SPRED1

Gene Summary

Gene:SPRED1; sprouty related EVH1 domain containing 1
Aliases: NFLS, hSpred1, spred-1, PPP1R147
Location:15q14
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Sprouty family of proteins and is phosphorylated by tyrosine kinase in response to several growth factors. The encoded protein can act as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with SPRED2 to regulate activation of the MAP kinase cascade. Defects in this gene are a cause of neurofibromatosis type 1-like syndrome (NFLS). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Neurofibromin 1
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Nucleic Acid Regulatory Sequences
  • Sepsis
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Knockout Mice
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Infant
  • Pedigree
  • Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Missense Mutation
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Cohort Studies
  • ras Proteins
  • Phenotype
  • Adolescents
  • NF1
  • Sulfonamides
  • Neurofibromatosis 1
  • MicroRNAs
  • Ikaros Transcription Factor
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Risk Factors
  • Signal Transduction
  • Genetic Testing
  • Base Sequence
  • Chromosome 15
  • Mutation
  • Cafe-au-Lait Spots
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SPRED1 (cancer-related)

Evans DG, Bowers N, Burkitt-Wright E, et al.
Comprehensive RNA Analysis of the NF1 Gene in Classically Affected NF1 Affected Individuals Meeting NIH Criteria has High Sensitivity and Mutation Negative Testing is Reassuring in Isolated Cases With Pigmentary Features Only.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 7:212-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The detection rate for identifying the underlying mutation in neurocutaneous syndromes is affected by the sensitivity of the mutation test and the heterogeneity of the disease based on the diagnostic criteria. Neurofibromatosis type (NF1) has been defined for 29years by the National Institutes for Health (NIH) criteria which include ≥6 Café au Lait macules (CAL) as a defining criterion. The discovery of SPRED1 as a cause of Legius syndrome which is manifested by CAL, freckling and learning difficulties has introduced substantial heterogeneity to the NIH criteria.
METHODS: We have defined the sensitivity of comprehensive RNA analysis on blood of presumed NF1 patients meeting NIH criteria with at least one nonpigmentary criterion and determined the proportion of children with ≥6 CAL and no family history that has an NF1 or SPRED1 genetic variant. RNA analysis was carried out from 04/2009-12/2015 on 361 NF1 patients.
FINDINGS: A presumed causative NF1 mutation was found in 166/171 (97.08%-95% CI 94.56-99.6%) of familial cases and 182/190 (95.8%-95% CI 92.93-98.65%) sporadic de novo cases. Two of thirteen (15%) mutation negative individuals had dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET) compared to 2/348 (0.6%) with an NF1 variant (p=0.007). No SPRED1 variants were found in the thirteen individuals with no NF1 variant. Of seventy-one individuals with ≥6 CAL and no non-pigmentary criterion aged 0-20years, 47 (66.2%) had an NF1 variant six (8.5%) a SPRED1 variant and 18 (25.3%) no disease causing variant. Using the 95.8% detection rate the likelihood of a child with ≥6 CAL having constitutional NF1 drops from 2/3 to 1/9 after negative RNA analysis.
INTERPRETATION: RNA analysis in individuals with presumed NF1 has high sensitivity and includes a small subset with DNET without an NF1 variant. Furthermore negative analysis for NF1/SPRED1 provides strong reassurance to children with ≥6 CAL that they are unlikely to have NF1.

Hirata Y, Brems H, Suzuki M, et al.
Interaction between a Domain of the Negative Regulator of the Ras-ERK Pathway, SPRED1 Protein, and the GTPase-activating Protein-related Domain of Neurofibromin Is Implicated in Legius Syndrome and Neurofibromatosis Type 1.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(7):3124-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Constitutional heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the SPRED1 gene cause a phenotype known as Legius syndrome, which consists of symptoms of multiple café-au-lait macules, axillary freckling, learning disabilities, and macrocephaly. Legius syndrome resembles a mild neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) phenotype. It has been demonstrated that SPRED1 functions as a negative regulator of the Ras-ERK pathway and interacts with neurofibromin, the NF1 gene product. However, the molecular details of this interaction and the effects of the mutations identified in Legius syndrome and NF1 on this interaction have not yet been investigated. In this study, using a yeast two-hybrid system and an immunoprecipitation assay in HEK293 cells, we found that the SPRED1 EVH1 domain interacts with the N-terminal 16 amino acids and the C-terminal 20 amino acids of the GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-related domain (GRD) of neurofibromin, which form two crossing α-helix coils outside the GAP domain. These regions have been shown to be dispensable for GAP activity and are not present in p120(GAP). Several mutations in these N- and C-terminal regions of the GRD in NF1 patients and pathogenic missense mutations in the EVH1 domain of SPRED1 in Legius syndrome reduced the binding affinity between the EVH1 domain and the GRD. EVH1 domain mutations with reduced binding to the GRD also disrupted the ERK suppression activity of SPRED1. These data clearly demonstrate that SPRED1 inhibits the Ras-ERK pathway by recruiting neurofibromin to Ras through the EVH1-GRD interaction, and this study also provides molecular basis for the pathogenic mutations of NF1 and Legius syndrome.

Ekvall S, Wilbe M, Dahlgren J, et al.
Mutation in NRAS in familial Noonan syndrome--case report and review of the literature.
BMC Med Genet. 2015; 16:95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Noonan syndrome (NS), a heterogeneous developmental disorder associated with variable clinical expression including short stature, congenital heart defect, unusual pectus deformity and typical facial features, is caused by activating mutations in genes involved in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway.
CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present a clinical and molecular characterization of a small family with Noonan syndrome. Comprehensive mutation analysis of NF1, PTPN11, SOS1, CBL, BRAF, RAF1, SHOC2, MAP2K2, MAP2K1, SPRED1, NRAS, HRAS and KRAS was performed using targeted next-generation sequencing. The result revealed a recurrent mutation in NRAS, c.179G > A (p.G60E), in the index patient. This mutation was inherited from the index patient's father, who also showed signs of NS.
CONCLUSIONS: We describe clinical features in this family and review the literature for genotype-phenotype correlations for NS patients with mutations in NRAS. Neither of affected individuals in this family presented with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), which together with previously published results suggest that the risk for NS individuals with a germline NRAS mutation developing JMML is not different from the proportion seen in other NS cases. Interestingly, 50% of NS individuals with an NRAS mutation (including our family) present with lentigines and/or Café-au-lait spots. This demonstrates a predisposition to hyperpigmented lesions in NRAS-positive NS individuals. In addition, the affected father in our family presented with a hearing deficit since birth, which together with lentigines are two characteristics of NS with multiple lentigines (previously LEOPARD syndrome), supporting the difficulties in diagnosing individuals with RASopathies correctly. The clinical and genetic heterogeneity observed in RASopathies is a challenge for genetic testing. However, next-generation sequencing technology, which allows screening of a large number of genes simultaneously, will facilitate an early and accurate diagnosis of patients with RASopathies.

Li Z, Chen P, Su R, et al.
Overexpression and knockout of miR-126 both promote leukemogenesis.
Blood. 2015; 126(17):2005-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It is generally assumed that gain- and loss-of-function manipulations of a functionally important gene should lead to the opposite phenotypes. We show in this study that both overexpression and knockout of microRNA (miR)-126 surprisingly result in enhanced leukemogenesis in cooperation with the t(8;21) fusion genes AML1-ETO/RUNX1-RUNX1T1 and AML1-ETO9a (a potent oncogenic isoform of AML1-ETO). In accordance with our observation that increased expression of miR-126 is associated with unfavorable survival in patients with t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we show that miR-126 overexpression exhibits a stronger effect on long-term survival and progression of AML1-ETO9a-mediated leukemia stem cells/leukemia initiating cells (LSCs/LICs) in mice than does miR-126 knockout. Furthermore, miR-126 knockout substantially enhances responsiveness of leukemia cells to standard chemotherapy. Mechanistically, miR-126 overexpression activates genes that are highly expressed in LSCs/LICs and/or primitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, likely through targeting ERRFI1 and SPRED1, whereas miR-126 knockout activates genes that are highly expressed in committed, more differentiated hematopoietic progenitor cells, presumably through inducing FZD7 expression. Our data demonstrate that miR-126 plays a critical but 2-faceted role in leukemia and thereby uncover a new layer of miRNA regulation in cancer. Moreover, because miR-126 depletion can sensitize AML cells to standard chemotherapy, our data also suggest that miR-126 represents a promising therapeutic target.

Baras AS, Gandhi N, Munari E, et al.
Identification and Validation of Protein Biomarkers of Response to Neoadjuvant Platinum Chemotherapy in Muscle Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0131245 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The 5-year cancer specific survival (CSS) for patients with muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (MIBC) treated with cystectomy alone is approximately 50%. Platinum based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) plus cystectomy results in a marginal 5-10% increase in 5-year CSS in MIBC. Interestingly, responders to NAC (METHODS: mRNA expression data from a prior report on a NAC-treated MIBC cohort were re-analyzed in conjunction with the antibody database of the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) to identify candidate protein based biomarkers detectable by immunohistochemistry (IHC). These candidate biomarkers were subsequently tested in tissue microarrays derived from an independent cohort of NAC naive MIBC biopsy specimens from whom the patients were treated with neoadjuvant gemcitabine cisplatin NAC and subsequent cystectomy. The clinical parameters that have been previously associated with NAC response were also examined in our cohort.
RESULTS: Our analyses of the available mRNA gene expression data in a discovery cohort (n = 33) and the HPA resulted in 8 candidate protein biomarkers. The combination of GDPD3 and SPRED1 resulted in a multivariate classification tree that was significantly associated with NAC response status (Goodman-Kruskal γ = 0.85 p<0.0001) in our independent NAC treated MIBC cohort. This model was independent of the clinical factors of age and clinical tumor stage, which have been previously associated with NAC response by our group. The combination of both these protein biomarkers detected by IHC in biopsy specimens along with the relevant clinical parameters resulted in a prediction model able to significantly stratify the likelihood of NAC resistance in our cohort (n = 37) into two well separated halves: low-26% n = 19 and high-89% n = 18, Fisher's exact p = 0.0002).
CONCLUSION: We illustrate the feasibility of translating a gene expression signature of NAC response from a discovery cohort into immunohistochemical markers readily applicable to MIBC biopsy specimens in our independent cohort. The results from this study are being characterized in additional validation cohorts. Additionally, we anticipate that emerging somatic mutations in MIBC will also be important for NAC response prediction. The relationship of the findings in this study to the current understanding of variant histologic subtypes of MIBC along with the evolving molecular subtypes of MIBC as it relates to NAC response remains to be fully characterized.

Assinder SJ, Beniamen D, Lovicu FJ
Cosuppression of Sprouty and Sprouty-related negative regulators of FGF signalling in prostate cancer: a working hypothesis.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:827462 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deregulation of FGF receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling is common in prostate cancer. Normally, to moderate RTK signalling, induction of Sprouty (SPRY) and Sprouty-related (SPRED) antagonists occurs. Whilst decreased SPRY and SPRED has been described in some cancers, their role in prostate cancer is poorly understood. Therefore, we hypothesise that due to the need for tight regulation of RTK signalling, SPRY and SPRED negative regulators provide a degree of redundancy which ensures that a suppression of one or more family member does not lead to disease. Contrary to this, our analyses of prostates from 24-week-old Spry1- or Spry2-deficientmice, either hemizygous (+/-) or homozygous (-/-) for the null allele, revealed a significantly greater incidence of PIN compared to wild-type littermates. We further investigated redundancy of negative regulators in the clinical setting in a preliminary analysis of Gene Expression Omnibus and Oncomine human prostate cancer datasets. Consistent with our hypothesis, in two datasets analysed a significant cosuppression of SPRYs and SPREDs is evident. These findings demonstrate the importance of negative regulators of receptor tyrosine signalling, such as Spry, in the clinical setting, and highlight their importance for future pharmacopeia.

Gleize V, Alentorn A, Connen de Kérillis L, et al.
CIC inactivating mutations identify aggressive subset of 1p19q codeleted gliomas.
Ann Neurol. 2015; 78(3):355-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: CIC gene is frequently mutated in oligodendroglial tumors with 1p19q codeletion. However, clinical and biological impact remain poorly understood.
METHODS: We sequenced the CIC gene on 127 oligodendroglial tumors (109 with the 1p19q codeletion) and analyzed patients' outcome. We compared magnetic resonance imaging, transcriptomic profile, and CIC protein expression of CIC wild-type (WT) and mutant gliomas. We compared the level of expression of CIC target genes on Hs683-IDH1(R132H) cells transfected with lentivirus encoding mutant and WT CIC.
RESULTS: We found 63 mutations affecting 60 of 127 patients, virtually all 1p19q codeleted and IDH mutated (59 of 60). In the 1p19q codeleted gliomas, CIC mutations were associated with a poorer outcome by uni- (p = 0.001) and multivariate analysis (p < 0.016). CIC mutation prognostic impact was validated on the TCGA cohort. CIC mutant grade II codeleted gliomas spontaneously grew faster than WTs. Transcriptomic analysis revealed an enrichment of proliferative pathways and oligodendrocyte precursor cell gene expression profile in CIC mutant gliomas, with upregulation of normally CIC repressed genes ETV1, ETV4, ETV5, and CCND1. Various missense mutations resulted in CIC protein expression loss. Moreover, a truncating CIC mutation resulted in a defect of nuclear targeting of CIC protein to the nucleus in a human glioma cell line expressing IDH1(R132H) and overexpression of CCND1 and other new target genes of CIC, such as DUSP4 and SPRED1.
INTERPRETATION: CIC mutations result in protein inactivation with upregulation of CIC target genes, activation of proliferative pathways, inhibition of differentiation, and poorer outcome in patients with a 1p19q codeleted glioma.

Delire B, Stärkel P
The Ras/MAPK pathway and hepatocarcinoma: pathogenesis and therapeutic implications.
Eur J Clin Invest. 2015; 45(6):609-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still a major health problem, often diagnosed at an advanced stage. The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is to date the sole approved systemic therapy. Several signalling pathways are implicated in tumour development and progression. Among these pathways, the Ras/MAPK pathway is activated in 50-100% of human HCCs and is correlated with a poor prognosis. The aim of this work was to review the main intracellular mechanisms leading to aberrant Ras pathway activation in HCC and the potential therapeutic implications.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review is based on the material found on PubMed up to December 2014. 'Ras signaling, Ras dysregulation, Ras inhibition, MAPK pathway, cancer, hepatocarcinoma and liver cancer' alone or in combination were the main terms used for online research.
RESULTS: Multiple mechanisms lead to the deregulation of the Ras pathway in liver cancer. Ras and Raf gene mutations are rare events in human hepatocarcinogenesis in contrast to experimental models in rodents. Downregulation of several Ras/MAPK pathway inhibitors such as GAPs, RASSF proteins, DUSP1, Sprouty and Spred proteins is largely implicated in the aberrant activation of this pathway in the context of wild-type Ras and Raf genes. Epigenetic or post-transcriptional mechanisms lead to the downregulation of these tumour suppressor genes.
CONCLUSION: Ras/MAPK pathway effectors may be considered as potential therapeutic targets in the field of HCC. In particular after the arrival of sorafenib, more Ras/MAPK inhibitors have emerged and are still in preclinical or clinical investigation for HCC therapy.

Olsson L, Albitar F, Castor A, et al.
Cooperative genetic changes in pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia with deletions or mutations of IKZF1.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(5):315-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
In contrast to IKZF1 deletions (ΔIKZF1), IKZF1 sequence mutations (mutIKZF1) have been reported to be rare in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and their clinical implications are unknown. We performed targeted deep sequencing of all exons of IKZF1 in 140 pediatric cases, eight (5.7%) of which harbored a mutIKZF1. The probabilities of relapse (pRel) and event-free survival (pEFS) did not differ between cases with or without mutIKZF1, whereas pEFS was decreased and pRel increased in ΔIKZF1-positive case. Coexisting microdeletions, mutations (FLT3, JAK2, SH2B3, and SPRED1), and rearrangements (ABL1, CRLF2, JAK2, and PDGFRB) in 35 ΔIKZF1 and/or mutIKZF1-positive cases were ascertained using fluorescence in situ hybridization, single nucleotide polymorphism array, Sanger, and targeted deep sequencing analyses. The overall frequencies of copy number alterations did not differ between cases with our without ΔIKZF1/mutIKZF1. Deletions of HIST1, SH2B3, and the pseudoautosomal region (PAR1), associated with deregulation of CRLF2, were more common in ΔIKZF1-positive cases, whereas PAR1 deletions and JAK2 mutations were overrepresented in the combined ΔIKZF1/mutIKZF1 group. There was no significant impact on pRel of the deletions in ΔIKZF1-positive cases or of JAK2 mutations in cases with ΔIKZF1/mutIKZF1. In contrast, the pRel was higher (P = 0.005) in ΔIKZF1/mutIKZF1-positive cases with PAR1 deletions.

Sharma SB, Lin CC, Farrugia MK, et al.
MicroRNAs 206 and 21 cooperate to promote RAS-extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling by suppressing the translation of RASA1 and SPRED1.
Mol Cell Biol. 2014; 34(22):4143-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite the low prevalence of activating point mutation of RAS or RAF genes, the RAS-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is implicated in breast cancer pathogenesis. Indeed, in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), there is recurrent genetic alteration of pathway components. Using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) methods, we observed that the zinc finger transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) can promote RAS-ERK signaling in TNBC cells. Endogenous KLF4 bound to the promoter regions and promoted the expression of two microRNAs (miRs), miR-206 and miR-21 (i.e., miR-206/21). Antisense-mediated knockdown (anti-miR) revealed that miR-206/21 coordinately promote RAS-ERK signaling and the corresponding cell phenotypes by inhibiting translation of the pathway suppressors RASA1 and SPRED1. In TNBC cells, including cells with mutation of RAS, the suppression of either RASA1 or SPRED1 increased the levels of GTP-bound, wild-type RAS and activated ERK 1/2. Unlike the control cells, treatment of RASA1- or SPRED1-suppressed cells with anti-miR-206/21 had little or no impact on the level of activated ERK 1/2 or on cell proliferation and failed to suppress tumor initiation. These results identify RASA1 and SPRED1 mRNAs as latent RAS-ERK pathway suppressors that can be upregulated in tumor cells by anti-miR treatment. Consequently, KLF4-regulated miRs are important for the maintenance of RAS-ERK pathway activity in TNBC cells.

Pasmant E, Parfait B, Luscan A, et al.
Neurofibromatosis type 1 molecular diagnosis: what can NGS do for you when you have a large gene with loss of function mutations?
Eur J Hum Genet. 2015; 23(5):596-601 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Molecular diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is challenging owing to the large size of the tumour suppressor gene NF1, and the lack of mutation hotspots. A somatic alteration of the wild-type NF1 allele is observed in NF1-associated tumours. Genetic heterogeneity in NF1 was confirmed in patients with SPRED1 mutations. Here, we present a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of NF1 and SPRED1 using a multiplex PCR approach (230 amplicons of ∼150 bp) on a PGM sequencer. The chip capacity allowed mixing 48 bar-coded samples in a 4-day workflow. We validated the NGS approach by retrospectively testing 30 NF1-mutated samples, and then prospectively analysed 279 patients in routine diagnosis. On average, 98.5% of all targeted bases were covered by at least 20X and 96% by at least 100X. An NF1 or SPRED1 alteration was found in 246/279 (88%) and 10/279 (4%) patients, respectively. Genotyping throughput was increased over 10 times, as compared with Sanger, with ∼90[euro ] for consumables per sample. Interestingly, our targeted NGS approach also provided quantitative information based on sequencing depth allowing identification of multiexons deletion or duplication. We then addressed the NF1 somatic mutation detection sensitivity in mosaic NF1 patients and tumours.

Haydn JM, Hufnagel A, Grimm J, et al.
The MAPK pathway as an apoptosis enhancer in melanoma.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(13):5040-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inhibition of RAF/MEK/ERK signaling is beneficial for many patients with BRAF(V600E)-mutated melanoma. However, primary and secondary resistances restrict long-lasting therapy success. Combination therapies are therefore urgently needed. Here, we evaluate the cellular effect of combining a MEK inhibitor with a genotoxic apoptosis inducer. Strikingly, we observed that an activated MAPK pathway promotes in several melanoma cell lines the pro-apoptotic response to genotoxic stress, and MEK inhibition reduces intrinsic apoptosis. This goes along with MEK inhibitor induced increased RAS and P-AKT levels. The protective effect of the MEK inhibitor depends on PI3K signaling, which prevents the induction of pro-apoptotic PUMA that mediates apoptosis after DNA damage. We could show that the MEK inhibitor dependent feedback loop is enabled by several factors, including EGF receptor and members of the SPRED family. The simultaneous knockdown of SPRED1 and SPRED2 mimicked the effects of MEK inhibitor such as PUMA repression and protection from apoptosis. Our data demonstrate that MEK inhibition of BRAF(V600E)-positive melanoma cells can protect from genotoxic stress, thereby achieving the opposite of the intended anti-tumorigenic effect of the combination of MEK inhibitor with inducers of intrinsic apoptosis.

Pasmant E, Gilbert-Dussardier B, Petit A, et al.
SPRED1, a RAS MAPK pathway inhibitor that causes Legius syndrome, is a tumour suppressor downregulated in paediatric acute myeloblastic leukaemia.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(5):631-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Constitutional dominant loss-of-function mutations in the SPRED1 gene cause a rare phenotype referred as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-like syndrome or Legius syndrome, consisted of multiple café-au-lait macules, axillary freckling, learning disabilities and macrocephaly. SPRED1 is a negative regulator of the RAS MAPK pathway and can interact with neurofibromin, the NF1 gene product. Individuals with NF1 have a higher risk of haematological malignancies. SPRED1 is highly expressed in haematopoietic cells and negatively regulates haematopoiesis. SPRED1 seemed to be a good candidate for leukaemia predisposition or transformation. We performed SPRED1 mutation screening and expression status in 230 paediatric lymphoblastic and acute myeloblastic leukaemias (AMLs). We found a loss-of-function frameshift SPRED1 mutation in a patient with Legius syndrome. In this patient, the leukaemia blasts karyotype showed a SPRED1 loss of heterozygosity, confirming SPRED1 as a tumour suppressor. Our observation confirmed that acute leukaemias are rare complications of the Legius syndrome. Moreover, SPRED1 was significantly decreased at RNA and protein levels in the majority of AMLs at diagnosis compared with normal or paired complete remission bone marrows. SPRED1 decreased expression correlated with genetic features of AML. Our study reveals a new mechanism which contributes to deregulate RAS MAPK pathway in the vast majority of paediatric AMLs.

Ekvall S, Sjörs K, Jonzon A, et al.
Novel association of neurofibromatosis type 1-causing mutations in families with neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome.
Am J Med Genet A. 2014; 164A(3):579-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome (NFNS) is a rare condition with clinical features of both neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and Noonan syndrome (NS). All three syndromes belong to the RASopathies, which are caused by dysregulation of the RAS-MAPK pathway. The major gene involved in NFNS is NF1, but co-occurring NF1 and PTPN11 mutations in NFNS have been reported. Knowledge about possible involvement of additional RASopathy-associated genes in NFNS is, however, very limited. We present a comprehensive clinical and molecular analysis of eight affected individuals from three unrelated families displaying features of NF1 and NFNS. The genetic etiology of the clinical phenotypes was investigated by mutation analysis, including NF1, PTPN11, SOS1, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, RAF1, SHOC2, SPRED1, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, and CBL. All three families harbored a heterozygous NF1 variant, where the first family had a missense variant, c.5425C>T;p.R1809C, the second family a recurrent 4bp-deletion, c.6789_6792delTTAC;p.Y2264Tfs*6, and the third family a splice-site variant, c.2991-1G>A, resulting in skipping of exon 18 and an in-frame deletion of 41 amino acids. These NF1 variants have all previously been reported in NF1 patients. Surprisingly, both c.6789_6792delTTAC and c.2991-1G>A are frequently associated with NF1, but association to NFNS has, to our knowledge, not previously been reported. Our results support the notion that NFNS represents a variant of NF1, genetically distinct from NS, and is caused by mutations in NF1, some of which also cause classical NF1. Due to phenotypic overlap between NFNS and NS, we propose screening for NF1 mutations in NS patients, preferentially when café-au-lait spots are present.

Brems H, Legius E
Legius syndrome, an Update. Molecular pathology of mutations in SPRED1.
Keio J Med. 2013; 62(4):107-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple café-au-lait macules (CALMs) are the hallmark of Von Recklinghausen disease, or neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). In 2007 we reported that some individuals with multiple CALMs have a heterozygous mutation in the SPRED1 gene and have NF1-like syndrome, or Legius syndrome. Individuals with Legius syndrome have multiple CALMs with or without freckling, but they do not show the typical NF1-associated tumors such as neurofibromas or optic pathway gliomas. NF1-associated bone abnormalities and Lisch nodules are also not reported in patients with Legius syndrome. Consequently, individuals with Legius syndrome require less intense medical surveillance than those with NF1. The SPRED1 gene was identified in 2001 and codes for a protein that downregulates the RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (RAS-MAPK) pathway; as does neurofibromin, the protein encoded by the NF1 gene. It is estimated that about 1-4% of individuals with multiple CALMs have a heterozygous SPRED1 mutation. Mutational and clinical data on 209 patients with Legius syndrome are tabulated in an online database (http://www.lovd.nl/SPRED1). Mice with homozygous knockout of the Spred1 gene show learning deficits and decreased synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons similar to those seen in Nf1 heterozygous mice, underlining the importance of the RAS-MAPK pathway for learning and memory. Recently, specific binding between neurofibromin and SPRED1 was demonstrated. SPRED1 seems to play an important role in recruiting neurofibromin to the plasma membrane.

Hamby SE, Reviriego P, Cooper DN, et al.
Screening in silico predicted remotely acting NF1 gene regulatory elements for mutations in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1.
Hum Genomics. 2013; 7:18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a neuroectodermal disorder, is caused by germline mutations in the NF1 gene. NF1 affects approximately 1/3,000 individuals worldwide, with about 50% of cases representing de novo mutations. Although the NF1 gene was identified in 1990, the underlying gene mutations still remain undetected in a small but obdurate minority of NF1 patients. We postulated that in these patients, hitherto undetected pathogenic mutations might occur in regulatory elements far upstream of the NF1 gene. In an attempt to identify such remotely acting regulatory elements, we reasoned that some of them might reside within DNA sequences that (1) have the potential to interact at distance with the NF1 gene and (2) lie within a histone H3K27ac-enriched region, a characteristic of active enhancers. Combining Hi-C data, obtained by means of the chromosome conformation capture technique, with data on the location and level of histone H3K27ac enrichment upstream of the NF1 gene, we predicted in silico the presence of two remotely acting regulatory regions, located, respectively, approximately 600 kb and approximately 42 kb upstream of the NF1 gene. These regions were then sequenced in 47 NF1 patients in whom no mutations had been found in either the NF1 or SPRED1 gene regions. Five patients were found to harbour DNA sequence variants in the distal H3K27ac-enriched region. Although these variants are of uncertain pathological significance and still remain to be functionally characterized, this approach promises to be of general utility for the detection of mutations underlying other inherited disorders that may be caused by mutations in remotely acting regulatory elements.

Olsson L, Castor A, Behrendtz M, et al.
Deletions of IKZF1 and SPRED1 are associated with poor prognosis in a population-based series of pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia diagnosed between 1992 and 2011.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(2):302-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the favorable prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a substantial subset of patients relapses. As this occurs not only in the high risk but also in the standard/intermediate groups, the presently used risk stratification is suboptimal. The underlying mechanisms for treatment failure include the presence of genetic changes causing insensitivity to the therapy administered. To identify relapse-associated aberrations, we performed single-nucleotide polymorphism array analyses of 307 uniformly treated, consecutive pediatric ALL cases accrued during 1992-2011. Recurrent aberrations of 14 genes in patients who subsequently relapsed or had induction failure were detected. Of these, deletions/uniparental isodisomies of ADD3, ATP10A, EBF1, IKZF1, PAN3, RAG1, SPRED1 and TBL1XR1 were significantly more common in B-cell precursor ALL patients who relapsed compared with those remaining in complete remission. In univariate analyses, age (≥10 years), white blood cell counts (>100 × 10(9)/l), t(9;22)(q34;q11), MLL rearrangements, near-haploidy and deletions of ATP10A, IKZF1, SPRED1 and the pseudoautosomal 1 regions on Xp/Yp were significantly associated with decreased 10-year event-free survival, with IKZF1 abnormalities being an independent risk factor in multivariate analysis irrespective of the risk group. Older age and deletions of IKZF1 and SPRED1 were also associated with poor overall survival. Thus, analyses of these genes provide clinically important information.

Kachroo N, Valencia T, Warren AY, Gnanapragasam VJ
Evidence for downregulation of the negative regulator SPRED2 in clinical prostate cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 108(3):597-601 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: SPRED1 and 2 are key negative regulators of MAPK signalling in mammalian cells. Here, we investigate the expression and functional role of SPREDs in prostate cancer.
METHODS: A transcriptome bank of microdissected grade-specific primary cancers was constructed and interrogated for transcript expression of prostate cancer genes, known negative signalling regulators as well as SPRED1 and 2. The effect of SPRED2 manipulation was tested in in vitro assays.
RESULTS: In a panel of 5 benign glands and 15 tumours, we observed concomitant downregulation of the negative regulators SEF and DUSP1 in tumours with increasing Gleason grade. Profiling in the same cohorts revealed downregulation of SPRED2 mRNA in tumours compared with benign glands (P<0.05). By contrast, SPRED1 expression remained unchanged. This observation was further validated in two additional separate cohorts of microdissected tumours (total of n=10 benign and n=58 tumours) with specific downregulation of SPRED2 particularly in higher grade tumours. In functional assays, SPRED2 overexpression reduced ERK phosphorylation and inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation and migration in response to different growth factors and full-media stimulation (P<0.001). Conversely, SPRED2 suppression by siRNA enhanced the mitogenic response to growth factors and full media (P<0.001).
CONCLUSION: These data suggest first evidence that SPRED2 is downregulated in prostate cancer and warrants further investigation as a potential tumour-suppressor gene.

McClatchey AI, Cichowski K
SPRED proteins provide a NF-ty link to Ras suppression.
Genes Dev. 2012; 26(14):1515-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutations in the SPRED1 (Sprouty-related protein with an EVH [Ena/Vasp homology] domain 1) and NF1 (neurofibromatosis 1) genes underlie clinically related human disorders. The NF1-encoded protein neurofibromin is a Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and can directly limit Ras activity. Spred proteins also negatively regulate Ras signaling, but the mechanism by which they do so is not clear. In the July 1, 2012, issue of Genes & Development, Stowe and colleagues (pp. 1421-1426) present evidence that Spred1 recruits neurofibromin to the membrane, where it dampens growth factor-induced Ras activity, providing a satisfying explanation for the overlapping features of two human diseases.

Stowe IB, Mercado EL, Stowe TR, et al.
A shared molecular mechanism underlies the human rasopathies Legius syndrome and Neurofibromatosis-1.
Genes Dev. 2012; 26(13):1421-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays a critical role in transducing mitogenic signals from receptor tyrosine kinases. Loss-of-function mutations in one feedback regulator of Ras/MAPK signaling, SPRED1 (Sprouty-related protein with an EVH1 domain), cause Legius syndrome, an autosomal dominant human disorder that resembles Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1). Spred1 functions as a negative regulator of the Ras/MAPK pathway; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that neurofibromin, the NF1 gene product, is a Spred1-interacting protein that is necessary for Spred1's inhibitory function. We show that Spred1 binding induces the plasma membrane localization of NF1, which subsequently down-regulates Ras-GTP levels. This novel mechanism for the regulation of neurofibromin provides a molecular bridge for understanding the overlapping pathophysiology of NF1 and Legius syndrome.

Stevens CA, Chiang PW, Messiaen LM
Café-au-lait macules and intertriginous freckling in piebaldism: clinical overlap with neurofibromatosis type 1 and Legius syndrome.
Am J Med Genet A. 2012; 158A(5):1195-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Piebaldism is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital hypopigmented patches of skin and hair and has been found to be associated with mutations in the KIT or SLUG genes. Café-au-lait macules (CALM) may occasionally be seen in piebaldism. There are four reports describing six patients who were said to have both piebaldism and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) due to the presence of multiple CALM and intertriginous freckling, but none of these patients had undergone comprehensive NF1 mutation analysis. We describe a large family with piebaldism in which two members meet diagnostic criteria for NF1 based on the presence of >5 CALM and intertriginous freckling. Interestingly, only these two family members are of mixed race, which could be of importance. A novel complex mutation in the KIT gene was identified in several family members affected with piebaldism; the proband meeting diagnostic criteria for NF1 also underwent comprehensive NF1 and SPRED1 testing with no mutations detected. These findings suggest that piebaldism may occasionally include CALM and intertriginous freckling, which may create diagnostic confusion especially in the absence of a family history of piebaldism. However, careful clinical evaluation and molecular testing if necessary should distinguish these two disorders.

Lee CH, Spence RA, Upadhyaya M, Morrison PJ
Familial multiple lipomatosis with clear autosomal dominant inheritance and onset in early adolescence.
BMJ Case Rep. 2011; 2011 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Familial multiple lipomatosis is rare. Several modes of inheritance have been proposed but no conclusive evidence shown, although some families have suggested autosomal dominant inheritance. The authors describe a family with multiple lipomatosis showing clear autosomal dominant inheritance, and no mutations within the NF1, SPRED1 or Cowden disease (PTEN) genes. Familial autosomal dominant lipomatosis is a rare but distinct entity.

Muram-Zborovski TM, Vaughn CP, Viskochil DH, et al.
NF1 exon 22 analysis of individuals with the clinical diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1.
Am J Med Genet A. 2010; 152A(8):1973-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Café-au-lait macules are frequently seen in Ras-MAPK pathway disorders and are a cardinal feature of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Most NF1 individuals develop age-related tumorigenic manifestations (e.g., neurofibromas), although individuals with a specific 3-bp deletion in exon 22 of NF1 (c.2970_2972delAAT) have an attenuated phenotype with primarily pigmentary manifestations. Previous reports identify this deletion c.2970_2972delAAT in exon 17 of NF1 using NF Consortium nomenclature. For this report, we elected to use standard NCBI nomenclature, which places this identical deletion within exon 22. SPRED1 mutations cause Legius syndrome, which clinically overlaps with this attenuated NF1 phenotype. In an unselected cohort of 50 individuals who fulfilled NIH clinical diagnostic criteria from an NF Clinic and did not have SPRED1 mutations, we sequenced NF1 exon 22 in order to identify children and adolescents with multiple café-au-lait spots who could be projected to have lower likelihood to develop tumors. Two individuals with NF1 exon 22 mutations were identified: an 11-year-old boy with the c.2970_2972delAAT in-frame deletion and a 4-year-old boy with c.2866dupA. The father of the second patient had an attenuated form of NF1 and showed 24% germline mosaicism of the c.2866dupA mutation in whole blood. These individuals emphasize the need for mutation analysis in some individuals with the clinical diagnosis of NF1 who lack the tumorigenic or classic skeletal abnormalities of NF1. Specifically, with the identification of Legius syndrome, the need to recognize the attenuated phenotype of NF1 mosaicism and confirmation by mutation analysis is increasingly important for appropriate medical management and family counseling.

Lane KA, Anninger WV, Katowitz JA
Expanding the phenotype of a neurofibromatosis type 1-like syndrome: a patient with a SPRED1 mutation and orbital manifestations.
Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009 Sep-Oct; 25(5):399-401 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 4-year-old child with no medical history presented for evaluation of a small, palpable nodule near the left inferolateral rim. The lesion had a bluish hue and had been slowly enlarging over the course of several months. MRI of the orbits revealed a heterogenous and infiltrative preseptal and extraconal mass which enhanced with gadolinium, and sphenoid wing dysplasia on the left. A complete ophthalmic and physical examination failed to reveal any other stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) or neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). An incisional biopsy of the palpable mass revealed a plexiform neurofibroma. Molecular sequencing of the NF1 and NF2 genes did not reveal causative mutations. Further investigation revealed a loss of function mutation in SPRED1 on chromosome 15. Although loss of function mutations in the SPRED1 gene are known to cause several dermatologic changes associated with the NF1-like phenotype, to our knowledge, this is the first description of a SPRED1 gene mutation resulting in ophthalmic abnormalities.

Messiaen L, Yao S, Brems H, et al.
Clinical and mutational spectrum of neurofibromatosis type 1-like syndrome.
JAMA. 2009; 302(19):2111-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Autosomal dominant inactivating sprouty-related EVH1 domain-containing protein 1 (SPRED1) mutations have recently been described in individuals presenting mainly with café au lait macules (CALMs), axillary freckling, and macrocephaly. The extent of the clinical spectrum of this new disorder needs further delineation.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency, mutational spectrum, and phenotype of neurofibromatosis type 1-like syndrome (NFLS) in a large cohort of patients.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In a cross-sectional study, 23 unrelated probands carrying a SPRED1 mutation identified through clinical testing participated with their families in a genotype-phenotype study (2007-2008). In a second cross-sectional study, 1318 unrelated anonymous samples collected in 2003-2007 from patients with a broad range of signs typically found in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) but no detectable NF1 germline mutation underwent SPRED1 mutation analysis.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of aggregated clinical features in patients with or without a SPRED1 or NF1 mutation. Functional assays were used to evaluate the pathogenicity of missense mutations.
RESULTS: Among 42 SPRED1-positive individuals from the clinical cohort, 20 (48%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32%-64%) fulfilled National Institutes of Health (NIH) NF1 diagnostic criteria based on the presence of more than 5 CALMs with or without freckling or an NF1-compatible family history. None of the 42 SPRED1-positive individuals (0%; 95% CI, 0%-7%) had discrete cutaneous or plexiform neurofibromas, typical NF1 osseous lesions, or symptomatic optic pathway gliomas. In the anonymous cohort of 1318 individuals, 34 different SPRED1 mutations in 43 probands were identified: 27 pathogenic mutations in 34 probands and 7 probable nonpathogenic missense mutations in 9 probands. Of 94 probands with familial CALMs with or without freckling and no other NF1 features, 69 (73%; 95% CI, 63%-80%) had an NF1 mutation and 18 (19%; 95% CI, 12%-29%) had a pathogenic SPRED1 mutation. In the anonymous cohort, 1.9% (95% CI, 1.2%-2.9%) of individuals with the clinical diagnosis of NF1 according to the NIH criteria had NFLS.
CONCLUSIONS: A high SPRED1 mutation detection rate was found in NF1 mutation-negative families with an autosomal dominant phenotype of CALMs with or without freckling and no other NF1 features. Among individuals in this study, NFLS was not associated with the peripheral and central nervous system tumors seen in NF1.

Spurlock G, Bennett E, Chuzhanova N, et al.
SPRED1 mutations (Legius syndrome): another clinically useful genotype for dissecting the neurofibromatosis type 1 phenotype.
J Med Genet. 2009; 46(7):431-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Mutations of the SPRED1 gene, one of a family of Sprouty (Spry)/Spred proteins known to "downregulate" mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling, have been identified in patients with a mild neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) phenotype with pigmentary changes but no neurofibromas (Legius syndrome).To ascertain the frequency of SPRED1 mutations as a cause of this phenotype and to investigate whether other SPRED/SPRY genes may be causal, a panel of unrelated mild NF1 patients were screened for mutations of the SPRED1-3 and the SPRY1-4 genes.
METHODS: 85 patients with a mild NF1 phenotype were screened for SPRED1 mutations. 44 patients negative for both NF1 and SPRED1 mutations were then screened for SPRED2-3 and SPRY1-4 mutations. Complexity analysis was applied to analyse the flanking sequences surrounding the identified SPRED1 mutations for the presence of direct and inverted repeats or symmetric sequence elements in order to infer probable mutational mechanism.
RESULTS: SPRED1 mutations were identified in 6 cases; 5 were novel and included 3 nonsense (R16X, E73X, R262X), 2 frameshift (c.1048_c1049 delGG, c.149_1152del 4 bp), and a single missense mutation (V44D). Short direct or inverted repeats detected immediately adjacent to some SPRED1 mutations may have led to the formation of the microdeletions and base pair substitutions.
DISCUSSION: The identification of SPRED1 gene mutation in NF1-like patients has major implications for counselling NF1 families.

Pasmant E, Sabbagh A, Hanna N, et al.
SPRED1 germline mutations caused a neurofibromatosis type 1 overlapping phenotype.
J Med Genet. 2009; 46(7):425-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Germline loss-of-function mutations in the SPRED1 gene have recently been identified in patients fulfilling the National Institutes of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) but with no NF1 (neurofibromin 1) mutation found, suggesting a neurofibromatosis type 1-like syndrome.
METHODS: 61 index cases with NF1 clinical diagnosis but no identifiable NF1 mutation were screened for SPRED1 mutation.
RESULTS: We describe one known SPRED1 mutation (c.190C>T leading to p.Arg64Stop) and four novel mutations (c.637C>T leading to p.Gln213Stop, c.2T>C leading to p.Met1Thr, c.46C>T leading to p.Arg16Stop, and c.1048_1060del leading to p.Gly350fs) in five French families. Their NF1-like phenotype was characterised by a high prevalence of café-au-lait spots, freckling, learning disability, and an absence of neurofibromas and Lisch nodules in agreement with the original description. However, we did not observe Noonan-like dysmorphy. It is noteworthy that one patient with the p.Arg16Stop mutation developed a monoblastic acute leukaemia.
CONCLUSIONS: In our series, SPRED1 mutations occurred with a prevalence of 0.5% in NF1 patients and in 5% of NF1 patients displaying an NF1-like phenotype. SPRED1 mutated patients did not display any specific dermatologic features that were not present in NF1 patients, except for the absence of neurofibromas that seem to be a specific clinical feature of NF1. The exact phenotypic spectrum and the putative complications of this NF1 overlapping syndrome, in particular haematological malignancies, remain to be further characterised. NIH diagnostic criteria for NF1 must be revised in view of this newly characterised Legius syndrome in order to establish a specific genetic counselling.

Soltani-Arabshahi R, Leboeuf C, Rivet J, et al.
Bcl-xL gene expression correlated with lower apoptotic cell numbers and shorter progression-free survival in PCFCL.
J Invest Dermatol. 2009; 129(7):1703-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The expression of bcl-x(L), an antiapoptotic member of the bcl-2 family, has been correlated with poor prognosis in nodal follicular lymphomas (NFLs). So far, it has not been studied in primary cutaneous follicle center lymphomas (PCFCLs), which, compared with NFLs, express less frequently t(14;18)(q32;q21) and bcl-2. Using real-time PCR we measured bcl-xL and bcl-2 gene expression levels in laser-microdissected lymphoma cells of 20 PCFCL frozen sections. Numbers of apoptotic cells labeled by TUNEL assay were negatively correlated with bcl-xL expression levels (r=-0.840, P<0.005). Bcl-xL expression was significantly higher in biopsies of patients who developed relapse or disease progression later compared with patients who did not (P=0.022), and higher levels of bcl-xL gene expression were significantly correlated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (P=0.017). None of these features was correlated with bcl-2 gene expression levels. Our findings indicate that bcl-xL overexpression is inversely correlated with PFS in PCFCL. Moreover, the inverse correlation between bcl-xL expression levels and apoptotic cell numbers suggests that bcl-xL, through its antiapoptotic effect, might contribute to tumor cell survival in PCFCL.

Brems H, Chmara M, Sahbatou M, et al.
Germline loss-of-function mutations in SPRED1 cause a neurofibromatosis 1-like phenotype.
Nat Genet. 2007; 39(9):1120-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report germline loss-of-function mutations in SPRED1 in a newly identified autosomal dominant human disorder. SPRED1 is a member of the SPROUTY/SPRED family of proteins that act as negative regulators of RAS->RAF interaction and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. The clinical features of the reported disorder resemble those of neurofibromatosis type 1 and consist of multiple café-au-lait spots, axillary freckling and macrocephaly. Melanocytes from a café-au-lait spot showed, in addition to the germline SPRED1 mutation, an acquired somatic mutation in the wild-type SPRED1 allele, indicating that complete SPRED1 inactivation is needed to generate a café-au-lait spot in this syndrome. This disorder is yet another member of the recently characterized group of phenotypically overlapping syndromes caused by mutations in the genes encoding key components of the RAS-MAPK pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mutations in the SPRY (SPROUTY)/SPRED family of genes in human disease.

Bundschu K, Walter U, Schuh K
Getting a first clue about SPRED functions.
Bioessays. 2007; 29(9):897-907 [PubMed] Related Publications
Spreds form a new protein family with an N-terminal Enabled/VASP homology 1 domain (EVH1), a central c-Kit binding domain (KBD) and a C-terminal Sprouty-related domain (SPR). They are able to inhibit the Ras-ERK signalling pathway after various mitogenic stimulations. In mice, Spred proteins are identified as regulators of bone morphogenesis, hematopoietic processes, allergen-induced airway eosinophilia and hyperresponsiveness. They inhibit cell motility and metastasis and have a high potential as tumor markers and suppressors of carcinogenesis. Moreover, in vertebrates, XtSpreds help together with XtSprouty proteins to coordinate gastrulation and mesoderm specification. Here, we give an overview of this new field and summarize the domain functions, binding partners, expression patterns and the cellular localizations, regulations and functions of Spred proteins and try to give perspectives for future scientific directions.

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