Gene Summary

Gene:BCL3; BCL3 transcription coactivator
Aliases: BCL4, D19S37
Summary:This gene is a proto-oncogene candidate. It is identified by its translocation into the immunoglobulin alpha-locus in some cases of B-cell leukemia. The protein encoded by this gene contains seven ankyrin repeats, which are most closely related to those found in I kappa B proteins. This protein functions as a transcriptional co-activator that activates through its association with NF-kappa B homodimers. The expression of this gene can be induced by NF-kappa B, which forms a part of the autoregulatory loop that controls the nuclear residence of p50 NF-kappa B. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:B-cell lymphoma 3 protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BCL3 (cancer-related)

Legge DN, Shephard AP, Collard TJ, et al.
BCL-3 promotes a cancer stem cell phenotype by enhancing β-catenin signalling in colorectal tumour cells.
Dis Model Mech. 2019; 12(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To decrease bowel cancer incidence and improve survival, we need to understand the mechanisms that drive tumorigenesis. Recently, B-cell lymphoma 3 (BCL-3; a key regulator of NF-κB signalling) has been recognised as an important oncogenic player in solid tumours. Although reported to be overexpressed in a subset of colorectal cancers (CRCs), the role of BCL-3 expression in colorectal tumorigenesis remains poorly understood. Despite evidence in the literature that BCL-3 may interact with β-catenin, it is perhaps surprising, given the importance of deregulated Wnt/β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) signalling in colorectal carcinogenesis, that the functional significance of this interaction is not known. Here, we show for the first time that BCL-3 acts as a co-activator of β-catenin/TCF-mediated transcriptional activity in CRC cell lines and that this interaction is important for Wnt-regulated intestinal stem cell gene expression. We demonstrate that targeting BCL-3 expression (using RNA interference) reduced β-catenin/TCF-dependent transcription and the expression of intestinal stem cell genes

Puccio I, Khan S, Butt A, et al.
Immunohistochemical assessment of Survivin and Bcl3 expression as potential biomarkers for NF-κB activation in the Barrett metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.
Int J Exp Pathol. 2018; 99(1):10-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Non-dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus (NDBE) occurs as a consequence of an inflammatory response triggered through prolonged gastro-oesophageal reflux and it may precede the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. NF-κB activation as a result of the inflammatory response has been shown in NDBE, but the possible mechanism involved in the process is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess, using immunohistochemistry, Survivin and Bcl3 expression as potential biomarkers for NF-κB activation along the oesophageal metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. Survivin is an NF-κB-inducible anti-apoptotic protein, and Bcl3 is a negative regulator of NF-κB. There was progressive upregulation of Survivin expression along the oesophageal metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. Bcl3 expression was upregulated in non-dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus, low-grade, high-grade dysplasia and oesophageal adenocarcinoma when compared to squamous group. The study shows the differential expression of Bcl3 between the squamous and Barrett's stage, suggesting that Bcl3 could be a surrogate marker for early event involving constitutive NF-κB activation. In addition, the study suggests that NF-κB activation may infer resistance to apoptosis through the expression of anti-apoptotic genes such as Survivin, which showed progressive increase in expression throughout the oesophageal metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. This ability to avoid apoptosis may underlie the persistence and malignant predisposition of Barrett's metaplasia.

Hong CC, Sucheston-Campbell LE, Liu S, et al.
Genetic Variants in Immune-Related Pathways and Breast Cancer Risk in African American Women in the AMBER Consortium.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018; 27(3):321-330 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Schulten HJ, Bangash M, Karim S, et al.
Comprehensive molecular biomarker identification in breast cancer brain metastases.
J Transl Med. 2017; 15(1):269 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) develop in about 20-30% of breast cancer (BC) patients. BCBM are associated with dismal prognosis not at least due to lack of valuable molecular therapeutic targets. The aim of the study was to identify new molecular biomarkers and targets in BCBM by using complementary state-of-the-art techniques.
METHODS: We compared array expression profiles of three BCBM with 16 non-brain metastatic BC and 16 primary brain tumors (prBT) using a false discovery rate (FDR) p < 0.05 and fold change (FC) > 2. Biofunctional analysis was conducted on the differentially expressed probe sets. High-density arrays were employed to detect copy number variations (CNVs) and whole exome sequencing (WES) with paired-end reads of 150 bp was utilized to detect gene mutations in the three BCBM.
RESULTS: The top 370 probe sets that were differentially expressed between BCBM and both BC and prBT were in the majority comparably overexpressed in BCBM and included, e.g. the coding genes BCL3, BNIP3, BNIP3P1, BRIP1, CASP14, CDC25A, DMBT1, IDH2, E2F1, MYCN, RAD51, RAD54L, and VDR. A number of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) were comparably overexpressed in BCBM and included SNORA1, SNORA2A, SNORA9, SNORA10, SNORA22, SNORA24, SNORA30, SNORA37, SNORA38, SNORA52, SNORA71A, SNORA71B, SNORA71C, SNORD13P2, SNORD15A, SNORD34, SNORD35A, SNORD41, SNORD53, and SCARNA22. The top canonical pathway was entitled, role of BRCA1 in DNA damage response. Network analysis revealed key nodes as Akt, ERK1/2, NFkB, and Ras in a predicted activation stage. Downregulated genes in a data set that was shared between BCBM and prBT comprised, e.g. BC cell line invasion markers JUN, MMP3, TFF1, and HAS2. Important cancer genes affected by CNVs included TP53, BRCA1, BRCA2, ERBB2, IDH1, and IDH2. WES detected numerous mutations, some of which affecting BC associated genes as CDH1, HEPACAM, and LOXHD1.
CONCLUSIONS: Using complementary molecular genetic techniques, this study identified shared and unshared molecular events in three highly aberrant BCBM emphasizing the challenge to detect new molecular biomarkers and targets with translational implications. Among new findings with the capacity to gain clinical relevance is the detection of overexpressed snoRNAs known to regulate some critical cellular functions as ribosome biogenesis.

Mihara K, Yoshida T, Takei Y, et al.
T cells bearing anti-CD19 and/or anti-CD38 chimeric antigen receptors effectively abrogate primary double-hit lymphoma cells.
J Hematol Oncol. 2017; 10(1):116 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Patients with B cell lymphomas bearing MYC translocation combined with translocation involving other genes, such as BCL2, BCL3, or BCL6, defined as double-hit lymphoma (DHL), have a poor prognosis. Recent studies expanded the concept to include double-expressing lymphoma (DEL) that co-overexpresses MYC protein with either of those proteins. Accordingly, we defined cytogenetic DHL and DEL as primary DHL. An adoptive T cell immunotherapy with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has been clinically shown to exhibit cytotoxicity in refractory neoplasias. We revealed the marked cytotoxicity of anti-CD19- and/or anti-CD38-CAR T cells against primary DHL cells from patients. CD19- and/or CD38-specific T cells were co-cultured with cytogenetic DHL (n = 3) or DEL (n = 2) cells from five patients for 3 days. We examined whether T cells retrovirally transduced with each vector showed cytotoxicity against DHL cells. Anti-CD19- and/or anti-CD38-CAR T cells were co-cultured with primary DHL cells at an E:T ratio of 1:2 for 3 days. Anti-CD19- and anti-CD38-CAR T cells completely abrogated these DHL cells, respectively. Anti-CD19-CAR T cells synergistically exerted collaborative cytotoxicity against these primary DHL cells with anti-CD38-CAR T cells. Therefore, refractory DHL cells can be efficiently abrogated by the clinical use of T cells with anti-CD19- and/or anti-CD38-CAR.

Wyrwas M, Michel J, Guibaud I, et al.
Burkitt cells on a peripheral blood smear: how to deal with?
Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2016; 74(6):697-703 [PubMed] Related Publications
The diagnosis of double hit lymphoma remains a challenge for the biologist for a good management of the patient. This new category of lymphoma "double hit" (DH) is part of a new entity of the WHO classification 2008: « Unclassifiable B lymphoma with features intermediate between diffuse large cell B lymphoma and Burkitt's lymphoma ». It is defined by the presence of a breakpoint at the locus 8q24 of the c-MYC gene associated with a recurrent translocation involving BCL2 genes primarily BCL6 or more rarely CCDN1 or BCL3 genes. These chromosomal alterations are not systematically screened at diagnosis, which can cause misdiagnosis and poor therapy management. These lymphomas DH have variable cytology and may be confused with Burkitt lymphoma (BL) or with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). They have a very poor prognosis and are often resistant to chemotherapy. Their therapy and their prognosis are different from those of the BL or the DLBCL. This entity and its morphology as well as histology either immunophenotypic or cytogenetic characteristics must therefore be known to biologists, pathologists, and clinicians. Cooperation between the various actors in these disciplines is essential in case of atypical BL or DLBCL to lead to a precise classification of the pathology.

Dai J, Lu Y, Wang J, et al.
A four-gene signature predicts survival in clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(50):82712-82726 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common pathological subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), accounting for about 80% of RCC. In order to find potential prognostic biomarkers in ccRCC, we presented a four-gene signature to evaluate the prognosis of ccRCC. SurvExpress and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of tissue microarrays were used to analyze the association between the four genes and the prognosis of ccRCC. Data from TCGA dataset revealed a prognostic prompt function of the four genes (PTEN, PIK3C2A, ITPA and BCL3). Further discovery suggested that the four-gene signature predicted survival better than any of the four genes alone. Moreover, IHC staining demonstrated a consistent result with TCGA, indicating that the signature was an independent prognostic factor of survival in ccRCC. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were conducted to verify the association of clinicopathological variables and the four genes' expression levels with survival. The results further testified that the risk (four-gene signature) was an independent prognostic factors of both Overall Survival (OS) and Disease-free Survival (DFS) (P<0.05). In conclusion, the four-gene signature was correlated with the survival of ccRCC, and therefore, may help to provide significant clinical implications for predicting the prognosis of patients.

Wu J, Li L, Jiang G, et al.
B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3 promotes glioma cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis through the oncogenic STAT3 pathway.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 49(6):2471-2479 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant expression of oncogenes and/or tumor suppressors play fundamental roles in the pathogenesis of glioma. B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3 (BCL3) was previously found to be a putative proto-oncogene in human cancers and the decoy receptor DcR1 is induced in a p50/Bcl3-dependent manner and attenuates the efficacy of temozolomide in glioblastoma cells. However, its expression status, clinical significance and biological functions in glioma remain largely unknown. In the present study, the levels of BCL3 were overexpressed in glioma compared to normal brain tissues. Furthermore, high expression of BCL3 protein was confirmed by immunoblotting in glioma cells as compared with normal human astrocyte cell line. The positive expression of BCL3 was correlated with adverse prognostic features and reduced overall survival rate of glioma patients. BCL3 silencing resulted in prominent decreased proliferation, cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and increased apoptosis in U251 cells. In contrast, BCL3 overexpression in U87 cells remarkably facilitated proliferative ability and cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis. In vivo studies showed that BCL3 knockdown inhibited the tumor growth of U251 cells in a mouse xenograft model. Mechanistically, BCL3 positively regulated the abundance of STAT3, p-STAT3 and the downstream targets of STAT3 pathway including BCL2, MCL-1 and cyclin D1 in glioma cells. Furthermore, a positive correlation between BCL3 and STAT3 expression was observed in glioma specimens. Notably, we confirmed that STAT3 knockdown abolished the oncogenic roles of BCL3 in glioma. In conclusion, we suggest that BCL3 serves as an oncogene in glioma by modulating proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis, and its oncogenic effects are mediated by the STAT3 signaling pathway.

Willems M, Dubois N, Musumeci L, et al.
IκBζ: an emerging player in cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(40):66310-66322 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
IκBζ, an atypical member of the nuclear IκB family of proteins, is expressed at low levels in most resting cells, but is induced upon stimulation of Toll-like/IL-1 receptors through an IRAK1/IRAK4/NFκB-dependent pathway. Like its homolog Bcl3, IκBζ can regulate the transcription of a set of inflamatory genes through its association with the p50 or p52 subunits of NF-κB. Long studied as a key component of the immune response, IκBζ emerges as an important regulator of inflammation, cell proliferation and survival. As a result, growing evidence support the role of this transcription factor in the pathogenesis number of human hematological and solid malignancies.

Wang H, Xiong M, Hu Y, et al.
MicroRNA-19b inhibits proliferation of gastric cancer cells by targeting B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(4):2079-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies reported that the aberrant expression of miR-19b in gastric cancer tissues and circulating miR-19b is a potential biomarker to indicate progression of gastric cancer. However, the prognostic significance of miR-19b, and its role and underlying mechanisms in gastric cancer remain poorly investigated. In the present study, we demonstrated that the expression of miR-19b was aberrantly downregulated in both gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. Clinical association analyses disclosed that the reduced expression of miR-19b was significantly associated with adverse clinicopathological characteristics including poor differentiation, large tumor size and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Gastric cancer patients with low expression of miR-19b had prominent shorter overall survival and disease-free survival. Gain-of-function studies indicated that miR-19b overexpression inhibited cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in MGC-803 cells. While miR-19b silencing promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in SGC-7901 cells. Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed that miR-19b overexpression suppressed the tumor growth of MGC-803 cells. Notably, miR-19b inversely regulated B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3 (BCL3) abundance in gastric cancer cells. BCL3 was identified as a direct target of miR-19b using luciferase reporter assays. Moreover, BCL3 knockdown abolished the effects of miR-19b knockdown on gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that miR-19b may potentially serve as a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

Lu W, Ning H, Gu L, et al.
MCPIP1 Selectively Destabilizes Transcripts Associated with an Antiapoptotic Gene Expression Program in Breast Cancer Cells That Can Elicit Complete Tumor Regression.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(6):1429-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The ability of cancer cells to evade apoptosis is dictated by a shift in the balance between proapoptotic and antiapoptotic gene expression programs. Monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) is a zinc-finger RNA binding protein with important roles in mediating inflammatory responses. Overexpression of MCPIP1 in different cancer cell types has been implicated in eliciting an antitumor response, but a direct role of MCPIP1 in apoptosis has not been established. In this study, we demonstrate that MCPIP1 functions as a potent tumor suppressor that induces apoptosis of breast tumor cells by selectively enhancing mRNA decay of antiapoptotic gene transcripts, including Bcl2L1, Bcl2A1, RelB, Birc3, and Bcl3. Mechanistically, MCPIP1 physically interacted with a stem-loop structure in the 3' untranslated region of these transcripts through its PIN domain, causing mRNA destabilization. Furthermore, we found that MCPIP1 expression was repressed in breast tumor cells, and overexpression of MCPIP1 induced apoptosis, whereas its depletion enhanced cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, MCPIP1 induction in vivo resulted in complete regression of established tumors and a significant reduction in metastatic disease. Notably, low MCPIP1 expression in tumor samples from breast cancer patients was strongly associated with poor survival over 13 years of follow-up. Collectively, our results highlight that MCPIP1 is a new tumor suppressor in breast cancer that induces cell death by tipping the balance in favor of proapoptotic gene expression.

Chaudhary SC, Tang X, Arumugam A, et al.
Shh and p50/Bcl3 signaling crosstalk drives pathogenesis of BCCs in Gorlin syndrome.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(34):36789-814 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder that is due, in large measure, to aberrant Shh signaling driven by mutations in the tumor suppressor gene Ptch1. Here, we describe the development of Ptch1+/-/ SKH-1 mice as a novel model of this disease. These animals manifest many features of NBCCS, including developmental anomalies and are remarkably sensitive to both ultraviolet (UVB) and ionizing radiation that drive the development of multiple BCCs. Just as in patients with NBCCS, Ptch1+/-/SKH-1 also spontaneously develops BCCs and other neoplasms such as rhabdomyomas/rhabdomyosarcomas. Administration of smoothened inhibitors (vismodegib/itraconazole/cyclopamine) or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (sulindac/sulfasalazine) each result in partial resolution of BCCs in these animals. However, combined administration of these agents inhibits the growth of UVB-induced BCCs by >90%. Employing small molecule- and decoy-peptide-based approaches we further affirm that complete remission of BCCs could only be achieved by combined inhibition of p50-NFκB/Bcl3 and Shh signaling. We posit that Ptch1+/-/SKH-1 mice are a novel and relevant animal model for NBCCS. Understanding mechanisms that govern genetic predisposition to BCCs should facilitate our ability to identify and treat NBCCS gene carriers, including those at risk for sporadic BCCs while accelerating development of novel therapeutic modalities for these patients.

Strauss L, Sangaletti S, Consonni FM, et al.
RORC1 Regulates Tumor-Promoting "Emergency" Granulo-Monocytopoiesis.
Cancer Cell. 2015; 28(2):253-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer-driven granulo-monocytopoiesis stimulates expansion of tumor promoting myeloid populations, mostly myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). We identified subsets of MDSCs and TAMs based on the expression of retinoic-acid-related orphan receptor (RORC1/RORγ) in human and mouse tumor bearers. RORC1 orchestrates myelopoiesis by suppressing negative (Socs3 and Bcl3) and promoting positive (C/EBPβ) regulators of granulopoiesis, as well as the key transcriptional mediators of myeloid progenitor commitment and differentiation to the monocytic/macrophage lineage (IRF8 and PU.1). RORC1 supported tumor-promoting innate immunity by protecting MDSCs from apoptosis, mediating TAM differentiation and M2 polarization, and limiting tumor infiltration by mature neutrophils. Accordingly, ablation of RORC1 in the hematopoietic compartment prevented cancer-driven myelopoiesis, resulting in inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis.

Dimitrakopoulos FI, Antonacopoulou AG, Kottorou A, et al.
Variant of BCL3 gene is strongly associated with five-year survival of non-small-cell lung cancer patients.
Lung Cancer. 2015; 89(3):311-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: BCL3, a known atypical IκB family member, has been documented to be upregulated in hematological malignancies and in some solid tumors, functioning as a crucial player in tumor development. Recently, rs8100239, a tag-Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in BCL3 (T>A) has been identified, but there are no data regarding its involvement in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) initiation and progression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To study the possible association of BCL3 with NSCLC, 268 patients and 279 healthy controls were genotyped for rs8100239. Moreover, BCL3 protein expression was also investigated in 112 NSCLC cases through an immunohistochemical analysis.
RESULTS: NSCLC patients with AA genotype displayed significantly worse prognosis compared to T allele carriers (P<0.001), who had less frequent intermediate nuclear BCL3 expression (P=0.042). In addition, overexpression of BCL3 was detected in tumor specimens, compared to normal tissue (P<0.001). Furthermore, BCL3 protein levels were associated with five-year survival (P=0.039), maximum diameter of lesion (P=0.012), grade (P=0.002) and relapse frequency (P=0.041).
CONCLUSIONS: The present study is the first to show a relationship between the genetic variation rs8100239 of BCL3 and cancer patients' survival. It also represents the first quantitative evaluation of BCL3 expression in NSCLC. Our findings indicate that rs8100239 may be considered as a novel prognostic indicator, demonstrating also the overexpression of BCL3 protein in NSCLC and implicating this pivotal molecule in the pathogenesis of NSCLC.

Luo S, Wang J, Ma Y, et al.
PPARγ inhibits ovarian cancer cells proliferation through upregulation of miR-125b.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 462(2):85-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
miR-125b has essential roles in coordinating tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, invasiveness, metastasis and chemotherapy recurrence. In ovarian cancer miR-125b has been shown to be downregulated and acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting proto-oncogene BCL3. PPARγ, a multiple functional transcription factor, has been reported to have anti-tumor effects through inhibition of proliferation and induction of differentiation and apoptosis by targeting the tumor related genes. However, it is unclear whether miR-125b is regulated by PPARγ in ovarian cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that the miR-125b downregulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. Ligands-activated PPARγ suppressed proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and this PPARγ-induced growth inhibition is mediated by the upregulation of miR-125b. PPARγ promoted the expression of miR-125b by directly binding to the responsive element in miR-125b gene promoter region. Thus, our results suggest that PPARγ can induce growth suppression of ovarian cancer by upregulating miR-125b which inhibition of proto-oncogene BCL3. These findings will extend our understanding of the function of PPARγ in tumorigenesis and miR-125b may be a therapeutic intervention of ovarian cancer.

Mansour NM, Bernal GM, Wu L, et al.
Decoy Receptor DcR1 Is Induced in a p50/Bcl3-Dependent Manner and Attenuates the Efficacy of Temozolomide.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(10):2039-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Temozolomide is used widely to treat malignant glioma, but the overall response to this agent is generally poor. Resistance to DNA-damaging drugs such as temozolomide has been related to the induction of antiapoptotic proteins. Specifically, the transcription factor NF-κB has been suggested to participate in promoting the survival of cells exposed to chemotherapy. To identify factors that modulate cytotoxicity in the setting of DNA damage, we used an unbiased strategy to examine the NF-κB-dependent expression profile induced by temozolomide. By this route, we defined the decoy receptor DcR1 as a temozolomide response gene induced by a mechanism relying upon p50/NF-κB1. A conserved NF-κB-binding sequence (κB-site) was identified in the proximal promoter and was demonstrated to be required for DcR1 induction by temozolomide. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies reveal that the atypical IκB protein, Bcl3, is also required for induction of DcR1 by temozolomide. Mechanistically, DcR1 attenuates temozolomide efficacy by blunting activation of the Fas receptor pathway in p53(+/+) glioma cells. Intracranial xenograft studies show that DcR1 depletion in glioma cells enhances the efficacy of temozolomide. Taken together, our results show how DcR1 upregulation mediates temozolomide resistance and provide a rationale for DcR1 targeting as a strategy to sensitize gliomas to this widely used chemotherapy.

Malik D, Kaul D, Chauhan N, Marwaha RK
miR-2909-mediated regulation of KLF4: a novel molecular mechanism for differentiating between B-cell and T-cell pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemias.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:175 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs) play both oncogenic and oncostatic roles in leukemia. However, the molecular details underlying miRNA-mediated regulation of their target genes in pediatric B- and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs) remain unclear. The present study investigated the relationship between miR-2909 and Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), and its functional relevance to cell cycle progression and immortalization in patients with pediatric ALL.
METHODS: Elevated levels of miR-2909 targeted the tumor suppressor gene KLF4 in pediatric B-cell, but not pediatric T-cell ALL, as detected by pMIR-GFP reporter assay. Expression levels of genes including apoptosis-antagonizing transcription factor (AATF), MYC, B-cell lymphoma (BCL3), P21CIP, CCND1 and SP1 in B- and T-cells from patients with pediatric ALL were compared with control levels using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and reporter assays.
RESULTS: We identified two novel mutations in KLF4 in pediatric T-ALL. A mutation in the 3' untranslated region of the KLF4 gene resulted in loss of miR-2909-mediated regulation, while mutation in its first or third zinc-finger motif (Zf1/Zf3) rendered KLF4 transcriptionally inactive. This mutation was a frameshift mutation resulting in alteration of the Zf3 motif sequence in the mutant KLF4 protein in all pediatric T-ALL samples. Homology models, docking studies and promoter activity of its target gene P21CIP confirmed the lack of function of the mutant KLF4 protein in pediatric T-ALL. Moreover, the inability of miR-2909 to regulate KLF4 and its downstream genes controlling cell cycle and apoptosis in T-cell but not in B-ALL was verified by antagomiR-2909 transfection. Comprehensive sequence analysis of KLF4 identified the predominance of isoform 1 (~55 kDa) in most patients with pediatric B-ALL, while those with pediatric T-ALL expressed isoform 2 (~51 kDa).
CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a novel miR-2909-KLF4 molecular axis able to differentiate between the pathogeneses of pediatric B- and T-cell ALLs, and which may represent a new diagnostic/prognostic marker.

Goode G, Pratap S, Eltom SE
Depletion of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells altered the expression of genes in key regulatory pathways of cancer.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e100103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor that is best known for its role in mediating the toxic responses elicited by poly aromatic hydrocarbons as well as many other environmental factors; is also involved in breast cancer progression. We previously reported that stable knockdown of AhR decreased the tumorigenic properties of the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line; whereas ectopic overexpression of AhR was sufficient to transform immortalized human mammary epithelial cells to exhibit malignant phenotypes. In the present study we investigated the genes that are differentially regulated by AhR and are controlling cellular processes linked to breast cancer. We used Affymetrix Human GeneChip 1.0-ST whole transcriptome arrays to analyze alterations of gene expression resulting from stable AhR knockdown in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. The expression of 144 genes was significantly altered with a ≥2.0-fold change and a multiple test corrected p-value ≤0.05, as a result of AhR knockdown. We demonstrate that AhR knockdown alters the expression of several genes known to be linked to cancer. These genes include those involved in tryptophan metabolism (KYNU), cell growth (MUC1 and IL8), cell survival (BIRC3 and BCL3), cell migration and invasion (S100A4 and ABI3), multi-drug resistance (ABCC3) and angiogenesis (VEGFA and CCL2). The identification of the genes and pathways affected by AhR depletion provides new insight into possible molecular events that could explain the reported phenotypic changes. In conclusion AhR knockdown alters the expression of genes known to enhance or inhibit cancer progression; tipping the balance towards a state that counteracts tumor progression.

Chung J, Karkhanis V, Tae S, et al.
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) inhibition induces lymphoma cell death through reactivation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor pathway and polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) silencing.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(49):35534-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epigenetic regulation mediated by lysine- and arginine-specific enzymes plays an essential role in tumorigenesis, and enhanced expression of the type II protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 as well as the polycomb repressor complex PRC2 has been associated with increased cell proliferation and survival. Here, we show that PRMT5 is overexpressed in three different types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines and clinical samples as well as in mouse primary lymphoma cells and that it up-regulates PRC2 expression through inactivation of the retinoblastoma proteins RB1 and RBL2. Although PRMT5 epigenetically controls RBL2 expression, it indirectly promotes RB1 phosphorylation through enhanced cyclin D1 expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PRMT5 knockdown in non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines and mouse primary lymphoma cells leads to RBL2 derepression and RB1 reactivation, which in turn inhibit PRC2 expression and trigger derepression of its CASP10, DAP1, HOXA5, and HRK pro-apoptotic target genes. We also show that reduced PRMT5 expression leads to cyclin D1 transcriptional repression via loss of TP53K372 methylation, which results in decreased BCL3 expression and enhanced recruitment of NF-κB p52-HDAC1 repressor complexes to the cyclin D1 promoter. These findings indicate that PRMT5 is a master epigenetic regulator that governs expression of its own target genes and those regulated by PRC2 and that its inhibition could offer a promising therapeutic strategy for lymphoma patients.

Li S, Lin P, Young KH, et al.
MYC/BCL2 double-hit high-grade B-cell lymphoma.
Adv Anat Pathol. 2013; 20(5):315-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Double-hit lymphoma (DHL) has been defined by others as a B-cell lymphoma with MYC/8q24 rearrangement in combination with a translocation involving another gene, such as BCL2, BCL3, or BCL6. The most common form of DHL has translocations involving MYC and BCL2, also known as MYC/BCL2 DHL. In recent years, a number of case series of MYC/BCL2 DHL have been published. Most cases of MYC/BCL2 DHL morphologically resemble diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and Burkitt lymphoma. These tumors are of B-cell lineage, have a germinal center B-cell immunophenotype with a high proliferation rate, and a complex karyotype. Patients with these tumors have an aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis despite high-intensity chemotherapy. More recently, studies have suggested expanding the spectrum of MYC/BCL2 DHL to include cases that have concurrent MYC and BCL2 cytogenetic abnormalities, but not necessarily translocations. In addition, overexpression of MYC and BCL2 has been shown in an appreciable subset of DLBCL tumors. These tumors show overlap with MYC/BCL2 DHL, but are not equivalent. In this review, we discuss the clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and prognostic features of MYC/BCL2 DHL.

Chung GT, Lou WP, Chow C, et al.
Constitutive activation of distinct NF-κB signals in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
J Pathol. 2013; 231(3):311-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a distinct type of head and neck cancer, non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is closely associated with EBV infection and massive lymphoid infiltration. The unique histological features suggest that local inflammation plays an important role in NPC tumourigenesis. We comprehensively characterized NF-κB signalling, a key inflammatory pathway which might contribute to the tumourigenesis of this EBV-associated cancer. By EMSA, western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining, constitutive activation of distinct NF-κB complexes, either p50/p50/Bcl3 or p50/RelB, was found in almost all EBV-positive NPC tumours. siRNA or chemical inhibition of NF-κB signalling significantly inhibited the growth of EBV-positive NPC cells C666-1. Gene expression profiling identified a number of NF-κB target genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, immune response, and transcription. We further confirmed that p50 signals modulate the expression of multiple oncogenes (MYB, BCL2), chemokines, and chemokine receptors (CXCL9, CXCL10, CX3CL1, and CCL20). The findings support a crucial role of these constitutively activated NF-κB signals in NPC tumourigenesis and local inflammation. In addition to expression of the viral oncoprotein LMP1, genetic alteration of several NF-κB regulators (eg TRAF3, TRAF2, NFKBIA, A20) also contributes to the aberrant NF-κB activation in EBV-associated NPC. Except for LMP1-expressing C15 cells, all NPC tumour lines harbour at least one of these genetic alterations. Importantly, missense mutations of TRAF3, TRAF2, and A20 were also detected in 3/33 (9.1%) primary tumours. Taken together with the reported LTBR amplification in 7.3% of primary NPCs, genetic alterations in NF-κB pathways occurred in at least 16% of cases of this cancer. The findings indicate that distinct NF-κB signals are constitutively activated in EBV-positive NPC cells by either multiple genetic changes or EBV latent genes.

Sharma M, Sharma S, Arora M, Kaul D
Regulation of cellular Cyclin D1 gene by arsenic is mediated through miR-2909.
Gene. 2013; 522(1):60-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arsenic through its ability to regulate genes that link cell cycle control with apoptosis has been widely recognized to play a crucial role in oncogenomics. However, the molecular event by which arsenic affects such genes is far from clear. Here we provide reasonably good evidence to support the view that arsenic exposure to human PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) at low concentrations results in the over-expression of miR-2909 within these cells. This over-expressed miR-2909 was found to regulate CCND1 (Cyclin D1) gene expression, within these cells by inducing splice-switching of tumor suppresser CYLD (Cylindromatosis) gene as well as modulation of SP1 (Specificity Protein 1) activity through the repression of KLF4 (Kruppel-like factor4) expression at the translational level. Arsenic dependent regulation of AATF (Apoptosis Antagonizing Transcription factor) and BCL3 (B-cell Lymphoma 3) were also found to be modulated through its capacity to induce miR-2909 expression. Based upon these observations, a novel epigenomic pathway was proposed which may not only be useful in understanding the paradoxical role of arsenic in oncogenomics but also may even be useful in devising various strategies for the treatment/prevention of tumors induced by arsenic.

Podgornik H, Pretnar J, Skopec B, et al.
Concurrent rearrangements of BCL2, BCL3, and BCL11A genes in atypical chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Hematology. 2014; 19(1):45-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The most frequent chromosomal aberrations with the well established prognostic meaning in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are +12, del(11q), del(13q), and del(17p). Less common translocations lead to deregulation of genes primarily due to juxtaposition with IGH gene. We present a case of CLL patient with atypical morphology and an aggressive course of disease. In spite of aggressive treatment including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation disease progressed into a rare cutaneous Richter's syndrome. Trisomy 12 was found as a sole chromosomal change at initial cytogenetic analysis of lymphoma cells. At progression, besides trisomy 12 three concomitant balanced translocations t(2;14)(p13;q32), t(14;19)(q32;q13), and t(18;22)(q21;q11) were found. The same karyotype was confirmed in cells aspirated from skin infiltrates at Richter transformation. Atypical cytological features, trisomy 12, and a progressive course of disease observed in our case are typical for CLL with each of particular Ig translocations that were concomitantly found in CLL for the first time. Similar to "double hit" lymphoma concurrent rearrangements may be relevant also in CLL.

Wakefield A, Soukupova J, Montagne A, et al.
Bcl3 selectively promotes metastasis of ERBB2-driven mammary tumors.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(2):745-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bcl3 is a putative proto-oncogene deregulated in hematopoietic and solid tumors. Studies in cell lines suggest that its oncogenic effects are mediated through the induction of proliferation and inhibition of cell death, yet its role in endogenous solid tumors has not been established. Here, we address the oncogenic effect of Bcl3 in vivo and describe how this Stat3-responsive oncogene promotes metastasis of ErbB2-positive mammary tumors without affecting primary tumor growth or normal mammary function. Deletion of the Bcl3 gene in ErbB2-positive (MMTV-Neu) mice resulted in a 75% reduction in metastatic tumor burden in the lungs with a 3.6-fold decrease in cell turnover index in these secondary lesions with no significant effect on primary mammary tumor growth, cyclin D1 levels, or caspase-3 activity. Direct inhibition of Bcl3 by siRNA in a transplantation model of an Erbb2-positive mammary tumor cell line confirmed the effect of Bcl3 in malignancy, suggesting that the effect of Bcl3 was intrinsic to the tumor cells. Bcl3 knockdown resulted in a 61% decrease in tumor cell motility and a concomitant increase in the cell migration inhibitors Nme1, Nme2, and Nme3, the GDP dissociation inhibitor Arhgdib, and the metalloprotease inhibitors Timp1 and Timp2. Independent knockdown of Nme1, Nme2, and Arhgdib partially rescued the Bcl3 motility phenotype. These results indicate for the first time a cell-autonomous disease-modifying role for Bcl3 in vivo, affecting metastatic disease progression rather than primary tumor growth.

Ishikawa Y, Tsunoda K, Shibazaki M, et al.
Downregulation of cylindromatosis gene, CYLD, confers a growth advantage on malignant melanoma cells while negatively regulating their migration activity.
Int J Oncol. 2012; 41(1):53-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cylindromatosis gene (CYLD) encodes a deubiquitinase that was initially identified as a tumor suppressor and has recently been investigated in connection with a variety of normal physiological processes. In contrast to its cell-proliferative activity, the effect of CYLD protein on cell migration has been a matter of debate. We investigated the effect of CYLD-siRNA on the migration activity of malignant melanoma cells. Expression of CYLD mRNA/protein was lower in 6 of 8 malignant melanoma cell lines than in 3 sets of primary-cultured normal human epidermal melanocytes. Knockdown of CYLD significantly increased the proliferation activities of two melanoma cell lines (p<0.05), along with BCL3 nuclear translocation followed by CCND1 overexpression. In contrast to the proliferation-related activity, CYLD knockdown significantly decreased the cell migration of all the melanoma cell lines (n=7, p<0.05), and we demonstrated that the mechanism regulating melanoma cell migration was activation of RAC1 through the action of CYLD. Our findings provide new insight into the role of CYLD-induced RAC1 activation in melanoma cell migration.

Shin SY, Jang S, Park CJ, et al.
A rare case of Lennert's type peripheral T-cell lymphoma with t(14;19)(q11.2;q13.3).
Int J Lab Hematol. 2012; 34(3):328-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although most patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) show clonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor genes, few PTCLs show recurrent chromosomal abnormalities. We describe here a rare chromosomal rearrangement, t(14;19)(q11.2;q13.3), in a Lennert's lymphoma, a variant of PTCL, not otherwise specified. Sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization assays showed that the breakpoint in 19q13.3 was located distal to the BCL3 and PVRL2 genes, both of which may be candidate proto-oncogenes. These findings suggest that another gene is involved in the pathogenic characteristics observed in this patient with Lennert's lymphoma.

Ibrahim HA, Amen F, Reid AG, Naresh KN
BCL3 rearrangement, amplification and expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Eur J Haematol. 2011; 87(6):480-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Aim of the study is to investigate diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) for the presence of BCL3 gene rearrangement and protein expression and to correlate these with immunophenotypic subsets of DLBCL. We aimed to investigate the pathogenetic implication of BCL3 in DLBCL.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Tissue microarray sections from 78 DLBCLs were evaluated for BCL3 protein expression using immunohistochemistry and for BCL3 and IGH rearrangement using Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) with split-apart probes. BCL3 expression was positive in 36/78 cases, of which BCL3 rearrangement was seen seen in one case. Three additional cases showed evidence of trisomy of BCL3/chromosome 19, and two of these three cases showed BCL3 expression. The four cases with FISH-detectable abnormalities showed MUM1 expression and had a non-germinal center (GC) phenotype. The median [and inter-quartile range (IQR)] percentage of BCL3-positive cells in MUM1-positive and MUM1-negative subsets was 65% (5-85%) and 5% (0-20%), respectively (P < 0.001). The median (IQR) percentage of BCL3-positive cells among GC and non-GC subsets of DLBCLs was 12% (12-81%) and 60% (6-87%), respectively (P = 0.022).
CONCLUSION: Rearrangement or amplification involving the BCL3 gene is a rare event in DLBCL but is likely to play a role in the pathogenesis of a minority of de novo DLBCL. BCL3 over-expression is more frequent and occurs in the absence of rearrangement or amplification and is a feature of the non-GC subset of DLBCL.

Huh YO, Schweighofer CD, Ketterling RP, et al.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia with t(14;19)(q32;q13) is characterized by atypical morphologic and immunophenotypic features and distinctive genetic features.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2011; 135(5):686-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
The t(14;19)(q32;q13) involving the IGH@ and BCL3 loci is an infrequent cytogenetic abnormality detected in B-cell malignancies. We describe the clinicopathologic, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic characteristics of 14 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) with t(14;19)(q32;q13). All patients (10 men and 4 women) had lymphocytosis; 10 had lymphadenopathy. Blood and bone marrow lymphocytes were predominantly small, but cytologically and immunophenotypically atypical. In all cases, t(14;19) was found in the neoplastic stem line; it was the sole abnormality in 4. Ten cases showed additional cytogenetic abnormalities, including trisomy 12 in 9 and complex karyotypes in 7. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated IGH@/BCL3 fusion gene in all cases. In all cases, the IGHV genes were unmutated, but only 7 expressed ZAP70. Seven cases preferentially used IGHV4-39. Our results indicate that t(14;19)(q32;q13) identifies a subset of CLL/SLL with distinctive clinicopathologic and genetic features. Furthermore, t(14;19) may represent an early, possibly primary, genetic event.

Slovak ML, Bedell V, Hsu YH, et al.
Molecular karyotypes of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells at disease onset reveal distinct copy number alterations in chemosensitive versus refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(10):3443-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To determine the recurring DNA copy number alterations (CNA) in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) using laser capture microdissected CD30(+) Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Archived tissues from 27 CD30(+) HL plus control samples were analyzed by DNA microarrays. The HL molecular karyotypes were compared with the genomic profiles of germinal center B cells and treatment outcome (chemotherapy responsive vs. primary refractory disease).
RESULTS: Gains and losses observed in more than 35% of HL samples were localized to 22 and 12 chromosomal regions, respectively. Frequent gains (>65%) were associated with growth and proliferation, NF-κB activation, cell-cycle control, apoptosis, and immune and lymphoid development. Frequent losses (>40%) observed encompassed tumor suppressor genes (SPRY1, NELL1, and ID4, inhibitor of DNA binding 4), transcriptional repressors (TXNIP, thioredoxin interacting protein), SKP2 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2; ubiquitin ligase component), and an antagonist of NF-κB activation (PPARGC1A). In comparison to the germinal center profiles, the most frequent imbalances in HL were losses in 5p13 (AMACR, GDNF, and SKP2), and gains in 7q36 (SHH, sonic hedgehog homolog) and 9q34 (ABL1, CDK9, LCN2, and PTGES). Gains (>35%) in the HL chemoresponsive patients housed genes known to regulate T-cell trafficking or NF-κB activation (CCL22, CX3CL1, CCL17, DOK4, and IL10), whereas the refractory samples showed frequent loss of 4q27 (interleukin; IL21/IL2) and 17p12, and gain of 19q13.3 (BCL3/RELB).
CONCLUSION: We identified nonrandom CNAs in the molecular karyotypes of classical HL. Several recurring genetic lesions correlated with disease outcome. These findings may be useful prognostic markers in the counseling and management of patients and for the development of novel therapeutic approaches in primary refractory HL.

Maldonado V, Espinosa M, Pruefer F, et al.
Gene regulation by BCL3 in a cervical cancer cell line.
Folia Biol (Praha). 2010; 56(4):183-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
BCL3 is a putative proto-oncogene deregulated in haematopoieitic and solid tumours. It has been suggested that its oncogenic effects could be mediated, at least in part, by inducing proliferation and inhibiting cell death. To provide more insight into the mediators of these effects, we used an unbiased approach to analyse the mRNA expression changes after knocking-down BCL3 using specific shRNAs. One hundred eighty genes were up-regulated and sixtynine genes were down-regulated after knocking down BCL3. Function analyses showed enrichment in genes associated with cellular growth and proliferation, cell death and gene expression. We found that STAT3, an important oncogene in human cancer, was the central node of one of the most significant networks. We validated STAT3 as a bona fide target of BCL3 by additional interference RNA and in silico analyses of previously reported lymphoma patients.

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