Gene Summary

Gene:NR0B2; nuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 2
Aliases: SHP, SHP1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is an unusual orphan receptor that contains a putative ligand-binding domain but lacks a conventional DNA-binding domain. The gene product is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, a group of transcription factors regulated by small hydrophobic hormones, a subset of which do not have known ligands and are referred to as orphan nuclear receptors. The protein has been shown to interact with retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors, inhibiting their ligand-dependent transcriptional activation. In addition, interaction with estrogen receptors has been demonstrated, leading to inhibition of function. Studies suggest that the protein represses nuclear hormone receptor-mediated transactivation via two separate steps: competition with coactivators and the direct effects of its transcriptional repressor function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (3)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Lung Cancer
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Cell Transformation, Viral
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genetic Variation
  • Obesity
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • MicroRNAs
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Messenger RNA
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • beta Catenin
  • Microarray Analysis
  • Disease Progression
  • Apoptosis
  • Adipocytes
  • Chromosome 1
  • Xenograft Models
  • Liver Cancer
  • Systems Analysis
  • Ligands
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Up-Regulation
  • Genomic Instability
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • RT-PCR
  • Orphan Nuclear Receptors
  • Down-Regulation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Hepacivirus
  • Viral Nonstructural Proteins
  • Transcription
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • DNA Methylation
  • Promoter Regions
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NR0B2 (cancer-related)

Romagnolo DF, Donovan MG, Doetschman TC, Selmin OI
Nutrients. 2019; 11(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR) protects against inflammation and cancer of the colon through maintenance of intestinal bile acid (BA) homeostasis. Conversely, higher levels of BA and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are risk factors for inflammation and cancer of the colon. In the United States,

Yao Q, Morgan GJ, Chim CS
Distinct promoter methylation profile reveals spatial epigenetic heterogeneity in 2 myeloma patients with multifocal extramedullary relapses.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10(1):158 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Spatial and subclonal genetic heterogeneity in multiple myeloma (MM) have been demonstrated by sequencing of plasma cells from multi-focal regions, but studies of spatial epigenetic heterogeneity are scanty. Herein, promoter methylation status of genes implicated in disease progression (CDKN2A and SHP1) and marrow escape (CDH1, CD56, and CXCR4) was studied in two patients with multi-focal extramedullary relapses. Patient 1 developed simultaneous chest wall and duodenal plasmacytoma at relapse. While SHP1 and CDKN2A were hypermethylated in both plasmacytomas, CDH1 hypermethylation was detected only in the chest wall. In patient 2, SHP1 methylation was found in the extradural plasmacytoma but not bone marrow (BM) at diagnosis, and the circulating PCs but not the BM at relapse. As the clonality, based on sequence of the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) of the immunoglobulin gene, was conserved in plasma cells at diagnosis and relapse, differential methylation of CDH1 in patient 1 and SHP1 in patient 2 was an illustration of spatial epigenetic heterogeneity. Furthermore, subclonal epigenetic heterogeneity was identified by the presence of subclonal SHP1 promoter methylation within the chest wall plasmacytoma of patient 1. In summary, our data showed distinct promoter methylation profile of plasma cells from multiple regions. This is the first report of spatial epigenetic heterogeneity in MM.

Yu W, Li L, Wang G, et al.
KU70 Inhibition Impairs Both Non-Homologous End Joining and Homologous Recombination DNA Damage Repair Through SHP-1 Induced Dephosphorylation of SIRT1 in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL) [corrected].
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 49(6):2111-2123 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL) [corrected] is an aggressive disease which is highly resistant to chemotherapy. Studies show that enhanced ability of DNA damage repair (DDR) in cancer cells plays a key role in chemotherapy resistance. Here, we suggest that defect in DDR related genes might be a promising target to destroy the genome stability of tumor cells.
METHODS: Since KU70 is highly expressed in Jurkat cells, one of the most representative cell lines of ATL, we knocked down KU70 by shRNA and analyzed the impact of KU70 deficiency in Jurkat cells as well as in NOD-SCID animal models by western blot, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and measuring DNA repair efficiency.
RESULTS: It is observed that silencing of KU70 resulted in accumulated DNA damage and impaired DDR in Jurkat cells, resulting in more apoptosis, decreased cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest. DNA damage leads to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are processed by either non-homologous end joining(NHEJ) or homologous recombination(HR). In our study, both NHEJ and HR are impaired because of KU70 defect, accompanied with increased protein level of SHP-1, a dephosphorylation enzyme. In turn, SHP-1 led to dephosphorylation of SIRT1, which further impaired HR repair efficiency. Moreover, KU70 deficiency prolonged survival of Jurkat-xenografted mice.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that targeting KU70 is a promising target for ATL and might overcome the existing difficulties in chemotherapy.

Zhang J, Wu H, Yi B, et al.
RING finger protein 38 induces gastric cancer cell growth by decreasing the stability of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1.
FEBS Lett. 2018; 592(18):3092-3100 [PubMed] Related Publications
The function of the E3 ligase RNF38 is still unknown in gastric cancer. Here, we found that RNF38 is upregulated in gastric cancer, and it is associated with the overall survival of gastric cancer patients. Further studies showed that RNF38 interacts with the nonreceptor tyrosine phosphatase SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) and induces the polyubiquitination of SHP-1, which leads to destabilization of SHP-1 and promotion of STAT3 signaling in gastric cancer cells. In addition, overexpression or knockdown of RNF38 induces or suppresses gastric cancer cell growth in vitro, respectively, and silencing RNF38 delays tumor growth in vivo. These findings demonstrate that RNF38 is functional in gastric cancer and promotes STAT3 signaling by destabilizing SHP-1; thus, RNF38 could be a novel target for gastric cancer therapy.

Jia WQ, Wang ZT, Zou MM, et al.
Verbascoside Inhibits Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation, Migration and Invasion While Promoting Apoptosis Through Upregulation of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SHP-1 and Inhibition of STAT3 Phosphorylation.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 47(5):1871-1882 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: As a natural antioxidant, verbascoside (VB) is proved to be a promising method for the treatment of oxidative-stress-related neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of VB on glioblastoma cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion as well as the mechanism involving signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1).
METHODS: U87 cells were assigned to different treatments. The MTT assay was used to test cell proliferation, flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis, and a Transwell assay was used for cell migration and invasion. We analyzed the glioblastoma tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. Western blot analysis was employed to determine the protein expression of related genes.
RESULTS: Glioblastoma cells exhibited decreased cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and increased apoptosis when treated with VB or TMZ. Western blot analysis revealed elevated SHP-1 expression and reduced phosphorylated (p)-STAT3 expression in glioblastoma cells treated with VB compared with controls. Correspondingly, in a xenograft mouse model treated with VB, glioblastoma tumor volume and growth were decreased. Glioblastoma xenograft tumors treated with VB showed elevated SHP-1, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP expression and reduced p-STAT3, Bcl-2, survivin, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression. siRNA-SHP-1 inhibited the VB effects on glioblastoma.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that VB inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion while promoting apoptosis via SHP-1 activation and inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation.

Li Q, Zhang L, Ma L, et al.
Resveratrol inhibits STAT5 activation through the induction of SHP-1 and SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatases in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.
Anticancer Drugs. 2018; 29(7):646-651 [PubMed] Related Publications
STAT5 is an important transcription factor that is constitutively activated in various types of malignancies, including chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Whether the antitumor effects of resveratrol (RES) are linked to its capability to inhibit STAT5 activation in CML cells was investigated. We found that RES inhibited STAT5 activation in K562 and KU812 cell lines; RES also reduced the STAT5 concentration in the nucleus of K562 and KU812 cells. Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor, sodium pervanadate, reversed the RES-induced downregulation of STAT5, suggesting the involvement of a PTP. Indeed, we observed that RES decreased the expression of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and SHP-2; moreover, the deletion of SHP-1 and SHP-2 genes by siRNA abolished the ability of RES to inhibit STAT5 activation, which suggested the critical role of both SHP-1 and SHP-2 in its possible mechanism of action. RES downregulated the expression of STAT5-regulated gene products such as Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, Cyclin D1, and Mcl-1, and increased the expression of Bax. This correlated with the suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Overall, our results suggest that RES is a blocker of STAT5 activation and thus may be potentially useful for the treatment of CML.

Panja S, Hayati S, Epsi NJ, et al.
Integrative (epi) Genomic Analysis to Predict Response to Androgen-Deprivation Therapy in Prostate Cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 31:110-121 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Therapeutic resistance is a central problem in clinical oncology. We have developed a systematic genome-wide computational methodology to allow prioritization of patients with favorable and poor therapeutic response. Our method, which integrates DNA methylation and mRNA expression data, uncovered a panel of 5 differentially methylated sites, which explain expression changes in their site-harboring genes, and demonstrated their ability to predict primary resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in the TCGA prostate cancer patient cohort (hazard ratio = 4.37). Furthermore, this panel was able to accurately predict response to ADT across independent prostate cancer cohorts and demonstrated that it was not affected by Gleason, age, or therapy subtypes. We propose that this panel could be utilized to prioritize patients who would benefit from ADT and patients at risk of resistance that should be offered an alternative regimen. Such approach holds a long-term objective to build an adaptable accurate platform for precision therapeutics.

Cheng L, Tang Y, Chen X, et al.
Deletion of MBD2 inhibits proliferation of chronic myeloid leukaemia blast phase cells.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2018; 19(8):676-686 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant methylation of tumour suppressor genes is associated with the progression to a blast crisis in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) has been studied as a "reader" of DNA methylation in many cancers, but its role in CML is unclear. We constructed cell models of a homozygous deletion mutation of MBD2 using gene-editing technology in K562 cells and BV173 cells. Here, we demonstrated that the deletion of MBD2 inhibited cell proliferation capacity in vitro. MBD2 deletion also significantly inhibited K562 cell proliferation in a xenograft tumour model in vivo. Additionally, the JAK2/STAT3 signalling pathway, which is abnormally active in CML, was inhibited by MBD2 deletion, and MBD2 deletion could up-regulate the expression of SHP1. In conclusion, our findings suggest that MBD2 is a candidate therapeutic strategy for the CML blast phase.

Hu G, Pen W, Wang M
TRIM14 Promotes Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation by Inhibiting Apoptosis.
Oncol Res. 2019; 27(4):439-447 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tripartite motif-containing 14 (TRIM14) is abnormally expressed in several human cancers. However, the function and expression of TRIM14 in human breast cancer are still largely unknown. To understand the biological function of TRIM14 in breast cancer, we measured the expression level of TRIM14. Cell proliferation and cell apoptosis were measured after TRIM14 overexpression or knockdown. Upregulation of TRIM14 was found in human breast cancer specimens and cell lines. Reduction of TRIM14 inhibited cell proliferation but increased cell apoptosis in the BT474 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Further study showed that knockdown of TRIM14 upregulated the expression of BAX while downregulating the expression of BCL2. In addition, the expression of SHP-1 was increased, and the phosphorylation of STAT3 (p-STAT3) was inhibited. Conversely, overexpression of TRIM14 had the opposite effects. Additionally, cryptotanshinone, a STAT3 inhibitor, inhibited cell proliferation but increased cell apoptosis in the BT474 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. In conclusion, TRIM14 may act as an oncogene in human breast cancer and may be a novel strategy for human breast cancer.

Khorasani M, Teimoori-Toolabi L, Farivar TN, et al.
Aberrant expression of miR-141 and nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner in clinical samples of prostate cancer.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 22(1):19-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Currently, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal exam are the main screening tests used for PCa diagnosis. However, due to the low specificity of these tests, new alternative biomarkers such as deregulated RNAs and microRNAs have been implemented.
OBJECTIVES: Aberrant expressions of small heterodimer partner gene (SHP, NR0B2) and mir-141 are reported in various cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the SHP and miR-141 expression level in tissue samples of prostate cancer.
METHODS: The expression level of SHP gene and miR-141 was assessed by real time PCR and their relative amounts were calculated by the Δ⁢ΔCT method. Also, IHC technique was used to determine the expression level of SHP protein.
RESULTS: The miR-141 was significantly up-regulated in the samples of metastatic tumors compared to localized tumor samples (P< 0.001, 31.17-fold change). Tumor samples showed lower SHP mRNA expression levels than BPH samples (p= 0.014, 4.7-fold change). The results of paired t-test analysis showed there was no significant difference between the SHP gene expression in PCa samples and their matched tumor-adjacent normal tissue (p= 0.5).
CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained in our study confirm the involvement of miR-141 in PCa progression and metastasis. These effects could be mediated by AR via down-regulation of its co-repressor protein, i.e., SHP.

Sugimoto A, Kataoka TR, Ueshima C, et al.
SLAM family member 8 is involved in oncogenic KIT-mediated signalling in human mastocytosis.
Exp Dermatol. 2018; 27(6):641-646 [PubMed] Related Publications
The signalling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 8 (SLAMF8)/CD353 is a member of the CD2 family of proteins. Its ligand has not been identified. SLAMF8 is expressed by macrophages and suppresses cellular functions. No study has yet explored SLAMF8 expression or function in human mastocytosis, which features oncogenic KIT-mediated proliferation of human mast cells. SLAMF8 protein was expressed in human mastocytosis cells, immunohistochemically. SLAMF8 expression was also evident in the human mast cell lines, HMC1.2 (expressing oncogenic KIT) and LAD2 (expressing wild-type KIT) cells. SLAMF8 knock-down significantly reduced the KIT-mediated growth of HMC1.2 cells but not that of LAD2 cells. SLAMF8 knock-down HMC1.2 cells exhibited significant attenuation of SHP-2 activation and oncogenic KIT-mediated RAS-RAF-ERK signalling. An interaction between SLAMF8 and SHP-2 was confirmed in HMC1.2 cells and all pathological mastocytosis specimens examined (19 of 19 cases, 100%). Thus, SLAMF8 is involved in oncogenic KIT-mediated RAS-RAF-ERK signalling and the subsequent growth of human neoplastic mast cells mediated by SHP-2. SLAMF8 is a possible therapeutic target in human mastocytosis patients.

Ding CH, Yin C, Chen SJ, et al.
The HNF1α-regulated lncRNA HNF1A-AS1 reverses the malignancy of hepatocellular carcinoma by enhancing the phosphatase activity of SHP-1.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Our previous study has demonstrated that hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) exerts potent therapeutic effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanisms by which HNF1α reverses HCC malignancy need to be further elucidated.
METHODS: lncRNA microarray was performed to identify the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulated by HNF1α. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays were applied to clarify the mechanism of the transcriptional regulation of HNF1α to HNF1A antisense RNA 1 (HNF1A-AS1). The effect of HNF1A-AS1 on HCC malignancy was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. RNA pulldown, RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation and the Bio-Layer Interferometry assay were used to validate the interaction of HNF1A-AS1 and Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1).
RESULTS: HNF1α regulated the expression of a subset of lncRNAs in HCC cells. Among these lncRNAs, the expression levels of HNF1A-AS1 were notably correlated with HNF1α levels in HCC cells and human HCC tissues. HNF1α activated the transcription of HNF1A-AS1 by directly binding to its promoter region. HNF1A-AS1 inhibited the growth and the metastasis of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, knockdown of HNF1A-AS1 reversed the suppressive effects of HNF1α on the migration and invasion of HCC cells. Importantly, HNF1A-AS1 directly bound to the C-terminal of SHP-1 with a high binding affinity (KD = 59.57 ± 14.29 nM) and increased the phosphatase activity of SHP-1. Inhibition of SHP-1 enzymatic activity substantially reversed the HNF1α- or HNF1A-AS1-induced reduction on the metastatic property of HCC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that HNF1A-AS1 is a direct transactivation target of HNF1α in HCC cells and involved in the anti-HCC effect of HNF1α. HNF1A-AS1 functions as phosphatase activator through the direct interaction with SHP-1. These findings suggest that regulation of the HNF1α/HNF1A-AS1/SHP-1 axis may have beneficial effects in the treatment of HCC.

Kim B, Park B
Saffron carotenoids inhibit STAT3 activation and promote apoptotic progression in IL-6-stimulated liver cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(4):1883-1891 [PubMed] Related Publications
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is involved in the survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. In addition, interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been reported to be closely related to STAT3 activity. In the present study, we investigated whether crocin, a major glycosylated carotenoid derived from saffron, can modulate the IL-6/STAT3 pathway to induce growth inhibition and sensitivity to cancer cell apoptosis. We determined that crocin inhibited STAT3 activation induced by IL-6 in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells. STAT3 suppression was mediated through the inactivation of Janus kinase 1/2(JAK1, JAK2) and Src kinase in both liver cancer cell lines. Furthermore, crocin induced the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) SHP-1, which led to STAT3 dephosphorylation. Deletion of the SHP-1 gene by siRNA recovered the inhibitory effects of crocin, suggesting an important role for SHP-1. Moreover, crocin downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2, survivin), proliferative (cyclin D1), invasive (CXCR4) and angiogenic (VEGF) proteins. Conversely, crocin increased the pro-apoptotic (BAX) protein, which was correlated with the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation. Overall, these results provide evidence that crocin has the potential for anticancer activity through inhibition of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway, especially in liver cancer.

Gladkikh AA, Potashnikova DM, Tatarskiy V, et al.
Comparison of the mRNA expression profile of B-cell receptor components in normal CD5-high B-lymphocytes and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a key role of ZAP70.
Cancer Med. 2017; 6(12):2984-2997 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway is of great importance for B-cell survival and proliferation. The BCR expressed on malignant B-CLL cells contributes to the disease pathogenesis, and its signaling pathway is currently the target of several therapeutic strategies. Although various BCR alterations have been described in B-CLL at the protein level, the mRNA expression levels of tyrosine kinases in B-CLL compared to that in normal CD5-high and CD5-low B-lymphocytes remain unknown. In the current study, we measured the mRNA expression levels of CD79A, CD79B, LYN, SYK, SHP1, and ZAP70 in purified populations of CD5-high B-CLL cells, CD5-low B-cells from the peripheral blood of healthy donors, and CD5-high B-cells from human tonsils. Here, we report a clear separation in the B-CLL dataset between the ZAP70-high and ZAP70-low subgroups. Each subgroup has a unique expression profile of BCR signaling components that might reflect the functional status of the BCR signaling pathway. Moreover, the ZAP70-low subgroup does not resemble either CD5-high B-lymphocytes from the tonsils or CD5-low lymphocytes from PBMC (P < 0.05). We also show that ZAP70 is the only gene that is differentially expressed in CD5-high and CD5-low normal B-lymphocytes, confirming the key role of Zap-70 tyrosine kinase in BCR signaling alterations in B-CLL.

Choi JY, Lee S, Yun SM, et al.
Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) Inhibits the Proliferation of Ovarian Cancer Cells by Suppressing Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Activation.
Nutr Cancer. 2018; 70(1):109-115 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiproliferative effect of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC), derived from basidiomycete mushroom culture, on ovarian cancer cell lines. An in vitro growth inhibition assay was performed using AHCC in ovarian cancer cell lines. Western blotting was performed to investigate the mechanism of the observed antiproliferative effect of AHCC. We identified that ovarian cancer cell viability was significantly reduced through treatment with AHCC compared to that in the control. AHCC inhibited constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation in ovarian cancer cell lines. In contrast, treatment with pervanadate, a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, reversed AHCC-induced STAT3 suppression. AHCC treatment induced the expression of SHP-1, a protein tyrosine phosphatase, and suppressed the expression of cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Mcl-1, survivin, and VEGF, which are STAT3-regulated gene products that are associated with cell proliferation or apoptosis. These results suggest that AHCC has an antiproliferative effect on ovarian cancer cell lines, via STAT3 phosphorylation; thus, this compound has the potential to be a complementary and alternative anticancer therapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

Wang J, Xu J, Xing G
Lycorine inhibits the growth and metastasis of breast cancer through the blockage of STAT3 signaling pathway.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2017; 49(9):771-779 [PubMed] Related Publications
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is involved in the growth and metastasis of breast cancer, and represents a potential target for developing new anti-tumor drugs. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Lycorine, a pyrrolo[de]phenanthridine ring-type alkaloid extracted from Amaryllidaceae genera, could inhibit breast cancer by targeting STAT3 signaling pathway. The human breast cancer cell lines were incubated with various concentrations of Lycorine, and cell proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, migration and invasion were assayed by several in vitro approaches. Results showed that Lycorine significantly suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion, as well as induced cell apoptosis, but showed no apparent impact on cell cycle. In addition, the effect of Lycorine on tumor growth and metastasis in nude mouse models was investigated, and results showed that Lycorine significantly inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, Lycorine significantly inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity through upregulating SHP-1 expression. Lycorine also downregulated the expressions of STAT3 target genes, including Mcl-1, Bcl-xL, MMP-2, MMP-9, which are involved in apoptosis and invasion of breast cancer. Taken together, these findings suggest that Lycorine may be a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of human breast cancer.

Kim JH, Park B
Triptolide blocks the STAT3 signaling pathway through induction of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in multiple myeloma cells.
Int J Mol Med. 2017; 40(5):1566-1572 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triptolide, an active component extracted from the medicinal plant Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., has been used to treat various diseases, including lupus, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and nephritic syndrome. The present study investigated the effects of triptolide on multiple myeloma using western blotting and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Triptolide was found to suppress the inducible and constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is closely associated with inflammation and tumorigenesis. Triptolide also inhibited the DNA binding of STAT3. This correlated with the downregulation of Src kinase and Janus kinase 1 and 2, and with the upregulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase non‑receptor type 6 (also known as SHP‑1). In addition, triptolide downregulated the expression of the STAT3‑regulated antiapoptotic (Bcl‑xL and myeloid cell leukemia‑1), proliferative (cyclin D1), and angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor) genes, suggesting that triptolide can induce apoptosis of tumor cells. These results suggest that triptolide may be a potential therapeutic anticancer agent for the prevention and treatment of multiple myeloma; thus further in‑depth investigations into its efficacy and toxicity are warranted.

Liu Y, Lou G, Norton JT, et al.
6-Methoxyethylamino-numonafide inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft growth as a single agent and in combination with sorafenib.
FASEB J. 2017; 31(12):5453-5465 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading form of cancer worldwide, and its incidence is increasing rapidly in the United States, tripling over the past 3 decades. The current chemotherapeutic strategies against localized and metastatic HCC are ineffective. Here we report that 6-methoxyethylamino-numonafide (MEAN) is a potent growth inhibitor of murine xenografts of 2 human HCC cell lines. At the same dose and with the same treatment strategies, MEAN was more efficacious in inhibiting tumor growth in mice than sorafenib, the only approved drug for HCC. Treatment by MEAN at an effective dose for 6 wk was well tolerated by animals. Combined therapy using both sorafenib and MEAN enhanced tumor growth inhibition over monotherapy with either agent. Additional experiments revealed that MEAN inhibited tumor growth through mechanisms distinct from those of either its parent compound, amonafide, or sorafenib. MEAN suppressed C-MYC expression and increased expression of several tumor suppressor genes, including Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (

Liu CY, Huang TT, Chu PY, et al.
The tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib activates SHP-1 and induces apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer cells.
Exp Mol Med. 2017; 49(8):e366 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains difficult to treat and urgently needs new therapeutic options. Nintedanib, a multikinase inhibitor, has exhibited efficacy in early clinical trials for HER2-negative breast cancer. In this study, we examined a new molecular mechanism of nintedanib in TNBC. The results demonstrated that nintedanib enhanced TNBC cell apoptosis, which was accompanied by a reduction of p-STAT3 and its downstream proteins. STAT3 overexpression suppressed nintedanib-mediated apoptosis and further increased the activity of purified SHP-1 protein. Moreover, treatment with either a specific inhibitor of SHP-1 or SHP-1-targeted siRNA reduced the apoptotic effects of nintedanib, which validates the role of SHP-1 in nintedanib-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, nintedanib-induced apoptosis was attenuated in TNBC cells expressing SHP-1 mutants with constantly open conformations, suggesting that the autoinhibitory mechanism of SHP-1 attenuated the effects of nintedanib. Importantly, nintedanib significantly inhibited tumor growth via the SHP-1/p-STAT3 pathway. Clinically, SHP-1 levels were downregulated, whereas p-STAT3 was upregulated in tumor tissues, and SHP-1 transcripts were associated with improved disease-free survival in TNBC patients. Our findings revealed that nintedanib induces TNBC apoptosis by acting as a SHP-1 agonist, suggesting that targeting STAT3 by enhancing SHP-1 expression could be a viable therapeutic strategy against TNBC.

Sakurai T, Yada N, Hagiwara S, et al.
Gankyrin induces STAT3 activation in tumor microenvironment and sorafenib resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2017; 108(10):1996-2003 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) develop as a result of chronic liver inflammation. We have shown that the oncoprotein gankyrin is critical for inflammation-induced tumorigenesis in the colon. Although the in vitro function of gankyrin is well known, its role in vivo remains to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of gankyrin in the tumor microenvironment of mice with liver parenchymal cell-specific gankyrin ablation (Alb-Cre;gankyrin

Tao T, Yang X, Zheng J, et al.
PDZK1 inhibits the development and progression of renal cell carcinoma by suppression of SHP-1 phosphorylation.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(44):6119-6131 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most aggressive urologic cancers, however, the mechanism on supporting RCC carcinogenesis is still not clear. By using gene expression profile analysis and functional clustering, PDZ domain-containing 1 (PDZK1) was revealed to be downregulated in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) samples, which was also verified in several independent public ccRCC data sets. Using PDZK1 overexpression and knockdown models in ccRCC cell lines, we demonstrated that PDZK1 inhibited cell proliferation, cell cycle G1/S phase transition, cell migration and invasion, indicating a tumor-suppressor role in the development and progression of ccRCC. Our study further demonstrated that PDZK1 inhibited cell proliferation and migration of ccRCC via targeting SHP-1. PDZK1 was further identified to suppress cell proliferation by blocking SHP-1 phosphorylation at Tyr536 via inhibition of the association between SHP-1 and PLCβ3, and then retarding Akt phosphorylation and promoting STAT5 phosphorylation in ccRCC cells. Moreover, the inhibitive effects of PDZK1 on SHP-1 phosphorylation and the tumor growth were verified in vivo by xenograft tumor studies. Accordingly, PDZK1 expression was negatively correlated with SHP-1 activation and phosphorylation, advanced pathologic stage, tumor weight and size, and prognosis of ccRCC patients. These findings have provided first lines of evidences that PDZK1 expression is negatively correlated with SHP-1 activation and poor clinical outcomes in ccRCC. PDZK1 was identified as a novel tumor suppressor in ccRCC by negating SHP-1 activity.

van der Touw W, Chen HM, Pan PY, Chen SH
LILRB receptor-mediated regulation of myeloid cell maturation and function.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2017; 66(8):1079-1087 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor (LILR) family comprises a set of paired immunomodulatory receptors expressed among human myeloid and lymphocyte cell populations. While six members of LILR subfamily A (LILRA) associate with membrane adaptors to signal via immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activating motifs (ITAM), LILR subfamily B (LILRB) members signal via multiple cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM). Ligand specificity of some LILR family members has been studied in detail, but new perspective into the immunoregulatory aspects of this receptor family in human myeloid cells has been limited. LILRB receptors and the murine ortholog, paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PIRB), have been shown to negatively regulate maturation pathways in myeloid cells including mast cells, neutrophils, dendritic cells, as well as B cells. Our laboratory further demonstrated in mouse models that PIRB regulated functional development of myeloid-derived suppressor cell and the formation of a tumor-permissive microenvironment. Based on observations from the literature and our own studies, our laboratory is focusing on how LILRs modulate immune homeostasis of human myeloid cells and how these pathways may be targeted in disease states. Integrity of this pathway in tumor microenvironments, for example, permits a myeloid phenotype that suppresses antitumor adaptive immunity. This review presents the evidence supporting a role of LILRs as myeloid cell regulators and ongoing efforts to understand the functional immunology surrounding this family.

Liu CY, Chen KF, Chao TI, et al.
Sequential combination of docetaxel with a SHP-1 agonist enhanced suppression of p-STAT3 signaling and apoptosis in triple negative breast cancer cells.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2017; 95(9):965-975 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive cancer for which prognosis remains poor. Combination therapy is a promising strategy for enhancing treatment efficacy. Blockade of STAT3 signaling may enhance the response of cancer cells to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Here we used a SHP-1 agonist SC-43 to dephosphorylate STAT3 thereby suppressing oncogenic STAT3 signaling and tested it in combination with docetaxel in TNBC cells. We first analyzed messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of SHP-1 gene (PTPN6) in a public TNBC dataset (TCGA) and found that higher SHP-1 mRNA expression is associated with better overall survival in TNBC patients. Sequential combination of docetaxel and SC-43 in vitro showed enhanced anti-proliferation and apoptosis associated with decreased p-STAT3 and decreased STAT3-downstream effector cyclin D1 in the TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and HCC-1937. Ectopic expression of STAT3 reduced the increased cytotoxicity induced by the combination therapy. In addition, this sequential combination showed enhanced SHP-1 activity compared to SC-43 alone. Furthermore, the combination treatment-induced apoptosis was attenuated by small interfering RNA (siRNA) against SHP-1 or by ectopic expression of SHP-1 mutants that caused SC-43 to lose its SHP-1 agonist capability. Moreover, combination of docetaxel and SC-43 showed enhanced tumor growth inhibition compared to single-agent therapy in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 tumor xenografts. Our results suggest that the novel SHP-1 agonist SC-43 enhanced docetaxel-induced cytotoxicity by SHP-1 dependent STAT3 inhibition in human triple negative breast cancer cells. TNBC patients with high SHP-1 expressions show better survival. Docetaxel combined with SC-43 enhances cell apoptosis and reduces p-STAT3. SHP-1 inhibition reduces the enhanced effect of docetaxel-SC-43 combination. Docetaxel-SC-43 combination suppresses xenograft tumor growth and reduces p-STAT3.
KEY MESSAGES: TNBC patients with high SHP-1 expressions show better survival. Docetaxel combined with SC-43 enhances cell apoptosis and reduces p-STAT3. SHP-1 inhibition reduces the enhanced effect of docetaxel-SC-43 combination. Docetaxel-SC-43 combination suppresses xenograft tumor growth and reduces p-STAT3.

Zhang X, Yang L, Liu X, et al.
Research on the epigenetic regulation mechanism of the PTPN6 gene in advanced chronic myeloid leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2017; 178(5):728-738 [PubMed] Related Publications
PTPN6, a tyrosine phosphatase protein, plays a negative role in cell signal transduction and is negatively correlated with tumour formation and growth. However, epigenetic regulation mechanism of the PTPN6 gene in advanced chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) remains unclear. This study investigated bone marrow or blood samples from 44 CML patients and 10 healthy volunteers. KCL22 and K562 cells were cultured and treated with demethylation drugs and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), methylation-specific PCR, bisulfite sequencing PCR, Western blotting, co-immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was performed. PTPN6 was down-regulated in cell lines and patients with advanced phase CML, whereas DNMT1, DNMT3A, MECP2, MBD2 and HDAC1 were up-regulated. Treatment with 5-azacytidine, decitabine, sodium valproate and LBH589 increased PTPN6 expression, but decreased that of DNMT1, DNMT3A, MECP2, MBD2 and HDAC1. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry showed that HDAC1 combined directly with PTPN6. ChIP-seq showed that HDAC1 did not combine with the promoter region of PTPN6, while MAPK, AKT, STAT5, JAK2 and MYC promoter regions all combined with HDAC1. PTPN6 is associated with progression of CML. Low expression level of PTPN6 was associated with DNA methylation and regulated by histone acetylation. HDAC1 participates in the regulation of PTPN6.

Leblanc C, Langlois MJ, Coulombe G, et al.
Epithelial Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 restrains intestinal growth, secretory cell differentiation, and tumorigenesis.
FASEB J. 2017; 31(8):3512-3526 [PubMed] Related Publications
Shp-1 (Src homology region 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1) is a phosphatase that is highly expressed in hematopoietic and epithelial cells. Whereas its function is largely characterized in hematopoietic cells, its role in epithelial cells, such as intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), is not well known. Here, we generated mice with an IEC-specific knockout of

Li Y, Liu X, Guo X, et al.
DNA methyltransferase 1 mediated aberrant methylation and silencing of SHP-1 gene in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.
Leuk Res. 2017; 58:9-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Extensive studies on SHP-1 protein and SHP-1 mRNA revealed that the diminishment or abolishment of the expression of SHP-1 in leukemias/lymphomas was due to aberrant promoter methylation. Thus far, the mechanism of epigenetic silencing of the SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase gene that occurs in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells remains poorly understood.
METHODS: The expressions of the target molecules were determined by quantitative real time PCR and western blot, respectively. Bisulfite sequencing PCR was used to detect methylation status of DNA CpG. The lentiviral vectors were applied to modify gene expression.
RESULTS: In the present study, we found that the promoter 2 of SHP-1 gene is located between positions from -577bp to +300bp, and 22 CpG sites contained in positions -353bp∼+182bp are aberrantly methylated in K562 cells. In vitro, we demonstrated that DNMT1 silencing induced demethylation of the 22 CpG sites located in the SHP-1 promoter and re-expression of SHP-1 gene in K562 cells. Moreover, we proved that the expression levels of DNMT1 and SHP-1 mRNA and protein were negatively correlated in K562 cells and BM aspirates mononuclear cells from CML patients.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, these results indicate that DNMT1 mediates aberrant methylation and silencing of SHP-1 gene in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells, and provide a novel therapeutic target for CML.

Beldi-Ferchiou A, Skouri N, Ben Ali C, et al.
Abnormal repression of SHP-1, SHP-2 and SOCS-1 transcription sustains the activation of the JAK/STAT3 pathway and the progression of the disease in multiple myeloma.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(4):e0174835 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sustained activation of JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway is classically described in Multiple Myeloma (MM). One explanation could be the silencing of the JAK/STAT suppressor genes, through the hypermethylation of SHP-1 and SOCS-1, previously demonstrated in MM cell lines or in whole bone marrow aspirates. The link between such suppressor gene silencing and the degree of bone marrow invasion or the treatment response has not been evaluated in depth. Using real-time RT-PCR, we studied the expression profile of three JAK/STAT suppressor genes: SHP-1, SHP-2 and SOCS-1 in plasma cells freshly isolated from the bone marrows of MM patients and healthy controls. Our data demonstrated an abnormal repression of such genes in malignant plasma cells and revealed a significant correlation between such defects and the sustained activation of the JAK/STAT3 pathway during MM. The repressed expression of SHP-1 and SHP-2 correlated significantly with a high initial degree of bone marrow infiltration but was, unexpectedly, associated with a better response to the induction therapy. Collectively, our data provide new evidences that substantiate the contribution of JAK/STAT suppressor genes in the pathogenesis of MM. They also highlight the possibility that the decreased gene expression of SHP-1 and SHP-2 could be of interest as a new predictive factor of a favorable treatment response, and suggest new potential mechanisms of action of the therapeutic molecules. Whether such defect helps the progression of the disease from monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance to MM remains, however, to be determined.

Ueshima C, Kataoka TR, Takei Y, et al.
CEACAM1 long isoform has opposite effects on the growth of human mastocytosis and medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.
Cancer Med. 2017; 6(4):845-856 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is expressed in a number of tumor cell types. The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing isoforms of this molecule which possess a long cytoplasmic tail (CEACAM1-L) generally play inhibitory roles in cell function by interacting with Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1 and/or SHP-2. Src family kinases (SFKs) are also known to bind to and phosphorylate CEACAM1-L isoforms. Here, we report that CEACAM1 was uniquely expressed at high levels in both human neoplastic mast cells (mastocytosis) and medullary thyroid carcinoma cell (MTC) lines, when compared with their expression in nonneoplastic mast cells or nonneoplastic C cells. This expression was mainly derived from CEACAM1-L isoforms based upon assessment of CEACAM1 mRNA expression. CEACAM1 knockdown upregulated cell growth of HMC1.2 cells harboring KIT mutations detected in clinical mastocytosis, whereas downregulated the growth of TT cells harboring RET mutations detected in clinical MTCs. Immunoblotting, ELISA and immunoprecipitaion analysis showed that activated SHP-1 is preferentially associated with CEACAM1 in HMC1.2 cells harboring KIT mutations, whereas Src family kinases (SFKs) are preferentially associated with CEACAM1 in TT cells harboring RET mutations. These studies suggest that the dominantly interacting proteins SHP1 or SFK determine whether CEACAM1-L displays a positive or negative role in tumor cells.

Kim B, Lee KY, Park B
Crocin Suppresses Constitutively Active STAT3 Through Induction of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SHP-1.
J Cell Biochem. 2017; 118(10):3290-3298 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of a natural compound crocin, one of the active components of saffron, on human multiple myeloma cells. Crocin effectively suppressed constitutive STAT3 activation, translocation of STAT3 to the nucleus, and its target gene expression. The suppression of STAT3 was mediated through the inhibition of activation of protein tyrosine kinases JAK1, JAK2, and c-Src. We found that crocin induced the expression of SHP-1, a tyrosine protein phosphatase, and pervanadate treatment reversed the crocin-induced downregulation of STAT3, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Moreover, suppression of SHP-1 by its inhibitor overturned the effect of crocin on induction of SHP-1 and the inhibition of STAT3 activation. Finally, crocin downregulated the expression of STAT3-mediated gene products including anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2), pro-apoptotic (BAX), invasive (CXCR4), angiogenic (VEGF), and cell cycle regulator (cyclin D1), which are correlated with suppression of proliferation, the accumulation of cells in sub-G1 phase of cell cycle, and induction of apoptosis. Overall, our results suggested that crocin is a novel inhibitor of STAT3 activation pathway and thus may have potential in prevention and treatment of human multiple myeloma. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3290-3298, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Suresh S, Durakoglugil D, Zhou X, et al.
SRC-2-mediated coactivation of anti-tumorigenic target genes suppresses MYC-induced liver cancer.
PLoS Genet. 2017; 13(3):e1006650 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common solid tumor in the world and the third leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. A Sleeping Beauty-mediated transposon mutagenesis screen previously identified mutations that cooperate with MYC to accelerate liver tumorigenesis. This revealed a tumor suppressor role for Steroid Receptor Coactivator 2/Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2 (Src-2/Ncoa2) in liver cancer. In contrast, SRC-2 promotes survival and metastasis in prostate cancer cells, suggesting a tissue-specific and context-dependent role for SRC-2 in tumorigenesis. To determine if genetic loss of SRC-2 is sufficient to accelerate MYC-mediated liver tumorigenesis, we bred Src-2-/- mice with a MYC-induced liver tumor model and observed a significant increase in liver tumor burden. RNA sequencing of liver tumors and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed a set of direct target genes that are bound by SRC-2 and exhibit downregulated expression in Src-2-/- liver tumors. We demonstrate that activation of SHP (Small Heterodimer Partner), DKK4 (Dickkopf-4), and CADM4 (Cell Adhesion Molecule 4) by SRC-2 suppresses tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. These studies suggest that SRC-2 may exhibit oncogenic or tumor suppressor activity depending on the target genes and nuclear receptors that are expressed in distinct tissues and illuminate the mechanisms of tumor suppression by SRC-2 in liver.

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