Gene Summary

Gene:MUC7; mucin 7, secreted
Aliases: MG2
Summary:This gene encodes a small salivary mucin, which is thought to play a role in facilitating the clearance of bacteria in the oral cavity and to aid in mastication, speech, and swallowing. The central domain of this glycoprotein contains tandem repeats, each composed of 23 amino acids. This antimicrobial protein has antibacterial and antifungal activity. The most common allele contains 6 repeats, and some alleles may be associated with susceptibility to asthma. Alternatively spliced transcript variants with different 5' UTR, but encoding the same protein, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MUC7 (cancer-related)

Li Y, Tran Q, Shrestha R, et al.
LETM1 is required for mitochondrial homeostasis and cellular viability (Review).
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(5):3367-3375 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Leucine zipper/EF‑hand‑containing transmembrane protein 1 (LETM1) has been identified as the gene responsible for Wolf‑Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), which is characterized by intellectual disability, epilepsy, growth delay and craniofacial dysgenesis. LETM1 is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that encodes a homolog of the yeast protein Mdm38, which is involved in mitochondrial morphology. In the present review, the importance of LETM1 in WHS and its role within the mitochondrion was explored. LETM1 governs the mitochondrion ion channel and is involved in mitochondrial respiration. Recent studies have reported that LETM1 acts as a mitochondrial Ca2+/H+ antiporter. LETM1 has also been identified as a K+/H+ exchanger, and serves a role in Mg2+ homeostasis. The function of LETM1 in mitochondria regulation is regulated by its binding partners, carboxyl‑terminal modulator protein and mitochondrial ribosomal protein L36. Therefore, we describe the remarkable role of LETM1 in mitochondrial network physiology and its function in mitochondrion‑mediated cell death. In the context of these findings, we suggest that the participation of LETM1 in tumorigenesis through the alteration of cancer metabolism should be investigated. This review provides a comprehensive description of LETM1 function, which is required for mitochondrial homeostasis and cellular viability.

Han Y, Zheng Q, Tian Y, et al.
Identification of a nine-gene panel as a prognostic indicator for recurrence with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
J Surg Oncol. 2019; 119(8):1145-1154 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bladder cancer is one of the most common and highly recurrent cancers worldwide. Recurrence-associated genes may potentially predict cancer recurrence. We aimed to construct a recurrence-associated gene panel to improve the prognostic prediction of bladder cancer.
METHODS: Based on DNA sequencing and clinical data from the TCGA-BLCA project, we identified 10 potential driver genes significantly associated with recurrence of bladder cancer. We performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to construct an optimized recurrence prediction model with nine recurrence-associated genes (EME1, AKAP9, ZNF91, PARD3, STAG2, ZFP36L2, METTL3, POLR3B, and MUC7) and clinical information as the independent variables.
RESULTS: The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.80 in this model, much higher than that of the baseline model (AUC = 0.73) and the same trend was also validated in its subset. Decision curve analysis also revealed that there is a significant net benefit gained by adding nine genes mutation to the baseline model. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that eight out of the nine genes (excluding MUC7) had good effects on the overall prognosis of patients.
CONCLUSIONS: This nine-gene panel will most likely be a useful tool for prognostic evaluation and will facilitate the personalized management of patients with bladder cancer.

Kasprzak A, Adamek A
Mucins: the Old, the New and the Promising Factors in Hepatobiliary Carcinogenesis.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mucins are large

Zhang S, Ding L, Li X, Fan H
Identification of biomarkers associated with the recurrence of osteosarcoma using ceRNA regulatory network analysis.
Int J Mol Med. 2019; 43(4):1723-1733 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to identify the important mRNAs, micro (mi)RNAs and long non‑coding (lnc)RNAs that are associated with osteosarcoma recurrence. The GSE3905 dataset, which contains two sub‑datasets (GSE39040 and GSE39055), was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Prognosis‑associated RNAs were identified by performing Cox regression univariate analysis and were subsequently used to construct a competing endogenous (ce)RNA regulatory network for Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). Kaplan‑Meier survival analysis was used to determine the associations between expression levels and survival prognosis. In addition, another independent miRNA profile, GSE79181, was downloaded from GEO for validation. Among the differentially expressed RNAs, 417 RNAs (5 lncRNAs, 19 miRNAs, and 393 mRNAs) were observed to be associated with prognosis. The GSEA for the ceRNA regulatory network revealed that 'Mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway', 'Chemokine signaling pathway' and 'Spliceosome' were markedly associated with osteosarcoma. In addition, three lncRNAs [long intergenic non‑protein coding RNA 28 (LINC00028), LINC00323, and small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1)] and two miRNAs (hsa‑miR‑124 and hsa‑miR‑7) regulating three mRNAs [Ras‑related protein Rap‑1b (RAP1B), activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) and protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1B (PPM1B)] participated in the MAPK signaling pathway. The Kaplan‑Meier survival analysis also demonstrated that samples with lower expression levels of LINC00323 and SNHG1 had better prognosis, and samples with increased expression levels of LINC00028, hsa‑miR‑124 and hsa‑miR‑7 had better prognosis. Overexpression of RAP1B, ATF2 and PPM1B was positively associated with osteosarcoma recurrence. The roles of hsa‑miR‑124 and hsa‑miR‑7 in osteosarcoma recurrence were also validated using GSE79181. Thus, in conclusions, the three lncRNAs (LINC00028, LINC00323 and SNHG1), two miRNAs (hsa‑miR‑124 and hsa‑miR‑7) and three mRNAs (RAP1B, ATF2, and PPM1B) were associated with osteosarcoma recurrence.

Hardy S, Kostantin E, Wang SJ, et al.
Magnesium-sensitive upstream ORF controls PRL phosphatase expression to mediate energy metabolism.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019; 116(8):2925-2934 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3, also known as PTP4A1, PTP4A2, and PTP4A3) control magnesium homeostasis through an association with the CNNM magnesium transport regulators. Although high PRL levels have been linked to cancer progression, regulation of their expression is poorly understood. Here we show that modulating intracellular magnesium levels correlates with a rapid change of PRL expression by a mechanism involving its 5'UTR mRNA region. Mutations or CRISPR-Cas9 targeting of the conserved upstream ORF present in the mRNA leader derepress PRL protein synthesis and attenuate the translational response to magnesium levels. Mechanistically, magnesium depletion reduces intracellular ATP but up-regulates PRL protein expression via activation of the AMPK/mTORC2 pathway, which controls cellular energy status. Hence, altered PRL-2 expression leads to metabolic reprogramming of the cells. These findings uncover a magnesium-sensitive mechanism controlling PRL expression, which plays a role in cellular bioenergetics.

Dong J, Teng F, Guo W, et al.
lncRNA SNHG8 Promotes the Tumorigenesis and Metastasis by Sponging miR-149-5p and Predicts Tumor Recurrence in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 51(5):2262-2274 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are aberrantly expressed in multiple malignant tumors involved in tumor growth and metastasis. Accumulating data show that small nucleolar RNA host gene (SNHG) 1/12/20 plays a key role in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanisms by which SNHG8 contributes to HCC remain elusive and merit exploration.
METHODS: The association between SNHG8 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics and prognoses in HCC patients was analysed by using qRT-PCR analysis and the data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Cell growth and metastatic potential were determined by MTT, colony formation, Transwell assays, and the mouse xenograft tumor model and lung metastasis model. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers were detected by western blot analysis. The binding capacity of SNHG8 with miRNAs was evidenced by bioinformatic analysis and a luciferase reporter assay. In addition, the rescue experiments were performed based on co-transfection with sh-SNHG8 and a miR-149 inhibitor in HCC cells.
RESULTS: The expression levels of lncRNA SNHG8 were dramatically increased in HCC tissues and cell lines as compared with the adjacent normal tissues, and SNHG8 expression was an independent prognostic factor of tumor recurrence in HCC patients. Furthermore, knockdown of SNHG8 inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, and lung metastasis in vitro and in vivo, whereas overexpression of SNHG8 reversed these effects. SNHG8 acted as a sponge of miR-149 and counteracted the tumor suppressive effects of mi R-149 in HCC cells. Expression of phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1F, a target of R-149, displayed a negative correlation with miR-149 expression but a positive correlation with SNHG8 expression in HCC specimens.
CONCLUSION: As lncRNA SNHG8 may promote HCC tumorigenesis and metastasis by sponging miR-149, it is a potential candidate marker and therapeutic target for HCC.

Wang H, Chen W, Jin M, et al.
CircSLC3A2 functions as an oncogenic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma by sponging miR-490-3p and regulating PPM1F expression.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):165 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been reported to participate in tumor progression by regulating gene expression. Previous studies showed that protein phosphatase Mg2
METHODS: The association between PPM1F or miR-490-3p expression and clinicopathological features and prognosis in patients with HCC was analyzed by TCGA RNA-sequencing data. CircSLC3A2 was identified to bind with miR-490-3p by bioinformatic analysis, and the binding sites between miR-490-3p and PPM1F or circSLC3A2 were confirmed by dual luciferase report and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays. The localization and clinical significance of miR-490-3p and circSLC3A2 in patients with HCC were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). MTT, Agar, and Transwell assays were conducted to evaluate the effects of miR-490-3p or circSLC3A2 on cell proliferation and invasive potential.
RESULTS: The expression of PPM1F or miR-490-3p was associated with poor survival and tumor recurrence, and acted as an independent prognostic factor in patients with HCC. Re-expression of miR-490-3p inhibited HCC cell proliferation and invasion by targeting PPM1F, but its inhibitor reversed these effects. Moreover, circSLC3A2, predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, exhibited an oncogenic role by sponging miR-490-3p and regulating PPM1F expression, and harbored a positive correlation with poor survival in patients with HCC.
CONCLUSION: CircSLC3A2 acts as an oncogenic factor in HCC by sponging miR-490-3p and regulating PPM1F expression.

Zhang J, Jin M, Chen X, et al.
Loss of PPM1F expression predicts tumour recurrence and is negatively regulated by miR-590-3p in gastric cancer.
Cell Prolif. 2018; 51(4):e12444 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) as small non-coding RNA molecules act by negatively regulating their target genes. Recent studies have shown that protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent 1F (PPM1F) plays a critical role in cancer metastasis. But, the regulation mechanisms of PPM1F by miRNAs in gastric cancer (GC) remain undefined.
METHODS: The correlation of PPM1F or miR-590-3p (miR-590) expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis of the patients with GC was analysed by TCGA RNA-sequencing data. The miRNAs that target PPM1F gene were identified by bioinformatics and Spearman correlation analysis, and the binding site between miR-590 and PPM1F 3'UTR was confirmed by dual luciferase assay. MTT and Transwell assays were conducted to evaluate the effects of miR-590 or (and) PPM1F on cell proliferation and invasion.
RESULTS: We found that PPM1F expression was downregulated in GC tissues and cell lines and was correlated with tumour recurrence in patients with GC. The decreased expression of PPM1F was attributed to the dysregulation of miR-590 expression rather than its genetic or epigenetic alterations. Overexpression of miR-590 promoted cell proliferation and invasion capability of GC cells, while knockdown of miR-590 reversed these effects. Moreover, PPM1F was validated as a direct target of miR-590 and counteracted the tumour-promoting effects caused by miR-590. The expression of miR-590 presented the negative correlation with PPM1F expression and acted as an independent prognostic factor for tumour recurrence in patients with GC.
CONCLUSION: PPM1F may function as a suppressive factor and is negatively regulated by miR-590 in GC.

Ma D, Yang J, Wang Y, et al.
Whole exome sequencing identified genetic variations in Chinese hemangioblastoma patients.
Am J Med Genet A. 2017; 173(10):2605-2613 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hemangioblastomas (HBs) are uncommon tumors characterized by the presence of inactivating alterations in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene in inherited cases and by infrequent somatic mutation in sporadic entities. We performed whole exome sequencing on 11 HB patients to further elucidate the genetics of HBs. A total of 270 somatic variations in 219 genes, of which there were 86 mutations in 67 genes, were found in sporadic HBs, and 184 mutations were found in 154 genes in familial HBs. C: G>T: A and T: A>C: G mutations are relatively common in most HB patients. Genes harboring the most significant mutations include PCDH9, KLHL12, DCAF4L1, and VHL in sporadic HBs, and ZNF814, DLG2, RIMS1, PNN, and MUC7 in familial HBs. The frequency of CNV varied considerably within sporadic HBs but was relatively similar within familial HBs. Five genes, including OTOGL, PLCB4, SCEL, THSD4, and WWOX, have CNVs in the six patients with sporadic HBs, and three genes, including ABCA6, CWC27, and LAMA2, have CNVs in the five patients with familial HBs. We found new genetic mutations and CNVs that might be involved in HBs; these findings highlight the complexity of the tumorigenesis of HBs and pinpoint potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of HBs.

Li ZW, Zhu YR, Zhou XZ, et al.
microRNA-135b expression silences Ppm1e to provoke AMPK activation and inhibit osteoblastoma cell proliferation.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(16):26424-26433 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Forced-activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can possibly inhibit osteoblastoma cells. Here, we aim to provoke AMPK activation via microRNA silencing its phosphatase Ppm1e (protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent 1e). We showed that microRNA-135b-5p ("miR-135b-5p"), the anti-Ppm1e microRNA, was significantly downregulated in human osteoblastoma tissues. It was correlated with Ppm1e upregulation and AMPKα1 de-phosphorylation. Forced-expression of miR-135b-5p in human osteoblastoma cells (MG-63 and U2OS lines) silenced Ppm1e, and induced a profound AMPKα1 phosphorylation (at Thr-172). Osteoblastoma cell proliferation was inhibited after miR-135b-5p expression. Intriguingly, Ppm1e shRNA knockdown similarly induced AMPKα1 phosphorylation, causing osteoblastoma cell proliferation. Reversely, AMPKα1 shRNA knockdown or dominant negative mutation almost abolished miR-135b-5p's actions in osteoblastoma cells. Further in vivo studies demonstrated that U2OS tumor growth in mice was dramatically inhibited after expressing miR-135b-5p or Ppm1e shRNA. Together, our results suggest that miR-135b-induced Ppm1e silence induces AMPK activation to inhibit osteoblastoma cell proliferation.

Tu SH, Lin YC, Huang CC, et al.
Protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1F promotes smoking-induced breast cancer by inactivating phosphorylated-p53-induced signals.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(47):77516-77531 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We previously demonstrated that the activation of α9-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α9-nAchR) signaling by smoking promotes breast cancer formation. To investigate the downstream signaling molecules involved in α9-nAChR-induced breast tumorigenesis, we used real-time polymerase chain reactions and Western blotting to assess expression of protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1F (PPM1F), a Ser/Thr protein phosphatase, in human breast cancer samples (n=167). Additionally, stable PPM1F-knockdown and -overexpressing cell lines were established to evaluate the function of PPM1F. The phosphatase activity of PPM1F in nicotine-treated cells was assessed through Western blotting, confocal microscopy, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Higher levels of PPM1F were detected in the breast cancer tissues of heavy smokers (n=7, 12.8-fold) greater than of non-smokers (n= 28, 6.3-fold) (**p=0.01). In vitro, nicotine induced PPM1F expression, whereas α9-nAChR knockdown reduced the protein expression of PPM1F. A series of biochemical experiments using nicotine-treated cells suggested that the dephosphorylation of p53 (Ser-20) and BAX (Ser-184) by PPM1F is a critical posttranslational modification, as observed in breast cancer patients who were heavy smokers. These observations indicate that PPM1F may be a mediator downstream of α9-nAChR that activates smoking-induced carcinogenic signals. Thus, PPM1F expression could be used for prognostic diagnosis or inhibited for cancer prevention and therapy.

Cao R, Meng Z, Liu T, et al.
Decreased TRPM7 inhibits activities and induces apoptosis of bladder cancer cells via ERK1/2 pathway.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(45):72941-72960 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) functions as a Mg2+/Ca2+-permeable channel fused with a kinase domain and regulates various physical processes and diseases. However, its effects on pathogenesis of human bladder cancer (BCa) has not been clarified yet. Our microarray analysis has suggested that calcium signaling pathway is connected with bladder cancer via MAPK pathway. Therefore, we aim to investigate the mechanism of TRPM7 in BCa tumorigenesis by using BCa tissues compared with normal bladder epithelium tissues, as well as using distinct BCa cell lines (EJ, 5637 and T24). We observed increased TRPM7 expression and dysregulation of proteins involved in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in BCa tissues. Moreover, knockdown of TRPM7 in BCa cells reversed the EMT status, accompanied by increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, TRPM7 deficiency could inhibit BCa cell proliferation, migration and invasion, as well as induce p-ERK1/2 and suppress PI3K/AKT at the protein level. Downregulation of TRPM7 promoted cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis in vitro, which could be recovered by pre-treatment with U0126 to deactivate ERK1/2, suggesting a close correlation between TRPM7 and the MAPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, a NOD/SCID mouse model transplanted using the BCa cells was established, revealing delayed tumor growth by reduced protein activity and mRNA transcription of TRPM7 in vivo. Our results suggested TRPM7 might be essential for BCa tumorigenesis by interfering BCa cell proliferation, motility and apoptosis.

Kamburov A, Lawrence MS, Polak P, et al.
Comprehensive assessment of cancer missense mutation clustering in protein structures.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(40):E5486-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Large-scale tumor sequencing projects enabled the identification of many new cancer gene candidates through computational approaches. Here, we describe a general method to detect cancer genes based on significant 3D clustering of mutations relative to the structure of the encoded protein products. The approach can also be used to search for proteins with an enrichment of mutations at binding interfaces with a protein, nucleic acid, or small molecule partner. We applied this approach to systematically analyze the PanCancer compendium of somatic mutations from 4,742 tumors relative to all known 3D structures of human proteins in the Protein Data Bank. We detected significant 3D clustering of missense mutations in several previously known oncoproteins including HRAS, EGFR, and PIK3CA. Although clustering of missense mutations is often regarded as a hallmark of oncoproteins, we observed that a number of tumor suppressors, including FBXW7, VHL, and STK11, also showed such clustering. Beside these known cases, we also identified significant 3D clustering of missense mutations in NUF2, which encodes a component of the kinetochore, that could affect chromosome segregation and lead to aneuploidy. Analysis of interaction interfaces revealed enrichment of mutations in the interfaces between FBXW7-CCNE1, HRAS-RASA1, CUL4B-CAND1, OGT-HCFC1, PPP2R1A-PPP2R5C/PPP2R2A, DICER1-Mg2+, MAX-DNA, SRSF2-RNA, and others. Together, our results indicate that systematic consideration of 3D structure can assist in the identification of cancer genes and in the understanding of the functional role of their mutations.

Xiong X, Wu M, Zhang H, et al.
Atg5 siRNA inhibits autophagy and enhances norcantharidin-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(4):1321-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cantharidin is a terpenoid isolated from Chinese blister beetles, and norcantharidin (NCTD) is a demethylated analog of cantharidin. It has been reported that cantharidin and norcantharidin have anticancer activities. Growing evidence suggests that inhibiting autophagy can induce apoptosis in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. The objective of the present study was to determine whether inhibition of autophagy enhances NCTD-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were cultured in DMEM containing NCTD. Autophagy was upregulated in the presence of HBSS media supplemented with Ca2+ and Mg2+ and 10 mM HEPES and downregulated in the presence of 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and Atg5 siRNA. Autophagy, cell viability, and the expression of apoptotic proteins were assessed in HepG2 cells. Our data showed that cell apoptosis generally increased after norcantharidin treatment in HepG2 cells. Expression of LC3-II, an autophagosome marker, increased when cells were treated with HBSS media. It also increased cell viability. However, in the presence of 3-MA and Atg5 siRNA, autophagy was inhibited, LC3-II expression decreased and cell apoptosis increased. There was increased expression of Bax, cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP and the mitochondrial membrane potential was disrupted. Additionally, increased apoptosis was accompanied by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. NCTD has anticancer activity, and Atg5 siRNA-mediated downregulation of autophagy enhanced its anticancer actions due to ROS generation and activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

Behera SK, Praharaj AB, Dehury B, Negi S
Exploring the role and diversity of mucins in health and disease with special insight into non-communicable diseases.
Glycoconj J. 2015; 32(8):575-613 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mucins are major glycoprotein components of the mucus that coats the surfaces of cells lining the respiratory, digestive, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts. They function to protect epithelial cells from infection, dehydration and physical or chemical injury, as well as to aid the passage of materials through a tract i.e., lubrication. They are also implicated in the pathogenesis of benign and malignant diseases of secretory epithelial cells. In Human there are two types of mucins, membrane-bound and secreted that are originated from mucous producing goblet cells localized in the epithelial cell layer or in mucous producing glands and encoded by MUC gene. Mucins belong to a heterogeneous family of high molecular weight proteins composed of a long peptidic chain with a large number of tandem repeats that form the so-called mucin domain. The molecular weight is generally high, ranging between 0.2 and 10 million Dalton and all mucins contain one or more domains which are highly glycosylated. The size and number of repeats vary between mucins and the genetic polymorphism represents number of repeats (VNTR polymorphisms), which means the size of individual mucins can differ substantially between individuals which can be used as markers. In human it is only MUC1 and MUC7 that have mucin domains with less than 40% serine and threonine which in turn could reduce number of PTS domains. Mucins can be considered as powerful two-edged sword, as its normal function protects from unwanted substances and organisms at an arm's length while, malfunction of mucus may be an important factor in human diseases. In this review we have unearthed the current status of different mucin proteins in understanding its role and function in various non-communicable diseases in human with special reference to its organ specific locations. The findings described in this review may be of direct relevance to the major research area in biomedicine with reference to mucin and mucin associated diseases.

Roskoski R
A historical overview of protein kinases and their targeted small molecule inhibitors.
Pharmacol Res. 2015; 100:1-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein kinases play a predominant regulatory role in nearly every aspect of cell biology and they can modify the function of a protein in almost every conceivable way. Protein phosphorylation can increase or decrease enzyme activity and it can alter other biological activities such as transcription and translation. Moreover, some phosphorylation sites on a given protein are stimulatory while others are inhibitory. The human protein kinase gene family consists of 518 members along with 106 pseudogenes. Furthermore, about 50 of the 518 gene products lack important catalytic residues and are called protein pseudokinases. The non-catalytic allosteric interaction of protein kinases and pseudokinases with other proteins has added an important regulatory feature to the biochemistry and cell biology of the protein kinase superfamily. With rare exceptions, a divalent cation such as Mg2+ is required for the reaction. All protein kinases exist in a basal state and are activated only as necessary by divergent regulatory stimuli. The mechanisms for switching between dormant and active protein kinases can be intricate. Phosphorylase kinase was the first protein kinase to be characterized biochemically and the mechanism of its regulation led to the discovery of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A, or PKA), which catalyzes the phosphorylation and activation of phosphorylase kinase. This was the first protein kinase cascade or signaling module to be elucidated. The epidermal growth factor receptor-Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling module contains protein-tyrosine, protein-serine/threonine, and dual specificity protein kinases. PKA has served as a prototype of this enzyme family and more is known about this enzyme than any other protein kinase. The inactive PKA holoenzyme consists of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. After binding four molecules of cAMP, the holoenzyme dissociates into a regulatory subunit dimer (each monomer binds two cAMP) and two free and active catalytic subunits. PKA and all other protein kinase domains have a small amino-terminal lobe and large carboxyterminal lobe as determined by X-ray crystallography. The N-lobe and C-lobe form a cleft that serves as a docking site for MgATP. Nearly all active protein kinases contain a K/E/D/D signature sequence that plays important structural and catalytic roles. Protein kinases contain hydrophobic catalytic and regulatory spines and collateral shell residues that are required to assemble the active enzyme. There are two general kinds of conformational changes associated with most protein kinases. The first conformational change involves the formation of an intact regulatory spine to form an active enzyme. The second conformational change occurs in active kinases as they toggle between open and closed conformations during their catalytic cycles. Because mutations and dysregulation of protein kinases play causal roles in human disease, this family of enzymes has become one of the most important drug targets over the past two decades. Imatinib was approved by the United States FDA for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia in 2001; this small molecule inhibits the BCR-Abl protein kinase oncoprotein that results from the formation of the Philadelphia chromosome. More than two dozen other orally effective mechanism-based small molecule protein kinase inhibitors have been subsequently approved by the FDA. These drugs bind to the ATP-binding site of their target enzymes and extend into nearby hydrophobic pockets. Most of these protein kinase inhibitors prolong survival in cancer patients only weeks or months longer than standard cytotoxic therapies. In contrast, the clinical effectiveness of imatinib against chronic myelogenous leukemia is vastly superior to that of any other targeted protein kinase inhibitor with overall survival lasting a decade or more. However, the near universal and expected development of drug resistance in the treatment of neoplastic disorders requires new approaches to solve this therapeutic challenge. Cancer is the predominant indication for these drugs, but disease targets are increasing. For example, we can expect the approval of new drugs inhibiting other protein kinases in the treatment of illnesses such as hypertension, Parkinson's disease, and autoimmune diseases.

Oh HR, An CH, Yoo NJ, Lee SH
Frameshift mutations of MUC15 gene in gastric and its regional heterogeneity in gastric and colorectal cancers.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2015; 21(3):713-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mucins are important in tumorigenesis and expressional alterations of mucins are common in human cancers. A membrane-bound mucin MUC15 and secreted mucins MUC4 and MUC7 are known to involve in tumorigenesis, but their mutation status in cancers remains unknown. Aim of this study was to explore whether MUC4, MUC7 and MUC15 genes are mutated and expressionally altered in gastric (GC) and colorectal cancers (CRC). In a public database, we found that MUC15 and MUC7 genes had mononucleotide repeats in the coding sequences that might be mutation targets in the cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI). We analyzed the mutations in 90 GC and 141 CRC (high MSI (MSI-H) or stable MSI/low MSI (MSS/MSI-L)) by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. In the present study, we found MUC15 frameshift mutations (14.7% of GC and 15.2% of CRC with MSI-H), MUC 7 frameshift mutations (2.9% of GC with MSI-H) and MUC4 frameshift mutations (8.8% of GC and 3.8% of CRC with MSI-H). These mutations were not found in in MSS/MSI-L (0/118). Additionally, we analyzed intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) of MUC15 mutation in 16 CRC and found that seven CRC (43.8%) harbored regional ITH of MUC15. We also analyzed MUC15 expression in GC and CRC by immunohistochemistry. Negative MUC15 expression was identified in 15-41% of the GC and CRC irrespective of MSI status. Of note, the negative expression was more common in those with MUC15 mutations. We identified alterations of MUC genes at various levels (frameshift mutations, genetic ITH and expression loss), which together might play a role in tumorigenesis of GC and CRC with MSI-H. Our data suggest that mutation analysis in multiple regions is needed for a better evaluation of mutation status in CRC with MSI-H.

Pondugula SR, Flannery PC, Apte U, et al.
Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent phosphatase 1A is involved in regulating pregnane X receptor-mediated cytochrome p450 3A4 gene expression.
Drug Metab Dispos. 2015; 43(3):385-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Variations in the expression of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR)-mediated cytochrome p450 3A4 (CYP3A4) in liver can alter therapeutic response to a variety of drugs and may lead to potential adverse drug interactions. We sought to determine whether Mg(2+)/Mn(2+)-dependent phosphatase 1A (PPM1A) regulates hPXR-mediated CYP3A4 expression. PPM1A was found to be coimmunoprecipitated with hPXR. Genetic or pharmacologic activation of PPM1A led to a significant increase in hPXR transactivation of CYP3A4 promoter activity. In contrast, knockdown of endogenous PPM1A not only attenuated hPXR transactivation, but also increased proliferation of HepG2 human liver carcinoma cells, suggesting that PPM1A expression levels regulate hPXR, and that PPM1A expression is regulated in a proliferation-dependent manner. Indeed, PPM1A expression and hPXR transactivation were found to be significantly reduced in subconfluent HepG2 cells compared with confluent HepG2 cells, suggesting that both PPM1A expression and hPXR-mediated CYP3A4 expression may be downregulated in proliferating livers. Elevated PPM1A levels led to attenuation of hPXR inhibition by tumor necrosis factor-α and cyclin-dependent kinase-2, which are known to be upregulated and essential during liver regeneration. In mouse regenerating livers, similar to subconfluent HepG2 cells, expression of both PPM1A and the mouse PXR target gene cyp3a11 was found to be downregulated. Our results show that PPM1A can positively regulate PXR activity by counteracting PXR inhibitory signaling pathways that play a major role in liver regeneration. These results implicate a novel role for PPM1A in regulating hPXR-mediated CYP3A4 expression in hepatocytes and may explain a mechanism for CYP3A repression in regenerating livers.

Funato Y, Yamazaki D, Mizukami S, et al.
Membrane protein CNNM4-dependent Mg2+ efflux suppresses tumor progression.
J Clin Invest. 2014; 124(12):5398-410 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Intracellular Mg(2+) levels are strictly regulated; however, the biological importance of intracellular Mg(2+) levels and the pathways that regulate them remain poorly understood. Here, we determined that intracellular Mg(2+) is important in regulating both energy metabolism and tumor progression. We determined that CNNM4, a membrane protein that stimulates Mg(2+) efflux, binds phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL), which is frequently overexpressed in malignant human cancers. Biochemical analyses of cultured cells revealed that PRL prevents CNNM4-dependent Mg(2+) efflux and that regulation of intracellular Mg(2+) levels by PRL and CNNM4 is linked to energy metabolism and AMPK/mTOR signaling. Indeed, treatment with the clinically available mTOR inhibitor rapamycin suppressed the growth of cancer cells in which PRL was overexpressed. In ApcΔ(14/+) mice, which spontaneously form benign polyps in the intestine, deletion of Cnnm4 promoted malignant progression of intestinal polyps to adenocarcinomas. IHC analyses of tissues from patients with colon cancer demonstrated an inverse relationship between CNNM4 expression and colon cancer malignancy. Together, these results indicate that CNNM4-dependent Mg(2+) efflux suppresses tumor progression by regulating energy metabolism.

Zhang Z, Faouzi M, Huang J, et al.
N-Myc-induced up-regulation of TRPM6/TRPM7 channels promotes neuroblastoma cell proliferation.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(17):7625-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Intracellular levels of the divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+ are important regulators of cell cycle and proliferation. However, the precise mechanisms by which they are regulated in cancer remain incompletely understood. The channel kinases TRPM6 and TRPM7 are gatekeepers of human Ca2+/Mg2+ metabolism. Here, we investigated the human neuroblastoma cell line SHEP-21N in which the MYCN oncogene (encoding N-Myc) can be reversibly expressed under control of an inducible repressor. We report that N-Myc expression increases cell growth and up-regulates both TRPM6 and TRPM7 expression. Membrane current analyses reveal that endogenous TRPM6/TRPM7 currents exhibit reduced Mg·ATP suppression, increased Mg2+ sensitivity, and diminished sensitivity to 2-APB inhibition. These properties are consistent with N-Myc-induced increase of heteromeric TRPM7/TRPM6 channels promoting Ca2+ and Mg2+ uptake. Genetic suppression of TRPM6/TRPM7 through siRNA inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting that N-Myc can promote neuroblastoma cell proliferation through up-regulation of divalent cation-transporting channels.

Zhang C, Chen Y, Wang M, et al.
PPM1D silencing by RNA interference inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells.
World J Surg Oncol. 2014; 12:258 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: PPM1D (protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1D) has been reported to be involved in multiple human tumors. This study was designed to investigate the functional role of PPM1D in lung cancer cells.
METHODS: Expression levels of PPM1D were analyzed in A549 and H1299 cells by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to knock down PPM1D expression in both cell lines. The effects of PPM1D on lung cancer cell growth were investigated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), colony formation and flow cytometry assays.
RESULTS: Knockdown of PPM1D in lung cancer cells resulted in decreased cell proliferation and impaired colony formation ability. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis showed that knockdown of PPM1D arrested cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, PPM1D silencing downregulated the expression of cyclin B1 in H1299 cells. Therefore, it is reasonable to speculate that the mechanisms by which PPM1D knockdown alleviates cell growth may be partly via the induction of cell cycle arrest due to the suppression of cyclin B1.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PPM1D silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) may be a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of lung cancer.

Li FY, Chaigne-Delalande B, Su H, et al.
XMEN disease: a new primary immunodeficiency affecting Mg2+ regulation of immunity against Epstein-Barr virus.
Blood. 2014; 123(14):2148-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus that infects and persists in 95% of adults worldwide and has the potential to cause fatal disease, especially lymphoma, in immunocompromised hosts. Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) that predispose to EBV-associated malignancies have provided novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of immune defense against EBV. We have recently characterized a novel PID now named "X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, EBV infection, and neoplasia" (XMEN) disease characterized by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1), chronic high-level EBV with increased EBV-infected B cells, and heightened susceptibility to EBV-associated lymphomas. The genetic etiology of XMEN disease has revealed an unexpected quantitative role for intracellular free magnesium in immune functions and has led to novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the clinical presentation, genetic mutation spectrum, molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, and diagnostic and therapeutic considerations for this previously unrecognized disease.

Sun Y, Selvaraj S, Varma A, et al.
Increase in serum Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio promotes proliferation of prostate cancer cells by activating TRPM7 channels.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(1):255-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TRPM7 is a novel magnesium-nucleotide-regulated metal current (MagNuM) channel that is regulated by serum Mg(2+) concentrations. Changes in Mg(2+) concentration have been shown to alter cell proliferation in various cells; however, the mechanism and the ion channel(s) involved have not yet been identified. Here we demonstrate that TRPM7 is expressed in control and prostate cancer cells. Supplementation of intracellular Mg-ATP or addition of external 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate inhibited MagNuM currents. Furthermore, silencing of TRPM7 inhibited whereas overexpression of TRPM7 increased endogenous MagNuM currents, suggesting that these currents are dependent on TRPM7. Importantly, although an increase in the serum Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio facilitated Ca(2+) influx in both control and prostate cancer cells, a significantly higher Ca(2+) influx was observed in prostate cancer cells. TRPM7 expression was also increased in cancer cells, but its expression was not dependent on the Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio per se. Additionally, an increase in the extracellular Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio led to a significant increase in cell proliferation of prostate cancer cells when compared with control cells. Consistent with these results, age-matched prostate cancer patients also showed a subsequent increase in the Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio and TRPM7 expression. Altogether, we provide evidence that the TRPM7 channel has an important role in prostate cancer and have identified that the Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio could be essential for the initiation/progression of prostate cancer.

Mason MJ, Schaffner C, Floto RA, Teo QA
Constitutive expression of a Mg2+-inhibited K+ current and a TRPM7-like current in human erythroleukemia cells.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012; 302(6):C853-67 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Whole cell patch-clamp experiments were undertaken to define the basal K(+) conductance(s) in human erythroleukemia cells and its contribution to the setting of resting membrane potential. Experiments revealed a non-voltage-activated, noninactivating K(+) current. The magnitude of the current recorded under whole cell conditions was inhibited by an increase in free intracellular Mg(2+) concentration. Activation or inactivation of the Mg(2+)-inhibited K(+) current (MIP) was paralleled by activation or inactivation of a Mg(2+)-inhibited TRPM7-like current displaying characteristics indistinguishable from those reported for molecularly identified TRPM7 current. The MIP and TRPM7 currents were inhibited by 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors. However, inhibition of the MIP current was temporally distinct from inhibition of TRPM7 current, allowing for isolation of the MIP current. Isolation of the MIP conductance revealed a current reversing near the K(+) equilibrium potential, indicative of a highly K(+)-selective conductance. Consistent with this finding, coactivation of the nonselective cation current TRPM7 and the MIP current following dialysis with nominally Mg(2+)-free pipette solution resulted in hyperpolarized whole cell reversal potentials, consistent with an important role for the MIP current in the setting of a negative resting membrane potential. The MIP and TRPM7-like conductances were constitutively expressed under in vivo conditions of intracellular Mg(2+), as judged by their initial detection and subsequent inactivation following dialysis with a pipette solution containing 5 mM free Mg(2+). The MIP current was blocked in a voltage-dependent fashion by extracellular Cs(+) and, to a lesser degree, by Ba(2+) and was blocked by extracellular La(3+) and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate. MIP currents were unaffected by blockers of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, human ether-à-go-go-related gene current, and intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. In addition, the MIP current displayed characteristics distinct from conventional inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. A similar current was detected in the leukemic cell line CHRF-288-11, consistent with this current being more generally expressed in cells of leukemic origin.

Mahomed F
Recent advances in mucin immunohistochemistry in salivary gland tumors and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Oncol. 2011; 47(9):797-803 [PubMed] Related Publications
This review focuses on the immunohistochemical expression of members of the MUC-type mucin family in salivary gland tumors and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Information is available on changes in the expression levels and distribution profiles of MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6 and MUC7 in tumors of the salivary glands; and of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 in HNSCC. In salivary gland tumors the expression patterns of MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC and MUC6 appear to be very closely correlated with the histopathological tumor type indicating their potential use to improve diagnostic accuracy in salivary gland neoplasia. Some MUC-type mucins have emerged as valuable prognostic indicators in pleomorphic adenoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and HNSCC. Nine antibodies directed against different MUC1 antigens have thus far been examined in HNSCC of which monoclonal antibodies DF3, HMFG-1 and Ma695 have shown significant correlations with disease outcome. The importance of taking the specific anti-MUC antibody into consideration when comparing the results of different studies on MUC expression in salivary gland tumors and HNSCC is also highlighted in this review.

Carrara S, Cangi MG, Arcidiacono PG, et al.
Mucin expression pattern in pancreatic diseases: findings from EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies.
Am J Gastroenterol. 2011; 106(7):1359-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Alterations in mucin (MUC) glycosylation and expression have been described in cancer. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can provide material for molecular biology analysis. This study assessed the feasibility of evaluating MUC expression from material obtained by EUS-FNA and studied the profile of MUC expression in benign and malignant pancreatic lesions.
METHODS: A total of 90 patients with solid or cystic pancreatic lesions underwent FNA. The aspirated material was used for cytological analysis and RNA extraction to assess the expression pattern of MUCs by reverse transcription-PCR with primers specific for the MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5A, MUC5B, MUC6, and MUC7 genes.
RESULTS: RNA extraction was successful in 81% of the biopsies. The prevalences of MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, and MUC7 in ductal adenocarcinoma were 57.7, 51.4, 18.9, and 73.0%, respectively. Fifty percent of benign lesions and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), and 63% of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) were positive for MUC1. Twenty-five percent of benign lesions, 86% of NETs, and 47% of IPMNs were positive for MUC2. Of NETs, 50% were positive for MUC1, and 14% were positive for MUC7. None of the benign lesions or NETs expressed MUC4. MUC7 expression was highly significant for adenocarcinoma (P=0.007) and borderline for IPMN (P=0.05). MUC7 was expressed in 37.5% of chronic pancreatitis cases.
CONCLUSIONS: RNA can be extracted from samples obtained under EUS-FNA. MUC7 could serve as a potential biological marker to identify malignant lesions, especially pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Costa-Rodrigues J, Teixeira CA, Fernandes MH
Paracrine-mediated osteoclastogenesis by the osteosarcoma MG63 cell line: is RANKL/RANK signalling really important?
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2011; 28(6):505-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although in the past little attention has been paid to the influence of osteosarcoma cells in osteoclast function, recent studies suggest a close relationship between osteosarcoma aggressiveness and osteoclastic activity. The present study addresses the paracrine effects of MG63 cells, a human osteosarcoma-derived cell line, on the differentiation of peripheral blood osteoclast precursor cells (PBMC). PBMC were cultured for 21 days in the presence of conditioned media from MG63 cell cultures (CM) collected at 48 h (CM_MG1), 7 days (CM_MG2) and 14 days (CM_MG3). MG63 cell cultures displayed the expression of ALP and BMP-2 and, also, the osteoclastogenic genes M-CSF and RANKL, although with a low expression of RANKL. PBMC cultures supplemented with CM presented an evident osteoclastogenic behavior, which was dependent on the culture period of the MG63 cells. The inductive effect appeared to be more relevant for the differentiation and activation genes, c-myc and c-src, and lower for genes associated with osteoclast function. In addition, PBMC cultures displayed increased functional parameters, including calcium phosphate resorbing activity. Assessment of the PBMC cultures in the presence of U0126, PDTC, and indomethacin suggested that in addition to MEK and NFkB pathways, other signaling mechanisms, probably not involving RANKL/RANK interaction, might be activated in the presence of conditioned medium from MG63. In conclusion, MG63 cell line appears to induce a significant paracrine-mediated osteoclastogenic response. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the interaction of osteosarcoma cells and osteoclasts may contribute to the development of new potential approaches in the treatment of such bone metabolic diseases.

Yee NS, Zhou W, Liang IC
Transient receptor potential ion channel Trpm7 regulates exocrine pancreatic epithelial proliferation by Mg2+-sensitive Socs3a signaling in development and cancer.
Dis Model Mech. 2011; 4(2):240-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genetic analysis of pancreatic development has provided new insights into the mechanisms underlying the formation of exocrine pancreatic neoplasia. Zebrafish sweetbread (swd) mutants develop hypoplastic acini and dysmorphic ducts in the exocrine pancreas, with impeded progression of cell division cycle and of epithelial growth. Positional cloning and allelic complementation have revealed that the swd mutations affect the transient receptor potential melastatin-subfamily member 7 (trpm7) gene, which encodes a divalent cation-permeable channel with kinase activity. Supplementary Mg(2+) partially rescued the exocrine pancreatic defects of the trpm7 mutants by improving cell-cycle progression and growth and repressing the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3a (socs3a) gene. The role of Socs3a in Trpm7-mediated signaling is supported by the findings that socs3a mRNA level is elevated in the trpm7 mutants, and antisense inhibition of socs3a expression improved their exocrine pancreatic growth. TRPM7 is generally overexpressed in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. TRPM7-deficient cells are impaired in proliferation and arrested in the G0-G1 phases of the cell division cycle. Supplementary Mg(2+) rescued the proliferative defect of the TRPM7-deficient cells. Results of this study indicate that Trpm7 regulates exocrine pancreatic development via the Mg(2+)-sensitive Socs3a pathway, and suggest that aberrant TRPM7-mediated signaling contributes to pancreatic carcinogenesis.

Wu JC, Sun BS, Ren N, et al.
Genomic aberrations in hepatocellular carcinoma related to osteopontin expression detected by array-CGH.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2010; 136(4):595-601 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We have demonstrated that overexpression of osteopontin (OPN) could contribute to metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and that OPN-positive cancer cells are often localized in the periphery of cancer nodules adjacent to stromal cells. This study was to identify the difference of intratumor genomic aberrations between OPN-positive and OPN-negative HCC cells.
METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for OPN was performed in both archival and fresh HCC tumor tissues. Seven cases of OPN-positive HCC were chosen for laser capture microdissection. The OPN-positive and OPN-negative cancer cells were captured separately from serial frozen sections. Genomic DNA was extracted and quantified. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was used to achieve high-resolution analysis of whole-genome-wide aberrations.
RESULTS: The OPN expression level in HCC tissues was significantly associated with vascular or bile duct invasion (P = 0.003), Edmondson's grade (P = 0.047), and intrahepatic spreading (P = 0.011). When compared with the OPN-negative cancer cells, much more amplifications of chromosomal regions, including 4q13.1-q13.3, 4q21.23-q22.1, and 13q32.1-q32.3, were found in OPN-positive HCC cells. Some candidate tumor-related genes, such as SMR3B, MUC7, EPHA5, SPP1, and CLDN10 were detected with over 1.5-fold amplification.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant intratumor genomic heterogeneity between the OPN-positive and negative HCC cells, and OPN-positive HCC cells play a more important role in the development of HCC malignancy than their OPN-negative counterparts.

Sun B, Wu J, Zhang T, Wang C
High-resolution analysis of genomic profiles of hepatocellular carcinoma cells with differential osteopontin expression.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2008; 7(3):387-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of osteopontin (OPN) could contribute to tumorigenesis and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previous studies have shown that OPN-positive cancer cells are often localized in the periphery of cancer nodules adjacent to stromal cells. To identify the difference in intratumor genomic aberration pattern between OPN-positive and OPN-negative HCC cells, we adopted microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) to achieve high-resolution analysis of genome-wide aberrations. Our present study indicates that, compared to OPN-negative cancer cells, OPN-positive cancer cells show much more amplification of chromosomal regions, including 4q13.1-q13.3, 4q21.23-q22.1 and 13q32.1-q32.3. Some candidate tumor related genes, such as SMR3B, MUC7, EPHA5, SPP1 and CLDN10, were detected with over 1.5-fold amplification. Together, the intratumor genomic heterogeneity may suggest that OPN-positive cancer cells play a more important role in the development of HCC malignancy than their OPN-negative counterparts.

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