Gene Summary

Gene:SIRT3; sirtuin 3
Aliases: SIR2L3
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, homologs to the yeast Sir2 protein. Members of the sirtuin family are characterized by a sirtuin core domain and grouped into four classes. The functions of human sirtuins have not yet been determined; however, yeast sirtuin proteins are known to regulate epigenetic gene silencing and suppress recombination of rDNA. Studies suggest that the human sirtuins may function as intracellular regulatory proteins with mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. The protein encoded by this gene is included in class I of the sirtuin family. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different proteins have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:NAD-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin-3, mitochondrial
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (12)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Chromosome 11
  • Down-Regulation
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Signal Transduction
  • Mitochondria
  • p53 Protein
  • Survival Rate
  • Tamoxifen
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Acetylation
  • Young Adult
  • Lung Cancer
  • Xenograft Models
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Superoxides
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Sirtuins
  • Sirtuin 1
  • p300-CBP Transcription Factors
  • Ubiquitination
  • Apoptosis
  • Cultured Cells
  • Glucose
  • Mitochondrial Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Sirtuin 3
  • Unfolded Protein Response
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • HIF1A
  • Glycolysis
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Breast Cancer
  • Gene Expression
  • Fibroblasts
  • Western Blotting
Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SIRT3 (cancer-related)

Shah AA, Ito A, Nakata A, Yoshida M
Identification of a Selective SIRT2 Inhibitor and Its Anti-breast Cancer Activity.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2016; 39(10):1739-1742 [PubMed] Related Publications
SIRT2 is a member of the human sirtuin family of proteins and possesses nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent lysine deacetylase activity. SIRT2 has been involved in various cellular processes including gene transcription, genome constancy, and the cell cycle. In addition, SIRT2 is deeply implicated in diverse diseases including cancer. In this study, we identified a small molecule inhibitor of SIRT2 with a structure different from known SIRT2 inhibitors by screening from a chemical library. The hit compound showed a high selectivity toward SIRT2 as it only inhibited SIRT2, and not other sirtuins including SIRT1 and SIRT3 or zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) including HDAC1 and HDAC6, in vitro. The compound increased the acetylation level of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), a physiological substrate of SIRT2, and reduced cell viability of human breast cancer cells accompanied with a decrease in c-Myc expression. These results suggest that the compound is cellular effective and has potential for development as a therapeutic agent against breast cancers by specific inhibition of SIRT2.

Bigagli E, De Filippo C, Castagnini C, et al.
DNA copy number alterations, gene expression changes and disease-free survival in patients with colorectal cancer: a 10 year follow-up.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2016; 39(6):545-558 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA copy number alterations (CNAs) and gene expression changes have amply been encountered in colorectal cancers (CRCs), but the extent at which CNAs affect gene expression, as well as their relevance for tumor development, are still poorly defined. Here we aimed at assessing the clinical relevance of these parameters in a 10 year follow-up study.
METHODS: Tumors and normal adjacent colon mucosa, obtained at primary surgery from 21 CRC patients, were subjected to (i) high-resolution array CGH (a-CGH) for the detection of CNAs and (ii) microarray-based transcriptome profiling for the detection of gene expression (GE) changes. Correlations between these genomic and transcriptomic changes and their associations with clinical and histopathological parameters were assessed with the aim to identify molecular signatures associated with disease-free survival of the CRC patients during a 10 year follow-up.
RESULTS: DNA copy number gains were frequently detected in chromosomes 7, 8q, 13, 19, 20q and X, whereas DNA copy number losses were frequently detected in chromosomes 1p, 4, 8p, 15, 17p, 18, 19 and 22q. None of these alterations were observed in all samples. In addition, we found that 2,498 genes were up- and that 1,094 genes were down-regulated in the tumor samples compared to their corresponding normal mucosa (p < 0.01). The expression of 65 genes was found to be significantly associated with prognosis (p < 0.01). Specifically, we found that up-regulation of the IL17RA, IGF2BP2 and ABCC2 genes, and of genes acting in the mTOR and cytokine receptor pathways, were strongly associated with a poor survival. Subsequent integrated analyses revealed that increased expression levels of the MMP9, BMP7, UBE2C, I-CAM, NOTCH3, NOTCH1, PTGES2, HMGB1 and ERBB3 genes were associated with copy number gains, whereas decreased expression levels of the MUC1, E2F2, HRAS and SIRT3 genes were associated with copy number losses. Pathways related to cell cycle progression, eicosanoid metabolism, and TGF-β and apoptosis signaling, were found to be most significantly affected.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that CNAs in CRC tumor tissues are associated with concomitant changes in the expression of cancer-related genes. In other genes epigenetic mechanism may be at work. Up-regulation of the IL17RA, IGF2BP2 and ABCC2 genes, and of genes acting in the mTOR and cytokine receptor pathways, appear to be associated with a poor survival. These alterations may, in addition to Dukes' staging, be employed as new prognostic biomarkers for the prediction of clinical outcome in CRC patients.

Poorhosseini SM, Hashemi M, Alipour Olyaei N, et al.
New Gene Profiling in Determination of Breast Cancer Recurrence and Prognosis in Iranian Women.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17 Spec No.:155-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cancer in the world and by far the most frequent cancer among women, with an estimated 1.67 million new cancer cases diagnosed in 2012 (25% of all cancers). Polygene expression analysis is used to predict the prognosis and determine the most appropriate treatment regimen. The objective of this study was to examine the gene expression profiles of SIRT3, HRAS, LSP1, SCUBE2 and AP2A2 in Iranian women with BC.A total of 136 patients including healthy controls were categorized into three groups based on the relapse of the disease. Expression of desired genes in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissues collected from all groups of participants was analyzed via the RT PCR method. RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis were performed then real-time quantitative PCR was carried out. Gene expression analysis revealed that the expression of SIRT3 was equal among patient and control groups. LSP1 was down regulated in all patient groups relative to controls but reduced expression in the metastatic group relative to the non-metastatic one was not significant. HRAS was significantly overexpressed in total and metastatic tumor samples versus normal but not in non-metastatic cases. SCUBE2 expression showed significant over-expression in both overall tumor samples and the non-metastatic group as compared to normal tissues. Gene expression level of AP2A2 in all groups was not detectable. Our data are compatible with a tumor suppressor role of LSP1 related to potential prognostic factor for tumor recurrence and outcome. This study for the first time assayed the prognostic value and changes in the expression of SIRT3, LSP1, HRAS, SCUBE2 and AP2A2 genes in women with breast cancer in the Iranian population and findings confirmed potential biomarker and prognostic capability of these genes. Such expression profiling data can critically improve prognosis and treatment decisions in cancer patients.

Igci M, Kalender ME, Borazan E, et al.
High-throughput screening of Sirtuin family of genes in breast cancer.
Gene. 2016; 586(1):123-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mammalian Sirtuins have been shown to perform distinct cellular functions and deregulated expression of these genes was reported to be involved in the development of various malignancies including breast cancer. An increasing number of evidence indicates that Sirtuins have both tumor promoter and tumor suppressor functions. However, the roles of Sirtuins have not been well-reported in breast cancer. In the present study, quantitative expression levels of Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) in breast cancer patients and breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and SKBR3) and control cell line (CRL-4010) were assessed by using a high-throughput real-time PCR method. As a result, Sirtuins were found to be differentially expressed in breast cancer tissues and cancer cell lines. Particularly, expressions of SIRT1 and SIRT4 were found to be significantly down-regulated in breast cancer tissues and SKBR3 breast cancer cells. In contrast, SIRT2, SIRT3, and SIRT5 genes were shown to be up-regulated in our study. Although SIRT6 and SIRT7 were also up-regulated in breast cancer tissues, these expression changes were statistically insignificant. Additionally, SIRT2, SIRT3, SIRT5, SIRT6 and SIRT7 were found to be differentially expressed in breast cancer cell lines. Yet, these changes were not well-correlated with tissue expression levels. In conclusion, Sirtuin family of genes shows differential expressions in breast cancer tissues and cells and SIRT1 and SIRT4 seem to play key tumor suppressor roles in breast cancer development. Herein, we report expression levels of Sirtuin family of genes in both breast cancer tissues and cancer cell lines simultaneously.

Mahjabeen I, Kayani MA
Loss of Mitochondrial Tumor Suppressor Genes Expression Is Associated with Unfavorable Clinical Outcome in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Data from Retrospective Study.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0146948 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mitochondrial genes play important roles in cellular energy metabolism, free radical generation, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of these genes have long been suspected to contribute to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased proliferation and progression of cancer. A family of orthologues of yeast silent information regulator 3 (SIRT3), 4 (SIRT4) and mitochondrial tumor suppressor 1 (MTUS1) are important mitochondrial tumor suppressor genes which play an important role in the progression of multiple cancers. However, their role in the development of oxidative stress, enhanced proliferation and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has not yet been studied. In this study we aimed to test the association between reduced mitochondrial tumor suppressor genes' activities and enhancement in tissue oxidative stress and cell proliferation in HNSCC cases. The expression of mitochondrial tumor suppressor genes (SIRT3, SIRT4 and MTUS1), mitochondrial DNA repair gene (OGG1-2a) and a proliferation marker (Ki-67) was studied in a study cohort of 120 HNSCC patients and controls with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR (qPCR) in order to determine the potential prognostic significance of these genes. A statistically significant downregulation of SIRT3 (p<0.001), SIRT4 (p<0.0001), MTUS1 (p<0.002) and OGG1 (p<0.0001) was observed in HNSCC compared to control samples. Ki-67 was also overexpressed (p<0.0001) in HNSCC versus control samples. Additionally, to explore gene-gene relationship, we observed a positive spearmen correlation between SIRT3 versus SIRT4 (r = 0.523***, p<0.0001), SIRT3 versus MTUS1 (r = 0.273***, p<0.001), SIRT3 versus OGG1-2a (r = 0.213*, p<0.03), SIRT4 versus OGG1 (r = 0.338***, p<0.0001) and MTUS1 versus OGG1-2a (r = 0.215*, p<0.03) in HNSCC cases. A negative spearman correlation was observed between OGG1 versus Ki-67 (r = -0.224**, p<0.01) and OGG1-2a versus Ki-67 (r = -0.224**, p<0.01) in HNSCC cases. Here we report that the deregulation of mitochondrial tumor suppressor genes (SIRT3, SIRT4 and MTUS1) in relation to decreased expression of mitochondrial DNA repair gene OGG1-2a and increased proliferation (measured by proliferation marker Ki-67) may be considered important factors in the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

George J, Nihal M, Singh CK, et al.
Pro-Proliferative Function of Mitochondrial Sirtuin Deacetylase SIRT3 in Human Melanoma.
J Invest Dermatol. 2016; 136(4):809-18 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, is often fatal if not treated early. Therefore, novel target-based strategies are required to combat this neoplasm. The objective of this study was to determine the role and functional significance of the mitochondrial sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) in melanoma. We found that compared with normal primary and immortalized human melanocytes, SIRT3 is significantly overexpressed in multiple human melanoma cells at mRNA and protein levels. Further, employing human tissue microarray, we found that SIRT3 is significantly upregulated in clinical melanoma tissues, compared with melanocytic nevi tissues. Furthermore, a short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of SIRT3 in human melanoma cells resulted in (i) a decrease in cellular proliferation, colony formation, and cellular migration; (ii) induction of senescence as shown by an increase in senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity and formation of senescence-associated heterochromatin foci as well as an increase in mRNA and protein levels of p16(INK4a) and p21(Waf1); (iii) G1-phase arrest of the cell cycle; and (iv) decreases in mRNA and protein levels of cyclins (D1, E1) and cyclin-dependent kinases (2, 4, and 6). Conversely, forced exogenous overexpression of SIRT3 promoted an increase in proliferative potential of Hs294T melanoma cells and normal immortalized Mel-ST melanocytes. Finally, we found that SIRT3 knockdown significantly inhibited tumorigenesis in a xenograft model in vivo. To our knowledge, this is the first study supporting the pro-proliferative function of SIRT3 in melanoma.

Bartosch C, Monteiro-Reis S, Almeida-Rios D, et al.
Assessing sirtuin expression in endometrial carcinoma and non-neoplastic endometrium.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(2):1144-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Sirtuins participate in hormone imbalance, metabolism and aging, which are important processes for endometrial cancer (EC) development. Sirtuins mRNA expression (SIRT1 to 7) was determined in 76 ECs (63 Type I, 12 Type II and one mixed EC), and 30 non-neoplastic endometria (NNE) by quantitative real-time PCR. SIRT1 and SIRT7 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using Allred score. Compared to NNE, ECs showed SIRT7 (p < 0.001) mRNA overexpression, whereas SIRT1 (p < 0.001), SIRT2 (p < 0.001), SIRT4 (p < 0.001) and SIRT5 (p < 0.001) were underexpressed. No significant differences were observed for SIRT3 and SIRT6. Type II ECs displayed lower SIRT1 (p = 0.032) and SIRT3 (p = 0.016) transcript levels than Type I ECs. Concerning protein expression, SIRT1 immunostaining median score was higher in ECs compared to NNE epithelium (EC = 5 vs. NNE = 2, p < 0.001), while SIRT7 was lower in ECs (EC = 6 vs. NNE = 7, p < 0.001). No significant associations were found between SIRT1/7 immunoexpression and histological subtype, grade, lymphovascular invasion or stage. Our data shows that sirtuins are deregulated in EC. The diversity of expression patterns observed suggests that sirtuins may have distinctive roles in endometrial cancer similarly to what has been described in other cancer models.

Yu W, Denu RA, Krautkramer KA, et al.
Loss of SIRT3 Provides Growth Advantage for B Cell Malignancies.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(7):3268-79 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
B cell malignancies comprise a diverse group of cancers that proliferate in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and peripheral blood. SIRT3 (sirtuin 3) is the major deacetylase within the mitochondrial matrix that promotes aerobic metabolism and controls reactive oxygen species (ROS) by deacetylating and activating isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). There is controversy as to whether SIRT3 acts as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor, and here we investigated its role in B cell malignancies. In mantle cell lymphoma patient samples, we found that lower SIRT3 protein expression was associated with worse overall survival. Further, SIRT3 protein expression was reduced in chronic lymphocytic leukemia primary samples and malignant B cell lines compared to primary B cells from healthy donors. This lower level of expression correlated with hyperacetylation of IDH2 and SOD2 mitochondrial proteins, lowered enzymatic activities, and higher ROS levels. Overexpression of SIRT3 decreased proliferation and diminished the Warburg-like phenotype in SIRT3-deficient cell lines, and this effect is largely dependent on deacetylation of IDH2 and SOD2. Lastly, depletion of SIRT3 from malignant B cell lines resulted in greater susceptibility to treatment with an ROS scavenger but did not result in greater sensitivity to inhibition of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α pathway, suggesting that loss of SIRT3 increases proliferation via ROS-dependent but hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-independent mechanisms. Our study suggests that SIRT3 acts as a tumor suppressor in B cell malignancies, and activating the SIRT3 pathway might represent a novel therapeutic approach for treating B cell malignancies.

Temel M, Koç MN, Ulutaş S, Göğebakan B
The expression levels of the sirtuins in patients with BCC.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):6429-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common tumor in humans. Reduced expression of sirtuins interferes with DNA repair, which may cause mutations and genomic instability, and eventually leads to tumor development. In the present study, we investigate the expression levels of SIRT genes in non-tumoral and tumor tissues of patients with BCC. A total of 27 patients (16 males, 11 females) with BCC were included in the study; the mean age was 65.40 ± 10.74 years and mean follow-up was 2.5 ± 0.5 years. There were multiple synchronous lesions in six patients, and the remaining 21 patients had a single lesion. Tumor and non-tumoral tissue samples were collected from all patients, and mRNA expression levels of SIRT1-7 (Sirt1.1, Sirt1.2, Sirt2, Sirt3, Sirt4, Sirt5, Sirt6, and Sirt7) were examined by real-time PCR. The results showed that expressions of SIRT1.1, SIRT1.2, SIRT4, SIRT5, SIRT6, and SIRT7 mRNAs were unchanged in tumor tissues of BCC patients compared with non-tumoral tissue samples. Importantly, the expressions of SIRT2 and SIRT3 mRNAs were significantly reduced in tumor tissue samples from BCC patients compared with non-tumoral tissues (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). In light of the previous reports that have demonstrated a link between SIRT proteins and cancer, our findings suggest that SIRT2 and SIRT3 may plan important roles in BCC pathogenesis and could be candidate prognostic biomarkers for BCC.

Quan Y, Wang N, Chen Q, et al.
SIRT3 inhibits prostate cancer by destabilizing oncoprotein c-MYC through regulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):26494-507 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
SIRT3 is involved in aging-related diseases including cancer, but its role in prostate cancer and detailed regulatory function are not known. We found that SIRT3 was moderately down-regulated in prostate carcinomas. Overexpression of SIRT3 by lentiviral transfection inhibited prostate cancer growth both in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of SIRT3 increased prostate tumor growth. Mechanistically, the tumor suppression effect of SIRT3 was achieved via its inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Notably, upregulation of SIRT3 suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt, leading to the ubiquitination and degradation of oncoprotein c-MYC; this could be attenuated by constitutive activation of PI3K/Akt signaling. Collectively, our results unveiled SIRT3's tumor suppressive function and the underlying mechanism in prostate cancer, which might provide therapeutic implications for the disease.

Liu R, Fan M, Candas D, et al.
CDK1-Mediated SIRT3 Activation Enhances Mitochondrial Function and Tumor Radioresistance.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2015; 14(9):2090-102 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Tumor adaptive resistance to therapeutic radiation remains a barrier for further improvement of local cancer control. SIRT3, a member of the sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases in mitochondria, promotes metabolic homeostasis through regulation of mitochondrial protein deacetylation and plays a key role in prevention of cell aging. Here, we demonstrate that SIRT3 expression is induced in an array of radiation-treated human tumor cells and their corresponding xenograft tumors, including colon cancer HCT-116, glioblastoma U87, and breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells. SIRT3 transcriptional activation is due to SIRT3 promoter activation controlled by the stress transcription factor NF-κB. Posttranscriptionally, SIRT3 enzymatic activity is further enhanced via Thr150/Ser159 phosphorylation by cyclin B1-CDK1, which is also induced by radiation and relocated to mitochondria together with SIRT3. Cells expressing Thr150Ala/Ser159Ala-mutant SIRT3 show a reduction in mitochondrial protein lysine deacetylation, Δψm, MnSOD activity, and mitochondrial ATP generation. The clonogenicity of Thr150Ala/Ser159Ala-mutant transfectants is lower and significantly decreased under radiation. Tumors harboring Thr150Ala/Ser159Ala-mutant SIRT3 show inhibited growth and increased sensitivity to in vivo local irradiation. These results demonstrate that enhanced SIRT3 transcription and posttranslational modifications in mitochondria contribute to adaptive radioresistance in tumor cells. CDK1-mediated SIRT3 phosphorylation is a potential effective target to sensitize tumor cells to radiotherapy.

Cui Y, Qin L, Wu J, et al.
SIRT3 Enhances Glycolysis and Proliferation in SIRT3-Expressing Gastric Cancer Cells.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0129834 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
SIRT3 is a key NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase in the mitochondria of mammalian cells, functioning to prevent cell aging and transformation via regulation of mitochondrial metabolic homeostasis. However, SIRT3 is also found to express in some human tumors; its role in these SIRT3-expressing tumor cells needs to be elucidated. This study demonstrated that the expression of SIRT3 was elevated in a group of gastric cancer cells compared to normal gastric epithelial cells. Although SIRT3 expression levels were increased in the gastric tumor tissues compared to the adjacent non-tumor tissues, SIRT3 positive cancer cells were more frequently detected in the intestinal type gastric cancers than the diffuse type gastric cancers, indicating that SIRT3 is linked with subtypes of gastric cancer. Overexpression of SIRT3 promoted cell proliferation and enhanced ATP generation, glucose uptake, glycogen formation, MnSOD activity and lactate production, which were inhibited by SIRT3 knockdown, indicating that SIRT3 plays a role in reprogramming the bioenergetics in gastric tumor cells. Further analysis revealed that SIRT3 interacted with and deacetylated the lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a key protein in regulating anaerobic glycolysis, enhancing LDHA activity. In consistence, a cluster of glycolysis-associated genes was upregulated in the SIRT3-overexpressing gastric tumor cells. Thus, in addition to the well-documented SIRT3-mediated mitochondrial homeostasis in normal cells, SIRT3 may enhance glycolysis and cell proliferation in SIRT3-expressing cancer cells.

McGlynn LM, McCluney S, Jamieson NB, et al.
SIRT3 & SIRT7: Potential Novel Biomarkers for Determining Outcome in Pancreatic Cancer Patients.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0131344 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
PURPOSE: The sirtuin gene family has been linked with tumourigenesis, in both a tumour promoter and suppressor capacity. Information regarding the function of sirtuins in pancreatic cancer is sparse and equivocal. We undertook a novel study investigating SIRT1-7 protein expression in a cohort of pancreatic tumours. The aim of this study was to establish a protein expression profile for SIRT1-7 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) and to determine if there were associations between SIRT1-7 expression, clinico-pathological parameters and patient outcome.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis of SIRT1-7 protein levels was undertaken in a tissue micro-array comprising 77 resected PDACs. Statistical analyses determined if SIRT1-7 protein expression was associated with clinical parameters or outcome.
RESULTS: Two sirtuin family members demonstrated significant associations with clinico-pathological parameters and patient outcome. Low level SIRT3 expression in the tumour cytoplasm correlated with more aggressive tumours, and a shorter time to relapse and death, in the absence of chemotherapeutic intervention. Low levels of nuclear SIRT7 expression were also associated with an aggressive tumour phenotype and poorer outcome, as measured by disease-free and disease-specific survival time, 12 months post-diagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that SIRT3 and SIRT7 possess tumour suppressor properties in the context of pancreatic cancer. SIRT3 may also represent a novel predictive biomarker to determine which patients may or may not respond to chemotherapy. This study opens up an interesting avenue of investigation to potentially identify predictive biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer, a disease that has seen no significant improvement in survival over the past 40 years.

Li Y, Wang W, Xu X, et al.
{2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibited Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth in Bel-7402 Cells and Its Resistant Variants by Activation of NOX4 and SIRT3.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:491205 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
{2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester (MIAM) is a novel indole compound, which possessed high efficacy against many cancers xenografted in mice without obvious toxicity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of MIAM on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Bel-7402 cells and its resistant variants Bel-7402/5FU. MIAM inhibited the growth of HCC more potent in Bel-7402/5FU cells than its parent cells. MIAM increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, induced cell apoptosis, and arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. MIAM might exert its action on Bel-7402/5FU cells through activation of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)/p22(phox), Sirtuin3 (SIRT3)/SOD2, and SIRT3/p53/p21(Waf1/Cip) pathways. MIAM might inhibit HCC growth through the modulation of SIRT3. When SIRT3 was silenced, the inhibitory effect of MIAM on Bel-7402/5FU was lowered, showing the characteristic of resistance against MIAM, whereas Bel-7402/5FU cells with high expression of SIRT3 by SIRT3 adenovirus infection demonstrated the high sensitivity to MIAM. These results suggested that MIAM might exert its action against Bel-7402/5FU growth through upregulation of SIRT3. We suggested that MIAM might be a promising candidate compound which could develop as a potent anticancer agent targeting NOX4 and SIRT3 activation.

Song CL, Tang H, Ran LK, et al.
Sirtuin 3 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth through the glycogen synthase kinase-3β/BCL2-associated X protein-dependent apoptotic pathway.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(5):631-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
SIRT3 is a class III histone deacetylase that has been implicated in a variety of cancers. The role of SIRT3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains elusive. In this study, we found that SIRT3 expression was frequently repressed in HCC and its downregulation was closely associated with tumor grade and size. Ectopic expression of SIRT3 inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in HCC cells, whereas depletion of SIRT3 in immortalized hepatocyte promoted cell growth and decreased epirubicin-induced apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that SIRT3 deacetylated and activated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), which subsequently induced expression and mitochondrial translocation of the pro-apoptotic protein BCL2-associated X protein (Bax) to promote apoptosis. GSK-3β inhibitor or gene silencing of BAX reversed SIRT3-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis. Furthermore, SIRT3 overexpression also suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Together, this study reveals a role of SIRT3/GSK-3β/Bax signaling pathway in the suppression of HCC growth, and also suggests that targeting this pathway may represent a potential therapeutic approach for HCC treatment.

Zhao K, Zhou Y, Qiao C, et al.
Oroxylin A promotes PTEN-mediated negative regulation of MDM2 transcription via SIRT3-mediated deacetylation to stabilize p53 and inhibit glycolysis in wt-p53 cancer cells.
J Hematol Oncol. 2015; 8:41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: p53 plays important roles in regulating the metabolic reprogramming of cancer, such as aerobic glycolysis. Oroxylin A is a natural active flavonoid with strong anticancer effects both in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: wt-p53 (MCF-7 and HCT116 cells) cancer cells and p53-null H1299 cancer cells were used. The glucose uptake and lactate production were analyzed using Lactic Acid production Detection kit and the Amplex Red Glucose Assay Kit. Then, the protein levels and RNA levels of p53, mouse double minute 2 (MDM2), and p53-targeted glycolytic enzymes were quantified using Western blotting and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Immunoprecipitation were performed to assess the binding between p53, MDM2, and sirtuin-3 (SIRT3), and the deacetylation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Reporter assays were performed to assess the transcriptional activity of PTEN. In vivo, effects of oroxylin A was investigated in nude mice xenograft tumor-inoculated MCF-7 or HCT116 cells.
RESULTS: Here, we analyzed the underlying mechanisms that oroxylin A regulated p53 level and glycolytic metabolism in wt-p53 cancer cells, and found that oroxylin A inhibited glycolysis through upregulating p53 level. Oroxylin A did not directly affect the transcription of wt-p53, but suppressed the MDM2-mediated degradation of p53 via downregulating MDM2 transcription in wt-p53 cancer cells. In further studies, we found that oroxylin A induced a reduction in MDM2 transcription by promoting the lipid phosphatase activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog, which was upregulated via sirtuin3-mediated deacetylation. In vivo, oroxylin A inhibited the tumor growth of nude mice-inoculated MCF-7 or HCT116 cells. The expression of MDM2 protein in tumor tissue was downregulated by oroxylin A as well.
CONCLUSIONS: These results provide a p53-independent mechanism of MDM2 transcription and reveal the potential of oroxylin A on glycolytic regulation in both wt-p53 and mut-p53 cancer cells. The studies have important implications for the investigation on anticancer effects of oroxylin A, and provide the academic basis for the clinical trial of oroxylin A in cancer patients.

Wei L, Zhou Y, Qiao C, et al.
Oroxylin A inhibits glycolysis-dependent proliferation of human breast cancer via promoting SIRT3-mediated SOD2 transcription and HIF1α destabilization.
Cell Death Dis. 2015; 6:e1714 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Alterations of cellular metabolism play a central role in the development and progression of cancer. Oroxylin A, an active flavonoid of a Chinese traditional medicinal plant, was previously shown to modulate glycolysis in cancer cells. However, the mechanism by which oroxylin A regulates glycolysis is still not well defined. Here, we show that oroxylin A inhibits glycolysis in breast cancer cells via the Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3)-mediated destabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), which controls glycolytic gene expression. Oroxylin A promotes superoxide dismutase (SOD2) gene expression through SIRT3-regulated DNA-binding activity of FOXO3a and increases the activity of SOD2 by promoting SIRT3-mediated deacetylation. In vivo, oroxylin A inhibits the growth of transplanted human breast tumors associated with glycolytic suppression. These data indicate that oroxylin A inhibits glycolysis-dependent proliferation of breast cancer cells, through the suppression of HIF1α stabilization via SIRT3 activation, providing preclinical information for the cancer therapies of SIRT3 stimulation.

He S, He C, Yuan H, et al.
The SIRT 3 expression profile is associated with pathological and clinical outcomes in human breast cancer patients.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2014; 34(6):2061-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To investigate the association of Sirtuin 3 (SIRT 3) expression between the clinical characteristics and prognosis in breast cancer patients.
METHODS: 308 female patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were enrolled in this study. The SIRT 3 expressions in tumor samples were detected. All the patients were followed up overall survival time (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) time.
RESULTS: SIRT 3 expression was significantly correlated with clinical characteristics including lymph node metastasis, pathological grade and tumor size of breast cancer. SIRT 3 expression status also affected the DFS and OS of breast cancer. Patients with high expression of SIRT 3 had shorter DFS and OS than those with low expression. Univariate and multivariate Cox analyses confirmed that high SIRT 3 expression predicted a poor prognosis in breast cancer patient. In vitro study revealed that the SIRT 3 knockdown by small interfering RNA technique dramatically reduced the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cell lines.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that SIRT 3 may serve as a marker for clinical feature and prognosis for breast cancer.

Li YP, Tian FG, Shi PC, et al.
4-Hydroxynonenal promotes growth and angiogenesis of breast cancer cells through HIF-1α stabilization.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(23):10151-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is a stable end product of lipid peroxidation, which has been shown to play an important role in cell signal transduction, while increasing cell growth and differentiation. 4-HNE could inhibit phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) activity in hepatocytes and increased levels have been found in human invasive breast cancer. Here we report that 4-HNE increased the cell growth of breast cancer cells as revealed by colony formation assay. Moreover, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was elevated, while protein levels of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) were up-regulated. Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3), a major mitochondria NAD+-dependent deacetylase, is reported to destabilize HIF-1α. Here, 4-HNE could inhibit the deacetylase activity of SIRT3 by thiol-specific modification. We further demonstrated that the regulation by 4-HNE of levels of HIF-1α and VEGF depends on SIRT3. Consistent with this, 4-HNE could not increase the cell growth in SIRT3 knockdown breast cancer cells. Additionally, 4-HNE promoted angiogenesis and invasion of breast cancer cells in a SIRT3-dependent manner. In conclusion, we propose that 4-HNE promotes growth, invasion and angiogenesis of breast cancer cells through the SIRT3-HIF-1α-VEGF axis.

Lu CT, Hsu CM, Lin PM, et al.
The potential of SIRT6 and SIRT7 as circulating markers for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(12):7137-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated altered SIRT gene family in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In the present study we aimed to investigate whether the SIRT gene family was also altered in peripheral blood (PB) of patients with HNSCC and the possibility to be used as circulating biomarkers.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression profiles of the 7 SIRT genes of PB leukocytes from 34 patients with HNSCC before and after surgery and 31 healthy individuals were investigated.
RESULTS: In the cancer group, the expression level of SIRT1 was down-regulated (p<0.05); in contrast, SIRT6 and SIRT7 were significantly up-regulated (p<0.001). Patients with advanced-stage HNSCC had lower expression of SIRT1 and SIRT3. Recovery of SIRT6 and SIRT7 was observed in postoperative patients (p<0.005).
CONCLUSION: SIRT genes were altered in PB leukocytes of HNSCC patients and SIRT6 and SIRT7 are potential circulating prognostic markers for HNSCC.

Tao L, Park JY, Lambert JD
Differential prooxidative effects of the green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, in normal and oral cancer cells are related to differences in sirtuin 3 signaling.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015; 59(2):203-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
SCOPE: We have previously reported that the green tea catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), can induce oxidative stress in oral cancer cells but exerts antioxidant effects in normal cells. Here, we report that these differential prooxidative effects are associated with sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), an important mitochondrial redox modulator.
METHODS AND RESULTS: EGCG rapidly induced mitochondria-localized reactive oxygen species in human oral squamous carcinoma cells (SCC-25, SCC-9) and premalignant leukoplakia cells (MSK-Leuk1), but not in normal human gingival fibroblast cells (HGF-1). EGCG suppressed SIRT3 mRNA and protein expression, as well as, SIRT3 activity in SCC-25 cells, whereas it increased SIRT3 activity in HGF-1 cells. EGCG selectively decreased the nuclear localization of the estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), the transcription factor regulating SIRT3 expression, in SCC-25 cells. This indicates that EGCG may regulate SIRT3 transcription in oral cancer cells via ERRα. EGCG also differentially modulated the mRNA expressions of SIRT3-associated downstream targets including glutathione peroxidase 1 and superoxide dismutase 2 in normal and oral cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: SIRT3 represents a novel potential target through which EGCG exerts differential prooxidant effects in cancer and normal cells. Our results provide new biomarkers to be further explored in animal studies.

Kweon KH, Lee CR, Jung SJ, et al.
Sirt1 induction confers resistance to etoposide-induced genotoxic apoptosis in thyroid cancers.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(5):2065-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the favorable therapeutic outcomes reported in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), a significant proportion of DTC patients present with refractory behavior to conventional therapy. The sirtuin (Sirt) family has recently been implicated in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis under genotoxic stress. Here, we investigated the induction of Sirt1 expression by etoposide-induced genotoxic stress to gain insights into thyroid carcinogenesis and identify novel therapeutic targets. Immunohistochemical staining analyses of Sirt1 and Sirt3 were performed using human thyroid cancer tissues and matched normal tissues, and bioinformatic analyses were done using public repositories, including the Human Protein Atlas, BioGPS, NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) profiles, and GeneNetwork. TPC1, FTC133 and FRO cells were used for molecular biological experiments including apoptosis assays, MTT, immunofluorescence staining and qRT-PCR assays. The IHC data and public repositories data consistently showed variable Sirt1 and Sirt3 expression patterns in normal thyroid follicular cells and papillary thyroid cancer cells. The induction of Sirt1 and Sirt3 was cell type-specific and the expression levels of these genes correlated with apoptotic cell death and cell viability after etoposide-induced genotoxic stress. Sirt1‑Foxp3 signaling-mediated regulation of Bax and p21 mRNA expression was a signature molecular event in TPC1 cells, which showed remarkable resistance to etoposide-induced genotoxic stress. The induction of Sirt1 and Sirt3 may be a determinant of thyroid cancer cell survival under genotoxic stress conditions. Further examination of the Sirt1-Foxp3 signal may improve our understanding of thyroid carcinogenesis and help identify new druggable targets.

Liu C, Huang Z, Jiang H, Shi F
The sirtuin 3 expression profile is associated with pathological and clinical outcomes in colon cancer patients.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:871263 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the correlation between Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) expression and the clinical outcome of patients with colon cancer.
METHODS: The tumor specimens from 127 patients with colon cancer were obtained for SIRT3 immunohistochemical staining. Patients were followed up. In in vitro study, SIRT3 gene was inhibited to observe the effects of SIRT3 on the biological behavior of cultured colon cells.
RESULTS: The SIRT3 expression level was found to be significantly associated with the lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001) and tumor stages (P < 0.001). The colon cancer-specific survival was 64.6% among patients with high SIRT3 expressions and 88.6% among patients with low SIRT3 expressions (log-rank P = 0.016). The overall survival was 80.2% among patients with low SIRT3 expressions and 55.9% among patients with high SIRT3 expressions (log-rank P = 0.002). In vitro study showed that silencing of SIRT3 gene inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and cells migration but increased the apoptosis in the cultured colon cell lines.
CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence supporting that SIRT3 is closely associated with the clinical outcomes of colon cancer. SIRT3 may be considered as a marker for colon cancer.

Jeong SM, Lee J, Finley LW, et al.
SIRT3 regulates cellular iron metabolism and cancer growth by repressing iron regulatory protein 1.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(16):2115-24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Iron metabolism is essential for many cellular processes, including oxygen transport, respiration and DNA synthesis, and many cancer cells exhibit dysregulation in iron metabolism. Maintenance of cellular iron homeostasis is regulated by iron regulatory proteins (IRPs), which control the expression of iron-related genes by binding iron-responsive elements (IREs) of target mRNAs. Here, we report that mitochondrial SIRT3 regulates cellular iron metabolism by modulating IRP1 activity. SIRT3 loss increases reactive oxygen species production, leading to elevated IRP1 binding to IREs. As a consequence, IRP1 target genes, such as the transferrin receptor (TfR1), a membrane-associated glycoprotein critical for iron uptake and cell proliferation, are controlled by SIRT3. Importantly, SIRT3 deficiency results in a defect in cellular iron homeostasis. SIRT3 null cells contain high levels of iron and lose iron-dependent TfR1 regulation. Moreover, SIRT3 null mice exhibit higher levels of iron and TfR1 expression in the pancreas. We found that the regulation of iron uptake and TfR1 expression contribute to the tumor-suppressive activity of SIRT3. Indeed, SIRT3 expression is negatively correlated with TfR1 expression in human pancreatic cancers. SIRT3 overexpression decreases TfR1 expression by inhibiting IRP1 and represses proliferation in pancreatic cancer cells. Our data uncover a novel role of SIRT3 in cellular iron metabolism through IRP1 regulation and suggest that SIRT3 functions as a tumor suppressor, in part, by modulating cellular iron metabolism.

Wang JX, Yi Y, Li YW, et al.
Down-regulation of sirtuin 3 is associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma after resection.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:297 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), one of the seven Sirtuins family members, plays critical roles in the progression of multiple cancer types. However, its role in the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not yet been investigated systematically.
METHODS: The correlation of Sirtuins expression with prognosis of HCC was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a large HCC patient cohort (n = 342). Expression of Sirt3 in tumoral and peritumoral tissues of HCC patients were further determined by western blotting (WB).
RESULTS: IHC and WB studies both showed a decreased expression of Sirt3 in tumoral tissues compared with peritumoral tissues (P = 0.003 for IHC, P = 0.0042 for WB). Decreased expression of Sirt3 in both tumoral and peritumoral tissues was associated with increased recurrence probability and decreased overall survival rate by univariate analyses (intratumoral Sirt3: P = 0.011 for TTR, P = 0.001 for OS; peritumoral Sirt3: P = 0.017 for TTR, P = 0.023 for OS), the prognostic value was strengthened by multivariate analyses (intratumoral Sirt3: P = 0.031 for TTR, P = 0.001 for OS; peritumoral Sirt3: P = 0.047 for TTR, P = 0.031 for OS). Intratumoral Sirt3 also showed a favorable prognostic value in patients with BCLC stage A (TTR, P = 0.011; OS, P < 0.001). In addition, we found that IHC studies of other sirtuin members showed a decreased expression of Sirt2, Sirt4 and Sirt5 and an increased expression of Sirt1, Sirt6 and Sirt7 in intratumoral tissues compared with peritumoral tissues. In contrast to Sirt3, other members did not showed a remarkable correlation with HCC prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Down-regulation of intratumoral and peritumoral Sirt3 were both associated with poor outcome in HCC, moreover, intratumoral Sirt3 was a favorable prognostic predictor in early stage patients.

Fan J, Shan C, Kang HB, et al.
Tyr phosphorylation of PDP1 toggles recruitment between ACAT1 and SIRT3 to regulate the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
Mol Cell. 2014; 53(4):534-48 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is crucial for glucose homeostasis in mammalian cells. The current understanding of PDC regulation involves inhibitory serine phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) by PDH kinase (PDK), whereas dephosphorylation of PDH by PDH phosphatase (PDP) activates PDC. Here, we report that lysine acetylation of PDHA1 and PDP1 is common in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated cells and diverse human cancer cells. K321 acetylation inhibits PDHA1 by recruiting PDK1, and K202 acetylation inhibits PDP1 by dissociating its substrate PDHA1, both of which are important in promoting glycolysis in cancer cells and consequent tumor growth. Moreover, we identified mitochondrial ACAT1 and SIRT3 as the upstream acetyltransferase and deacetylase, respectively, of PDHA1 and PDP1, while knockdown of ACAT1 attenuates tumor growth. Furthermore, Y381 phosphorylation of PDP1 dissociates SIRT3 and recruits ACAT1 to PDC. Together, hierarchical, distinct posttranslational modifications act in concert to control molecular composition of PDC and contribute to the Warburg effect.

Papa L, Hahn M, Marsh EL, et al.
SOD2 to SOD1 switch in breast cancer.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(9):5412-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Cancer cells are characterized by elevated levels of reactive oxygen species, which are produced mainly by the mitochondria. The dismutase SOD2 localizes in the matrix and is a major antioxidant. The activity of SOD2 is regulated by the deacetylase SIRT3. Recent studies indicated that SIRT3 is decreased in 87% of breast cancers, implying that the activity of SOD2 is compromised. The resulting elevation in reactive oxygen species was shown to be essential for the metabolic reprograming toward glycolysis. Here, we show that SOD2 itself is down-regulated in breast cancer cell lines. Further, activation of oncogenes, such as Ras, promotes the rapid down-regulation of SOD2. Because in the absence of SOD2, superoxide levels are elevated in the matrix, we reasoned that mechanisms must exist to retain low levels of superoxide in other cellular compartments especially in the intermembrane space of the mitochondrial to avoid irreversible damage. The dismutase SOD1 also acts as an antioxidant, but it localizes to the cytoplasm and the intermembrane space of the mitochondria. We report here that loss of SOD2 correlates with the overexpression of SOD1. Further, we show that mitochondrial SOD1 is the main dismutase activity in breast cancer cells but not in non-transformed cells. In addition, we show that the SOD1 inhibitor LCS-1 leads to a drastic fragmentation and swelling of the matrix, suggesting that in the absence of SOD2, SOD1 is required to maintain the integrity of the organelle. We propose that by analogy to the cadherin switch during epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cancer cells also undergo a SOD switch during transformation.

Hoffmann G, Breitenbücher F, Schuler M, Ehrenhofer-Murray AE
A novel sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) inhibitor with p53-dependent pro-apoptotic activity in non-small cell lung cancer.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(8):5208-16 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is an NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase whose targets include histone H4 lysine 16, p53, and α-tubulin. Because deacetylation of p53 regulates its effect on apoptosis, pharmacological inhibition of SIRT2-dependent p53 deacetylation is of great therapeutic interest for the treatment of cancer. Here, we have identified two structurally related compounds, AEM1 and AEM2, which are selective inhibitors of SIRT2 (IC50 values of 18.5 and 3.8 μM, respectively), but show only weak effects on other sirtuins such as SIRT1, SIRT3, and yeast Sir2. Interestingly, both compounds sensitized non-small cell lung cancer cell lines toward the induction of apoptosis by the DNA-damaging agent etoposide. Importantly, this sensitization was dependent on the presence of functional p53, thus establishing a link between SIRT2 inhibition by these compounds and p53 activation. Further, treatment with AEM1 and AEM2 led to elevated levels of p53 acetylation and to increased expression of CDKN1A, which encodes the cell cycle regulator p21(WAF1), as well as the pro-apoptotic genes PUMA and NOXA, three transcriptional targets of p53. Altogether, our data suggest that inhibition of SIRT2 by these compounds causes increased activation of p53 by decreasing SIRT2-dependent p53 deacetylation. These compounds thus provide a good opportunity for lead optimization and drug development to target p53-proficient cancers.

Chen IC, Chiang WF, Chen PF, Chiang HC
STRESS-responsive deacetylase SIRT3 is up-regulated by areca nut extract-induced oxidative stress in human oral keratinocytes.
J Cell Biochem. 2014; 115(2):328-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
Areca chewing is an important environmental risk factor for development of oral premalignant lesions and cancer. Epidemiological evidence indicates that areca chewing is tightly linked to oral carcinogenesis. However, the pathogenetic impacts of areca nut extract (ANE) on normal human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) are unclear and possibly involve oxidative stress via redox imbalance. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a member of the sirtuin family of proteins that play an important role in regulating cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Recent studies have confirmed that ANE and other areca ingredients can induce ROS. In this study, we examined the role of SIRT3 in the regulation of ANE-induced ROS in HOK cells. We examined HOK cell viability following treatment with various ANE concentrations. ANE-induced cytotoxicity increased in a dose-dependent manner and was approximately 48% at a concentration of 50 μg/ml after 24 h. SIRT3 expression and enzyme activity were up-regulated in HOK cells by ANE-induced oxidative stress. Additionally, we identified that SIRT3 controls the enzymatic activity of mitochondrial proteins, such as forkhead box O3a (Foxo3a) transcription factor and antioxidant-encoding gene superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), by deacetylation in HOK cells. Moreover, SIRT3-mediated deacetylation and activation of Foxo3a promotes nuclear localization in vivo. These findings suggest that SIRT3 is an endogenous negative regulator in response to ANE-induced oxidative stress and demonstrate an essential role for redox balance in HOK cells.

Li H, Feng Z, Wu W, et al.
SIRT3 regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis related to energy metabolism in non-small cell lung cancer cells through deacetylation of NMNAT2.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(5):1420-30 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide and associated with dismal prognoses. As a major mitochondrial deacetylase, SIRT3 regulates the activity of enzymes to coordinate global shifts in cellular metabolism and has important implications for tumor growth. Its role as a tumor suppressor or an oncogene in lung cancer is unclear, especially in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). To identify the mechanism of SIRT3-interacting proteins, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using a human lung cDNA library. One of the positive clones encoded the full-length cDNA of the nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 2 (NMNAT2) gene and the interaction between SIRT3 and NMNAT2 was identified. The interaction on growth, proliferation, apoptosis of NSCLC cell lines, and energy metabolism related to SIRT3 were investigated. Screening from the library resulted in NMNAT2 gene. We found that NMNAT2 interacts with SIRT3 both in vitro and in vivo; SIRT3 binds to NMNAT2 deacetylating it. Downregulation of SIRT3 inhibited acetylation of NMNAT2 and NAD+ synthesis activity of the enzyme. Low expression of SIRT3 significantly inhibited mitotic entry, growth and proliferation of NSCLC cell lines and promoted apoptosis, which was related to energy metabolism involving in the interaction between SIRT3 and NMNAT2. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the binding of SIRT3 with NMNAT2 is a novel regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines, implicating the interaction between SIRT3 and NMNAT2, energy metabolism associated with SIRT3.

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