Gene Summary

Gene:NME2; NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2
Aliases: PUF, NDKB, NDPKB, NM23B, NDPK-B, NM23-H2
Summary:Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) exists as a hexamer composed of 'A' (encoded by NME1) and 'B' (encoded by this gene) isoforms. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. Read-through transcription from the neighboring upstream gene (NME1) generates naturally-occurring transcripts (NME1-NME2) that encode a fusion protein comprised of sequence sharing identity with each individual gene product. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nucleoside diphosphate kinase B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (34)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transcription Factors
  • Chromosome 17
  • Genetic Recombination
  • Cell Cycle
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Binding Sites
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Small Molecule Libraries
  • Transfection
  • Promoter Regions
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Apoptosis
  • Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl
  • Adolescents
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Lung Cancer
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
  • Zalcitabine
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Phenotype
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Messenger RNA
  • Protein Subunits
  • Cell Movement
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques
  • bcl-X Protein
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Base Sequence
  • Transcription
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
  • Proteomics
  • Alleles
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Neuroblastoma
Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NME2 (cancer-related)

Sengupta P, Banerjee N, Roychowdhury T, et al.
Site-specific amino acid substitution in dodecameric peptides determines the stability and unfolding of c-MYC quadruplex promoting apoptosis in cancer cells.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(19):9932-9950 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
c-MYC proto-oncogene harbours a transcription-inhibitory quadruplex-forming scaffold (Pu27) upstream P1 promoter providing anti-neoplastic therapeutic target. Previous reports showed the binding profile of human Cathelicidin peptide (LL37) and telomeric G-quadruplex. Here, we truncated the quadruplex-binding domain of LL37 to prepare a small library of peptides through site-specific amino acid substitution. We investigated the intracellular selectivity of peptides for Pu27 over other oncogenic quadruplexes and their role in c-MYC promoter repression by dual-luciferase assays. We analysed their thermodynamics of binding reactions with c-MYC quadruplex isomers (Pu27, Myc22, Pu19) by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry. We discussed how amino acid substitutions and peptide helicity enhanced/weakened their affinities for c-MYC quadruplexes and characterized specific non-covalent inter-residual interactions determining their selectivity. Solution NMR structure indicated that KR12C, the best peptide candidate, selectively stabilized the 5'-propeller loop of c-MYC quadruplex by arginine-driven electrostatic-interactions at the sugar-phosphate backbone while KR12A peptide destabilized the quadruplex inducing a single-stranded hairpin-like conformation. Chromatin immunoprecipitations envisaged that KR12C and KR12A depleted and enriched Sp1 and NM23-H2 (Nucleoside diphosphate kinase) occupancy at Pu27 respectively supporting their regulation in stabilizing and unfolding c-MYC quadruplex in MCF-7 cells. We deciphered that selective arresting of c-MYC transcription by KR12C triggered apoptotic-signalling pathway via VEGF-A-BCL-2 axis.

Muoio D, Berardinelli F, Leone S, et al.
Naphthalene diimide-derivatives G-quadruplex ligands induce cell proliferation inhibition, mild telomeric dysfunction and cell cycle perturbation in U251MG glioma cells.
FEBS J. 2018; 285(20):3769-3785 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the present paper, the biological effects of three different naphthalene diimides (NDIs) G-quadruplex (G4) ligands (H-NDI-Tyr, H-NDI-NMe2, and tetra-NDI-NMe2) were comparatively evaluated to those exerted by RHPS4, a well-characterized telomeric G4-ligand, in an in vitro model of glioblastoma. Data indicated that NDIs were very effective in blocking cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations, although displaying a lower specificity for telomere targeting compared to RHPS4. In addition, differently from RHPS4, NDIs failed to enhance the effect of ionizing radiation, thus suggesting that additional targets other than telomeres could be involved in the strong NDI-mediated anti-proliferative effects. In order to test telomeric off-target action of NDIs, a panel of genes involved in tumor progression, DNA repair, telomere maintenance, and cell-cycle regulation were evaluated at transcriptional and translational level. Specifically, the compounds were able to cause a marked reduction of TERT and BCL2 amounts as well as to favor the accumulation of proteins involved in cell cycle control. A detailed cytofluorimetric analysis of cell cycle progression by means of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and staining of phospho-histone H3 indicated that NDIs greatly reduce the progression through S-phase and lead to G1 accumulation of BrdU-positive cells. Taken together, these data indicated that, besides effects on telomeres and oncogenes such as Tert and Bcl2, nanomolar concentrations of NDIs determined a sustained block of cell proliferation by slowing down cell cycle progression during S-phase. In conclusion, our data indicate that NDIs G4-ligands are powerful antiproliferative agents, which act through mechanisms that ultimately lead to altered cell-cycle control.

Zhu KW, Chen P, Zhang DY, et al.
Association of genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in Ara-C and dNTP metabolism pathway with chemosensitivity and prognosis of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cytarabine arabinoside (Ara-C) has been the core of chemotherapy for adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Ara-C undergoes a three-step phosphorylation into the active metabolite Ara-C triphosphosphate (ara-CTP). Several enzymes are involved directly or indirectly in either the formation or detoxification of ara-CTP.
METHODS: A total of 12 eQTL (expression Quantitative Trait Loci) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or tag SNPs in 7 genes including CMPK1, NME1, NME2, RRM1, RRM2, SAMHD1 and E2F1 were genotyped in 361 Chinese non-M3 AML patients by using the Sequenom Massarray system. Association of the SNPs with complete remission (CR) rate after Ara-C based induction therapy, relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed.
RESULTS: Three SNPs were observed to be associated increased risk of chemoresistance indicated by CR rate (NME2 rs3744660, E2F1 rs3213150, and RRM2 rs1130609), among which two (rs3744660 and rs1130609) were eQTL. Combined genotypes based on E2F1 rs3213150 and RRM2 rs1130609 polymorphisms further increased the risk of non-CR. The SAMHD1 eQTL polymorphism rs6102991 showed decreased risk of non-CR marginally (P = 0.055). Three SNPs (NME1 rs3760468 and rs2302254, and NME2 rs3744660) were associated with worse RFS, and the RRM2 rs1130609 polymorphism was marginally associated with worse RFS (P = 0.085) and OS (P = 0.080). Three SNPs (NME1 rs3760468, NME2 rs3744660, and RRM1 rs183484) were associated with worse OS in AML patients.
CONCLUSION: Data from our study demonstrated that SNPs in Ara-C and dNTP metabolic pathway predict chemosensitivity and prognosis of AML patients in China.

Li S, Hu T, Yuan T, et al.
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase B promotes osteosarcoma proliferation through c-Myc.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2018; 19(7):565-572 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is one of the most common primary bone tumors and has a high disablity rate and case-fatality rate. The protracted stagnancy of the chemotherapy program and surgical technology for OS treatment prompted us to focus on the mechanisms of cancer carcinogenesis progression in OS. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NME2) is a type of nucleoside diphosphate kinase that plays an important role in cellular processes. In this study, we report overexpression of NME2 in OS cell lines and correlate this overexpression with the clinicopathologic features of osteosarcoma. We used si-NME2 to downregulate expression of NME2 in OS cell lines. The results of the CCK8 and clone forming assays show that NME2 promotes OS cell line proliferation. Western blot assays show that deregulation of NME2 results in enhanced the expression of c-Myc, which promotes OS proliferation.

Yang M, Sun Y, Sun J, et al.
Differentially expressed and survival-related proteins of lung adenocarcinoma with bone metastasis.
Cancer Med. 2018; 7(4):1081-1092 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite recent advances in targeted and immune-based therapies, the poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) with bone metastasis (BM) remains a challenge. First, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to identify proteins that were differentially expressed in LUAD with BM, and then matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was used to identify these proteins. Second, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was used to identify mutations in these differentially expressed proteins and Kaplan-Meier plotter (KM Plotter) was used to generate survival curves for the analyzed cases. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to check the expression of proteins in 28 patients with BM and nine patients with LUAD. Lastly, the results were analyzed with respect to clinical features and patient's follow-up. We identified a number of matched proteins from 2-DE. High expression of enolase 1 (ENO1) (HR = 1.67, logrank P = 1.9E-05), ribosomal protein lateral stalk subunit P2 (RPLP2) (HR = 1.77, logrank P = 2.9e-06), and NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (NME1-NME2) (HR = 2.65, logrank P = 3.9E-15) was all significantly associated with poor survival (P < 0.05). Further, ENO1 was upregulated (P = 0.0004) and calcyphosine (CAPS1) was downregulated (P = 5.34E-07) in TCGA LUAD RNA-seq expression data. IHC revealed that prominent ENO1 staining (OR = 7.5, P = 0.034) and low levels of CAPS1 (OR = 0.01, P < 0.0001) staining were associated with BM incidence. Finally, we found that LUAD patients with high expression of ENO1 and RPLP2 had worse overall survival. This is the first instance where the genes ENO1, RPLP2, NME1-NME2 and CAPS1 were associated with disease severity and progression in LUAD patients with BM. Thus, with this study, we have identified potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for this disease.

Wen S, Wang X, Wang Y, et al.
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 confers acquired 5-fluorouracil resistance in colorectal cancer cells.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2018; 46(sup1):896-905 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapeutic regimens are routinely used for the treatment of patients with CRC. However, recurrence and chemotherapeutic drug resistance limit the survival rates of patients with CRC. DNA methylation participates in diverse cellular processes by regulating the transcription of a large number of genes expression, cell division, apoptosis, cell adhesion and differentiation, and metabolism, thus it might mediate chemoresistance. Using an Illumina Infinium HD Assay, DNA methylation levels in a human 5-FU-resistant HCT-8 CRC cell line (HCT-8/FU) and its progenitor cell line HCT-8 were analysed. A total of 16,580 differentially methylated genes were identified, of which 8885 were hypermethylated and 7695 were hypomethylated in resistant cells. Among these genes, NME2 (nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2) exhibited a significant difference in methylation between cell lines and has known roles in gastric cancer and breast cancer; accordingly, we hypothesized that it plays a role in acquired resistance in CRC. Knockdown of NME2 restored 5-FU sensitivity in 5-FU-resistant CRC cells, reduced cell survival and increased cell apoptosis; and overexpression of NME2 in HCT-8 cells results in the acquisition of resistance to 5-FU, this alteration enhanced HCT-8 cells growth abilities and reduced apoptosis. These findings suggest that NME2 mediates chemoresistance to 5-FU in CRC and that specific NME2 inhibition could optimize 5-FU-based chemotherapy of CRC.

Attwood PV, Muimo R
The actions of NME1/NDPK-A and NME2/NDPK-B as protein kinases.
Lab Invest. 2018; 98(3):283-290 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are multifunctional proteins encoded by the nme (non-metastatic cells) genes, also called NM23. NDPKs catalyze the transfer of γ-phosphate from nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates by a ping-pong mechanism involving the formation of a high-energy phosphohistidine intermediate. Growing evidence shows that NDPKs, particularly NDPK-B, can additionally act as a protein histidine kinase. Protein kinases and phosphatases that regulate reversible O-phosphorylation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues have been studied extensively in many organisms. Interestingly, other phosphoamino acids histidine, lysine, arginine, aspartate, glutamate, and cysteine exist in abundance but remain understudied due to the paucity of suitable methods and antibodies. The N-phosphorylation of histidine by histidine kinases via the two- or multi-component signaling systems is an important mediator in cellular responses in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes, like yeast, fungi, and plants. However, in vertebrates knowledge of phosphohistidine signaling has lagged far behind and the identity of the protein kinases and protein phosphatases involved is not well established. This article will therefore provide an overview of our current knowledge on protein histidine phosphorylation particularly the role of nm 23 gene products as protein histidine kinases.

Leonard MK, Pamidimukkala N, Puts GS, et al.
The HGF/SF Mouse Model of UV-Induced Melanoma as an In Vivo Sensor for Metastasis-Regulating Gene.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cutaneous malignant melanoma is an aggressive and potentially lethal form of skin cancer, particularly in its advanced and therapy-resistant stages, and the need for novel therapeutics and prognostic tools is acute. Incidence of melanoma has steadily increased over the past few decades, with exposure to the genome-damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) well-recognized as a primary cause. A number of genetically-engineered mouse models (GEMMs) have been created that exhibit high incidence of spontaneous and induced forms of melanoma, and a select subset recapitulates its progression to aggressive and metastatic forms. These GEMMs hold considerable promise for providing insights into advanced stages of melanoma, such as potential therapeutic targets and prognostic markers, and as in vivo systems for testing of novel therapies. In this review, we summarize how the HGF/SF transgenic mouse has been used to reveal metastasis-regulating activity of four different genes (

Saha D, Singh A, Hussain T, et al.
Epigenetic suppression of human telomerase (
J Biol Chem. 2017; 292(37):15205-15215 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transcriptional activation of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (

Bouvard C, Lim SM, Ludka J, et al.
Small molecule selectively suppresses MYC transcription in cancer cells.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017; 114(13):3497-3502 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Stauprimide is a staurosporine analog that promotes embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation by inhibiting nuclear localization of the MYC transcription factor NME2, which in turn results in down-regulation of MYC transcription. Given the critical role the oncogene MYC plays in tumor initiation and maintenance, we explored the potential of stauprimide as an anticancer agent. Here we report that stauprimide suppresses MYC transcription in cancer cell lines derived from distinct tissues. Using renal cancer cells, we confirmed that stauprimide inhibits NME2 nuclear localization. Gene expression analysis also confirmed the selective down-regulation of MYC target genes by stauprimide. Consistent with this activity, administration of stauprimide inhibited tumor growth in rodent xenograft models. Our study provides a unique strategy for selectively targeting MYC transcription by pharmacological means as a potential treatment for MYC-dependent tumors.

Liyanage SU, Hurren R, Voisin V, et al.
Leveraging increased cytoplasmic nucleoside kinase activity to target mtDNA and oxidative phosphorylation in AML.
Blood. 2017; 129(19):2657-2666 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) biosynthesis requires replication factors and adequate nucleotide pools from the mitochondria and cytoplasm. We performed gene expression profiling analysis of 542 human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples and identified 55% with upregulated mtDNA biosynthesis pathway expression compared with normal hematopoietic cells. Genes that support mitochondrial nucleotide pools, including mitochondrial nucleotide transporters and a subset of cytoplasmic nucleoside kinases, were also increased in AML compared with normal hematopoietic samples. Knockdown of cytoplasmic nucleoside kinases reduced mtDNA levels in AML cells, demonstrating their contribution in maintaining mtDNA. To assess cytoplasmic nucleoside kinase pathway activity, we used a nucleoside analog 2'3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC), which is phosphorylated to the activated antimetabolite, 2'3'-dideoxycytidine triphosphate by cytoplasmic nucleoside kinases. ddC is a selective inhibitor of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ. ddC was preferentially activated in AML cells compared with normal hematopoietic progenitor cells. ddC treatment inhibited mtDNA replication, oxidative phosphorylation, and induced cytotoxicity in a panel of AML cell lines. Furthermore, ddC preferentially inhibited mtDNA replication in a subset of primary human leukemia cells and selectively targeted leukemia cells while sparing normal progenitor cells. In animal models of human AML, treatment with ddC decreased mtDNA, electron transport chain proteins, and induced tumor regression without toxicity. ddC also targeted leukemic stem cells in secondary AML xenotransplantation assays. Thus, AML cells have increased cytidine nucleoside kinase activity that regulates mtDNA biogenesis and can be leveraged to selectively target oxidative phosphorylation in AML.

Shan C, Yan JW, Wang YQ, et al.
Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Isaindigotone Derivatives To Downregulate c-myc Transcription via Disrupting the Interaction of NM23-H2 with G-Quadruplex.
J Med Chem. 2017; 60(4):1292-1308 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcriptional control of c-myc oncogene is an important strategy for antitumor drug design. G-quadruplexes in the promoter region have been proven to be the transcriptional down-regulator of this gene. The transcriptional factor NM23-H2 can reactivate c-myc transcription by unwinding the G-quadruplex structure. Thus, down-regulation of c-myc transcription via disrupting G-quadruplex-NM23-H2 interaction might be a potential approach for cancer therapy. Here, a series of new isaindigotone derivatives were designed and synthesized based on our previous study. The abilities of these derivatives on interacting with G-quadruplexes or NM23-H2, and disrupting G-quadruplex-NM23-H2 interaction were evaluated. Among these derivatives, 19d and 22d showed remarkable abilities on disrupting G-quadruplex-NM23-H2 interaction. They exhibited significant effects on c-myc-relating processes in SiHa cells, including inhibiting the transcription and translation, inhibiting cellular proliferation, inducing apoptosis, and regulating cell cycle. Our findings provided the basis for the anticancer strategy based on c-myc transcriptional regulation via small molecules disrupting G-quadruplex-protein interaction.

You HJ, Park HY, Kim J, et al.
Integrative radiogenomic analysis for genomic signatures in glioblastomas presenting leptomeningeal dissemination.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(27):e4109 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite therapeutic advances, the prognosis for glioblastoma (GBM) remains poor. In particular, leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD) has a dismal prognosis. The aim of this study was to identify tumor molecular phenotype, which has a great propensity to develop LMD. Between May 2004 and December 2012, a total of 145 GBM tumor samples were obtained from data registry. A total of 20 of the 145 patients with GBM were found to develop LMD. A specialized radiologist confirmed the diagnosis of LMD on magnetic resonance imaging. To clarify the genomic signatures in GBM with LMD, we performed integrative analysis of whole transcriptome sequencing and copy number alteration in the radiological features indicating LMD phenotypes in GBM. Eleven newly diagnosed patients with GBM with LMD had worse prognosis than those without LMD (median 5.55 vs. 12.94 months, P < 0.0001). Integrating analysis using gene expression based on the change of copy number revealed that SPOCK1, EHD2, SLC2A3, and ANXA11 were highly expressed with the gain of copy number, compared with the gene expression in the non-LMD group. In addition, it was demonstrated that NME2, TMEM100, and SIVA1 were downregulated with the loss of copy number. We also found that mesenchymal subtype accounted for 50% in LMD group, whereas mesenchymal subtype consisted of 29% in non-LMD group, even though there was no statistical significance (P = 0.06). Through this radiogenomic analysis, we suggested the possibility of finding candidate genes associated with LMD and highlighted the significance of integrating approach to clarify the molecular characteristics in LMD.

Al-Hendy A, Diamond MP, Boyer TG, Halder SK
Vitamin D3 Inhibits Wnt/β-Catenin and mTOR Signaling Pathways in Human Uterine Fibroid Cells.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016; 101(4):1542-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CONTEXT: Somatic mutations in the Med12 gene are known to activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human uterine fibroids (UFs).
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the role of vitamin D3 in the modulation of Wnt/β-catenin and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in human UF cells.
DESIGN: Immortalized human UF cells (HuLM) and human primary UF (PUF) cells were treated with increasing concentrations of vitamin D3 and thereafter analyzed using Western blots and immunocytochemistry.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Wnt/β-catenin and mTOR signaling proteins in cultured HuLM and PUF cells were measured.
RESULTS: UF tumors with Med12 somatic mutations showed an up-regulation of Wnt4 and β-catenin as compared with adjacent myometrium. Vitamin D3 administration reduced the levels of Wnt4 and β-catenin in both HuLM and PUF cells. Vitamin D3 also reduced the expression/activation of mTOR signaling in both cell types. In contrast, vitamin D3 induced the expression of DNA damaged-induced transcription 4 (an inhibitor of mTOR) and tuberous sclerosis genes (TSC1/2) in a concentration-dependent manner in HuLM cells. Furthermore, we observed a concentration-dependent reduction of Wisp1 (Wnt induced signaling protein 1) and flap endonuclease 1 proteins in HuLM cells. Additionally, abrogation of vitamin D receptor expression (by silencing) in normal myometrial cells induces Wnt4/β-catenin as well as prompts a fibrotic process including an increase in cell proliferation and increased extracellular matrix production. Together these results suggest that vitamin D3 functions as an inhibitor of Wnt4/β-catenin and mTOR signaling pathways, which may play major roles in fibroid pathogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D3 may have utility as a novel long-term therapeutic and/or preventive option for uterine fibroids.

Chang YW, Chiu CF, Lee KY, et al.
CARMA3 Represses Metastasis Suppressor NME2 to Promote Lung Cancer Stemness and Metastasis.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015; 192(1):64-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
RATIONALE: CARD-recruited membrane-associated protein 3 (CARMA3) is a novel scaffold protein that regulates nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation; however, the underlying mechanism of CARMA3 in lung cancer stemness and metastasis remains largely unknown.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of CARMA3 in non-small cell lung cancer progression.
METHODS: The expression levels of CARMA3 and NME2 in a cohort of patients with lung cancer (n = 91) were examined by immunohistochemistry staining and assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The effects of CARMA3, microRNA-182 (miR-182), and NME2 on cancer stemness and metastasis were measured in vitro and in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays were performed to determine the mechanisms of NF-κB-driven miR-182 expression and NME2 regulation.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We observed that CARMA3 inversely correlated with NME2 expression in patients with lung cancer (Pearson correlation coefficient: R = -0.24; P = 0.022). NME2 levels were significantly decreased in tumor tissues compared with adjacent normal lung tissues (P < 0.001), and patients with lung cancer with higher levels of NME2 had longer survival outcomes (overall survival, P < 0.01; disease-free survival, P < 0.01). Mechanistically, CARMA3 promoted cell motility by reducing the level of NME2 through the NF-κB/miR-182 pathway and by increasing cancer stem cell properties and metastasis in lung cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel mechanism of CARMA3 in lung cancer stemness and metastasis through the negative regulation of NME2 by NF-κB-dependent induction of miR-182. Our findings provide an attractive strategy for targeting the CARMA3/NF-κB/miR-182 pathway as a potential treatment for lung cancer.

Melaiu O, Melissari E, Mutti L, et al.
Expression status of candidate genes in mesothelioma tissues and cell lines.
Mutat Res. 2015; 771:6-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
In order to broaden knowledge on the pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), we reviewed studies on the MPM-transcriptome and identified 119 deregulated genes. However, there was poor consistency among the studies. Thus, the expression of these genes was further investigated in the present work using reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in 15 MPM and 20 non-MPM tissue samples. Fifty-nine genes showed a statistically significant deregulation and were further evaluated in two epithelioid MPM cell lines (compared to MET-5A, a non-MPM cell line). Nine genes (ACSL1, CCNO, CFB, PDGFRB, SULF1, TACC1, THBS2, TIMP3, XPOT) were deregulated with statistical significance in both cell lines, 12 (ASS1, CCNB1, CDH11, COL1A1, CXADR, EIF4G1, GALNT7, ITGA4, KRT5, PTGIS, RAN, SOD1) in at least one cell line, whereas 7 (DSP, HEG1, MCM4, MSLN, NME2, NMU, TNPO2) were close but did not reach the statistical significance in any of the cell line. Patients whose MPM tissues expressed elevated mRNA levels of BIRC5, DSP, NME2, and THBS2 showed a statistically significant shorter overall survival. Although MPM is a poorly studied cancer, some features are starting to emerge. Novel cancer genes are suggested here, in particular those involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions.

Liu YF, Yang A, Liu W, et al.
NME2 reduces proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells to limit metastasis.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(2):e0115968 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and has a high rate of metastasis. We hypothesize that NME2 (Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase 2), which has previously been considered as an anti-metastatic gene, plays a role in the invasiveness of gastric cancer cells. Using a tissue chip technology and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that NME2 expression was associated with levels of differentiation of gastric cancer cells and their metastasis into the lymph nodes. When the NME2 gene product was over-expressed by ;in vitro stable transfection, cells from BGC823 and MKN45 gastric cancer cell lines had reduced rates of proliferation, migration, and invasion through the collagen matrix, suggesting an inhibitory activity of NME2 in the propagation and invasion of gastric cancer. NME2 could, therefore, severe as a risk marker for gastric cancer invasiveness and a potential new target for gene therapy to enhance or induce NME2 expression.

Coumans JV, Gau D, Poljak A, et al.
Profilin-1 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells is associated with alterations in proteomics biomarkers of cell proliferation, survival, and motility as revealed by global proteomics analyses.
OMICS. 2014; 18(12):778-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite early screening programs and new therapeutic strategies, metastatic breast cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death in women in industrialized countries and regions. There is a need for novel biomarkers of susceptibility, progression, and therapeutic response. Global analyses or systems science approaches with omics technologies offer concrete ways forward in biomarker discovery for breast cancer. Previous studies have shown that expression of profilin-1 (PFN1), a ubiquitously expressed actin-binding protein, is downregulated in invasive and metastatic breast cancer. It has also been reported that PFN1 overexpression can suppress tumorigenic ability and motility/invasiveness of breast cancer cells. To obtain insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of how elevating PFN1 level induces these phenotypic changes in breast cancer cells, we investigated the alteration in global protein expression profiles of breast cancer cells upon stable overexpression of PFN1 by a combination of three different proteome analysis methods (2-DE, iTRAQ, label-free). Using MDA-MB-231 as a model breast cancer cell line, we provide evidence that PFN1 overexpression is associated with alterations in the expression of proteins that have been functionally linked to cell proliferation (FKPB1A, HDGF, MIF, PRDX1, TXNRD1, LGALS1, STMN1, LASP1, S100A11, S100A6), survival (HSPE1, HSPB1, HSPD1, HSPA5 and PPIA, YWHAZ, CFL1, NME1) and motility (CFL1, CORO1B, PFN2, PLS3, FLNA, FLNB, NME2, ARHGDIB). In view of the pleotropic effects of PFN1 overexpression in breast cancer cells as suggested by these new findings, we propose that PFN1-induced phenotypic changes in cancer cells involve multiple mechanisms. Our data reported here might also offer innovative strategies for identification and validation of novel therapeutic targets and companion diagnostics for persons with, or susceptibility to, breast cancer.

Li Y, Tong Y, Wong YH
Regulatory functions of Nm23-H2 in tumorigenesis: insights from biochemical to clinical perspectives.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2015; 388(2):243-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Substantial effort has been directed at elucidating the functions of the products of the Nm23 tumor metastasis suppressor genes over the past two decades, with the ultimate goal of exploring their translational potentials in changing cancer patients' outcomes. Much attention has been focused on the better-known Nm23-H1, but despite having high sequence similarity, Nm23-H2 functions differently in many aspects. Besides acting as a metastasis suppressor, compelling data suggest that Nm23-H2 may modulate various tumor-associated biological events to enhance tumorigenesis in human solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Linkage to tumorigenesis may occur through the ability of Nm23-H2 to regulate transcription, cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and telomerase activity. In this review, we examine the linkages of Nm23-H2 to tumorigenesis in terms of its biochemical and structural properties and discuss its potential role in various tumor-associated events.

He F, York JP, Burroughs SG, et al.
Recruited metastasis suppressor NM23-H2 attenuates expression and activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) in human cholangiocarcinoma.
Dig Liver Dis. 2015; 47(1):62-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) is a versatile regulator of distinct biological processes and overexpression of PPARδ in cancer may be partially related to its suppression of its own co-regulators.
AIMS: To determine whether recruited suppressor proteins bind to and regulate PPARδ expression, activity and PPARδ-dependent cholangiocarcinoma proliferation.
METHODS: Yeast two-hybrid assays were done using murine PPARδ as bait. PPARδ mRNA expression was determined by qPCR. Protein expression was measured by western blot. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescence microscopy were used to determine PPARδ expression and co-localization with NDP Kinase alpha (NM23-H2). Cell proliferation assays were performed to determine cell numbers.
RESULTS: Yeast two-hybrid screening identified NM23-H2 as a PPARδ binding protein and their interaction was confirmed. Overexpressed PPARδ or treatment with the agonist GW501516 resulted in increased cell proliferation. NM23-H2 siRNA activated PPARδ luciferase promoter activity, upregulated PPARδ RNA and protein expression and increased GW501516-stimulated CCA growth. Overexpression of NM23-H2 inhibited PPARδ luciferase promoter activity, downregulated PPARδ expression and AKT phosphorylation and reduced GW501516-stimulated CCA growth.
CONCLUSIONS: We report the novel association of NM23-H2 with PPARδ and the negative regulation of PPARδ expression by NM23-H2 binding to the C-terminal region of PPARδ. These findings provide evidence that the metastasis suppressor NM23-H2 is involved in the regulation of PPARδ-mediated proliferation.

Thakur RK, Yadav VK, Kumar A, et al.
Non-metastatic 2 (NME2)-mediated suppression of lung cancer metastasis involves transcriptional regulation of key cell adhesion factor vinculin.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 42(18):11589-600 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor metastasis refers to spread of a tumor from site of its origin to distant organs and causes majority of cancer deaths. Although >30 metastasis suppressor genes (MSGs) that negatively regulate metastasis have been identified so far, two issues are poorly understood: first, which MSGs oppose metastasis in a tumor type, and second, which molecular function of MSG controls metastasis. Herein, integrative analyses of tumor-transcriptomes (n=382), survival data (n=530) and lymph node metastases (n=100) in lung cancer patients identified non-metastatic 2 (NME2) as a key MSG from a pool of >30 metastasis suppressors. Subsequently, we generated a promoter-wide binding map for NME2 using chromatin immunoprecipitation with promoter microarrays (ChIP-chip), and transcriptome profiling. We discovered novel targets of NME2 which are involved in focal adhesion signaling. Importantly, we detected binding of NME2 in promoter of focal adhesion factor, vinculin. Reduced expression of NME2 led to enhanced transcription of vinculin. In comparison, NME1, a close homolog of NME2, did not bind to vinculin promoter nor regulate its expression. In line, enhanced metastasis of NME2-depleted lung cancer cells was found in zebrafish and nude mice tumor models. The metastatic potential of NME2-depleted cells was remarkably diminished upon selective RNA-i-mediated silencing of vinculin. Together, we demonstrate that reduced NME2 levels lead to transcriptional de-repression of vinculin and regulate lung cancer metastasis.

Yao Y, Li C, Zhou X, et al.
PIWIL2 induces c-Myc expression by interacting with NME2 and regulates c-Myc-mediated tumor cell proliferation.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(18):8466-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
c-Myc serves as a crucial regulator in multiple cellular events. Cumulative evidences demonstrate that anomalous c-Myc overexpression correlates with proliferation, invasion and metastasis in various human tumors. However, the transcriptionally activating mechanisms responsible for c-Myc overexpression are complex and continue to be intangible. Here we showed that Piwi-Like RNA-Mediated Gene Silencing 2 (PIWIL2) can upregulate c-Myc via binding with NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (NME2). PIWIL2 promotes c-Myc transcription by interacting with and facilitating NME2 to bind to G4-motif region within c-Myc promoter. Interestingly, in a c-Myc-mediated manner, PIWIL2 upregulates RhoA, which in turn induces filamentary F-actin. Deficiency of PIWIL2 results in obstacle for c-Myc expression, cell cycle progress and cell proliferation. Taken together, our present work demonstrates that PIWIL2 modulates tumor cell proliferation and F-actin filaments via promoting c-Myc expression.

Yadav VK, Thakur RK, Eckloff B, et al.
Promoter-proximal transcription factor binding is transcriptionally active when coupled with nucleosome repositioning in immediate vicinity.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 42(15):9602-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous studies have analyzed patterns of transcription, transcription factor (TF) binding or mapped nucleosome occupancy across the genome. These suggest that the three aspects are genetically connected but the cause and effect relationships are still unknown. For example, physiologic TF binding studies involve many TFs, consequently, it is difficult to assign nucleosome reorganization to the binding site occupancy of any particular TF. Therefore, several aspects remain unclear: does TF binding influence nucleosome (re)organizations locally or impact the chromatin landscape at a more global level; are all or only a fraction of TF binding a result of reorganization in nucleosome occupancy and do all TF binding and associated changes in nucleosome occupancy result in altered gene expression? With these in mind, following characterization of two states (before and after induction of a single TF of choice) we determined: (i) genomic binding sites of the TF, (ii) promoter nucleosome occupancy and (iii) transcriptome profiles. Results demonstrated that promoter-proximal TF binding influenced expression of the target gene when it was coupled to nucleosome repositioning at or close to its binding site in most cases. In contrast, only in few cases change in target gene expression was found when TF binding occurred without local nucleosome reorganization.

Fan CC, Lee LY, Yu MY, et al.
Upregulated hPuf-A promotes breast cancer tumorigenesis.
Tumour Biol. 2013; 34(5):2557-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
hPuf-A is a member of RNA-binding PUF family that regulates mRNA translation. Redistribution of hPuf-A from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm upon genotoxic stress modulates the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity of PARP-1. Here, we report a novel function of hPuf-A involved in promoting breast cancer progression. Immunohistochemical studies showed higher expression levels of hPuf-A in stage I, II, III, and IV breast cancer specimens in contrast with those of hPuf-A in ductal carcinoma in situ. The presence of hPuf-A is highly associated with colony formation capacities in breast cancer T47D and MDA-MB-231 cells. Xenograft growth of hPuf-A-silenced and hPuf-A overexpressing MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice was substantially in concert with colony formation capacities. This promoting effect of hPuf-A in tumorigenesis might be correlated with the regulation of its associated mRNAs, such as RbAp48 and DDX3. Collectively, hPuf-A may have diagnostic values in breast cancer progression.

Wakefield A, Soukupova J, Montagne A, et al.
Bcl3 selectively promotes metastasis of ERBB2-driven mammary tumors.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(2):745-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bcl3 is a putative proto-oncogene deregulated in hematopoietic and solid tumors. Studies in cell lines suggest that its oncogenic effects are mediated through the induction of proliferation and inhibition of cell death, yet its role in endogenous solid tumors has not been established. Here, we address the oncogenic effect of Bcl3 in vivo and describe how this Stat3-responsive oncogene promotes metastasis of ErbB2-positive mammary tumors without affecting primary tumor growth or normal mammary function. Deletion of the Bcl3 gene in ErbB2-positive (MMTV-Neu) mice resulted in a 75% reduction in metastatic tumor burden in the lungs with a 3.6-fold decrease in cell turnover index in these secondary lesions with no significant effect on primary mammary tumor growth, cyclin D1 levels, or caspase-3 activity. Direct inhibition of Bcl3 by siRNA in a transplantation model of an Erbb2-positive mammary tumor cell line confirmed the effect of Bcl3 in malignancy, suggesting that the effect of Bcl3 was intrinsic to the tumor cells. Bcl3 knockdown resulted in a 61% decrease in tumor cell motility and a concomitant increase in the cell migration inhibitors Nme1, Nme2, and Nme3, the GDP dissociation inhibitor Arhgdib, and the metalloprotease inhibitors Timp1 and Timp2. Independent knockdown of Nme1, Nme2, and Arhgdib partially rescued the Bcl3 motility phenotype. These results indicate for the first time a cell-autonomous disease-modifying role for Bcl3 in vivo, affecting metastatic disease progression rather than primary tumor growth.

Malvasi A, Cavallotti C, Nicolardi G, et al.
NT, NPY and PGP 9.5 presence in myomeytrium and in fibroid pseudocapsule and their possible impact on muscular physiology.
Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013; 29(2):177-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
The uterine myoma pseudocapsule is a neurovascular bundle surrounding fibroid, containing neuropeptides, probably involved in uterine scar healing. We studied neurotensin (NT), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY), and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) nerve fibres in the pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle of intramural uterine fibroids on 67 no pregnant women by intracapsular myomectomy sparing the neurovascular bundle, sampling full thickness specimens of the pseudocapsule of uterine fibroids (PUF) and normal myometrium (NM) obtained from the fundus uteri (FU) and the uterine body (UB). The samples were sent for histological and immunofluorescent analyses and compared by morphometrical quantification. The Conventional Unit (C.U.) difference of NT, NPY, and PGP 9.5 nerve fibres was statistically analyzed. Our results showed that NT, NPY, and PGP 9.5 neurofibers are almost equally present in PUF as in NM of a no pregnant uterus. As all of these neuropeptides are present in the uterine muscle and can affect muscle contractility, uterine peristalsis and muscular healing. A myomectomy respecting the pseudocapsule neurofibers should facilitate smooth muscle scarring and promote restoration of normal uterine peristalsis with a possible positive influence on fertility.

Jarrett SG, Novak M, Harris N, et al.
NM23 deficiency promotes metastasis in a UV radiation-induced mouse model of human melanoma.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2013; 30(1):25-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer, with 5-year survival rates of <5 % for patients presenting with metastatic disease. Mechanisms underlying metastatic spread of UVR-induced melanoma are not well understood, in part due to a paucity of animal models that accurately recapitulate the disease in its advanced forms. We have employed a transgenic mouse strain harboring a tandem deletion of the nm23-m1 and nm23-m2 genes to assess the combined contribution of these genes to suppression of melanoma metastasis. Crossing of the nm23-h1/nm23-h2 knockout in hemizygous-null form ([m1m2](+/-)) to a transgenic mouse strain (hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-overexpressing, or HGF(+) strain) vulnerable to poorly-metastatic, UVR-induced melanomas resulted in UVR-induced melanomas with high metastatic potential. Metastasis to draining lymph nodes was seen in almost all cases of back skin melanomas, while aggressive metastasis to lung, thoracic cavity, liver and bone also occurred. Interestingly, no differences were observed in the invasive characteristics of primary melanomas of HGF(+) and HGF(+) × [m1m2](+/-) strains, with both exhibiting invasion into the dermis and subcutis, indicating factors other than simple invasive activity were responsible for metastasis of HGF(+) × [m1m2](+/-) melanomas. Stable cell lines were established from the primary and metastatic melanoma lesions from these mice, with HGF(+) × [m1m2](+/-) lines exhibiting increased single cell migration and genomic instability. These studies demonstrate for the first time in vivo a potent metastasis suppressor activity of NM23 in UVR-induced melanoma, and have provided new tools for identifying molecular mechanisms that underlie melanoma metastasis.

Bach E, Krahl R, Lange T, et al.
Delayed processing of bone marrow samples reveals a prognostic pattern of NME mRNA expression in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2012; 53(8):1561-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Improvements in the therapy of cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) will depend largely on the characterization of functional subtypes identified by prognostic markers. Exposing leukemic cells to stress ex vivo may reveal relevant phenotypic markers not apparent in freshly explanted cells. Here, we assess the prognostic relevance of expression of the nucleoside diphosphate kinase genes NME1 and NME2 in a cohort of 78 patients with CN-AML aged < 60 years using archived mononuclear cell samples originally prepared from bone marrow either directly (n = 25) or following 2-3 days of transport (n = 53). The stress conditions arising during transport resulted in the development of a prognostic pattern of NME mRNA with maintenance of high NME2 mRNA being a strong indicator of increased event-free survival independent of FLT3-internal tandem duplication. Prospective analysis of CN-AML bone marrow (n = 7) confirmed that NME1 mRNA is always decreased during storage, while NME2 mRNA is either decreased or maintained. We conclude that ex vivo stress can reveal novel prognostic markers.

Tschiedel S, Bach E, Jilo A, et al.
Bcr-Abl dependent post-transcriptional activation of NME2 expression is a specific and common feature of chronic myeloid leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2012; 53(8):1569-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have previously identified NME2 (Nm23-H2) as a tumor antigen in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Here we investigated the association between NME2 and Bcr-Abl. NME2 protein was highly overexpressed in the cytoplasm of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 29/30 patients with CML at diagnosis and 10/10 patients resistant to imatinib. Protein was overexpressed in the absence of increased levels of mRNA and was limited to Bcr-Abl + populations, being absent from Bcr-Abl - patient cells, normal donors and 14/15 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples. Furthermore, the Bcr-Abl dependent overexpression of NME2 protein was reversed specifically by tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment of Ba/F3 expressing wild-type and TKI-sensitive, but not TKI-resistant, mutants of Bcr-Abl. The post-transcriptional up-regulation of the tumor antigen NME2 is therefore a common and specific property of CML closely associated with Bcr-Abl activity.

Lee MJ, Xu DY, Li H, et al.
Pro-oncogenic potential of NM23-H2 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Exp Mol Med. 2012; 44(3):214-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
NM23 is a family of structurally and functionally conserved proteins known as nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPK). There is abundant mRNA expression of NM23-H1, NM23-H2, or a read through transcript (NM23-LV) in the primary sites of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although the NM23-H1 protein is implicated as a metastasis suppressor, the role of NM23-H2 appears to be less understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine whether NM23-H2 is associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. The level of NM23-H2 expression in tumor tissues and the surrounding matrix appeared to be independent of etiology and tumor differentiation. Its subcellular localization was confined to mainly the cytoplasm and to a lesser extent in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of NM23-H2 in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and HLK3 hepatocytes showed a transformed morphology, enhanced focus formation, and allowed anchorage-independent growth. Finally, NIH3T3 fibroblasts and HLK3 hepatocytes stably expressing NM23-H2 produced tumors in athymic mice and showed c-Myc over-expression. In addition, NF-κB and cyclin D1 expression were also increased by NM23-H2. Lentiviral delivery of NM23-H2 shRNA inhibited tumor growth of xenotransplanted tumors produced from HLK3 cells stably expressing NM23-H2. Collectively, these results indicate that NM23-H2 may be pro-oncogenic in hepatocarcinogenesis.

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