM58 was specific in HCC tissues (28.18%, 51/181), with a tendency to correlate with unfavorable disease-free survival (p=0.047). Moreover, TRIM58 expression was significantly decreased in HCC tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues (p<0.0001), and showed a negative association with DNA methylation (p=0.015, rs= -0.260). Our data indicate that TRIM58 methylation is a common event in HCC and may contribute to downregulation of its mRNA expression. Furthermore, hypermethylation of TRIM58 tends to be associated with worse DFS after hepatectomy. However, the potential clinical application of TRIM58 need to be further investigated.

Haider M, Ji B, Haselgrübler T, et al.
A microfluidic multiwell chip for enzyme-free detection of mRNA from few cells.
Biosens Bioelectron. 2016; 86:20-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Isogenic cell populations possess heterogeneous gene expression patterns. Most methods for mRNA expression analysis start with the reverse transcription of mRNA into cDNA, a process that can introduce strong signal variations not related to the actual mRNA levels. Miniaturized lab-on-a-chip systems offer properties - e.g. low sample dilution, low contamination - that enable new reaction schemes for molecular analyses. To enable transcription-free mRNA expression analysis of few single cells, a one-step cell lysis, target labelling and hybridisation approach as well as a corresponding passive multiwell chip with a volume of 25.5 nL/well were developed. The method enabled the parallel analysis of up to 96 samples and 6 target genes per sample. Preceding light microscopy of the living cells allowed correlating mRNA levels and cell number. As a proof-of-principle, the pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1 was investigated for expression heterogeneity of a reference gene plus 5 genes reported to be overexpressed in cancer stem cells (CSCs). A good correlation (r(51)=0.739, p<0.001; rs(51)=0.744, p<0.001) between the cell number per well and the number of detected reference gene mRNA confirmed the proper function of the device. Moreover, a heterogeneous expression of the CSC-associated target genes was found which matched well with reports on the presence of CSCs in the Panc-1 cell line.

Lee SH, Ha S, An HJ, et al.
Association between partial-volume corrected SUVmax and Oncotype DX recurrence score in early-stage, ER-positive/HER2-negative invasive breast cancer.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016; 43(9):1574-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Oncotype DX, a 21-gene expression assay, provides a recurrence score (RS) which predicts prognosis and the benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early-stage, estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-negative) invasive breast cancer. However, Oncotype DX tests are expensive and not readily available in all institutions. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether metabolic parameters on (18)F-FDG PET/CT are associated with the Oncotype DX RS and whether (18)F-FDG PET/CT can be used to predict the Oncotype DX RS.
METHODS: The study group comprised 38 women with stage I/II, ER-positive/HER2-negative invasive breast cancer who underwent pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT and Oncotype DX testing. On PET/CT, maximum (SUVmax) and average standardized uptake values, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis were measured. Partial volume-corrected SUVmax (PVC-SUVmax) determined using the recovery coefficient method was also evaluated. Oncotype DX RS (0 - 100) was categorized as low (<18), intermediate (18 - 30), or high (≥31). The associations between metabolic parameters and RS were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify significant independent predictors of low versus intermediate-to-high RS.
RESULTS: Of the 38 patients, 22 (58 %) had a low RS, 13 (34 %) had an intermediate RS, and 3 (8 %) had a high RS. In the analysis with 38 index tumors, PVC-SUVmax was higher in tumors in patients with intermediate-to-high RS than in those with low RS (5.68 vs. 4.06; P = 0.067, marginally significant). High PVC-SUVmax (≥4.96) was significantly associated with intermediate-to-high RS (odds ratio, OR, 10.556; P = 0.004) in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis with clinicopathologic factors, PVC-SUVmax ≥4.96 (OR 8.459; P = 0.013) was a significant independent predictor of intermediate-to-high RS.
CONCLUSIONS: High PVC-SUVmax on (18)F-FDG PET/CT was significantly associated with an intermediate-to-high Oncotype DX RS. PVC metabolic parameters on (18)F-FDG PET/CT can be used to predict the Oncotype DX RS in patients with early-stage, ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer.

Farzaneh F, Noghabaei G, Barouti E, et al.
Analysis of CYP17, CYP19 and CYP1A1 Gene Polymorphisms in Iranian Women with Breast Cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(S3):23-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer and the second cause of mortality in women all around the world. It is caused by several factors including genetic determinants, so that both genetic susceptibility factors and environmental factors are involved in the etiology. Significance of genes functioning in steroid hormone synthesis and metabolism are well established in breast cancer susceptibility. In this study, 134 women with BC and 135 normal controls were analyzed for their genotypes for the polymorphisms, rs743572, rs10046 and rs4646903, resided in CYP17, CYP19 and CYP1A1 genes, respectively. Significant differences in distributions of allele and genotype frequencies were found for the rs10046 polymorphism in CYP19 (p-value=0.01, OR (CI 95%) =1.59 (1.1-2.3), p-value=0.04, OR (CI 95%) =1.7 (1.1-2.5) respectively). For rs743,572 and rs 4646903 polymorphisms, no significant associations were observed. A significant association was observed between the rs10046 polymorphism of the CYP19gene and breast cancer in Iranian patients. Due to inconsistent previous results, more studies in different populations with larger sample sizes are indicated.

Todorovic Balint M, Jelicic J, Mihaljevic B, et al.
Gene Mutation Profiles in Primary Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of Central Nervous System: Next Generation Sequencing Analyses.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The existence of a potential primary central nervous system lymphoma-specific genomic signature that differs from the systemic form of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been suggested, but is still controversial. We investigated 19 patients with primary DLBCL of central nervous system (DLBCL CNS) using the TruSeq Amplicon Cancer Panel (TSACP) for 48 cancer-related genes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) analyses have revealed that over 80% of potentially protein-changing mutations were located in eight genes (CTNNB1, PIK3CA, PTEN, ATM, KRAS, PTPN11, TP53 and JAK3), pointing to the potential role of these genes in lymphomagenesis. TP53 was the only gene harboring mutations in all 19 patients. In addition, the presence of mutated TP53 and ATM genes correlated with a higher total number of mutations in other analyzed genes. Furthermore, the presence of mutated ATM correlated with poorer event-free survival (EFS) (p = 0.036). The presence of the mutated SMO gene correlated with earlier disease relapse (p = 0.023), inferior event-free survival (p = 0.011) and overall survival (OS) (p = 0.017), while mutations in the PTEN gene were associated with inferior OS (p = 0.048). Our findings suggest that the TP53 and ATM genes could be involved in the molecular pathophysiology of primary DLBCL CNS, whereas mutations in the PTEN and SMO genes could affect survival regardless of the initial treatment approach.

Evans CN, Brewer NT, Vadaparampil ST, et al.
Impact of genomic testing and patient-reported outcomes on receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016; 156(3):549-55 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/04/2017 Related Publications
Practice guidelines incorporate genomic tumor profiling, using results such as the Oncotype DX Recurrence Score (RS), to refine recurrence risk estimates for the large proportion of breast cancer patients with early-stage, estrogen receptor-positive disease. We sought to understand the impact of receiving genomic recurrence risk estimates on breast cancer patients' well-being and the impact of these patient-reported outcomes on receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy. Participants were 193 women (mean age 57) newly diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Women were interviewed before and 2-3 weeks after receiving the RS result between 2011 and 2015. We assessed subsequent receipt of chemotherapy from chart review. After receiving their RS, perceived pros (t = 4.27, P < .001) and cons (t = 8.54, P < .001) of chemotherapy increased from pre-test to post-test, while perceived risk of breast cancer recurrence decreased (t = 2.90, P = .004). Women with high RS tumors were more likely to receive chemotherapy than women with low RS tumors (88 vs. 5 %, OR 0.01, 0.00-0.02, P < .001). Higher distress (OR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.05-4.57, P < .05) and lower perceived cons of chemotherapy (OR 0.50, 95 % CI 0.26-0.97, P < .05) also predicted receipt of chemotherapy. Distressed patients who saw few downsides of chemotherapy received this treatment. Clinicians should consider these factors when discussing chemotherapy with breast cancer patients.

Hsiao LT, Wang HY, Yang CF, et al.
Human Cytokine Genetic Variants Associated With HBsAg Reverse Seroconversion in Rituximab-Treated Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(11):e3064 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/04/2017 Related Publications
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has been noted in HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-seronegative patients with CD20 B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) undergoing rituximab treatment. Clinically, hepatitis flares are usually associated with the reappearance of HBsAg (reverse seroconversion of HBsAg, HBV-RS). It is unclear whether human genetic factors are related to rituximab-associated HBV reactivation. Unvaccinated HBsAg-seronegative adults (n = 104) with CD20 NHL who had received rituximab-containing therapy without anti-HBV prophylaxis were enrolled. Eighty-nine candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 49 human cytokine genes were chosen and were analyzed using the iPLEX technique. Competing risk regression was used to identify the factors associated with HBV-RS. Participants had a median age of 66.1 years and 56.7% were male (n = 59). The anti-HBs and anti-HBc positivity rates were 82.4% and 94.1%, respectively, among patients for whom data were available (approximately 81%). A mean of 7.14 cycles of rituximab therapy were administered, and a total of 14 (13.4%) patients developed HBV-RS. Nine SNPs showed significant differences in frequency between patients with or without HBV-RS: CD40 rs1883832, IL4 rs2243248 and rs2243263, IL13 rs1295686, IL18 rs243908, IL20 rs1518108, and TNFSF13B rs12428930 and rs12583006. Multivariate analysis showed that ≥6 cycles of rituximab therapy, IL18 rs243908, and the IL4 haplotype rs2243248∼rs2243263 were independently associated with HBV-RS. The IL4 haplotype rs2243248∼rs2243263 was significantly associated with HBV-RS regardless of anti-HBs status. Polymorphisms in human cytokine genes impact the risk of rituximab-associated HBV-RS.

Beckenkamp A, Davies S, Willig JB, Buffon A
DPPIV/CD26: a tumor suppressor or a marker of malignancy?
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):7059-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV/CD26) is a multifunctional protein with intrinsic peptidase activity that inactivates or degrades some bioactive peptides. It is the main cellular binding protein for ecto-adenosine deaminase and interacts with extracellular matrix proteins, besides participating in different signaling pathways. Due to these multiple functions, DPPIV/CD26 has been shown to be closely related to the tumor process. It has been reported that the progression of certain types of cancer is accompanied by a decrease in DPPIV/CD26 expression, and studies have shown that the malignant phenotype can be reverted when DPPIV/CD26 expression is induced in these cancer cells, characterizing this protein as a tumor suppressor. On the other hand, DPPIV/CD26 was described as a protein associated with invasion and metastatic spread, characterizing it as a marker of malignancy. Thus, this review explores the roles of DPPIV/CD26 expression in tumor progression in different types of cancer and demonstrates the importance of this protein as a promising therapeutic target and tumor biomarker.

Hartkopf AD, Wallwiener M, Kommoss S, et al.
Detection of disseminated tumor cells from the bone marrow of patients with early breast cancer is associated with high 21-gene recurrence score.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016; 156(1):91-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
High 21-gene recurrence score (RS) is associated with an impaired prognosis in patients with HR-positive/HER2-negative early breast cancer (EBC) and predictive of response to adjuvant chemotherapy. Detection of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow is a surrogate of minimal residual disease and of prognostic value. The aim of this study was to compare DTC detection with the 21-gene RS. DTCs were identified in bone marrow aspirates of HR-positive/HER2-negative EBC patients by immunocytochemistry (pancytokeratin antibody A45-B/B3) and cytomorphology at primary surgery. The 21-gene RS was assessed in paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples using Oncotype DX (Genomic Health). A total of 114 patients were included in this study. DTCs were detected in 13 of these (11 %). Of the women with a low RS (<18), 5/75 (7 %) were DTC positive. Of the women with an intermediate/high RS (≥18), 8/39 (21 %) were DTC positive (p = 0.03, Chi-squared test). The median RS in DTC-negative patients was significantly lower as compared to DTC-positive patients (15 vs. 20, p = 0.04, Mann-Whitney U test). In conclusion, detection of DTCs in patients with EBC is associated with high 21-gene recurrence score. These findings are meaningful for further basic research that aims to investigate the biological mechanism of tumor cell spread and cancer progression and may have prognostic and/or predictive clinical implications that should be evaluated in future clinical trials.

Zambra FM, Biolchi V, de Cerqueira CC, et al.
Immunogenetics of prostate cancer and benign hyperplasia--the potential use of an HLA-G variant as a tag SNP for prostate cancer risk.
HLA. 2016; 87(2):79-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is an immunomodulatory molecule with important roles both physiologically as well as an escape mechanism of cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the impact of eight polymorphisms at the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the HLA-G gene in the development of prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A total of 468 DNA samples of Brazilian men predominantly Euro-descendant with PCa (N = 187), BPH (N = 152) and healthy control individuals (N = 129) were evaluated. The HLA-G 3'UTR region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequenced and genotyped to identify the 14 bp insertion/deletion (rs371194629), +3003T/C (rs1707), +3010C/G (rs1710), +3027A/C (rs17179101), +3035C/T (rs17179108), +3142G/C (rs1063320), +3187A/G (rs9380142) and +3196C/G (rs1610696) polymorphisms. Regression logistic and chi-square tests were performed to verify the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PCa and/or BPH susceptibility, as well as in PCa progression (clinicopathological status). Our data showed the UTR-4 haplotype as a risk factor to PCa in comparison with control [odds ratio (OR) 2.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-3.96, P adjusted = 0.003) and BPH groups (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.15-2.86, P adjusted = 0.030). Further, the 'non-14bp Ins_ + 3142G_+3187A' haplotype (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.10-2.20, P adjusted = 0.036), the +3003CT genotype (OR 4.44, 95% CI 1.33-4.50, P adjusted = 0.032) and the +3003C allele (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.38-3.92, P adjusted = 0.016) also conferred susceptibility to PCa. Our data suggest an important influence of HLA-G 3'UTR polymorphisms in PCa susceptibility and support the use of the +3003 variant as a tag SNP for PCa risk.

Vujovic S, Vujosevic S, Kavaric S, et al.
Cancerous leptomeningitis and familial congenital hypopituitarism.
Endocrine. 2016; 52(2):231-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
People are at higher risk of cancer as they get older or have a strong family history of cancer. The potential influence of environmental and behavioral factors remains poorly understood. Earlier population and case control studies reported that upper quartile of circulating IGF-I is associated with a higher risk of developing cancer suggesting possible involvement of the growth hormone (GH)/IGF system in initiation or progression of cancer. Since GH therapy increases IGF-1 levels, there have been concerns that GH therapy in hypopituitarism might increase the risk of cancer. We report a 42-year-old female patient who presented with subacute onset of symptoms of meningitis and with the absence of fever which resulted in death 70 days after the onset of symptoms. The patient together with her younger brother was diagnosed at the age of 5 years with familial congenital hypopituitarism, due to homozygous mutation c.150delA in PROP1 gene. Due to evolving hypopituitarism, she was replaced with thyroxine (from age 5), hydrocortisone (from age 13), GH (from age 13 until 17), and sex steroids in adolescence and adulthood. Her consanguineous family has a prominent history of malignant diseases. Six close relatives had malignant disease including her late maternal aunt with breast cancer. BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutational analysis in the patient's mother was negative. Histology after autopsy disclosed advanced ovarian cancer with multiple metastases to the brain, leptomeninges, lungs, heart, and adrenals. Low circulating IGF-1 did not seem to protect this patient from cancer initiation and progression in the context of strong family history of malignancies.

de Oliveira VA, da Motta LL, De Bastiani MA, et al.
In vitro evaluation of antitumoral efficacy of catalase in combination with traditional chemotherapeutic drugs against human lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):10775-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the most lethal cancer-related disease worldwide. Since survival rates remain poor, there is an urgent need for more effective therapies that could increase the overall survival of lung cancer patients. Lung tumors exhibit increased levels of oxidative markers with altered levels of antioxidant defenses, and previous studies demonstrated that the overexpression of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) might control tumor proliferation and aggressiveness. Herein, we evaluated the effect of CAT treatment on the sensitivity of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells toward various anticancer treatments, aiming to establish the best drug combination for further therapeutic management of this disease. Exponentially growing A549 cells were treated with CAT alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs (cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, daunorubicin, and hydroxyurea). CalcuSyn(®) software was used to assess CAT/drug interactions (synergism or antagonism). Growth inhibition, NFκB activation status, and redox parameters were also evaluated in CAT-treated A549 cells. CAT treatment caused a cytostatic effect, decreased NFκB activation, and modulated the redox parameters evaluated. CAT treatment exhibited a synergistic effect among most of the anticancer drugs tested, which is significantly correlated with an increased H2O2 production. Moreover, CAT combination caused an antagonism in paclitaxel anticancer effect. These data suggest that combining CAT (or CAT analogs) with traditional chemotherapeutic drugs, especially cisplatin, is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of lung cancer.

Yun BH, Chon SJ, Choi YS, et al.
Pathophysiology of Endometriosis: Role of High Mobility Group Box-1 and Toll-Like Receptor 4 Developing Inflammation in Endometrium.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0148165 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/04/2017 Related Publications
Oxidative stress has been proposed as a potential factor associated with the establishment and progression of endometriosis. Although a few studies have shown possible mechanisms which may play roles in development, progression of endometriosis, few are known in regards of initiation of the disease, especially in the relationship with endometrium. The aim of our study was to investigate whether normal endometrium may be changed by Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which may contribute developing pathologic endometrium to induce endometriosis. Endometrial tissues were obtained from 10 patients with fibroids undergoing hysterectomy at a university hospital. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1), which is a representative DAMP, has been chosen that may induce alteration in endometrium. In preceding immunohistochemistry experiments using paraffin-block sections from endometriosis (N = 33) and control (N = 27) group, retrospectively, HMGB-1 expression was shown in both epithelial and stromal cell. HMGB-1 expression was significantly increased in secretory phase of endometriosis group, comparing to the controls. To examine the alteration of endometrial stromal cell (HESC) by oxidative stress in terms of HMGB-1, cell proliferation and expression of its receptor, TLR4 was measured according to recombinant HMGB-1 use. Cell proliferation was assessed by CCK-8 assay; real-time PCR and western blotting were used to quantify Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA and protein expression respectively. A TLR4 antagonist (LPS-RS) and an inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway (TPCA-1, an IKK-2 inhibitor) were used to confirm the relationships between HMGB-1, TLR4, and the NF-κB pathway. Passive release of HMGB-1 was significantly proportional to the increase in cell death (P<0.05). HESCs showed significant proliferation following treatment with rHMGB-1 (P<0.05), and increased TLR4 expression was observed following rHMGB-1 treatment (P<0.05) in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment with a TLR4 antagonist and an NF-κB inhibitor resulted in suppression of rHMGB-1-induced HESC proliferation (P<0.05). Levels of IL-6 were significantly decreased following treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor (P<0.05). Our results support the development of altered, pathological endometrium resulted from oxidative stress in normal endometrium. These findings may provide important insights into the changes in endometrium linking the development and progression of endometriosis.

Stein RC, Dunn JA, Bartlett JM, et al.
OPTIMA prelim: a randomised feasibility study of personalised care in the treatment of women with early breast cancer.
Health Technol Assess. 2016; 20(10):xxiii-xxix, 1-201 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about the chemotherapy sensitivity of some oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancers. Multiparameter assays that measure the expression of several tumour genes simultaneously have been developed to guide the use of adjuvant chemotherapy for this breast cancer subtype. The assays provide prognostic information and have been claimed to predict chemotherapy sensitivity. There is a dearth of prospective validation studies. The Optimal Personalised Treatment of early breast cancer usIng Multiparameter Analysis preliminary study (OPTIMA prelim) is the feasibility phase of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) designed to validate the use of multiparameter assay directed chemotherapy decisions in the NHS.
OBJECTIVES: OPTIMA prelim was designed to establish the acceptability to patients and clinicians of randomisation to test-driven treatment assignment compared with usual care and to select an assay for study in the main RCT.
DESIGN: Partially blinded RCT with adaptive design.
SETTING: Thirty-five UK hospitals.
PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged ≥ 40 years with surgically treated ER-positive HER2-negative primary breast cancer and with 1-9 involved axillary nodes, or, if node negative, a tumour at least 30 mm in diameter.
INTERVENTIONS: Randomisation between two treatment options. Option 1 was standard care consisting of chemotherapy followed by endocrine therapy. In option 2, an Oncotype DX(®) test (Genomic Health Inc., Redwood City, CA, USA) performed on the resected tumour was used to assign patients either to standard care [if 'recurrence score' (RS) was > 25] or to endocrine therapy alone (if RS was ≤ 25). Patients allocated chemotherapy were blind to their randomisation.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The pre-specified success criteria were recruitment of 300 patients in no longer than 2 years and, for the final 150 patients, (1) an acceptance rate of at least 40%; (2) recruitment taking no longer than 6 months; and (3) chemotherapy starting within 6 weeks of consent in at least 85% of patients.
RESULTS: Between September 2012 and 3 June 2014, 350 patients consented to join OPTIMA prelim and 313 were randomised; the final 150 patients were recruited in 6 months, of whom 92% assigned chemotherapy started treatment within 6 weeks. The acceptance rate for the 750 patients invited to participate was 47%. Twelve out of the 325 patients with data (3.7%, 95% confidence interval 1.7% to 5.8%) were deemed ineligible on central review of receptor status. Interviews with researchers and recordings of potential participant consultations made as part of the integral qualitative recruitment study provided insights into recruitment barriers and led to interventions designed to improve recruitment. Patient information was changed as the result of feedback from three patient focus groups. Additional multiparameter analysis was performed on 302 tumour samples. Although Oncotype DX, MammaPrint(®)/BluePrint(®) (Agendia Inc., Irvine, CA, USA), Prosigna(®) (NanoString Technologies Inc., Seattle, WA, USA), IHC4, IHC4 automated quantitative immunofluorescence (AQUA(®)) [NexCourse BreastTM (Genoptix Inc. Carlsbad, CA, USA)] and MammaTyper(®) (BioNTech Diagnostics GmbH, Mainz, Germany) categorised comparable numbers of tumours into low- or high-risk groups and/or equivalent molecular subtypes, there was only moderate agreement between tests at an individual tumour level (kappa ranges 0.33-0.60 and 0.39-0.55 for tests providing risks and subtypes, respectively). Health economics modelling showed the value of information to the NHS from further research into multiparameter testing is high irrespective of the test evaluated. Prosigna is currently the highest priority for further study.
CONCLUSIONS: OPTIMA prelim has achieved its aims of demonstrating that a large UK clinical trial of multiparameter assay-based selection of chemotherapy in hormone-sensitive early breast cancer is feasible. The economic analysis shows that a trial would be economically worthwhile for the NHS. Based on the outcome of the OPTIMA prelim, a large-scale RCT to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of multiparameter assay-directed chemotherapy decisions in hormone-sensitive HER2-negative early breast would be appropriate to take place in the NHS.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN42400492.
FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 20, No. 10. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. The Government of Ontario funded research at the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research. Robert C Stein received additional support from the NIHR University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre.

Shah PD, Patil S, Dickler MN, et al.
Twenty-one-gene recurrence score assay in BRCA-associated versus sporadic breast cancers: Differences based on germline mutation status.
Cancer. 2016; 122(8):1178-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Biological differences between BRCA-associated breast cancer and sporadic breast cancer may warrant different adjuvant chemotherapy (ACRx) recommendations despite similar phenotypic features. A 21-gene expression profile (Oncotype DX) generates a prognostic recurrence score (RS) that predicts the ACRx benefit in patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. No reports describe assay results for BRCA-associated breast cancer.
METHODS: A review of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center databases identified 4908 patients with hormone receptor-positive, node-negative breast cancer who underwent Oncotype DX testing between July 2006 and March 2014. BRCA1/BRCA2 carriers (cases) were identified and matched (1:2) by age at diagnosis and tumor size to noncarrier controls. Two-sample nonparametric tests were used to compare the baseline characteristics, RSs, and risk stratification between BRCA1 and BRCA2 patients. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess these differences by mutational status.
RESULTS: Fifty mutation-associated cases (19 BRCA1 cases and 31 BRCA2 cases) and 100 controls who were well matched for age (P = .9) and tumor size (P = .6) were included. BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers had similar median RSs (P = .6) and risk category stratification (P = .3). The median RS was higher for cases versus controls (24 vs 16; P < .0001). Risk stratification also differed by mutational status (P = .0002). Cases had more high-risk disease (28% vs 7%) and intermediate-risk disease (56% vs 36%) and less low-risk disease (16% vs 57%). Cases were more likely than controls to receive ACRx (74% vs 46%; P = .002).
CONCLUSIONS: Germline BRCA-associated hormone receptor-positive breast cancer may be associated with intrinsically less favorable biology. Few affected carriers have RS indicating a clear absence of benefit from ACRx. The increased use of ACRx and benefit from ACRx in BRCA carriers may mitigate otherwise inferior outcomes.

Carrett-Dias M, Almeida LK, Pereira JL, et al.
Cell differentiation and the multiple drug resistance phenotype in human erythroleukemic cells.
Leuk Res. 2016; 42:13-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
The gene expression of Oct-4, a transcription factor and hematopoietic stem cell marker, is higher in Lucena lines, which is MDR, and the gene Alox-5 has also been implicated in the differentiation of some cell lines. The aim of this study was to compare the response to PMA-induced differentiation in MDR and non-MDR cells. We observed the differentiation to megakaryocytes in the K562 cell line, which is non-MDR. The expression of Alox-5 and Nanog genes was downregulated and that of Mdr-1 was upregulated in K562 cells. The Lucena cell line contained a higher number of megakaryocytes than the non-MDR, but this number was not altered by PMA, as well as Mdr-1 gene expression. However, Alox-5 expression was downregulated. Alox-5, Mdr-1, Nanog, Oct-4 and Sox-2 basal expression was also evaluated in the K562, Lucena and FEPS (also MDR) cell lines. The transcription factors gene expression was similar in MDR cell lines. The expression of Alox-5 was higher in the non-MDR cell line, while FEPS had the lowest expression of this gene. The opposite pattern was observed for Mdr-1 gene expression. These results suggest that the Alox-5 gene might play a role in the differentiation of these cell lines.

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