MLF1

Gene Summary

Gene:MLF1; myeloid leukemia factor 1
Location:3q25.1
Summary:This gene encodes an oncoprotein which is thought to play a role in the phenotypic determination of hemopoetic cells. Translocations between this gene and nucleophosmin have been associated with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:myeloid leukemia factor 1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (8)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Myeloid Leukemia
  • Karyotyping
  • DNA Methylation
  • Mutation
  • Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Epigenetics
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Chromosome Banding
  • Signal Transduction
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Chromosome 5
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Genomics
  • Base Sequence
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • FISH
  • Chromosome 3
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Up-Regulation
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Cytoplasm
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • RTPCR
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Leukaemia
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Cell Nucleus
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes
  • Vincristine
  • p53 Protein
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MLF1 (cancer-related)

Woolthuis CM, Mulder AB, Verkaik-Schakel RN, et al.
A single center analysis of nucleophosmin in acute myeloid leukemia: value of combining immunohistochemistry with molecular mutation analysis.
Haematologica. 2013; 98(10):1532-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutations of nucleophosmin 1 are frequently found in acute myeloid leukemia and lead to aberrant cytoplasmic accumulation of nucleophosmin protein. Immunohistochemical staining is therefore recommended as the technique of choice in front-line screening. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity and specificity of immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed bone marrow biopsies compared with gold standard molecular analysis to predict nucleophosmin 1 mutation status in 119 patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Discrepant cases were further characterized by gene expression analyses and fluorescence in situ hybridization. A large overlap between both methods was observed. Nevertheless, nine patients demonstrated discordant results at initial screening. Five cases demonstrated nuclear staining of nucleophosmin 1 by immunohistochemistry, but a nucleophosmin 1 mutation by molecular analysis. In two cases this could be attributed to technical issues and in three cases minor subpopulations of myeloblasts had not been discovered initially. All tested cases exhibited the characteristic nucleophosmin-mutated gene expression pattern. Four cases had cytoplasmic nucleophosmin 1 staining and a nucleophosmin-mutated gene expression pattern without a detectable nucleophosmin 1 mutation. In two of these cases we found the chromosomal translocation t(3;5)(q25;q35) encoding the NPM-MLF1 fusion protein. In the other discrepant cases the aberrant cytoplasmic nucleophosmin staining and gene expression could not be explained. In total six patients (5%) had true discordant results between immunohistochemistry and mutation analysis. We conclude that cytoplasmic nucleophosmin localization is not always caused by a conventional nucleophosmin 1 mutation and that in the screening for nucleophosmin 1 abnormalities, most information will be obtained by combining immunohistochemistry with molecular analysis.

Banck MS, Kanwar R, Kulkarni AA, et al.
The genomic landscape of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors.
J Clin Invest. 2013; 123(6):2502-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) are the most common malignancy of the small bowel. Several clinical trials target PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling; however, it is unknown whether these or other genes are genetically altered in these tumors. To address the underlying genetics, we analyzed 48 SI-NETs by massively parallel exome sequencing. We detected an average of 0.1 somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) per 106 nucleotides (range, 0-0.59), mostly transitions (C>T and A>G), which suggests that SI-NETs are stable cancers. 197 protein-altering somatic SNVs affected a preponderance of cancer genes, including FGFR2, MEN1, HOOK3, EZH2, MLF1, CARD11, VHL, NONO, and SMAD1. Integrative analysis of SNVs and somatic copy number variations identified recurrently altered mechanisms of carcinogenesis: chromatin remodeling, DNA damage, apoptosis, RAS signaling, and axon guidance. Candidate therapeutically relevant alterations were found in 35 patients, including SRC, SMAD family genes, AURKA, EGFR, HSP90, and PDGFR. Mutually exclusive amplification of AKT1 or AKT2 was the most common event in the 16 patients with alterations of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. We conclude that sequencing-based analysis may provide provisional grouping of SI-NETs by therapeutic targets or deregulated pathways.

Qu Y, Dang S, Hou P
Gene methylation in gastric cancer.
Clin Chim Acta. 2013; 424:53-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field.

Gobert V, Haenlin M, Waltzer L
Myeloid leukemia factor: a return ticket from human leukemia to fly hematopoiesis.
Transcription. 2012 Sep-Oct; 3(5):250-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Even though deregulation of human MLF1, the founding member of the Myeloid Leukemia Factor family, has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia, the function and mode of action of this family of genes have remained rather mysterious. Yet, recent findings in Drosophila shed new light on their biological activity and suggest that they play an important role in hematopoiesis and leukemia, notably by regulating the stability of RUNX transcription factors, another family of conserved proteins with prominent roles in normal and malignant blood cell development.

Lim G, Choi JR, Kim MJ, et al.
Detection of t(3;5) and NPM1/MLF1 rearrangement in an elderly patient with acute myeloid leukemia: clinical and laboratory study with review of the literature.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010; 199(2):101-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We present a novel case of acute myeloid leukemia with an NPM1/MLF1 rearrangement in a 78-year-old Korean woman. The bone marrow chromosome study showed a complex karyotype: 46,XX,t(2;13) (q13;q32),der(3)t(3;5)(q25.1;q34),der(5)del(5)(?q31q34)t(3;5),inv(9)(p11q13)c,del(20)(q11.2)[13]/49,idem,+5,+8,+der(13)t(2;13)[7]. Multiplex gene rearrangement testing, cloning, and sequencing analyses revealed an NPM1/MLF1 fusion rearrangement between exon 6 of NPM1 (ENSG00000181163) and exon 2 of MLF1 (ENSG00000178053). Although t(3;5)(q25.1;q34) or the NPM1/MLF1 rearrangement has been reported mostly as a sole karyotypic abnormality in younger patients, it should also be considered in elderly patients with complex chromosomal abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome.

Watanabe Y, Kim HS, Castoro RJ, et al.
Sensitive and specific detection of early gastric cancer with DNA methylation analysis of gastric washes.
Gastroenterology. 2009; 136(7):2149-58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Aberrant DNA methylation is an early and frequent process in gastric carcinogenesis and could be useful for detection of gastric neoplasia. We hypothesized that methylation analysis of DNA recovered from gastric washes could be used to detect gastric cancer.
METHODS: We studied 51 candidate genes in 7 gastric cancer cell lines and 24 samples (training set) and identified 6 for further studies. We examined the methylation status of these genes in a test set consisting of 131 gastric neoplasias at various stages. Finally, we validated the 6 candidate genes in a different population of 40 primary gastric cancer samples and 113 nonneoplastic gastric mucosa samples.
RESULTS: Six genes (MINT25, RORA, GDNF, ADAM23, PRDM5, MLF1) showed frequent differential methylation between gastric cancer and normal mucosa in the training, test, and validation sets. GDNF and MINT25 were most sensitive molecular markers of early stage gastric cancer, whereas PRDM5 and MLF1 were markers of a field defect. There was a close correlation (r = 0.5-0.9, P = .03-.001) between methylation levels in tumor biopsy and gastric washes. MINT25 methylation had the best sensitivity (90%), specificity (96%), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.961) in terms of tumor detection in gastric washes.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest MINT25 is a sensitive and specific marker for screening in gastric cancer. Additionally, we have developed a new method for gastric cancer detection by DNA methylation in gastric washes.

Chen J, Guo L, Peiffer DA, et al.
Genomic profiling of 766 cancer-related genes in archived esophageal normal and carcinoma tissues.
Int J Cancer. 2008; 122(10):2249-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
We employed the BeadArraytrade mark technology to perform a genetic analysis in 33 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human esophageal carcinomas, mostly squamous-cell-carcinoma (ESCC), and their adjacent normal tissues. A total of 1,432 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from 766 cancer-related genes were genotyped with partially degraded genomic DNAs isolated from these samples. This directly targeted genomic profiling identified not only previously reported somatic gene amplifications (e.g., CCND1) and deletions (e.g., CDKN2A and CDKN2B) but also novel genomic aberrations. Among these novel targets, the most frequently deleted genomic regions were chromosome 3p (including tumor suppressor genes FANCD2 and CTNNB1) and chromosome 5 (including tumor suppressor gene APC). The most frequently amplified genomic region was chromosome 3q (containing DVL3, MLF1, ABCC5, BCL6, AGTR1 and known oncogenes TNK2, TNFSF10, FGF12). The chromosome 3p deletion and 3q amplification occurred coincidently in nearly all of the affected cases, suggesting a molecular mechanism for the generation of somatic chromosomal aberrations. We also detected significant differences in germline allele frequency between the esophageal cohort of our study and normal control samples from the International HapMap Project for 10 genes (CSF1, KIAA1804, IL2, PMS2, IRF7, FLT3, NTRK2, MAP3K9, ERBB2 and PRKAR1A), suggesting that they might play roles in esophageal cancer susceptibility and/or development. Taken together, our results demonstrated the utility of the BeadArray technology for high-throughput genetic analysis in FFPE tumor tissues and provided a detailed genetic profiling of cancer-related genes in human esophageal cancer.

Endersby R, Majewski IJ, Winteringham L, et al.
Hls5 regulated erythroid differentiation by modulating GATA-1 activity.
Blood. 2008; 111(4):1946-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hemopoietic lineage switch (Hls) 5 and 7 were originally isolated as genes up-regulated during an erythroid-to-myeloid lineage switch. We have shown previously that Hls7/Mlf1 imposes a monoblastoid phenotype on erythroleukemic cells. Here we show that Hls5 impedes erythroid maturation by restricting proliferation and inhibiting hemoglobin synthesis; however, Hls5 does not influence the morphology of erythroid cells. Under the influence of GATA-1, Hls5 relocates from cytoplasmic granules to the nucleus where it associates with both FOG-1 and GATA-1. In the nucleus, Hls5 is able to suppress GATA-1-mediated transactivation and reduce GATA-1 binding to DNA. We conclude that Hls5 and Hls7/Mlf1 act cooperatively to induce biochemical and phenotypic changes associated with erythroid/myeloid lineage switching.

Falini B, Nicoletti I, Bolli N, et al.
Translocations and mutations involving the nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene in lymphomas and leukemias.
Haematologica. 2007; 92(4):519-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a ubiquitously expressed nucleolar phoshoprotein which shuttles continuously between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Many findings have revealed a complex scenario of NPM functions and interactions, pointing to proliferative and growth-suppressive roles of this molecule. The gene NPM1 that encodes for nucleophosmin (NPM1) is translocated or mutated in various lymphomas and leukemias, forming fusion proteins (NPM-ALK, NPM-RARalpha, NPM-MLF1) or NPM mutant products. Here, we review the structure and functions of NPM, as well as the biological, clinical and pathological features of human hematologic malignancies with NPM1 gene alterations. NPM-ALK indentifies a new category of T/Null lymphomas with distinctive molecular and clinico-pathological features, that is going to be included as a novel disease entity (ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma) in the new WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms. NPM1 mutations occur specifically in about 30% of adult de novo AML and cause aberrant cytoplasmic expression of NPM (hence the term NPMc+ AML). NPMc+ AML associates with normal karyotpe, and shows wide morphological spectrum, multilineage involvement, a unique gene expression signature, a high frequency of FLT3-internal tandem duplications, and distinctive clinical and prognostic features. The availability of specific antibodies and molecular techniques for the detection of NPM1 gene alterations has an enormous impact in the biological study diagnosis, prognostic stratification, and monitoring of minimal residual disease of various lymphomas and leukemias. The discovery of NPM1 gene alterations also represents the rationale basis for development of molecular targeted drugs.

Naoe T, Suzuki T, Kiyoi H, Urano T
Nucleophosmin: a versatile molecule associated with hematological malignancies.
Cancer Sci. 2006; 97(10):963-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a nucleolar phosphoprotein that plays multiple roles in ribosome assembly and transport, cytoplasmic-nuclear trafficking, centrosome duplication and regulation of p53. In hematological malignancies, the NPM1 gene is frequently involved in chromosomal translocation, mutation and deletion. The NPM1 gene on 5q35 is translocated with the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene in anaplastic large cell lymphoma with t(2;5). The MLF1 and RARA genes are fused with NPM1 in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(3;5) and acute promyelocytic leukemia with t(5;17), respectively. In each fused protein, the N-terminal NPM portion is associated with oligomerization of a partner protein leading to altered signal transduction or transcription. Recently, mutations of exon 12 have been found in a significant proportion of de novo AML, especially in those with a normal karyotype. Mutant NPM is localized aberrantly in the cytoplasm, but the molecular mechanisms for leukemia remain to be studied. Studies of knock-out mice have revealed new aspects regarding NPM1 as a tumor-suppressor gene. This review focuses on the clinical significance of the NPM1 gene in hematological malignancies and newly discovered roles of NPM associated with oncogenesis.

Yamashita S, Tsujino Y, Moriguchi K, et al.
Chemical genomic screening for methylation-silenced genes in gastric cancer cell lines using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment and oligonucleotide microarray.
Cancer Sci. 2006; 97(1):64-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
To identify novel methylation-silenced genes in gastric cancers, we carried out a chemical genomic screening, a genome-wide search for genes upregulated by treatment with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC). After 5-aza-dC treatment of a gastric cancer cell line (AGS) 579 genes were upregulated 16-fold or more, using an oligonucleotide microarray with 39,000 genes. From these genes, we selected 44 known genes on autosomes whose silencing in gastric cancer has not been reported. Thirty-two of these had CpG islands (CGI) in their putative promoter regions, and all of the CGI were methylated in AGS, giving an estimated number of 421+/-75 (95% confidence interval) methylation-silenced genes. Additionally, we analyzed the methylation status of 16 potential tumor-related genes with promoter CGI that were upregulated four-fold or more, and 14 of these were methylated in AGS. Methylation status of the 32 randomly selected and 16 potential tumor-related genes was analyzed in 10 primary gastric cancers, and 42 genes (ABHD9, ADFP, ALDH1A3, ANXA5, AREG, BDNF, BMP7, CAV1, CDH2, CLDN3, CTSL, EEF1A2, F2R, FADS1, FSD1, FST, FYN, GPR54, GREM1, IGFBP3, IGFBP7, IRS2, KISS1, MARK1, MLF1, MSX1, MTSS1, NT5E, PAX6, PLAGL1, PLAU, PPIC, RBP4, RORA, SCRN1, TBX3, TFAP2C, TNFSF9, ULBP2, WIF1, ZNF177 and ZNF559) were methylated in at least one primary gastric cancer. A metastasis suppressor gene, MTSS1, was located in a genomic region with frequent loss of heterozygosity (8q22), and was expressed abundantly in the normal gastric mucosa, suggesting its role in gastric carcinogenesis. (Cancer Sci 2006; 97: 64 -71).

Berger R, Busson M, Baranger L, et al.
Loss of the NPM1 gene in myeloid disorders with chromosome 5 rearrangements.
Leukemia. 2006; 20(2):319-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
The assignment with chromosome banding techniques of the breakpoints of the recurrent translocation t(3;5) which leads to NPM1/MLF1 gene fusion in myeloid malignancies has not been unequivocal. In order to assess whether this is due to uncertainty in interpretation of the observed banding pattern or whether it reflects true genomic heterogeneity, we decided to analyze the breakpoint positions using fluorescence in situ (FISH) techniques in eight patients with myeloid malignancies and rearrangements of chromosomes 3 and 5. In three patients, colocalization of the NPM1 and MLF1 spanning BACs was demonstrated and NPM1/MLF1 fusion shown by PCR in one while in the remaining cases breakpoints were located outside the NPM1 and MLF1 loci. Interestingly, loss of a copy of the NPM1 gene was found in three of these latter patients. This findings suggest that haploinsufficiency of NPM1 may play a role in subtypes of myelodysplasias and leukemias.

Hanissian SH, Teng B, Akbar U, et al.
Regulation of myeloid leukemia factor-1 interacting protein (MLF1IP) expression in glioblastoma.
Brain Res. 2005; 1047(1):56-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
The myelodysplasia/myeloid leukemia factor 1-interacting protein MLF1IP is a novel gene which encodes for a putative transcriptional repressor. It is localized to human chromosome 4q35.1 and is expressed in both the nuclei and cytoplasm of cells. Northern and Western blot analyses have revealed MLF1IP to be present at very low amounts in normal brain tissues, whereas a number of human and rat glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines demonstrated a high level expression of the MLF1IP protein. Immunohistochemical analysis of rat F98 and C6 GBM tumor models showed that MLF1IP was highly expressed in the tumor core where it was co-localized with MLF1 and nestin. Moreover, MLF1IP expression was elevated in the contralateral brain where no tumor cells were detected. These observations, together with previous data demonstrating a role for MLF1IP in erythroleukemias, suggest a possible function for this protein in glioma pathogenesis and potentially in other types of malignancies.

Schiemann U, Müller-Koch Y, Gross M, et al.
Detection of occult high graded microsatellite instabilities in MMR gene mutation negative HNPCC tumors by addition of complementary marker analysis.
Eur J Med Res. 2005; 10(1):23-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant tumor syndrome predisposing to predominantly colorectal and endometrial cancer. In 90% of the cases, molecular analyses reveal microsatellite instabilities due to germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, mainly MLH1, MSH2, among these tumors.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumors from 40 HNPCC index patients (31 Amsterdam positive, 9 Bethesda positive; 21 females, 19 males; mean age 48.0 +/- 13.2 years) were examined. In contrast to the classical constellation, their tumors revealed only a microsatellite stable (MSS, n=31)--or low instable (MSI-L, n=9)--tumor phenotype following the international reference panel of 5 microsatellites. No MLH1 and MSH2 mutations were detectable. Complementary microsatellites (BAT40, D10S197, D13S153, D18S58, MYCL1) were investigated by PCR and fragment analysis to find other instabilities which might hint to the MIN-pathway of the tumors.
RESULTS: Due to ten microsatellites in total tumors were now reclassified in 4 MSI-H (10%), 24 MSI-L (60%) and 12 in MSS (30%) phenotypes. The mean age of onset for CRCs was the lowest in the MSI-H group with 45.7 +/- 9.6 years (vs. 48.7 +/- 14.3 and 49.0 +/- 12.9 years in MSI-L and MSS group). MSI-H-and MSI-L tumors were often localized in the proximal colon (50 and 52%), whereas MSS tumors were preferentially localized in the distal colon (77%). -
CONCLUSION: Complementary microsatellites help to subdive "non-classical" HNPCC in subgroups with different clinical appearance. It allows to detect occult MSI-H tumors with up to 10% and to confirm MSS tumors who seem to have a similar biological behaviour like sporadic CRC. Maybe that this genetic reclassification influence the decision of whether to offer patients chemotherapy or not, since it is known that patients with instable tumors do not benefit from chemotherapy as well as patients with microsatellite stable tumors.

Sun W, Zhang K, Zhang X, et al.
Identification of differentially expressed genes in human lung squamous cell carcinoma using suppression subtractive hybridization.
Cancer Lett. 2004; 212(1):83-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths. Over the past decade, much has been known about the molecular changes associated with lung carcinogenesis; however, our understanding to lung tumorigenesis is still incomplete. To identify genes that are differentially expressed in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, we compared the expression profiles between primarily cultured SCC tumor cells and bronchial epithelial cells derived from morphologically normal bronchial epithelium of the same patient. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), two cDNA libraries containing up- and down-regulated genes in the tumor cells were constructed, named as LCTP and LCBP. The two libraries comprise 258 known genes and 133 unknown genes in total. The known up-regulated genes in the library LCTP represented a variety of functional groups; including metabolism-, cell adhesion and migration-, signal transduction-, and anti-apoptosis-related genes. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, seven genes chosen randomly from the LCTP were analyzed in the tumor tissue paired with its corresponding adjacent normal lung tissue derived from 16 cases of the SCC. Among them, the IQGAP1, RAP1GDS1, PAICS, MLF1, and MARK1 genes showed a consistent expression pattern with that of the SSH analysis. Identification and further characterization of these genes may allow a better understanding of lung carcinogenesis.

Arber DA, Chang KL, Lyda MH, et al.
Detection of NPM/MLF1 fusion in t(3;5)-positive acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplasia.
Hum Pathol. 2003; 34(8):809-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Balanced translocations are rare in myelodysplasia (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with multilineage dysplasia; however, the t(3;5)(q25;q35) and insertion variant occur in a subset of patients. To evaluate the possible genes involved in this translocation, we studied 6 cases with a t(3;5) by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes directed against the nucleophosmin (NPM), EVI1, and Ribophorin genes, as well as a newly developed myeloid leukemia factor 1 (MLF1) BAC clone. The histologic spectrum of the cases was variable, ranging from refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia to AML with multilineage dysplasia in the World Health Organization classification. An NPM/MLF1 fusion was identified in 5 of 6 cases, whereas the EVI1 and Ribophorin genes were not involved in any of the cases. The NPM/MLF1-positive cases were predominantly young adult males (median age, 33 years) who responded well to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These findings suggest that an NPM/MLF1 fusion is the primary molecular abnormality in t(3;5) MDS and AML with multilineage dysplasia, and also that cases with NPM/MLF1 may be clinically distinct from other MDS-associated disease.

Colombo E, Marine JC, Danovi D, et al.
Nucleophosmin regulates the stability and transcriptional activity of p53.
Nat Cell Biol. 2002; 4(7):529-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a ubiquitously expressed nucleolar phosphoprotein that continuously shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. It has been proposed to function in ribosomal protein assembly and transport, and also as a molecular chaperone that prevents proteins from aggregating in the crowded environment of the nucleolus. The NPM gene is involved in several tumour-associated chromosome translocations, which have resulted in the formation of fusion proteins that retain the amino terminus of NPM, including NPM ALK, NPM RAR and NPM MLF1 (ref. 6). It is generally thought that the NPM component is not involved in the transforming potential of these fusion proteins, but instead provides a dimerization interface for the oligomerization and the oncogenic conversion of the various NPM partners (ALK, RAR, MLF1). Here we show that NPM interacts directly with the tumour suppressor p53, regulates the increase in stability and transcriptional activation of p53 after different types of stress, and induces p53-dependent premature senescence on overexpression in diploid fibroblasts. These findings indicate that NPM is a crucial regulator of p53 and suggest that alterations of the NPM function by NPM fusion proteins might lead to deregulation of p53 in tumours.

Williams JH, Daly LN, Ingley E, et al.
HLS7, a hemopoietic lineage switch gene homologous to the leukemia-inducing gene MLF1.
EMBO J. 1999; 18(20):5559-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hemopoietic lineage switching occurs when leukemic cells, apparently committed to one lineage, change and display the phenotype of another pathway. cDNA representational difference analysis was used to identify myeloid-specific genes that may be associated with an erythroid to myeloid lineage switch involving the murine J2E erythroleukemic cell line. One of the genes isolated (HLS7) is homologous to the novel human oncogene myeloid leukemia factor 1 (MLF1) involved in the t(3;5)(q25.1;q34) translocation associated with acute myeloid leukemia. Enforced expression of HLS7 in J2E cells induced a monoblastoid phenotype, thereby recapitulating the spontaneous erythroid to myeloid lineage switch. HLS7 also inhibited erythropoietin- or chemically-induced differentiation of erythroleukemic cell lines and suppressed development of erythropoietin-responsive colonies in semi-solid culture. However, intracellular signaling activated by erythropoietin was not impeded by ectopic expression of HLS7. In contrast, HLS7 promoted maturation of M1 monoblastoid cells and increased myeloid colony formation in vitro. These data show that HLS7 can influence erythroid/myeloid lineage switching and the development of normal hemopoietic cells.

Cordell JL, Pulford KA, Bigerna B, et al.
Detection of normal and chimeric nucleophosmin in human cells.
Blood. 1999; 93(2):632-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
In anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL), the (2;5) chromosomal translocation creates a fusion gene encoding the 80-kD NPM-ALK hybrid protein. This report describes three new monoclonal antibodies, two of which recognize, by Western blotting, the N-terminal portion of NPM present in the NPM-ALK fusion protein and also in two other NPM fusion proteins (NPM-RARalpha and NPM-MLF1). The third antibody recognizes the C-terminal portion (deleted in NPM-ALK) and reacts only with wild-type NPM. The three antibodies immunostain wild-type NPM (in paraffin-embedded normal tissue samples) in cell nuclei and in the cytoplasm of mitotic cells. Cerebral neurones, exceptionally, show diffuse cytoplasmic labeling. In contrast to normal tissues, the two antibodies against the N-terminal portion of NPM labeled the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells, in four ALK-positive ALCL, reflecting their reactivity with NPM-ALK fusion protein, whereas the antibody to the C-terminal NPM epitope labeled only cell nuclei. Immunocytochemical labeling with these antibodies can therefore confirm that an ALK-positive lymphoma expresses NPM-ALK (rather than a variant ALK-fusion protein) and may also provide evidence for chromosomal anomalies involving the NPM gene other than the classical (2;5) translocation.

Kwong YL
Translocation (3;5)(q21;q34) in erythroleukemia: a molecular and in situ hybridization study.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1998; 103(1):15-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Translocation (3;5) is an uncommon karyotypic aberration in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). With the exception of M3, t(3;5) has been reported in every other subtype of AML, being most frequently associated with AML M6. Although a variety of breakpoints have been described, it has been suggested that the breakpoints in t(3;5) of all the reported cases should be assigned to 3q25.1 and 5q34. Recently, the breakpoints in three pediatric cases of AML M2 with t(3;5) were cloned and shown to involve the myelodysplasia/myeloid leukemia factor I (MLF1) gene on 3q25.1 and the nucleophosmin (NPM) gene on 5q34, generating a chimeric NPM/MLF1 transcript. An adult case of indolent erythroleukemia was found on karyotypic analysis to have t(3;5)(q21;q34). In about 60% of cells, the translocation was unbalanced, resulting in loss of the der(3) chromosome, implying that the critical leukemogenic sequence might reside on the der(5) chromosome. Molecular analysis of this case, however, failed to show rearrangement of the NPM gene and an MLF1/NPM transcript. A review of other reported cases of AML M6 with t(3;5) showed that the commonest breakpoint on chromosome 3 was also assigned to 3q21, as in our case. The considerable clinical, pathologic, cytogenetic and molecular differences observed in AML with t(3;5) suggest that these cases might be heterogeneous.

Xie J, Briggs JA, Morris SW, et al.
MNDA binds NPM/B23 and the NPM-MLF1 chimera generated by the t(3;5) associated with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia.
Exp Hematol. 1997; 25(11):1111-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) is a nuclear protein expressed specifically in developing cells of the human myelomonocytic lineage, including the end-stage monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes. Nuclear localization, lineage- and stage-specific expression, association with chromatin, and regulation by interferon alpha indicate that this protein is involved in regulating gene expression uniquely associated with the differentiation process and/or function of the monocyte/macrophage. MNDA does not bind specific DNA sequences, but rather a set of nuclear proteins that includes nucleolin (C23). Both in vitro binding assays and co-immunoprecipitation were used to demonstrate that MNDA also binds protein B23 (nucleophosmin/NPM). Three reciprocal chromosome translocations found in certain cases of leukemia/lymphoma involve fusions with the NPM/B23 gene, t(5;17) NPM-RARalpha, t(2;5) NPM-ALK, and the t(3;5) NPM-MLF1. In the current study, MNDA was not able to bind the NPM-ALK chimera originating from the t(2;5) and containing residues 1-117 of NPM. However, MNDA did bind the NPM-MLF1 product of the t(3;5) that contains the N-terminal 175 residues of NPM. The additional 58 amino acids (amino acids 117-175) of the NPM sequence that are contained in the product of the NPM-MLF1 fusion gene relative to the product of the NPM-ALK fusion appear responsible for MNDA binding. This additional NPM sequence contains a nuclear localization signal and clusters of acidic residues believed to bind nuclear localization signals of other proteins. Whereas NPM and nucleolin are primarily localized within the nucleolus, MNDA is distributed throughout the nucleus including the nucleolus, suggesting that additional interactions define overall MNDA localization.

Kuefer MU, Look AT, Williams DC, et al.
cDNA cloning, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of myelodysplasia/myeloid leukemia factor 2 (MLF2).
Genomics. 1996; 35(2):392-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
A fusion gene between nucleophosmin (NPM) and myelodysplasia/myeloid leukemia factor 1 (MLF1) is formed by a recurrent t(3;5)(q25.1;q34) in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. Here we report the identification of a novel gene, MLF2, which contains an open reading frame of 744 bp encoding a 248-amino-acid protein highly related to the previously identified MLF1 protein (63% similarity, 40% identity). In contrast to the tissue-restricted expression pattern of MLF1, the MLF2 messenger RNA is expressed ubiquitously. The MLF2 gene locus was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to human chromosome 12p13, a chromosomal region frequently involved in translocations and deletions in acute leukemias of lymphoid or myeloid lineage. In a physical map of chromosome 12, MLF2 was found to reside on the yeast artificial chromosome clone 765b9. Southern blotting analysis of malignant cell DNAs prepared from a series of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases with translocations involving chromosome arm 12p, as well as a group of acute myeloid leukemias with various cytogenetic abnormalities, failed to reveal MLF2 gene rearrangements.

Yoneda-Kato N, Look AT, Kirstein MN, et al.
The t(3;5)(q25.1;q34) of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia produces a novel fusion gene, NPM-MLF1.
Oncogene. 1996; 12(2):265-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
A t(3;5)(q25.1;q34) chromosomal translocation associated with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was found to rearrange part of the nucleophosmin (NPM) gene on chromosome 5 with sequences from a novel gene on chromosome 3. Chimeric transcripts expressed by these cells contain 5' NPM coding sequences fused in-frame to those of the new gene, which we named myelodysplasia/myeloid leukemia factor 1 (MLF1). RNA-based polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed identical NPM-MLF1 mRNA fusions in each of the three t(3;5)-positive cases of AML examined. The predicted MLF1 amino acid sequence lacked homology to previously characterized proteins and did not contain known functional motifs. Normal MLF1 transcripts were expressed in a variety of tissues, most abundantly in testis, ovary, skeletal muscle, heart, kidney and colon. Anti-MLF1 antibodies detected the wild-type 31 kDa protein in K562 and HEL erythroleukemia cell lines, but not in HL-60, U937 or KG-1 myeloid leukemia lines. By contrast, t(3;5)-positive leukemia cells expressed a 54 kDa NPM-MLF1 protein, but not normal MLF1. Immunostaining experiments indicated that MLF1 is normally located in the cytoplasm, whereas NPM-MLF1 is targeted to the nucleus, with highest levels in the nucleolus. The nuclear/nucleolar localization of NPM-MLF1 mirrors that of NPM, indicating that NPM trafficking signals direct MLF1 to an inappropriate cellular compartment in myeloid leukemia cells.

Kirchner EA, Bornkamm GW, Polack A
Transcriptional activity across the Epstein-Barr virus genome in Raji cells during latency and after induction of an abortive lytic cycle.
J Gen Virol. 1991; 72 ( Pt 10):2391-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have studied the relative rate of transcription across the Epstein-Barr virus genome in the Burkitt's lymphoma cell line Raji by nuclear run-on analysis during latency and after induction of an abortive lytic cycle with 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) and 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR). During latency the entire, or almost the entire, viral genome was found to be transcriptionally active to a low or intermediate extent, with some variation in activity along the genome. The fragment with the highest transcriptional activity was EcoRI J, which contains the genes encoding the small nuclear RNAs EBER1 and -2, transcribed predominantly by RNA polymerase III. An intermediate level of transcription was observed between positions 10 and 138 (kb), with areas of slightly higher activity on the large internal repeats and the left duplicated region (DL). The remaining part of the viral genome, between position 138 and the termini, and the termini and position 10 (kb) (with the exception of the EcoRI J fragment), showed very little transcriptional activity, except for the intermediately active regions carrying the righthand oriLyt (DR) and the terminal repeats. Upon induction of the viral genome with TPA and IUdR, the viral genome was transcriptionally active at a rate at least tenfold that seen during latency. Polymerases were not equally distributed along the genome after induction; the highest density was found in regions 48 to 58 kb, 82 to 84 kb, 102 to 104 kb, 118 to 122 kb and 142 to 145 kb of the viral genome. High transcriptional activity correlated with distinct transcription units in some cases, i.e. BamHI H1LF1 (DL), BamHI MLF1, BamHI ZLF1/BamHI RLF1 and BamHI X (thymidine kinase), but not in others (BamHI H2). Besides initiation of transcription, other regulatory processes such as stabilization and processing of primary transcripts may also contribute to regulation of virus gene expression. Addition of cycloheximide completely abolished the transcriptional activation of the genome mediated by TPA and IUdR.

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