Research IndicatorsGraph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: ROR1 (cancer-related)
Although initially responsive to chemotherapy, many patients with ovarian cancer subsequently develop relapsed and potentially fatal metastatic disease, which is thought to develop from cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are relatively resistant to conventional therapy. Here, we show that CSCs express a type I receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (ROR1), which is expressed during embryogenesis and by many different cancers, but not normal postpartum tissues. Ovarian cancers with high levels of ROR1 had stem cell-like gene-expression signatures. Furthermore, patients with ovarian cancers with high levels of ROR1 had higher rates of relapse and a shorter median survival than patients with ovarian cancers that expressed low-to-negligible amounts of ROR1. We found that ROR1-positive (ROR1(+)) cells isolated from primary tumor-derived xenografts (PDXs) also expressed aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) and had a greater capacity to form spheroids and to engraft immune-deficient mice than did ROR1-negative (ROR1(Neg)) ovarian cancer cells isolated from the same tumor population. Treatment with UC-961, an anti-ROR1 mAb, or shRNA silencing of ROR1 inhibited expression of the polycomb ring-finger oncogene, Bmi-1, and other genes associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Moreover, shRNA silencing of ROR1, depletion of ROR1(+) cells, or treatment with UC-961 impaired the capacity of ovarian cancer cells to form spheroids or tumor xenografts. More importantly, treatment with anti-ROR1 affected the capacity of the xenograft to reseed a virgin mouse, indicating that targeting ROR1 may affect CSC self-renewal. Collectively, these studies indicate that ovarian CSCs express ROR1, which contributes to their capacity to form tumors, making ROR1 a potential target for the therapy of patients with ovarian cancer.
Gentile A, Lazzari L, Benvenuti S, et al.The ROR1 pseudokinase diversifies signaling outputs in MET-addicted cancer cells.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(10):2305-16 [PubMed
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MET is a master gene controlling a genetic program driving proliferation, apoptosis protection and invasion. The ROR1 pseudokinase acts as a MET substrate. However, its contribution to MET signaling and MET-dependent biological outcomes remains to be elucidated. By structure-function analysis of ROR1 mutants, we show that ROR1 encompasses two major substrate regions: one is located in the proline-rich domain and is directly phosphorylated by MET; the other resides in the pseudokinase domain and is phosphorylated through intermediate activation of SRC. Differential phosphorylation of these two regions dictates the execution of specific responses: phosphorylation of the ROR1 proline-rich domain by MET-but not phosphorylation of the pseudokinase domain by SRC-is necessary and sufficient to control MET-driven proliferation and protection from apoptosis. Differently, both the proline-rich and the pseudokinase domains mediate cell invasion. Consistent with the role of ROR1 in specifying the functional consequences of MET-dependent signals, ROR1 silencing leads to selective attenuation of only some of the signal transduction pathways sustained by MET. These data enlighten the so far elusive function(s) of pseudokinases and identify a mechanism of biological diversification, based on substrate specificity of oncogenic kinases.
We have used a novel affinity-based proteomics technology to examine the protein signature of small secreted extracellular vesicles called exosomes. The technology uses a new class of protein binding reagents called SOMAmers® (slow off-rate modified aptamers) and allows the simultaneous precise measurement of over 1000 proteins. Exosomes were highly purified from the Du145 prostate cancer cell line, by pooling selected fractions from a continuous sucrose gradient (within the density range of 1.1 to 1.2 g/ml), and examined under standard conditions or with additional detergent treatment by the SOMAscan™ array (version 3.0). Lysates of Du145 cells were also prepared, and the profiles were compared. Housekeeping proteins such as cyclophilin-A, LDH, and Hsp70 were present in exosomes, and we identified almost 100 proteins that were enriched in exosomes relative to cells. These included proteins of known association with cancer exosomes such as MFG-E8, integrins, and MET, and also those less widely reported as exosomally associated, such as ROR1 and ITIH4. Several proteins with no previously known exosomal association were confirmed as exosomally expressed in experiments using individual SOMAmer® reagents or antibodies in micro-plate assays. Western blotting confirmed the SOMAscan™-identified enrichment of exosomal NOTCH-3, L1CAM, RAC1, and ADAM9. In conclusion, we describe here over 300 proteins of hitherto unknown association with prostate cancer exosomes and suggest that the SOMAmer®-based assay technology is an effective proteomics platform for exosome-associated biomarker discovery in diverse clinical settings.
Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is an oncoembryonic antigen found on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells, but not on normal adult tissues. We generated transgenic (Tg) mice with human ROR1 regulated by the murine Ig promoter/enhancer. In contrast to nontransgenic littermates, such animals had B-cell-restricted expression of ROR1 and could develop clonal expansions of ROR1(bright)CD5(+)B220(low) B cells resembling human CLL at ≥ 15 mo of age. Because immune-precipitation and mass spectrometry studies revealed that ROR1 could complex with T-cell leukemia 1 (TCL1) in CLL, we crossed these animals with Eµ-TCL1-Tg (TCL1) mice. Progeny with both transgenes (ROR1 × TCL1) developed CD5(+)B220(low) B-cell lymphocytosis and leukemia at a significantly younger median age than did littermates with either transgene alone. ROR1 × TCL1 leukemia B cells had higher levels of phospho-AKT than TCL1 leukemia cells and expressed high levels of human ROR1, which we also found complexed with TCL1. Transcriptome analyses revealed that ROR1 × TCL1 leukemia cells had higher expression of subnetworks implicated in embryonic and tumor-cell proliferation, but lower expression of subnetworks involved in cell-cell adhesion or cell death than did TCL1 leukemia cells. ROR1 × TCL1 leukemia cells also had higher proportions of Ki-67-positive cells, lower proportions of cells undergoing spontaneous apoptosis, and produced more aggressive disease upon adoptive transfer than TCL1 leukemia cells. However, treatment with an anti-ROR1 mAb resulted in ROR1 down-modulation, reduced phospho-AKT, and impaired engraftment of ROR1 × TCL1 leukemia cells. Our data demonstrate that ROR1 accelerates development/progression of leukemia and may be targeted for therapy of patients with CLL.
Phosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has a key role in cellular functions contributing to the malignant phenotype of tumor cells. We and others have previously demonstrated that RTK ROR1 is overexpressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Silencing siRNA downregulated ROR1 and induced apoptosis of CLL cells. In the present study we analysed ROR1 isoforms and the phosphorylation pattern in CLL cells (n=38) applying western blot and flow-cytometry using anti-ROR1 antibodies and an anti-phospho-ROR1 antibody against the TK domain. Two major ROR1 bands with the size of 105 and 130 kDa respectively were identified, presumably representing unglycosylated (immature) and glycosylated (mature) ROR1 respectively as well as a 260 kDa band which may represent dimerized ROR1. A ROR1 band of 64 kDa that may correspond to a C-terminal fragment was also noted, present only in the nucleus. The 105 kDa ROR1 isoform was more frequently expressed in non-progressive as compared to progressive CLL patients (p=0.03). The 64, 105, 130 and 260 kDa bands were constitutively phosphorylated both at tyrosine and serine residues. Phosphorylation intensity of the mature (130 kDa) isoform was significantly higher in progressive than in non-progressive disease (p<0.001). Incubation of CLL cells with a mouse anti-ROR1 KNG or an anti-ROR1 CRD mAb respectively induced dephosphorylation of ROR1 before entering apoptosis. In conclusion CLL cells expressed different isoforms of ROR1 which were constitutively phosphorylated. The mature, phosphorylated ROR1 isoform was associated with a progressive disease stage. Targeting ROR1 by mAbs induced specific dephosphorylation and leukemic cell death. ROR1 might be an interesting therapeutic target.
Avasarala S, Bikkavilli RK, Van Scoyk M, et al.Heterotrimeric G-protein, Gα16, is a critical downstream effector of non-canonical Wnt signaling and a potent inhibitor of transformed cell growth in non small cell lung cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e76895 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are the largest family of cell surface molecules that play important role/s in a number of biological and pathological processes including cancers. Earlier studies have highlighted the importance of Wnt7a signaling via its cognate receptor Frizzled9, a GPCR, in inhibition of cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and reversal of transformed phenotype in non small cell lung cancer primarily through activation of the tumor suppressor, PPARγ. However, the G-protein effectors that couple to this important tumor suppressor pathway have not been identified, and are of potential therapeutic interest. In this study, by using two independent Wnt7a/Frizzled9-specific read-outs, we identify Gα16 as a novel downstream effector of Wnt7a/Frizzled9 signaling. Interestingly, Gα16 expression is severely down-regulated, both at the messenger RNA levels and protein levels, in many non small cell lung cancer cell lines. Additionally, through gene-specific knock-downs and expression of GTPase-deficient forms (Q212L) of Gα16, we also establish Gα16 as a novel regulator of non small cell lung cancer cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth. Taken together, our data not only establish the importance of Gα16 as a critical downstream effector of the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway but also as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of non small cell lung cancer.
UNLABELLED: An emerging concept in melanoma biology is that of dynamic, adaptive phenotype switching, where cells switch from a highly proliferative, poorly invasive phenotype to a highly invasive, less proliferative one. This switch may hold significant implications not just for metastasis, but also for therapy resistance. We demonstrate that phenotype switching and subsequent resistance can be guided by changes in expression of receptors involved in the noncanonical Wnt5A signaling pathway, ROR1 and ROR2. ROR1 and ROR2 are inversely expressed in melanomas and negatively regulate each other. Furthermore, hypoxia initiates a shift of ROR1-positive melanomas to a more invasive, ROR2-positive phenotype. Notably, this receptor switch induces a 10-fold decrease in sensitivity to BRAF inhibitors. In patients with melanoma treated with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib, Wnt5A expression correlates with clinical response and therapy resistance. These data highlight the fact that mechanisms that guide metastatic progression may be linked to those that mediate therapy resistance.
SIGNIFICANCE: These data show for the fi rst time that a single signaling pathway, the Wnt signaling pathway, can effectively guide the phenotypic plasticity of tumor cells, when primed to do so by a hypoxic microenvironment. Importantly, this increased Wnt5A signaling can give rise to a subpopulation of highly invasive cells that are intrinsically less sensitive to novel therapies for melanoma, and targeting the Wnt5A/ROR2 axis could improve the efficacy and duration of response for patients with melanoma on vemurafenib.
Buttler K, Becker J, Pukrop T, Wilting JMaldevelopment of dermal lymphatics in Wnt5a-knockout-mice.
Dev Biol. 2013; 381(2):365-76 [PubMed
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Maintenance of tissue homeostasis and immune surveillance are important functions of the lymphatic vascular system. Lymphatic vessels are lined by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). By gene micro-array expression studies we recently compared human lymphangioma-derived LECs with umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Here, we followed up on these studies. Besides well-known LEC markers, we observed regulation of molecules involved in immune regulation, acetylcholine degradation and platelet regulation. Moreover we identified differentially expressed WNT pathway components, which play important roles in the morphogenesis of various organs, including the blood vascular system. WNT signaling has not yet been addressed in lymphangiogenesis. We found high expression of FZD3, FZD5 and DKK2 mRNA in HUVECs, and WNT5A in LECs. The latter was verified in normal skin-derived LECs. With immunohistological methods we detected WNT5A in LECs, as well as ROR1, ROR2 and RYK in both LECs and HUVECs. In the human, mutations of WNT5A or its receptor ROR2 cause the Robinow syndrome. These patients show multiple developmental defects including the cardio-vascular system. We studied Wnt5a-knockout (ko) mouse embryos at day 18.5. We show that the number of dermal lymphatic capillaries is significantly lower in Wnt5a-null-mice. However, the mean size of individual lymphatics and the LEC number per vessel are greater. In sum, the total area covered by lymphatics and the total number of LECs are not significantly altered. The reduced number of lymphatic capillaries indicates a sprouting defect rather than a proliferation defect in the dermis of Wnt5a-ko-mice, and identifies Wnt5a as a regulator of lymphangiogenesis.
Metastasis is responsible for 90% of cancer-related deaths. Strategies are needed that can inhibit the capacity of cancer cells to migrate across the anatomic barriers and colonize distant organs. Here, we show an association between metastasis and expression of a type I receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor, ROR1, which is expressed during embryogenesis and by various cancers, but not by normal postpartum tissues. We found that expression of ROR1 associates with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which occurs during embryogenesis and cancer metastasis. Breast adenocarcinomas expressing high levels of ROR1 were more likely to have gene expression signatures associated with EMT and had higher rates of relapse and metastasis than breast adenocarcinomas expressing low levels of ROR1. Suppressing expression of ROR1 in metastasis-prone breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231, HS-578T, or BT549, attenuated expression of proteins associated with EMT (e.g., vimentin, SNAIL-1/2, and ZEB1), enhanced expression of E-cadherin, epithelial cytokeratins (e.g., CK-19), and tight junction proteins (e.g., ZO-1), and impaired their migration/invasion capacity in vitro and the metastatic potential of MDA-MB-231 cells in immunodeficient mice. Conversely, transfection of MCF-7 cells to express ROR1 reduced expression of E-cadherin and CK-19, but enhanced the expression of SNAIL-1/2 and vimentin. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 with a monoclonal antibody specific for ROR1 induced downmodulation of vimentin and inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo. Collectively, this study indicates that ROR1 may regulate EMT and metastasis and that antibodies targeting ROR1 can inhibit cancer progression and metastasis.
Hojjat-Farsangi M, Ghaemimanesh F, Daneshmanesh AH, et al.Inhibition of the receptor tyrosine kinase ROR1 by anti-ROR1 monoclonal antibodies and siRNA induced apoptosis of melanoma cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e61167 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) ROR1 is overexpressed and of importance for the survival of various malignancies, including lung adenocarcinoma, breast cancer and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). There is limited information however on ROR1 in melanoma. In the present study we analysed in seven melanoma cell lines ROR1 expression and phosphorylation as well as the effects of anti-ROR1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and ROR1 suppressing siRNA on cell survival. ROR1 was overexpressed at the protein level to a varying degree and phosphorylated at tyrosine and serine residues. Three of our four self-produced anti-ROR1 mAbs (clones 3H9, 5F1 and 1A8) induced a significant direct apoptosis of the ESTDAB049, ESTDAB112, DFW and A375 cell lines as well as cell death in complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The ESTDAB081 and 094 cell lines respectively were resistant to direct apoptosis of the four anti-ROR1 mAbs alone but not in CDC or ADCC. ROR1 siRNA transfection induced downregulation of ROR1 expression both at mRNA and protein levels proceeded by apoptosis of the melanoma cells (ESTDAB049, ESTDAB112, DFW and A375) including ESTDAB081, which was resistant to the direct apoptotic effect of the mAbs. The results indicate that ROR1 may play a role in the survival of melanoma cells. The surface expression of ROR1 on melanoma cells may support the notion that ROR1 might be a suitable target for mAb therapy.
Dave H, Anver MR, Butcher DO, et al.Restricted cell surface expression of receptor tyrosine kinase ROR1 in pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia suggests targetability with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e52655 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite high cure rates for pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), short-term and long-term toxicities and chemoresistance are shortcomings of standard chemotherapy. Immunotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy based on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target cell surface antigens with restricted expression in pediatric B-ALL may offer the potential to reduce toxicities and prevent or overcome chemoresistance. The receptor tyrosine kinase ROR1 has emerged as a candidate for mAb targeting in select B-cell malignancies.
METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using flow cytometry, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, we analyzed the cell surface expression of ROR1 across major pediatric ALL subtypes represented by 14 cell lines and 56 primary blasts at diagnosis or relapse as well as in normal adult and pediatric tissues. Cell surface ROR1 expression was found in 45% of pediatric ALL patients, all of which were B-ALL, and was not limited to any particular genotype. All cell lines and primary blasts with E2A-PBX1 translocation and a portion of patients with other high risk genotypes, such as MLL rearrangement, expressed cell surface ROR1. Importantly, cell surface ROR1 expression was found in many of the pediatric B-ALL patients with multiply relapsed and refractory disease and normal karyotype or low risk cytogenetics, such as hyperdiploidy. Notably, cell surface ROR1 was virtually absent in normal adult and pediatric tissues.
CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, this study suggests that ROR1 merits preclinical and clinical investigations as a novel target for mAb-based therapies in pediatric B-ALL. We propose cell surface expression of ROR1 detected by flow cytometry as primary inclusion criterion for pediatric B-ALL patients in future clinical trials of ROR1-targeted therapies.
We report that t(1;19) ALL cells universally exhibit expression of and dependence on the cell surface receptor ROR1. We further identify t(1;19) ALL cell sensitivity to the kinase inhibitor dasatinib due to its inhibition of the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) signaling complex. These phenotypes are a consequence of developmental arrest at an intermediate/late stage of B-lineage maturation. Additionally, inhibition of pre-BCR signaling induces further ROR1 upregulation, and we identify distinct ROR1 and pre-BCR downstream signaling pathways that are modulated in a counterbalancing manner-both leading to AKT phosphorylation. Consistent with this, AKT phosphorylation is transiently eliminated after dasatinib treatment, but is partially restored following dasatinib potentiation of ROR1 expression. Consequently, ROR1 silencing accentuates dasatinib killing of t(1;19) ALL cells.
Högfeldt T, Bahnassy AA, Kwiecinska A, et al.Patients with activated B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in high and low infectious disease areas have different inflammatory gene signatures.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2013; 54(5):996-1003 [PubMed
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease with an association with inflammation and viral infections. We hypothesize that environmental factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of DLBCL. In this study, we compared gene expression profiles of lymph node tissues from patients with DLBCL from two different geographical areas with diverse environmental exposures. Specimens from Egyptian and Swedish patients with DLBCL as well as controls were studied. Gene expression analysis using microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated significantly higher expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in Swedish as compared to Egyptian patients and control materials from both countries. This was confirmed at protein level using confocal microscopy. The receptor tyrosine kinase ROR1, a "survival factor" for malignant cells, was overexpressed and significantly related to the STAT3 expression pattern. The difference in the expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses and in the tumorigenic process of DLBCL might relate to infectious agents and/or other environmental exposures.
ROR1 is an orphan-receptor tyrosine-kinase-like surface antigen that is expressed by many tissues during embryogenesis, some B-cell malignancies, and various cancer cell lines but not by virtually all normal adult tissues. Here, we report that large proportions of many different human cancers also express ROR1, particularly those cancers that have high-grade histology. Primary cancers that expressed ROR1 more commonly expressed high levels of phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding-factor (p-CREB) than similar cancers that lacked expression of ROR1. Induced expression of ROR1 could enhance basal p-AKT and p-CREB levels and could promote the growth of a cancer cell line, MEC1. Conversely, silencing ROR1 resulted in lower levels of p-AKT and p-CREB, which was associated with impaired tumor cell growth. In summary, this study found that many different human cancers express ROR1 and that ROR1 may play a functional role in promoting tumor cell growth, suggesting that this orphan-receptor tyrosine-kinase-like protein may be a potential target for therapy directed against a variety of human cancers.
Daneshmanesh AH, Porwit A, Hojjat-Farsangi M, et al.Orphan receptor tyrosine kinases ROR1 and ROR2 in hematological malignancies.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2013; 54(4):843-50 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The receptor tyrosine kinase ROR1 has been shown to be overexpressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The aim of this study was to further characterize the expression of ROR1 and the other member of the ROR family, ROR2, in other lymphoid and myeloid malignancies. Normal white blood cells and reactive lymph nodes were negative for ROR1 and ROR2. A significantly high and uniform surface expression of ROR1 was found in CLL/hairy cell leukemia (HCL) compared to mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), myelomas, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and myeloid leukemias (p = 0.02 to < 0.001). The lowest proportion of ROR1+ cells was seen in FL, whereas CLL, HCL and CML had significantly higher numbers of ROR1+ cells. Longitudinal follow-up of individual patients with CLL revealed that ROR1+ cells remained stable over time in non-progressive patients, but increased when the disease progressed (p < 0.05). Thus, a variable staining pattern of ROR1 ranging from very high (CLL, HCL) and high (CML) to intermediate (myeloma and DLBCL) or low (FL) was noted. ROR2 was not detected in hematological malignancies.
Yamaguchi T, Yanagisawa K, Sugiyama R, et al.NKX2-1/TITF1/TTF-1-Induced ROR1 is required to sustain EGFR survival signaling in lung adenocarcinoma.
Cancer Cell. 2012; 21(3):348-61 [PubMed
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We and others previously identified NKX2-1, also known as TITF1 and TTF-1, as a lineage-survival oncogene in lung adenocarcinomas. Here we show that NKX2-1 induces the expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1), which in turn sustains a favorable balance between prosurvival PI3K-AKT and pro-apoptotic p38 signaling, in part through ROR1 kinase-dependent c-Src activation, as well as kinase activity-independent sustainment of the EGFR-ERBB3 association, ERBB3 phosphorylation, and consequential PI3K activation. Notably, ROR1 knockdown effectively inhibited lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, irrespective of their EGFR status, including those with resistance to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. Our findings thus identify ROR1 as an "Achilles' heel" in lung adenocarcinoma, warranting future development of therapeutic strategies for this devastating cancer.
Receptor-tyrosine-kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is expressed during embryogenesis and by certain leukemias, but not by normal adult tissues. Here we show that the neoplastic cells of many human breast cancers express the ROR1 protein and high-level expression of ROR1 in breast adenocarcinoma was associated with aggressive disease. Silencing expression of ROR1 in human breast cancer cell lines found to express this protein impaired their growth in vitro and also in immune-deficient mice. We found that ROR1 could interact with casein kinase 1 epsilon (CK1ε) to activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated AKT phosphorylation and cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB), which was associated with enhanced tumor-cell growth. Wnt5a, a ligand of ROR1, could induce ROR1-dependent signaling and enhance cell growth. This study demonstrates that ROR1 is expressed in human breast cancers and has biological and clinical significance, indicating that it may be a potential target for breast cancer therapy.
Shaheen I, Ibrahim NDetection of orphan receptor tyrosine kinase (ROR-1) expression in Egyptian pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2012; 31(3):113-9 [PubMed
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Receptor tyrosine kinases, a group of tumor-associated antigens, were introduced as targets for cancer intervention strategies. The human orphan receptor tyrosine kinase-1 (ROR-1) is a member of this family. Overexpression of ROR1 has been reported in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The aim of this study was to detect the expression profile of ROR1 in 54 pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. ROR1 was overexpressed in ALL as the ROR1/ β-actin ratio was higher in ALL children than in control group (P = 0.024). ROR1 is a potential tool for targeted immunotherapy in pediatric ALL patients.
Daneshmanesh AH, Hojjat-Farsangi M, Khan AS, et al.Monoclonal antibodies against ROR1 induce apoptosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells.
Leukemia. 2012; 26(6):1348-55 [PubMed
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ROR1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) recently identified to be overexpressed at the gene and protein levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against RTKs have been successfully applied for therapy of solid tumors. We generated five MAbs against the Ig (n = 1), cysteine-rich (CRD) (n = 2) and kringle (KNG) (n = 2) domains, respectively, of the extracellular part of ROR1. All CLL patients (n = 20) expressed ROR1 on the surface of the leukemic cells. A significantly higher frequency of ROR1 expression was found in patients with progressive versus non-progressive disease, and in those with unmutated versus mutated IgVH genes. All five MAbs alone induced apoptosis in the absence of complement or added effector cells (Annexin-V and MTT, as well as cleavage of poly-(ADP ribose)-polymerase, caspase-8 and caspase-9) of CLL cells but not of normal B cells. Most effective were MAbs against CRD and KNG, significantly superior to rituximab (P < 0.005). Cross-linking of anti-ROR1 MAbs using the F(ab')(2) fragments of anti-Fc antibodies significantly augmented apoptosis. Two of the MAbs induced complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) similar to that of rituximab and one anti-ROR1 MAb (KNG) (IgG1) showed killing activity by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The identified ROR1 epitopes may provide a basis for generating human ROR1 MAbs for therapy.
Broome HE, Rassenti LZ, Wang HY, et al.ROR1 is expressed on hematogones (non-neoplastic human B-lymphocyte precursors) and a minority of precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2011; 35(10):1390-4 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ROR1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed during embryogenesis, on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and in other malignancies. Hematogones (non-neoplastic B-lymphocyte precursors) express surface ROR1 at an intermediate stage of maturation that lacks CD34 or TdT. The neoplastic counterpart to hematogones is precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), but less than 10% of B-ALL express surface ROR1, and these ROR1+ B-ALL cases have an unusually high frequency of lacking CD34 and/or having t(1;19), a chromosomal translocation that defines a specific subtype of B-ALL.
Gentile A, Lazzari L, Benvenuti S, et al.Ror1 is a pseudokinase that is crucial for Met-driven tumorigenesis.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(8):3132-41 [PubMed
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The human kinome includes Ror1, a poorly characterized orphan receptor. Here we report the findings of an investigation of Ror1 contributions to cancer, undertaken through an integrated screening of 43 cancer cell lines where we measured protein expression, tyrosine phosphorylation, and growth response following RNAi-mediated Ror1 suppression. Ror1 was expressed in approximately 75% of the cancer cell lines without apparent histotype distribution. Gastric carcinoma cells (HS746T) and non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (NCI-H1993) exhibited high levels of Ror1 tyrosine phosphorylation, and Ror1 suppression caused growth inhibition. Biochemical assays revealed unexpectedly that Ror1 is a pseudokinase that is devoid of catalytic activity. Intriguingly, the two cell lines featuring tyrosine-phosphorylated Ror1 both exhibited amplification and activation of the Met oncogene. Ror1 phosphorylation was abrogated by Met inhibition, indicating Met-dependent transphosphorylation of Ror1. Conversely, Ror1 was not transphosphorylated by other constitutively active tyrosine kinases, including EGFR and ErbB2. Constitutive silencing of Ror1 in HS746T and NCI-H1993 carcinoma cells impaired proliferation in vitro and induced a dramatic inhibition of tumorigenesis in vivo. Together, our findings suggest a critical role for Ror1 in malignant phenotypes sustained by the Met oncogene.
Klemm F, Bleckmann A, Siam L, et al.β-catenin-independent WNT signaling in basal-like breast cancer and brain metastasis.
Carcinogenesis. 2011; 32(3):434-42 [PubMed
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A role of WNT signaling for primary breast cancers of the basal-like subtype and as a predictor of brain metastasis has been described. However, a responsible WNT ligand has not been identified. To further clarify this question, we comparatively investigated 22 human breast cancer brain metastases as well as the highly invasive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and the weakly motile MCF-7 as models for the basal-like and the luminal A subtype. WNT5A and B were found overexpressed in MDA-MB-231 cells as compared with MCF-7. This corresponded to reduction of MDA-MB-231 invasiveness by WNT inhibitors, whereas MCF-7 invasion was enhanced by recombinant WNT5B and abolished by WNT and Jun-N-terminal kinase antagonists. Expression and subcellular distribution of β-catenin remained uninfluenced. Consistently, β-catenin was not localized in the nuclei of brain metastases while there was strong nuclear c-Jun staining. Similar to MDA-MB-231, metastases showed expression of WNT5A/B and the alternative WNT receptors ROR1 and 2. These findings were validated using external gene expression datasets (Gene Expression Omnibus) of different breast cancer subtypes and brain metastases. Hierarchical cluster analysis yielded a close relation between basal-like cancers and brain metastases. Gene set enrichment analyses confirmed WNT pathway enrichment not only in basal-like primaries but also in cerebral metastases of all subtypes. In conclusion, WNT signaling seems highly relevant for basal-like and other subtypes of breast cancers metastasizing into the brain. β-catenin-independent WNT signaling, presumably via ROR1-2, plays a major role in this context.
BACKGROUND: The ectopic expression of receptor tyrosine kinase Ror1 has been reported in patients with hematological malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Here we report, for the first time, expression of ROR1 gene in both tumor tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with renal cancer (RC).
METHODS: In the current study, the expression of ROR1 gene was semi-quantitatively measured in PBMC and tumor tissues from 16 RC patients as well as PBMC from 22 healthy individuals relative to the expression of the housekeeping gene phosphoglucomutase 1 by RT-PCR.
RESULTS: Our results showed that ROR1 was expressed at gene level in 81.3 percent of renal tumor tissues (13 out of 16) whereas it was expressed in 94 percent of PBMC from RC patients (15 out of 16). A weak expression of ROR1 was observed in PBMC of 4 out of 22 healthy individual. A significant expression of ROR1 was observed in PBMC from RC patients when compared to that in PBMC from normal healthy individuals (P less than 0.001). The expression of ROR1 in PBMC may reflect a shedding of tumor cells into blood stream.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that detection of a high level of ROR1 expression in blood cells might assist in early detection of renal malignancies, providing taking into consideration the clinical symptoms of the disease.
Choudhury A, Derkow K, Daneshmanesh AH, et al.Silencing of ROR1 and FMOD with siRNA results in apoptosis of CLL cells.
Br J Haematol. 2010; 151(4):327-35 [PubMed
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We have previously demonstrated that ROR1 and FMOD (fibromodulin) are two genes upregulated in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells compared to normal blood B cells. In this study, siRNAs were used to specifically silence ROR1 and FMOD expression in CLL cells, healthy B cells and human fibroblast cell lines. siRNA treatment induced a specific reduction (75-95%) in FMOD and ROR1 mRNA. Western blot analysis with specific antibodies for FMOD and ROR1 demonstrated that the proteins were significantly downregulated 48 h after siRNA treatment. Silencing of FMOD and ROR1 resulted in statistically significant (P ≤ 0·05-0·001) apoptosis of CLL cells but not of B cells from normal donors. Human fibroblast cell lines treated with FMOD and ROR1 siRNA did not undergo apoptosis. This is the first report demonstrating that ROR1 and FMOD may be involved in the survival of CLL cells. ROR1 in particular is further explored as potential target for therapy in CLL.
Monoclonal antibodies and T cells modified to express chimeric antigen receptors specific for B-cell lineage surface molecules such as CD20 exert antitumor activity in B-cell malignancies, but deplete normal B cells. The receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) was identified as a highly expressed gene in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), but not normal B cells, suggesting it may serve as a tumor-specific target for therapy. We analyzed ROR1-expression in normal nonhematopoietic and hematopoietic cells including B-cell precursors, and in hematopoietic malignancies. ROR1 has characteristics of an oncofetal gene and is expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells, B-CLL and mantle cell lymphoma, but not in major adult tissues apart from low levels in adipose tissue and at an early stage of B-cell development. We constructed a ROR1-specific chimeric antigen receptor that when expressed in T cells from healthy donors or CLL patients conferred specific recognition of primary B-CLL and mantle cell lymphoma, including rare drug effluxing chemotherapy resistant tumor cells that have been implicated in maintaining the malignancy, but not mature normal B cells. T-cell therapies targeting ROR1 may be effective in B-CLL and other ROR1-positive tumors. However, the expression of ROR1 on some normal tissues suggests the potential for toxi-city to subsets of normal cells.
BACKGROUND: The receptor tyrosine kinase like orphan receptor (ROR)-1 gene is overexpressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Because Stat3 is constitutively activated in CLL and sequence analysis revealed that the ROR1 promoter harbors gamma-interferon activation sequence-like elements typically activated by Stat3, we hypothesized that Stat3 activates ROR1.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Because IL-6 induced Stat3 phosphorylation and upregulated Ror1 protein levels in MM1 cells, we used these cells as a model. We transfected MM1 cells with truncated ROR1 promoter luciferase reporter constructs and found that IL-6 induced luciferase activity of ROR1-195 and upstream constructs. Co-transfection with Stat3 siRNA reduced the IL-6-induced luciferase activity, suggesting that IL-6 induced luciferase activity by activating Stat3. EMSA and the ChIP assay confirmed that Stat3 binds ROR1, and EMSA studies identified two Stat3 binding sites. In CLL cells, EMSA and ChIP studies determined that phosphorylated Stat3 bound to the ROR1 promoter at those two ROR1 promoter sites, and ChIP analysis showed that Stat3 co-immunoprecipitated DNA of STAT3, ROR1, and several Stat3-regulated genes. Finally, like STAT3-siRNA in MM1 cells, STAT3-shRNA downregulated STAT3, ROR1, and STAT3-regulated genes and Stat3 and Ror1 protein levels in CLL cells.
CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that constitutively activated Stat3 binds to the ROR1 promoter and activates ROR1 in CLL cells.
Lapalombella R, Andritsos L, Liu Q, et al.Lenalidomide treatment promotes CD154 expression on CLL cells and enhances production of antibodies by normal B cells through a PI3-kinase-dependent pathway.
Blood. 2010; 115(13):2619-29 [PubMed
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) involves a profound humoral immune defect and tumor-specific humoral tolerance that directly contribute to disease morbidity and mortality. CD154 gene therapy can reverse this immune defect, but attempts to do this pharmacologically have been unsuccessful. The immune-modulatory agent lenalidomide shows clinical activity in CLL, but its mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that lenalidomide induces expression of functional CD154 antigen on CLL cells both in vitro and in vivo. This occurs via enhanced CD154 transcription mediated by a Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells c1 (NFATc1)/Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) complex and also through phosphoinositide-3 (PI3)-kinase pathway-dependent stabilization of CD154 mRNA. Importantly, CD154-positive CLL cells up-regulate BID, DR5, and p73, become sensitized to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis, and promote costimulatory activation of normal B cells to produce antibodies. In CLL patients receiving lenalidomide, similar evidence of CD154 activation is observed including BID, DR5, and p73 induction and also development of anti-ROR1 tumor-directed antibodies. Our data demonstrate that lenalidomide promotes CD154 expression on CLL cells with subsequent activation phenotype, and may therefore reverse the humoral immune defect observed in this disease. This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00466895.
Targeted therapy has vastly improved outcomes in certain types of cancer. Extension of this paradigm across a broad spectrum of malignancies will require an efficient method to determine the molecular vulnerabilities of cancerous cells. Improvements in sequencing technology will soon enable high-throughput sequencing of entire genomes of cancer patients; however, determining the relevance of identified sequence variants will require complementary functional analyses. Here, we report an RNAi-assisted protein target identification (RAPID) technology that individually assesses targeting of each member of the tyrosine kinase gene family. We demonstrate that RAPID screening of primary leukemia cells from 30 patients identifies targets that are critical to survival of the malignant cells from 10 of these individuals. We identify known, activating mutations in JAK2 and K-RAS, as well as patient-specific sensitivity to down-regulation of FLT1, CSF1R, PDGFR, ROR1, EPHA4/5, JAK1/3, LMTK3, LYN, FYN, PTK2B, and N-RAS. We also describe a previously undescribed, somatic, activating mutation in the thrombopoietin receptor that is sensitive to down-stream pharmacologic inhibition. Hence, the RAPID technique can quickly identify molecular vulnerabilities in malignant cells. Combination of this technique with whole-genome sequencing will represent an ideal tool for oncogenic target identification such that specific therapies can be matched with individual patients.
Shabani M, Asgarian-Omran H, Vossough P, et al.Expression profile of orphan receptor tyrosine kinase (ROR1) and Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) in different subsets of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2008; 49(7):1360-7 [PubMed
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Recent molecular investigations have demonstrated over-expression of a large number of tumor associated antigens (TAAs) in a variety of malignancies. Over-expression of ROR1 gene, a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family, has recently been reported in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) has long been known as a universal TAA expressed in a variety of solid and hematopoietic malignancies. In the present study, the expression profile of ROR1 and WT1 was investigated in different immunophenotypic subsets of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients. RT-PCR method was used to determine the ROR1 and WT1 genes expression in bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) samples from 51 newly diagnosed Iranian B-ALL patients. Isolated tumor cells from all patients were immunophenotyped by flow cytometry. Based on immunophenotypic results, our B-ALL patients were classified in four differentiation subsets; Pro-B (n = 7), Pre-B I (n = 29), Pre-B II (n = 13) and Immature/mature B-ALL (n = 2). Although ROR1 was over-expressed in more mature subsets (16.7%, 42.9%, 45.5% and 100%, respectively), WT1 was more represented in immature subsets of B-ALL patients (57.1%, 64.3%, 38.5% and 0%, respectively). Comparison of the frequency of ROR1 and WT1 positive samples at each immunophenotypic subtype revealed statistically significant difference only in Pre B I subtype (p = 0.02). Our results suggest that expression of ROR1 and WT1 in B-ALL is associated with the differentiation stage of the leukemic cells.
Daneshmanesh AH, Mikaelsson E, Jeddi-Tehrani M, et al.Ror1, a cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase is expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and may serve as a putative target for therapy.
Int J Cancer. 2008; 123(5):1190-5 [PubMed
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Gene profiling studies of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has revealed increased expression of Ror1, a cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase. The aim of present study was to analyze gene and protein expression of Ror1 in CLL cells and normal blood leukocytes. Gene expression analysis reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of ROR1 revealed that all patients with CLL (n = 100) spontaneously expressed ROR1 mRNA whereas enriched blood B and T cells as well as granulocytes from healthy donors (n = 10) were negative. A strong nonphysiological activation signal (PMA/ionomycin) was required to induce expression in vitro in normal lymphocytes. Major genomic aberrations (mutations or truncation) of ROR1 were not observed. Protein expression was analyzed by Western blot using a panel of polyclonal anti-Ror antibodies as well as flow cytometry. Blood lymphocytes from 18/18 CLL patients, but none of the 10 healthy donors, expressed surface Ror1. The majority of CLL cells exhibited Ror1 surface expression (71% mean; range 36-92%) with a mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of 20 (range 10-45). The corresponding MFI of CD19 on CLL cells was 26 (range 9-48). There was no difference in the Ror1 protein expression comparing IgVH mutated and unmutated cases as well as progressive and nonprogressive CLL patients. Two different variants of the Ror1 protein, 105 and 130 kDa, were identified. The Ror1 protein expression in patients with CLL but not in normal leukocytes merits further studies of its role in the pathobiology of CLL, which may provide a basis for development of Ror1 directed targeted therapy.