Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: OGG1 (cancer-related)
Hassan FMOGG1 rs1052133 Polymorphism and Genetic Susceptibility to Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(3):925-928 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Background: In some cancer cells, the OGG1 gene is somatically mutated and highly populated. This study was
conducted to examine whether OGG1 rs1052133 polymorphism is associated with the genetic background of chronic
myelogenous leukaemia (CML) in Sudan. Methods: A total of 332 CML patients and 70 healthy controls were included
in this study. Overall, the genotypes (P=0.0000) and allele (C vs. G, P=0.0007) differed considerably in the frequencies
of OGG1 rs1052133 polymorphism between CML patients and controls. Our study is the first to evaluate the association
of polymorphism with CML risk with OGG1 rs1052133. Results: A statistically significant association was observed
between the genotype distribution of OGG1 rs1052133 polymorphism and CML (P=0.0000) patients. A similar result
was also observed in the allele distribution (C vs. G, P=0.0007) compared with healthy controls when compared
OGG1 rs1052133 genotypes with CML stages. Results: Genotype and allele frequencies of OGG1 rs1052133 among
CML patients. A statistically significant association was observed between the genotype distribution of the OGG1
rs1052133 polymorphism and CML patients (P=0.0000). A similar result was also observed in the allele distribution
(C vs. G, P=0.0007) compared with healthy controls with stages of CML in OGG1 rs1052133 genotypes. Conclusion:
The results suggest that single nucleotide polymorphism in the gene involved in the restoration of DNA base excision
(OGG1 rs1052133) can play a key role in the risk of appearance of CML. To clarify the role of OGG1 in the genetic
basis of CML, further case control with larger sample sizes and fine-mapping is required.
Chen H, Wang H, Liu J, et al.Association of Base Excision Repair Gene hOGG1 Ser326Cys Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma and High-Risk Human Papilloma Virus Infection in a Chinese Population.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2019; 23(2):138-144 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIM: This study investigated the association of the human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) Ser326Cys polymorphism with risk of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) and high-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) infection.
BACKGROUND: The hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism is reported to be correlated with the risk of several cancers. However, there are reports that have found no significant differences in the frequency of the hOGG1 Ser326Cys between cervical carcinoma patients and controls.
METHODS: hOGG1 Ser326Cys was genotyped through modified allele mismatch amplification polymerase chain reaction in 1200 healthy controls, 400 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade III cases, and 400 CSCC cases.
RESULTS: The homozygous genotype of hOGG1 Cys326Cys (GG) was associated with increased risk of CIN III (odds ratio, OR = 1.81 [1.31-2.49], p < 0.001) and CSCC (OR = 3.05 [2.2-4.20], p < 0.001). The G allele or G carrier (GG + CG) genotype was a highly-significant risk factor for CSCC (OR = 1.49 [1.14-1.97], p = 0.004). In the HR-HPV-positive group, the homozygous genotype of hOGG1 GG was associated with increased risk of CSCC (OR = 3.66 [2.02-6.62], p < 0.001) and risk of CIN III (OR = 1.82 [1.08-3.06], p = 0.024). The proportion of G allele carriers was significantly increased in CIN III (51.9%, [322/620], OR = 1.33 [1.03-1.72], p = 0.028) and CSCC (62.1% [221/356], OR = 2.02 [1.51-2.71], p < 0.001). The GG and GC genotypes were consistently identified as significant risk factors for CSCC (OR = 1.73 [1.06-2.83], p = 0.029) in the HR-HPV infected group. We further observed enrichment of the hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism in the CIN III (p = 0.021) and CSCC (p < 0.001) stratified by age at first intercourse, with more significant enrichment (p = 0.036) in the HR-HPV infection group.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support associations of the hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism with CSCC carcinogenesis and susceptibility to HR-HPV infection. The hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism may serve as a potential genetic biomarker of susceptibility to cervical cancer and HR-HPV infection.
Smal MP, Kuzhir TD, Savina NV, et al.BER gene polymorphisms associated with key molecular events in bladder cancer.
Exp Oncol. 2018; 40(4):288-298 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIM: Base excision repair (BER) gene polymorphisms are known to play an independent role in predisposition to developing different cancers as well as to be associated with clinicopathological traits of the disease modifying its clinical outcomes. One of the underlying mechanisms is presumed to include interplay between BER gene polymorphisms and key mutational, epigenetic and chromosomal events in tumor tissues. The present study was aimed at elucidating potential gene-gene interaction and assessing their mutual effects in bladder cancer (BC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The earlier obtained data on genotyping patients with verified diagnosis of BC for OGG1 rs1052133 (Ser326Cys) and XRCC1 rs25487 (Arg399Gln) polymorphisms were used for this study. The tumor tissue samples from the same patients were analyzed for mutations, epigenetic variations and losses of heterozygosity in some key genes involved in divergent pathogenic pathways of BC.
RESULTS: It was shown that the OGG1 (326 codon) heterozygous genotype as well as the minor 326Cys allele can intensify a mutational response of the RAS locus in urothelial carcinomas in the total cohort of patients simultaneously decreasing the mutation rates in the PIK3CA locus in smokers. The XRCC1 (399 codon) heterozygous genotype as well as the minor 399Gln allele reduced the frequency of LOH in the PTEN and TNKS genes, but did not affect the mutational variability in any locus tested. Both polymorphisms influenced the methylation status, carriers of OGG1 326Ser/Cys or Ser/Cys+Cys/Cys genotypes demonstrating increased frequency of methylated RUNX3 and ISL1 genes whereas the similar effect of XRCC1 polymorphism concerning methylation of p16 and TIMP3 genes. When dividing the total cohort into groups based on the extent of tumor spread, the observed associations were characteristic of non-muscle invasive BC.
CONCLUSION: The BER gene polymorphisms contributed to modification of key molecular events in urothelial carcinomas. Their mutual effects mainly manifested in non-muscle invasive BC. The underlying mechanisms as well as possible clinical outcomes need to be further explored to propose novel prognostic biomarkers for BC.
BACKGROUND: This research aimed to study the associations between XPD (G751A, rs13181), hOGG1 (C326G, rs1052133) and XRCC4 (G1394T, rs6869366) gene polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in a Chinese Han population.
METHOD: A total of 225 Chinese Han patients with CRC were selected as the study group, and 200 healthy subjects were recruited as the control group. The polymorphisms of XPD G751A, hOGG1 C326G and XRCC4 G1394T loci were detected by the RFLP-PCR technique in the peripheral blood of all subjects.
RESULTS: Compared with individuals carrying the XPD751 GG allele, the A allele carriers (GA/AA) had a significantly increased risk of CRC (adjusted OR = 2.109, 95%CI = 1.352-3.287,
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that XPD G751A, hOGG1 C326G and XRCC4 G1394T gene polymorphisms might play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis and increase the risk of developing CRC in the Chinese Han population. The interaction between smoking and these gene polymorphisms would increase the risk of CRC.
Dhillon VS, Yeoh E, Salisbury C, et al.Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus Cytome (CBMN Cyt) Assay Biomarkers and Their Association With Radiation Sensitivity Phenotype in Prostate Cancer Cases and DNA Repair Gene hOGG1 (C1245G) Polymorphism.
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2018; 59(9):813-821 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PC) is commonly diagnosed cancer in men but only a few risk factors, such as family history, ethnicity, and age have been established. Chromosomal instability is another possible risk factor but this has not been adequately explained previously. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of PC patients have (1) an abnormally high level of chromosomal instability; (2) that they are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage; and (3) that these phenotypes are affected by hOGG1 (C1245G) polymorphism. These experiments were performed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus Cytome (CBMN cyt) assay in PC cases and controls. We found that spontaneous or radiation-induced (3G) micronucleus (MN) frequency is not significantly different between both groups. However, spontaneous frequency of nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and radiation-induced nuclear buds (NBuds) were significantly higher in patients vs. controls (P < 0.0001; P = 0.0005, respectively). In addition, apoptosis and nuclear division index (NDI) was significantly higher in patients compared to controls after radiation treatment (P = 0.006; P = 0.0002, respectively). Furthermore carriage of at least one G allele of hOGG1 (C1245G) polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) to have a base-line MN, NPB, or NBud frequency greater than medium level compared to homozygotes for C allele (OR:1.94, 1.77, 2.36, respectively, P = 0.02; 0.04, and 0.004, respectively). Our results support the hypotheses that those who develop PC have significantly higher level of genomic instability which is further increased in those who carry G allele of the hOGG1 (C1245G) polymorphism. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:813-821, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tao S, Liu M, Shen D, et al.TGF-β/Smads Signaling Affects Radiation Response and Prolongs Survival by Regulating DNA Repair Genes in Malignant Glioma.
DNA Cell Biol. 2018; 37(11):909-916 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To understand the molecular mechanism underlying the causal relationship between aberrant upregulation of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and radio-resistance in glioma. The mouse glioma cell GL261 was irradiated, and relative expression of TGF-β/Smad signaling genes was determined by real-time PCR and western blotting. The DNA repair response on exogenous TGF-β or LY2109761 was evaluated by quantification of diverse genes by real-time PCR and western blotting. Xenograft mice were employed for in vivo investigation to assess the response to irradiation and LY2109761 either alone or in combination. The expression of DNA repair genes was further determined in the xenograft tumor. The TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway was activated by radiation in the GL261 cell line. The exogenous complement of TGF-β significantly stimulated DNA repair response. Administration of LY2109761 suppressed DNA repair genes. Simultaneous treatment with LY2109761 abrogated the upregulation of DNA repair genes in GL261. In the xenograft tumor model, LY2109761 synergistically improved the therapeutic effect of radiation via improvement of sensitivity. Our data suggested that LY2109761 treatment re-sensitized glioma to radiation via antagonizing TGF-β/Smad-induced DNA repair.
Smolarz B, Michalska MM, Samulak D, et al.Studies of Correlations Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of DNA Repair Genes and Endometrial Cancer in Polish Women.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(9):5223-5229 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIM: The goals of this study included an analysis of the incidence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotypes and alleles in DNA repair genes and evaluation of the effects by which this genetic variability may influence the risk for endometrial cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group included 610 women with endometrial cancer and was compared with a quantitatively matched control group of 610 women without any diagnosed malignancy. The following polymorphisms were analyzed: X-Ray repair cross complementing 1 (XRCC1)-Arg399Gln (rs25487); XRCC2-Arg188His (rs3218536); XRCC3-Thr241Met (rs861539); ERCC excision repair 2, TFIIH core complex helicase subunit (ERCC2)-Lys751Gln (rs13181); and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1)-Ser326Cys (rs13181).
RESULTS: Allele XRCC2-188His [odds ratio (OR)=5.24, 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.36-6.29; p<0.0001], hOGG1-326Cys (OR=1.60, 95% CI=1.36-1.88; p<0.0001) and ERCC2-751Gln (OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.42-1.96; p<0.0001) strongly correlated with neoplastic disease.
CONCLUSION: The evaluated SNPs may be approached as a group of new risk factors for the development of this cancer type.
Background: Base excision repair (BER) plays an important role in the maintenance of genome integrity and anticancer drug resistance. This study aimed to explore the role of BER gene polymorphisms in response to chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.
Methods: During the period from November 2009 to January 2016, a total of 152 patients diagnosed with NSCLC Stage IIIB and IV in the First Hospital of Jilin University were admitted into this study. The XRCC1 G28152A, MUTYH G972C, HOGG1 C1245G, and PARP1 T2444C polymorphisms of all the patients were detected by mass spectrometry. The logistic regression was used for statictical analysis. All tests were bilateral test, and a P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: The logistic regression model showed that the response rate of chemotherapy of the PARP1 T2444C polymorphisms, CC genotype (odds ratio [OR]: 5.216, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.568-17.352, P = 0.007), TC genotype (OR: 2.692, 95% CI: 1.007-7.198, P = 0.048), as well as the genotype of TC together with CC (OR: 3.178, 95% CI: 1.229-8.219, P = 0.017) were significantly higher than those of TT wild type. There was no relationship between the MUTYH G972C, XRCC1 G28152A, and HOGG1 C1245G gene polymorphisms and chemosensitivity.
Conclusions: The PARP1 2444 mutation allele C might be associated with the decreased sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC. These findings may be helpful in designing individualized cancer treatment.
Base excision repair (BER) is the main mechanism to repair endogenous DNA lesions caused by reactive oxygen species. BER deficiency is linked with cancer susceptibility and premature aging. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within BER genes have been implicated in various human malignancies. Nevertheless, a comprehensive investigation of their association with Wilms tumor susceptibility is lacking. In this study, 145 cases and 531 sex and age-matched healthy controls were recruited. We systematically genotyped 18 potentially functional SNPs in six core BER pathway genes, using a candidate SNP approach. Logistic regression was employed to evaluate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) adjusted for age and gender. Several SNPs showed protective effects against Wilms tumor. Significant associations with Wilms tumor susceptibility were shown for hOGG1 rs1052133 (dominant: adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.45-0.96, P = .030), FEN1 rs174538 (dominant: adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.45-0.95, P = .027; recessive: adjusted OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.32-0.93 P = .027), and FEN1 rs4246215 (dominant: adjusted OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.38-0.80, P = .002) polymorphisms. Stratified analysis was performed by age, gender, and clinical stage. Moreover, there was evidence of functional implication of these significant SNPs suggested by online expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis. Our findings indicate that common SNPs in BER genes modify susceptibility to Wilms tumor.
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a rare form of cancer across the world except in certain areas such as Southern China, Hong Kong and Malaysia. NPC is considered a relatively radiosensitive tumor and patients diagnosed at early stages tend to survive longer compared to those with advanced disease. Given that early symptoms of NPC are non-specific and that the nasopharynx is relatively inaccessible, less invasive screening methods such as biomarker screening might be the key to improve NPC survival and management. A number of genes with their respective polymorphisms have been shown in past studies to be associated with survival of various cancers. hOGG1 and XPD genes encode for a DNA glycosylase and a DNA helicase respectively; both are proteins that are involved in DNA repair. ITGA2 is the alpha subunit of the transmembrane receptor integrin and is mainly responsible for cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interaction. TNF-α is a cytokine that is released by immune cells during inflammation.
METHODS: Restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) was used to genotype all the aforementioned gene polymorphisms. Kaplan-Meier survival function, log-rank test and Cox regression were used to investigate the effect of gene polymorphisms on the all-cause survival of NPC.
RESULTS: NPC cases carrying T/T genotype of ITGA2 C807T have poorer all-cause survival compared to those with C/C genotypes, with an adjusted HR of 2.06 (95% CI = 1.14-3.72) in individual model. The 5-year survival rate of C/C carriers was 55% compared to those with C/T and T/T where the survival rates were 50% and 43%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The finding from the present study showed that ITGA2 C807T polymorphism could be potentially useful as a prognostic biomarker for NPC. However, the prognostic value of ITGA2 C807T polymorphism has to be validated by well-designed further studies with larger patient numbers.
Mur P, Jemth AS, Bevc L, et al.Germline variation in the oxidative DNA repair genes NUDT1 and OGG1 is not associated with hereditary colorectal cancer or polyposis.
Hum Mutat. 2018; 39(9):1214-1225 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The causal association of NUDT1 (=MTH1) and OGG1 with hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. Here, we sought to provide additional evidence for or against the causal contribution of NUDT1 and OGG1 mutations to hereditary CRC and/or polyposis. Mutational screening was performed using pooled DNA amplification and targeted next-generation sequencing in 529 families (441 uncharacterized MMR-proficient familial nonpolyposis CRC and 88 polyposis cases). Cosegregation, in silico analyses, in vitro functional assays, and case-control associations were carried out to characterize the identified variants. Five heterozygous carriers of novel (n = 1) or rare (n = 4) NUDT1 variants were identified. In vitro deleterious effects were demonstrated for c.143G>A p.G48E (catalytic activity and protein stability) and c.403G>T p.G135W (protein stability), although cosegregation data in the carrier families were inconclusive or nonsupportive. The frequency of missense, loss-of-function, and splice-site NUDT1 variants in our familial CRC cohort was similar to the one observed in cancer-free individuals, suggesting lack of association with CRC predisposition. No OGG1 pathogenic mutations were identified. Our results suggest that the contribution of NUDT1 and OGG1 germline mutations to hereditary CRC and to polyposis is inexistent or, at most, negligible. The inclusion of these genes in routine genetic testing is not recommended.
Kabzinski J, Walczak A, Dziki A, et al.Impact of the Ser326Cys polymorphism of the OGG1 gene on the level of oxidative DNA damage in patients with colorectal cancer.
Pol Przegl Chir. 2018; 90(2):13-15 [PubMed
] Related Publications
As a result of reactive oxygen species operation, cell damage occurs in both cellular organelles and molecules, including DNA. Oxidative damage within the genetic material can lead to accumulation of mutations and consequently to cancer transformation. OGG1 glycosylase, a component of the Base Excision Repair (BER) system, is one of the enzymes that prevents excessive accumulation of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxG), the most common compound formed by oxidative DNA damage. In case of structural changes of OGG1 resulting from polymorphic variants, we can observe a significant increase in the concentration of 8-oxG. Linking individual polymorphisms to DNA repair systems with increased risk of colorectal cancer will allow patients to be classified as high risk and included in a prophylactic program. The aim of the study was to determine the level of oxidative DNA damage and to analyze the distribution of Ser326Cys polymorphism of the OGG1 gene in a group of patients with colorectal cancer and in a control group in the Polish population.
MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY: DNA was isolated from the blood of 174 patients with colorectal cancer. The control group consisted of 176 healthy individuals. The level of oxidative damage was determined by analyzing the amount of 8-oxguanine using the HT 8-oxo-dG ELISA II Kit. Genotyping was performed via the TaqMan method.
RESULTS: The obtained results indicate that Ser326Cys polymorphism of the OGG1 gene increases the risk of RJG and is associated with significantly increased levels of 8-oxoguanine.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results obtained, we conclude that Ser326Cys polymorphism of the OGG1 gene may modulate the risk of colorectal cancer by increasing the level of oxidative DNA damage.
Gotoh N, Saitoh T, Takahashi N, et al.Association between OGG1 S326C CC genotype and elevated relapse risk in acute myeloid leukemia.
Int J Hematol. 2018; 108(3):246-253 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Recent studies have shown that tumors of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) present additional genetic mutations compared to the primary tumors. The base excision repair (BER) pathway corrects oxidatively damaged mutagenic bases and plays an important role in maintaining genetic stability. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between BER functional polymorphisms and AML relapse. We focused on five major polymorphisms: OGG1 S326C, MUTYH Q324H, APE1 D148E, XRCC1 R194W, and XRCC1 R399Q. Ninety-four adults with AML who achieved first complete remission were recruited. Genotyping was performed with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The OGG1 S326C CC genotype (associated with lower OGG1 activity) was observed more frequently in patients with AML relapse [28.9 vs. 8.9%, odds ratio (OR) = 4.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.35-12.70, P = 0.01]. Patients with the CC genotype exhibited shorter relapse-free survival (RFS). Moreover, the TCGA database suggested that low OGG1 expression in AML cells is associated with a higher frequency of mutations. The present findings suggest that the OGG1 S326C polymorphism increased the probability of AML relapse and may be useful as a prognostic factor for AML relapse risk.
BACKGROUND: Genetic variations in key DNA repair genes may influence DNA repair capacity, DNA damage and breast carcinogenesis. The current study aimed to estimate the association of APEX1 and OGG1 polymorphisms with the risk of breast cancer development.
METHODS: A total of 518 patients with histopathologically confirmed breast cancer and 921 region- and age-matched cancer-free controls were genotyped for the APEX1 polymorphisms rs3136817 and rs1130409 and the OGG1 polymorphisms rs1052133 and rs2072668 using a QuantStudio™ 12 K Flex Real-Time PCR System.
RESULTS: The rs3136817 heterozygous TC genotype along with the rs3136817 dominant model (TC + CC) was strongly associated with breast cancer susceptibility (odds ratio [OR] = 0.670, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.513 - 0.873, P = 0.003; OR = 0.682, 95% CI: 0.526 - 0.883, P = 0.004, respectively). No significant associations were observed among rs1130409, rs1052133, rs2072668 and breast cancer risk. Furthermore, an allele combination analysis revealed that APEX1 haplotypes containing C-T (alleles rs3136817 and rs1130409) conferred a significantly lower risk (corrected P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: This research is the latest report showing that an APEX1 rs3136817 heterozygous genotype may have a positive influence on DNA repair capacity in patients with breast cancer and thus may have a potential protective effect for Chinese Han women.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), as a malignant tumor of lower digestive tract, has been found to have an increasing morbidity and mortality in China. It was particularly important to find some earlier biomarkers to predict the risk and prognosis. In this study, several polymorphisms on 3'UTR of three DNA repair genes including MLH3 rs10862, ERCC1 rs3212986, ERCC1 rs735482, ERCC1 rs2336219, and OGG1 rs1052133 were chosen by bioinformatics exploration, and then, a case-control study of 200 CRC cases and controls was performed. Furthermore, a dual-luciferase assay was also carried out to certify whether the candidate miRNA can regulate its target gene and the selected SNPs have a valid effect on the target miRNA. Finally, both of ERCC1 rs3212986 and MLH3 rs108621 were shown to be associated with the risk of CRC. Comparing with rs3212986 CC genotype, AA was at a higher risk (OR = 3.079, 95% CI: 1.192-7.952). For MLH3 rs108621, comparing with TT genotype, CC and TC were at a higher risk of CRC in male (OR = 5.171, 95% CI: 1.009-26.494; OR = 1.904, 95% CI: 1.049-3.455). Interestingly, an analysis combining both ERCC1 rs3212986 and MLH3 rs108621 also showed an increased risk of CRC. In addition, a dual-luciferase assay showed that miR-193a-3p could regulate MLH3, and the polymorphism rs108621 could alter the miR-193a-3p binding to MLH3. Therefore, MLH3 rs108621 may be associated with the risk of CRC due to the effect of miR-193a-3p on MLH3, which reminded the possibility as potential susceptibility biomarkers to predict the risk of CRC.
Germline variants in the APC gene cause familial adenomatous polyposis. Inherited variants in MutYH, POLE, POLD1, NTHL1, and MSH3 genes and somatic APC mosaicism have been reported as alternative causes of polyposis. However, ~30-50% of cases of polyposis remain genetically unsolved. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the genetic causes of unexplained adenomatous polyposis. Eight sporadic cases with >20 adenomatous polyps by 35 years of age or >50 adenomatous polyps by 55 years of age, and no causative germline variants in APC and/or MutYH, were enrolled from a cohort of 56 subjects with adenomatous colorectal polyposis. APC gene mosaicism was investigated on DNA from colonic adenomas by Sanger sequencing or Whole Exome Sequencing (WES). Mosaicism extension to other tissues (peripheral blood, saliva, hair follicles) was evaluated using Sanger sequencing and/or digital PCR. APC second hit was investigated in adenomas from mosaic patients. WES was performed on DNA from peripheral blood to identify additional polyposis candidate variants. We identified APC mosaicism in 50% of patients. In three cases mosaicism was restricted to the colon, while in one it also extended to the duodenum and saliva. One patient without APC mosaicism, carrying an APC in-frame deletion of uncertain significance, was found to harbor rare germline variants in OGG1, POLQ, and EXO1 genes. In conclusion, our restrictive selection criteria improved the detection of mosaic APC patients. In addition, we showed for the first time that an oligogenic inheritance of rare variants might have a cooperative role in sporadic colorectal polyposis onset.
Tempka D, Tokarz P, Chmielewska K, et al.Downregulation of PARP1 transcription by CDK4/6 inhibitors sensitizes human lung cancer cells to anticancer drug-induced death by impairing OGG1-dependent base excision repair.
Redox Biol. 2018; 15:316-326 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hallmarks of cancer cells include uncontrolled growth and rapid proliferation; thus, cyclin-dependent kinases are a therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Treating non-small lung cancer cells with sublethal concentrations of the CDK4/6 inhibitors, ribociclib (LEE011) and palbociclib (PD0332991), which are approved by the FDA for anticancer therapies, caused cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and suppression of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) transcription by inducing recruitment of the RB1-E2F1-HDAC1-EZH2 repressive complex to the PARP1 promoter. Downregulation of PARP1 made cancer cells vulnerable to death triggered by the anticancer drugs (WP631 and etoposide) and H
BACKGROUND: MTUYH and OGG1 genes have importance in the base excision repair systems of oxidized DNA bases. Modification of the tissue expression of these genes is related to the increased risk of developing colorectal cancer.
AIM: To evaluate the tissue expression of MUTYH and OGG1 comparing normal and neoplastic tissues of patients with sporadic colorectal cancer and to correlate it with clinical and histopathological variables.
METHOD: MUTYH and OGG1 tissue expression was quantified by RT-PCR in patients with colorectal cancer and the values were compared in normal and neoplastic tissues. MUTYH and OGG1 expression was measured and normalized to the constitutive 18S gene. The level of expression of both genes was correlated with the variables: age, gender, tumor location, size of the tumor, histological type, degree of cell differentiation, invasion depth in the intestinal wall, angiolymphatic infiltration, lymph node involvement and TNM staging.
RESULTS: Was found downregulation of both genes in neoplastic when compared to normal tissue. There was downregulation of the MUTYH in larger tumors and in patients with angiolymphatic invasion. Tumors with more advanced TNM stages (III and IV) presented downregulation of both genes when compared to those with earlier stages (I and II).
CONCLUSION: The MUTYH and OGG1 genes present downregulation in the more advanced stages of colorectal cancer.
Ahmed T, Nawaz S, Noreen R, et al.A 3' untranslated region polymorphism rs2304277 in the DNA repair pathway gene OGG1 is a novel risk modulator for urothelial bladder carcinoma.
Ann Hum Genet. 2018; 82(2):74-87 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Altered DNA repair capacity may affect an individual's susceptibility to cancers due to compromised genomic integrity. This study was designed to elucidate the association of selected polymorphisms in DNA repair genes with urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC). OGG1 rs1052133 and rs2304277, XRCC1 rs1799782 and rs25487, XRCC3 rs861539, XPC rs2228001, and XPD rs13181 were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 200 UBC cases and 200 controls. We found association of OGG1 rs2304277 [odds ratio (OR)
BACKGROUND: 8-oxoG, a common DNA lesion resulting from reactive oxygen species (ROS), has been shown to be associated with cancer initiation. hOGG1 DNA glycosylase is the primary enzyme responsible for excision of 8-oxoG through base excision repair (BER). Integrins are members of a family of cell surface receptors that mediate the cell-cell and extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. Integrins are involved in almost every aspect of carcinogenesis, from cell differentiation, cell proliferation, metastasis to angiogenesis. Loss of ITGA2 expression was associated with enhanced tumor intravasation and metastasis of breast and colon cancer. XPD gene encodes DNA helicase enzyme that is involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER). It is shown in previous research that XPD homozygous wildtype Lys/Lys genotype was associated with higher odds of NPC.
METHODS: We conducted a 1 to N case-control study involving 300 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cases and 533 controls matched by age, gender and ethnicity to investigate the effect of hOGG1 Ser326Cys, ITGA2 C807T and XPD Lys751Gln polymorphisms on NPC risk. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analysis were conducted to explore the association of allele combinations with NPC risk. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) was used for DNA genotyping.
RESULTS: No significant association was observed between hOGG1 Ser326Cys and ITGA2 C807T polymorphisms with NPC risk after adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, cigarette smoking, alcohol and salted fish consumption. Lys/Lys genotype of XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism was associated with increased NPC risk (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.06-2.43). Subjects with history of smoking (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.26-2.60), and salted fish consumption before age of 10 (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.30-2.42) were observed to have increased odds of NPC. The odds of developing NPC of CGC haplotype was significantly higher compared to reference AGC haplotype (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.06-4.58).
CONCLUSION: The allele combination of CGC from hOGG1, ITGA2 and XPD polymorphisms was significantly associated with increased odds of NPC.
Liu W, Wang L, Zheng C, et al.Microcystin-LR increases genotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B1 through oxidative stress and DNA base excision repair genes in human hepatic cell lines.
Environ Pollut. 2018; 233:455-463 [PubMed
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Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) simultaneously exist in polluted food and water in humid and warm areas, and each has been reported to be genotoxic to liver and associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the genotoxic effects of the two biotoxins in combination and potential mechanism remain unknown. We treated the human hepatic cell line HL7702 with AFB1 and MC-LR together at different ratios, examined their genotoxic effects using micronuclei and comet assays, and evaluated the possible mechanism by measuring oxidative stress markers and DNA base excision repair (BER) genes. Our data show that co-exposure to AFB1 and MC-LR significantly increased DNA damage compared with AFB1 or MC-LR alone as measured by the levels of both micronuclei and tail DNA. Meanwhile, AFB1 and MC-LR co-exposure showed biphasic effects on ROS production, and a gradual trend towards increased Glutathione (GSH) levels and activity of Catalase (CAT) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD). Furthermore, MC-LR, with or without AFB1, significantly down-regulated the expression of the base excision repair (BER) genes 8-oxoguanine glycosylase-1 (OGG1) and X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1). AFB1 and MC-LR in combination upregulated the expression of the BER gene apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), whereas either agent alone had no effect. In conclusion, our studies show that MC-LR exacerbates AFB1-induced genotoxicity and we report for the first time that this occurs through effects on oxidative stress and the deregulation of DNA base excision repair genes.
Sharma V, Nandan A, Sharma AK, et al.Signature of genetic associations in oral cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(10):1010428317725923 [PubMed
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Oral cancer etiology is complex and controlled by multi-factorial events including genetic events. Candidate gene studies, genome-wide association studies, and next-generation sequencing identified various chromosomal loci to be associated with oral cancer. There is no available review that could give us the comprehensive picture of genetic loci identified to be associated with oral cancer by candidate gene studies-based, genome-wide association studies-based, and next-generation sequencing-based approaches. A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed database to identify the loci associated with oral cancer by exclusive candidate gene studies-based, genome-wide association studies-based, and next-generation sequencing-based study approaches. The information of loci associated with oral cancer is made online through the resource "ORNATE." Next, screening of the loci validated by candidate gene studies and next-generation sequencing approach or by two independent studies within candidate gene studies or next-generation sequencing approaches were performed. A total of 264 loci were identified to be associated with oral cancer by candidate gene studies, genome-wide association studies, and next-generation sequencing approaches. In total, 28 loci, that is, 14q32.33 (AKT1), 5q22.2 (APC), 11q22.3 (ATM), 2q33.1 (CASP8), 11q13.3 (CCND1), 16q22.1 (CDH1), 9p21.3 (CDKN2A), 1q31.1 (COX-2), 7p11.2 (EGFR), 22q13.2 (EP300), 4q35.2 (FAT1), 4q31.3 (FBXW7), 4p16.3 (FGFR3), 1p13.3 (GSTM1-GSTT1), 11q13.2 (GSTP1), 11p15.5 (H-RAS), 3p25.3 (hOGG1), 1q32.1 (IL-10), 4q13.3 (IL-8), 12p12.1 (KRAS), 12q15 (MDM2), 12q13.12 (MLL2), 9q34.3 (NOTCH1), 17p13.1 (p53), 3q26.32 (PIK3CA), 10q23.31 (PTEN), 13q14.2 (RB1), and 5q14.2 (XRCC4), were validated to be associated with oral cancer. "ORNATE" gives a snapshot of genetic loci associated with oral cancer. All 28 loci were validated to be linked to oral cancer for which further fine-mapping followed by gene-by-gene and gene-environment interaction studies is needed to confirm their involvement in modifying oral cancer.
Wang J, Liu Q, Yuan S, et al.Genetic predisposition to lung cancer: comprehensive literature integration, meta-analysis, and multiple evidence assessment of candidate-gene association studies.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):8371 [PubMed
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More than 1000 candidate-gene association studies on genetic susceptibility to lung cancer have been published over the last two decades but with few consensuses for the likely culprits. We conducted a comprehensive review, meta-analysis and evidence strength evaluation of published candidate-gene association studies in lung cancer up to November 1, 2015. The epidemiological credibility of cumulative evidence was assessed using the Venice criteria. A total of 1018 publications with 2910 genetic variants in 754 different genes or chromosomal loci were eligible for inclusion. Main meta-analyses were performed on 246 variants in 138 different genes. Twenty-two variants from 21 genes (APEX1 rs1130409 and rs1760944, ATM rs664677, AXIN2 rs2240308, CHRNA3 rs6495309, CHRNA5 rs16969968, CLPTM1L rs402710, CXCR2 rs1126579, CYP1A1 rs4646903, CYP2E1 rs6413432, ERCC1 rs11615, ERCC2 rs13181, FGFR4 rs351855, HYKK rs931794, MIR146A rs2910164, MIR196A2 rs11614913, OGG1 rs1052133, PON1 rs662, REV3L rs462779, SOD2 rs4880, TERT rs2736098, and TP53 rs1042522) showed significant associations with lung cancer susceptibility with strong cumulative epidemiological evidence. No significant associations with lung cancer risk were found for other 150 variants in 98 genes; however, seven variants demonstrated strong cumulative evidence. Our findings provided the most updated summary of genetic risk effects on lung cancer and would help inform future research direction.
Huang HL, Shi YP, He HJ, et al.MiR-4673 Modulates Paclitaxel-Induced Oxidative Stress and Loss of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential by Targeting 8-Oxoguanine-DNA Glycosylase-1.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017; 42(3):889-900 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Our previous study identified a novel microRNA, miR-4673, which is upregulated in A549 cells exposed to paclitaxel (PTX). In this study, we investigated the role of miR-4673 in PTX-induced cytotoxicity.
METHODS: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, apoptosis assay, 5,5',6,6'-Tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl-imidacarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) staining and 2',7'-Dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) staining were used to evaluate cell viability, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in A549 and H1299 cells. Bioinformatics analysis and Luciferase reporter assay were used to explore whether 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase-1 (OGG1) is a target gene of miR-4673.
RESULTS: Enforced expression of miR-4673 decreased cell viability and increased PTX-induced apoptosis, MMP loss and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in A549 and H1299 cells. Bioinformatics analysis, which was used to identify potential target of miR-4673, revealed a binding site of miR-4673 in 3'UTR of OGG1. Luciferase reporters assays showed that miR-4673 specifically binds to 'CUGUUGA' in 3'UTR of OGG1. Enforced expression of miR-4673 decreased accumulation of OGG1. In addition, silencing OGG1 enhanced inhibitory effects of PTX on apoptosis, MMP loss and ROS generation, which is similar to effects of miR-4673. Moreover, enforced expression of OGG1 compromised promoting effects of miR-4673 on PTX-induced apoptosis, MMP loss and ROS generation.
CONCLUSION: miR-4673 modulates PTX-induced apoptosis, MMP loss and ROS generation by targeting OGG1.
The genetics behind predisposition to small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) is largely unknown, but there is growing awareness of a familial form of the disease. We aimed to identify germline mutations involved in the carcinogenesis of SI-NETs. The strategy included next-generation sequencing of exome- and/or whole-genome of blood DNA, and in selected cases, tumor DNA, from 24 patients from 15 families with the history of SI-NETs. We identified seven candidate mutations in six genes that were further studied using 215 sporadic SI-NET patients. The result was compared with the frequency of the candidate mutations in three control cohorts with a total of 35,688 subjects. A heterozygous variant causing an amino acid substitution p.(Gly396Asp) in the MutY DNA glycosylase gene (
Sanjari Moghaddam A, Nazarzadeh M, Bidel Z, et al.hOGG1 gene polymorphism and breast cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis study.
Breast J. 2018; 24(1):70-73 [PubMed
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To address the effect of hGGO1 (rs1052133) gene polymorphism on the risk of breast cancer, a meta-analysis was performed. We pooled adjusted odds ratios (OR) as overall and three subgroups (menopausal status, ethnicity, and study setting). In overall analysis, we found a significant association when the model of inheritance was homozygote (pooled OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.01, 1.29). Subgroup analysis showed significant association for homozygote genetic models among postmenopause women (OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.01, 1.49) and Asian population (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.01, 1.35). This study suggested that the carrier of Ser326Cys polymorphism of hOGG1, Cys/Cys vs Ser/Ser, are at higher risk for breast cancer, independent of other hormonal and environmental risk factors.
Krupa R, Czarny P, Wigner P, et al.The Relationship Between Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms, the Expression of DNA Damage Response Genes, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Polish Population.
DNA Cell Biol. 2017; 36(8):693-708 [PubMed
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The molecular mechanism of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to DNA damage caused by oxidative stress products induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) or C (HCV) infection and exposure to environmental pollutants. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DNA damage response (DDR) genes may influence individual susceptibility to environmental risk factors and affect DNA repair efficacy, which, in turn, can influence the risk of HCC. The study evaluates a panel of 15 SNPs in 11 DDR genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, MUTYH, LIG1, LIG3, hOGG1, PARP1, NFIL1, FEN1, and APEX1) in 65 HCC patients, 50 HBV- and 50 HCV-infected non-cancerous patients, and 50 healthy controls. It also estimates the mRNA expression of nine DDR genes in cancerous and adjacent healthy liver tissues. Two of the investigated polymorphisms (rs1052133 and rs13181) were associated with HCC risk. For all investigated genes, the level of mRNA was significantly lower in HCC cancer tissue than in non-cancerous liver tissue. Seven of the investigated polymorphisms were statistically related to gene expression in cancer tissues. The disruption of DDR genes may be responsible for hepatocellular transformation in HCV-infected patients.
Zeng Y, Zhu J, Qin H, et al.Methylated +322-327 CpG site decreases hOGG1 mRNA expression in non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(1):529-537 [PubMed
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hOGG1 plays a role in several disease pathways, including various cancers. Despite such functional importance, how hOGG1 is regulated at the transcriptional level in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unknown, particularly via DNA methylation changes. We obtained NSCLC tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues and examined hOGG1 mRNA expression levels. NSCLC cells were treated with 5-Aza to test whether DNA methylation can influence the expression of hOGG1. The MassARRAY EpiTYPER and luciferase reporter gene assays were used to define the functional region of the hOGG1 gene (including CpG sites). Finally, ChIP assay was utilized to verify transcription factor binding to the hOGG1 5'-UTR region. Our previous studies supported the idea that the methylation of the hOGG1 gene promoter region occurs frequently in NSCLC. Treatment with 5-Aza, a demethylating agent, led to a significant restoration of hOGG1 expression in NSCLC cell lines. Quantitative PCR and MassARRAY EpiTYPER assays demonstrated that methylation of the +322-327 CpG site in the 5'-UTR region of hOGG1 was higher in NSCLC tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Notably, the methylation level of +322-327 site (T/N) was inversely correlated with that of hOGG1 mRNA level (T/N) in 25 NSCLC tissues. ChIP assay and in silico prediction showed an association between the +322-327 CpG site and Sp1, which has been reported to be an activator of transcription. Importantly, luciferase reporter gene and ChIP assays showed that +322-327 CpG site methylation particularly reduced the recruitment of Sp1 to the 5'-UTR sequence in hOGG1 and reduced transcriptional activity ~50%. In summary, we have demonstrated that hOGG1 mRNA is downregulated in NSCLC tissues. Moreover, we identified that the methylated +322-327 CpG site in the hOGG1 5'-UTR is associated with reduced expression of hOGG1 by decreasing the recruitment of Sp1 to the 5'-UTR of hOGG1.
Li RJ, Gao H, Na GS, et al.Hexabromocyclododecane-induced Genotoxicity in Cultured Human Breast Cells through DNA Damage.
Biomed Environ Sci. 2017; 30(4):296-300 [PubMed
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To investigate the genotoxicity and reveal the potential toxicological mechanisms of Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), human breast cells HBL-100 were exposed to a sequence of HBCD concentrations (0, 5, 10, and 50 mg/L) for 24 h. With a series of zymology and molecular biology methods, we found that HBCD induced dose-dependent oxidative stress on HBL-100 DNA. As revealed in qRT-PCR, activated prognostic factor ATM down-regulated tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 and prompted DNA repair genes hOGG1 and hMTH1 expression in lower concentrations of HBCD (< 10 mg/L). However, DNA repair were inhibited as well as cell proliferation rate by higher concentrations of HBCD (50 mg/L). The results inferred that the genotoxicity of HBCD was dose-dependent and related to DNA repair pathway.
An oncogenic role for CHD4, a NuRD component, is defined for initiating and supporting tumor suppressor gene (TSG) silencing in human colorectal cancer. CHD4 recruits repressive chromatin proteins to sites of DNA damage repair, including DNA methyltransferases where it imposes de novo DNA methylation. At TSGs, CHD4 retention helps maintain DNA hypermethylation-associated transcriptional silencing. CHD4 is recruited by the excision repair protein OGG1 for oxidative damage to interact with the damage-induced base 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), while ZMYND8 recruits it to double-strand breaks. CHD4 knockdown activates silenced TSGs, revealing their role for blunting colorectal cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastases. High CHD4 and 8-OHdG levels plus low expression of TSGs strongly correlates with early disease recurrence and decreased overall survival.