SPRY1

Gene Summary

Gene:SPRY1; sprouty RTK signaling antagonist 1
Aliases: hSPRY1
Location:4q28.1
Summary:-
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein sprouty homolog 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (16)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Membrane Proteins
  • Up-Regulation
  • Base Sequence
  • Carcinoma, Lobular
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Signal Transduction
  • DNA Methylation
  • RTPCR
  • MicroRNAs
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Tubulin
  • Transcription
  • Ductal Breast Carcinoma
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Embryo, Mammalian
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • ras Proteins
  • RT-PCR
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway
  • Chromosome 4
  • Transcription Factors
  • beta Catenin
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques
  • SPRY1
  • Messenger RNA
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Promoter Regions
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Knockout Mice
  • Cell Proliferation
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Liver Cancer
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SPRY1 (cancer-related)

Assinder SJ, Beniamen D, Lovicu FJ
Cosuppression of Sprouty and Sprouty-related negative regulators of FGF signalling in prostate cancer: a working hypothesis.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:827462 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deregulation of FGF receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling is common in prostate cancer. Normally, to moderate RTK signalling, induction of Sprouty (SPRY) and Sprouty-related (SPRED) antagonists occurs. Whilst decreased SPRY and SPRED has been described in some cancers, their role in prostate cancer is poorly understood. Therefore, we hypothesise that due to the need for tight regulation of RTK signalling, SPRY and SPRED negative regulators provide a degree of redundancy which ensures that a suppression of one or more family member does not lead to disease. Contrary to this, our analyses of prostates from 24-week-old Spry1- or Spry2-deficientmice, either hemizygous (+/-) or homozygous (-/-) for the null allele, revealed a significantly greater incidence of PIN compared to wild-type littermates. We further investigated redundancy of negative regulators in the clinical setting in a preliminary analysis of Gene Expression Omnibus and Oncomine human prostate cancer datasets. Consistent with our hypothesis, in two datasets analysed a significant cosuppression of SPRYs and SPREDs is evident. These findings demonstrate the importance of negative regulators of receptor tyrosine signalling, such as Spry, in the clinical setting, and highlight their importance for future pharmacopeia.

Munkley J, Lafferty NP, Kalna G, et al.
Androgen-regulation of the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRR activates ERK1/2 signalling in prostate cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Androgens drive the onset and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) via androgen receptor (AR) signalling. The principal treatment for PCa is androgen deprivation therapy, although the majority of patients eventually develop a lethal castrate-resistant form of the disease, where despite low serum testosterone levels AR signalling persists. Advanced PCa often has hyper-activated RAS/ERK1/2 signalling thought to be due to loss of function of key negative regulators of the pathway, the details of which are not fully understood.
METHODS: We recently carried out a genome-wide study and identified a subset of 226 novel androgen-regulated genes (PLOS ONE 6:e29088, 2011). In this study we have meta-analysed this dataset with genes and pathways frequently mutated in PCa to identify androgen-responsive regulators of the RAS/ERK1/2 pathway.
RESULTS: We find the PTGER4 and TSPYL2 genes are up-regulated by androgen stimulation and the ADCY1, OPKR1, TRIB1, SPRY1 and PTPRR are down-regulated by androgens. Further characterisation of PTPRR protein in LNCaP cells revealed it is an early and direct target of the androgen receptor which negatively regulates the RAS/ERK1/2 pathway and reduces cell proliferation in response to androgens.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that loss of PTPRR in clinical PCa is one factor that might contribute to activation of the RAS/ERK1/2 pathway.

So WK, Cheng JC, Fan Q, et al.
Loss of Sprouty2 in human high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas promotes EGF-induced E-cadherin down-regulation and cell invasion.
FEBS Lett. 2015; 589(3):302-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sprouty (SPRY) proteins are well-characterized factors that inhibit receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Our Human Exonic Evidence-Based Oligonucleotide (HEEBO) microarray results showed that the mRNA levels of SPRY2, but not of SPRY1 or SPRY4, are down-regulated in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) tissues and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell lines. Molecular inversion probe (MIP) copy number analysis showed the deletion of the SPRY2 locus in HGSC. Overexpression of SPRY2 reduced EGF-induced cell invasion by attenuating EGF-induced E-cadherin down-regulation. Moreover, a positive correlation between SPRY2 and E-cadherin protein levels was observed in HGSC tissues. This study reveals the loss of SPRY2 in HGSC and indicates an important tumor-suppressive role for SPRY2 in mediating the stimulatory effect of EGF on human EOC progression.

Mathsyaraja H, Thies K, Taffany DA, et al.
CSF1-ETS2-induced microRNA in myeloid cells promote metastatic tumor growth.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(28):3651-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastasis of solid tumors is associated with poor prognosis and bleak survival rates. Tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells (TIMs) are known to promote metastasis, but the mechanisms underlying their collaboration with tumor cells remain unknown. Here, we report an oncogenic role for microRNA (miR) in driving M2 reprogramming in TIMs, characterized by the acquisition of pro-tumor and pro-angiogenic properties. The expression of miR-21, miR-29a, miR-142-3p and miR-223 increased in myeloid cells during tumor progression in mouse models of breast cancer and melanoma metastasis. Further, we show that these miRs are regulated by the CSF1-ETS2 pathway in macrophages. A loss-of-function approach utilizing selective depletion of the miR-processing enzyme Dicer in mature myeloid cells blocks angiogenesis and metastatic tumor growth. Ectopic expression of miR-21 and miR-29a promotes angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation through the downregulation of anti-angiogenic genes such as Col4a2, Spry1 and Timp3, whereas knockdown of the miRs impedes these processes. miR-21 and miR-29a are expressed in Csf1r+ myeloid cells associated with human metastatic breast cancer, and levels of these miRs in CD115+ non-classical monocytes correlates with metastatic tumor burden in patients. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-21 and miR-29a are essential for the pro-tumor functions of myeloid cells and the CSF1-ETS2 pathway upstream of the miRs serves as an attractive therapeutic target for the inhibition of M2 remodeling of macrophages during malignancy. In addition, miR-21 and miR-29a in circulating myeloid cells may potentially serve as biomarkers to measure therapeutic efficacy of targeted therapies for CSF1 signaling.

Asad M, Wong MK, Tan TZ, et al.
FZD7 drives in vitro aggressiveness in Stem-A subtype of ovarian cancer via regulation of non-canonical Wnt/PCP pathway.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1346 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer (OC) can be classified into five biologically distinct molecular subgroups: epithelial-A (Epi-A), Epi-B, mesenchymal (Mes), Stem-A and Stem-B. Among them, Stem-A expresses genes relating to stemness and is correlated with poor clinical prognosis. In this study, we show that frizzled family receptor 7 (FZD7), a receptor for Wnt signalling, is overexpressed in the Stem-A subgroup. To elucidate the functional roles of FZD7, we used an RNA interference gene knockdown approach in three Stem-A cell lines: CH1, PA1 and OV-17R. Si-FZD7 OC cells showed reduced cell proliferation with an increase in the G0/G1 sub-population, with no effect on apoptosis. The cells also displayed a distinctive morphologic change by colony compaction to become more epithelial-like and polarised with smaller internuclear distances and increased z-axis height. Immunofluorescence (IF) staining patterns of pan-cadherin and β-catenin suggested an increase in cadherin-based cell-cell adhesion in si-FZD7 cells. We also observed a significant rearrangement in the actin cytoskeleton and an increase in tensile contractility in si-FZD7 OC cells, as evident by the loss of stress fibres and the redistribution of phospho-myosin light chain (pMLC) from the sites of cell-cell contacts to the periphery of cell colonies. Furthermore, there was reciprocal regulation of RhoA (Ras homolog family member A) and Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rho family, small GTP-binding protein Rac1)) activities upon FZD7 knockdown, with a significant reduction in RhoA activity and a concomitant upregulation in Rac1 activity. These changes in pMLC and RhoA, as well as the increased TopFlash reporter activities in si-FZD7 cells, suggested involvement of the non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Selected PCP pathway genes (cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 3 (CELSR3), prickle homolog 4 (Drosophila) (PRICKLE4), dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (DAAM1), profilin 2 (PFN2), protocadherin 9 (PCDH9), protocadherin α1 (PCDHA1), protocadherin β17 pseudogene (PCDHB17), protocadherin β3 (PCDHB3), sprouty homolog 1 (SPRY1) and protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7)) were found to be more highly expressed in Stem-A than non Stem-A subgroup of OC. Taken together, our results suggest that FZD7 might drive aggressiveness in Stem-A OC by regulating cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, maintenance of the Mes phenotype and cell migration via casein kinase 1ɛ-mediated non-canonical Wnt/PCP pathway.

Masoumi-Moghaddam S, Amini A, Ehteda A, et al.
The expression of the Sprouty 1 protein inversely correlates with growth, proliferation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells.
J Ovarian Res. 2014; 7:61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Our recent study on a panel of human ovarian cancer cells revealed that SKOV-3 cells barely express the Sprouty isoform 1 (Spry1) while 1A9 cells maintain it at a level similar to normal ovarian cells. Here we investigated the functional outcomes of induced alterations in the expression of Spry1 in the two cell lines in vitro.
METHODS: Using the Spry1 specific plasmid and siRNA, the expression of Spry1 was induced and conversely silenced in SKOV-3 and 1A9 cells, respectively. The functional outcome was investigated by means of proliferation, MTT, scratch-wound, migration and invasion assays and selection of the stable clones. Mechanism of the effect was explored by Western blot.
RESULTS: In the Spry1-transfected SKOV-3 cells, a significant reduction in growth and proliferation was evident. Stable clones of the Spry1-transfected SKOV-3 were almost undetectable after day 14. The number of migrated and invaded cells and the percentage of the scratch closure were significantly lower in the Spry1-transfected group. Spry1 silencing in 1A9 cells, on the other hand, led to a significant increase in cell growth and proliferation. The number of migrated and invaded cells and the percentage of the scratch closure significantly increased in Spry1-silenced 1A9 group. Mechanistically, overexpression of Bax, activation of caspases 3, 7, 8 and 9, cleavage of PARP and attenuation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl were observed along with reduced activation of Erk and Akt and increased amount and activity of PTEN in the Spry1-transfected SKOV-3 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Here, we report the inverse correlation between the expression of Spry1 and growth, proliferation, invasion and migration of ovarian cancer cells.

Terada N, Shiraishi T, Zeng Y, et al.
Correlation of Sprouty1 and Jagged1 with aggressive prostate cancer cells with different sensitivities to androgen deprivation.
J Cell Biochem. 2014; 115(9):1505-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease and thus, it is important to understand whether among the heterogeneous collection of cell types, androgen-deprivation insensitive cells exist prior to hormonal manipulation. We established several LNCaP subclones with distinct insensitivities to androgen deprivation from a parental LNCaP cell line. In the resulting clones, the sensitivity to androgen-deprivation negatively correlated with their PSA expression levels. In two of these clones, an androgen insensitive clone, LNCaP-cl1, and an androgen sensitive clone, LNCaP-cl5, the DNA copy number differed significantly, indicating that these clones contain genetically distinct cells. LNCaP-cl1 had higher PSA expression but lower invasiveness and tumor growth potential than LNCaP-cl5. The expression levels of two genes that are known to be regulated by miR-21, an androgen-regulated microRNA, Sprouty1 (SPRY1) and Jagged1 (JAG1) were significantly lower in LNCaP-cl1 than in LNCaP-cl5. Knocking down SPRY1 in LNCaP cells enhanced PSA expression and cell proliferation. JAG1 administration in LNCaP cells enhanced cell invasion and JAG1 knockdown in PC3 cells suppressed cell invasion and tumor formation. These results indicated that the expression differences in SPRY1 and JAG1 may contribute to the phenotypic differences between the LNCaP-cl1 and LNCaP-cl5 clones. In tissue samples, SPRY1 expression levels were significantly lower in prostate cancer patients with PSA recurrence after surgical treatment (P = 0.0076) and JAG1 expression levels were significantly higher in Gleason sum (GS) 8-9 disease than in GS 5-6 (P = 0.0121). In summary a random population of LNCaP cells comprises a heterogeneous group of cells with different androgen-deprivation sensitivities and potential for invasiveness.

Mekkawy AH, Pourgholami MH, Morris DL
Human Sprouty1 suppresses growth, migration, and invasion in human breast cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):5037-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Expression of human Sprouty1 (hSpry1) gene is downregulated in most breast cancer patients, implicating it as an important tumor suppressor gene. So, we hypothesized that overexpression of hSpry1 gene may suppress breast cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion. Here, we demonstrate that in breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and T47D, transfection-induced overexpression of hSpry1 reduced cell population, proliferation, and colony formation in vitro without affecting cell apoptosis. Adhesion molecules act as both positive and negative modulators of cellular migration and invasion. Here, we found that overexpression of hSpry1 enhances the initial establishment events in breast cancer cell adhesion to type IV collagen and vitronectin. Moreover, the overexpression of hSpry1 in the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells causes a significant reduction in cellular migration and invasion through Matrigel membranes. In addition, we showed that hSpry1 overexpression prevents VEGF secretion. VEGF is essential for primary tumor growth, migration, and invasion. Thus, our study provides a novel mechanism of tumor suppression activity of hSpry1.

Macià A, Vaquero M, Gou-Fàbregas M, et al.
Sprouty1 induces a senescence-associated secretory phenotype by regulating NFκB activity: implications for tumorigenesis.
Cell Death Differ. 2014; 21(2):333-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genes of the Sprouty family (Spry1-4) are feedback inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling. As such, they restrain proliferation of many cell types and have been proposed as tumor-suppressor genes. Although their most widely accepted target is the Extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK) pathway, the mechanisms by which Spry proteins inhibit RTK signaling are poorly understood. In the present work, we describe a novel mechanism by which Spry1 restricts proliferation, independently of the ERK pathway. In vivo analysis of thyroid glands from Spry1 knockout mice reveals that Spry1 induces a senescence-associated secretory phenotype via activation of the NFκB pathway. Consistently, thyroids from Spry1 knockout mice are bigger and exhibit decreased markers of senescence including Ki67 labeling and senescence-associated β-galactosidase. Although such 'escape' from senescence is not sufficient to promote thyroid tumorigenesis in adult mice up to 5 months, the onset of Phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten)-induced tumor formation is accelerated when Spry1 is concomitantly eliminated. Accordingly, we observe a reduction of SPRY1 levels in human thyroid malignancies when compared with non-tumoral tissue. We propose that Spry1 acts as a sensor of mitogenic activity that not only attenuates RTK signaling but also induces a cellular senescence response to avoid uncontrolled proliferation.

Aldaz B, Sagardoy A, Nogueira L, et al.
Involvement of miRNAs in the differentiation of human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77098 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)-initiating cells (GICs) represent a tumor subpopulation with neural stem cell-like properties that is responsible for the development, progression and therapeutic resistance of human GBM. We have recently shown that blockade of NFκB pathway promotes terminal differentiation and senescence of GICs both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that induction of differentiation may be a potential therapeutic strategy for GBM. MicroRNAs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of GBM, but a high-throughput analysis of their role in GIC differentiation has not been reported. We have established human GIC cell lines that can be efficiently differentiated into cells expressing astrocytic and neuronal lineage markers. Using this in vitro system, a microarray-based high-throughput analysis to determine global expression changes of microRNAs during differentiation of GICs was performed. A number of changes in the levels of microRNAs were detected in differentiating GICs, including over-expression of hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-29a, hsa-miR-29b, hsa-miR-221 and hsa-miR-222, and down-regulation of hsa-miR-93 and hsa-miR-106a. Functional studies showed that miR-21 over-expression in GICs induced comparable cell differentiation features and targeted SPRY1 mRNA, which encodes for a negative regulator of neural stem-cell differentiation. In addition, miR-221 and miR-222 inhibition in differentiated cells restored the expression of stem cell markers while reducing differentiation markers. Finally, miR-29a and miR-29b targeted MCL1 mRNA in GICs and increased apoptosis. Our study uncovers the microRNA dynamic expression changes occurring during differentiation of GICs, and identifies miR-21 and miR-221/222 as key regulators of this process.

Colli LM, Saggioro F, Serafini LN, et al.
Components of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways are not mis-expressed in pituitary tumors.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e62424 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways are involved in the genesis of multiple tumors; however, their role in pituitary tumorigenesis is mostly unknown.
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated gene and protein expression of Wnt pathways in pituitary tumors and whether these expression correlate to clinical outcome.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genes of the WNT canonical pathway: activating ligands (WNT11, WNT4, WNT5A), binding inhibitors (DKK3, sFRP1), β-catenin (CTNNB1), β-catenin degradation complex (APC, AXIN1, GSK3β), inhibitor of β-catenin degradation complex (AKT1), sequester of β-catenin (CDH1), pathway effectors (TCF7, MAPK8, NFAT5), pathway mediators (DVL-1, DVL-2, DVL-3, PRICKLE, VANGL1), target genes (MYB, MYC, WISP2, SPRY1, TP53, CCND1); calcium dependent pathway (PLCB1, CAMK2A, PRKCA, CHP); and planar cell polarity pathway (PTK7, DAAM1, RHOA) were evaluated by QPCR, in 19 GH-, 18 ACTH-secreting, 21 non-secreting (NS) pituitary tumors, and 5 normal pituitaries. Also, the main effectors of canonical (β-catenin), planar cell polarity (JNK), and calcium dependent (NFAT5) Wnt pathways were evaluated by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: There are no differences in gene expression of canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways between all studied subtypes of pituitary tumors and normal pituitaries, except for WISP2, which was over-expressed in ACTH-secreting tumors compared to normal pituitaries (4.8x; p = 0.02), NS pituitary tumors (7.7x; p = 0.004) and GH-secreting tumors (5.0x; p = 0.05). β-catenin, NFAT5 and JNK proteins showed no expression in normal pituitaries and in any of the pituitary tumor subtypes. Furthermore, no association of the studied gene or protein expression was observed with tumor size, recurrence, and progressive disease. The hierarchical clustering showed a regular pattern of genes of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways randomly distributed throughout the dendrogram.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data reinforce previous reports suggesting no activation of canonical Wnt pathway in pituitary tumorigenesis. Moreover, we describe, for the first time, evidence that non-canonical Wnt pathways are also not mis-expressed in the pituitary tumors.

Kral RM, Mayer CE, Vanas V, et al.
In non-small cell lung cancer mitogenic signaling leaves Sprouty1 protein levels unaffected.
Cell Biochem Funct. 2014; 32(1):96-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sprouty1 protein belongs to a family of receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling inhibitors, whose members are usually regulated by growth factors to form a negative feedback loop. Correspondingly fluctuations of Sprouty1 mRNA in response to single growth factors have been observed. In this report, we investigate Sprouty1 protein levels and show that in non-small cell lung carcinoma-derived cells, the expression levels are unaffected by the serum content in the cellular environment. Although cells harboring K-Ras mutations express insignificant higher Sprouty1 levels, ectopic expression of constitutive active Ras in normal human lung fibroblasts fails to augment Sprouty1 protein content. Furthermore, serum starvation for three days has no influence on Sprouty1 expression and addition of serum or of singular growth factors leaves Sprouty protein levels unchanged. Cell cycle analysis reveals that Sprouty1 levels remain constant throughout the whole cell cycle. These data demonstrate that Sprouty1 expression is not connected with mitogenic signaling and cell proliferation.

Wiles ET, Lui-Sargent B, Bell R, Lessnick SL
BCL11B is up-regulated by EWS/FLI and contributes to the transformed phenotype in Ewing sarcoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e59369 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The EWS/FLI translocation product is the causative oncogene in Ewing sarcoma and acts as an aberrant transcription factor. EWS/FLI dysregulates gene expression during tumorigenesis by abnormally activating or repressing genes. The expression levels of thousands of genes are affected in Ewing sarcoma, however, it is unknown which of these genes contribute to the transformed phenotype. Here we characterize BCL11B as an up-regulated EWS/FLI target that is necessary for the maintenance of transformation in patient derived Ewing sarcoma cells lines. BCL11B, a zinc finger transcription factor, acts as a transcriptional repressor in Ewing's sarcoma and contributes to the EWS/FLI repressed gene signature. BCL11B repressive activity is mediated by the NuRD co-repressor complex. We further demonstrate that re-expression of SPRY1, a repressed target of BCL11B, limits the transformation capacity of Ewing sarcoma cells. These data define a new pathway downstream of EWS/FLI required for oncogenic maintenance in Ewing sarcoma.

Shen L, Ling M, Li Y, et al.
Feedback regulations of miR-21 and MAPKs via Pdcd4 and Spry1 are involved in arsenite-induced cell malignant transformation.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e57652 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To establish the functions of miR-21 and the roles of two feedback regulation loops, miR-21-Spry1-ERK/NF-κB and miR-21-Pdcd4-JNK/c-Jun, in arsenite-transformed human embryo lung fibroblast (HELF) cells.
METHODS: For arsenite-transformed HELF cells, apoptosis, clonogenicity, and capacity for migration were determined by Hoechst staining, assessment of their capacity for anchorage-independent growth, and wound-healing, respectively, after blockage, with inhibitors or with siRNAs, of signal pathways for JNK/c-Jun or ERK/NF-κB. Decreases of miR-21 levels were determined with anti-miR-21, and the up-regulation of Pdcd4 and Spry1 was assessed in transfected cells; these cells were molecularly characterized by RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, Western blots, and immunofluorescence assays.
RESULTS: MiR-21 was highly expressed in arsenite-transformed HELF cells and normal HELF cells acutely treated with arsenite, an effect that was concomitant with activation of JNK/c-Jun and ERK/NF-κB and down-regulation of Pdcd4 and Spry1 protein levels. However, there were no significant changes in mRNA levels for Pdcd4 and Spry1, which suggested that miR-21 regulates the expressions of Pdcd4 and Spry1 through translational repression. In arsenite-transformed HELF cells, blockages of JNK/c-Jun or ERK/NF-κB with inhibitors or with siRNAs prevented the increases of miR-21and the decreases of the protein levels but not the mRNA levels of Pdcd4 and Spry1. Down-regulation of miR-21 and up-regulations of Pdcd44 or Spry1 blocked the arsenite-induced activations of JNK/c-Jun or ERK/NF-κB, indicating that knockdown of miR-21 inhibits feedback of ERK activation and JNK activation via increases of Pdcd4 and Spry1 protein levels, respectively. Moreover, in arsenite-transformed HELF cells, inhibition of miR-21 promoted cell apoptosis, inhibited clonogenicity, and reduced migration.
CONCLUSION: The results indicate that miR-21 is both a target and a regulator of ERK/NF-κB and JNK/c-Jun and the feedback regulations of miR-21 and MAPKs via Pdcd4 and Spry1, respectively, are involved in arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HELF cells.

Jin XL, Sun QS, Liu F, et al.
microRNA 21-mediated suppression of Sprouty1 by Pokemon affects liver cancer cell growth and proliferation.
J Cell Biochem. 2013; 114(7):1625-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcriptional repressor Pokemon is a critical factor in embryogenesis, development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and oncogenesis, thus behaving as an oncogene. Oncomine database suggests a potential correlation between the expressions of Pokemon and Sprouty1. This study investigated the regulatory role of Pokemon in Sprouty1 expression and the effect on liver cancer cell growth and proliferation, revealing a novel miR-21-mediated regulatory circuit. In normal (HL-7702) and cancer (QGY-7703) liver cell lines, Sprouty1 expression is inversely correlated with Pokemon levels. Targeted expression or siRNA-mediated silencing showed that Pokemon is a repressor of Sprouty1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, but Pokemon cannot affect the promoter activity of Sprouty1. Sprouty1 is a target of miR-21 and interestingly, we found that miR-21 is up-regulated by Pokemon in liver cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that Pokemon up-regulated miR-21 transcription in a dose-dependent manner, and ChIP assay exhibited a direct binding of Pokemon to the miR-21 promoter at -747 to -399 bp. Site-directed mutagenesis of the GC boxes at -684 to -679 bp and -652 to -647 bp of miR-21 promoter abolished the regulatory activity by Pokemon. Furthermore, we found that the modulation of Pokemon and miR-21 expression affected the growth and proliferation of liver cancer cells QGY-7703. In summary, our findings demonstrate that Pokemon suppresses Sprouty1 expression through a miR-21-mediated mechanism, affecting the growth and proliferation of liver cancer cells. This study recognized miR-21 and Sprouty1 as novel targets of the Pokemon regulatory network.

Sharma B, Joshi S, Sassano A, et al.
Sprouty proteins are negative regulators of interferon (IFN) signaling and IFN-inducible biological responses.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(50):42352-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interferons (IFNs) have important antiviral and antineoplastic properties, but the precise mechanisms required for generation of these responses remain to be defined. We provide evidence that during engagement of the Type I IFN receptor (IFNR), there is up-regulation of expression of Sprouty (Spry) proteins 1, 2, and 4. Our studies demonstrate that IFN-inducible up-regulation of Spry proteins is Mnk kinase-dependent and results in suppressive effects on the IFN-activated p38 MAP kinase (MAPK), the function of which is required for transcription of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Our data establish that ISG15 mRNA expression and IFN-dependent antiviral responses are enhanced in Spry1,2,4 triple knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts, consistent with negative feedback regulatory roles for Spry proteins in IFN-mediated signaling. In other studies, we found that siRNA-mediated knockdown of Spry1, Spry2, or Spry4 promotes IFN-inducible antileukemic effects in vitro and results in enhanced suppressive effects on malignant hematopoietic progenitors from patients with polycythemia vera. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that Spry proteins are potent regulators of Type I IFN signaling and negatively control induction of Type I IFN-mediated biological responses.

Henke A, Grace OC, Ashley GR, et al.
Stromal expression of decorin, Semaphorin6D, SPARC, Sprouty1 and Tsukushi in developing prostate and decreased levels of decorin in prostate cancer.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e42516 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: During prostate development, mesenchymal-epithelial interactions regulate organ growth and differentiation. In adult prostate, stromal-epithelial interactions are important for tissue homeostasis and also play a significant role in prostate cancer. In this study we have identified molecules that show a mesenchymal expression pattern in the developing prostate, and one of these showed reduced expression in prostate cancer stroma.
METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five candidate molecules identified by transcript profiling of developmental prostate mesenchyme were selected using a wholemount in situ hybridisation screen and studied Decorin (Dcn), Semaphorin6D (Sema6D), SPARC/Osteonectin (SPARC), Sprouty1 (Spry-1) and Tsukushi (Tsku). Expression in rat tissues was evaluated using wholemount in situ hybridisation (postnatal day (P) 0.5) and immunohistochemistry (embryonic day (E) E17.5, E19.5; P0.5; P6; 28 & adult). Four candidates (Decorin, SPARC, Spry-1, Tsukushi) were immunolocalised in human foetal prostate (weeks 14, 16, 19) and expression of Decorin was evaluated on a human prostate cancer tissue microarray. In embryonic and perinatal rats Decorin, Semaphorin6D, SPARC, Spry-1 and Tsukushi were expressed with varying distribution patterns throughout the mesenchyme at E17.5, E19.5, P0.5 and P6.5. In P28 and adult prostates there was either a decrease in the expression (Semaphorin6D) or a switch to epithelial expression of SPARC, and Spry-1, whereas Decorin and Tsukushi were specific to mesenchyme/stroma at all ages. Expression of Decorin, SPARC, Spry-1 and Tsukushi in human foetal prostates paralleled that in rat. Decorin showed mesenchymal and stromal-specific expression at all ages and was further examined in prostate cancer, where stromal expression was significantly reduced compared with non-malignant prostate.
CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: We describe the spatio-temporal expression of Decorin, Semaphorin6D, SPARC, Spry-1 and Tsukushi in developing prostate and observed similar mesenchymal expression patterns in rat and human. Additionally, Decorin showed reduced expression in prostate cancer stroma compared to non-malignant prostate stroma.

Macià A, Gallel P, Vaquero M, et al.
Sprouty1 is a candidate tumor-suppressor gene in medullary thyroid carcinoma.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(35):3961-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a malignancy derived from the calcitonin-producing C-cells of the thyroid gland. Oncogenic mutations of the Ret proto-oncogene are found in all heritable forms of MTC and roughly one half of the sporadic cases. However, several lines of evidence argue for the existence of additional genetic lesions necessary for the development of MTC. Sprouty (Spry) family of genes is composed of four members in mammals (Spry1-4). Some Spry family members have been proposed as candidate tumor-suppressor genes in a variety of cancerous pathologies. In this work, we show that targeted deletion of Spry1 causes C-cell hyperplasia, a precancerous lesion preceding MTC, in young adult mice. Expression of Spry1 restrains proliferation of the MTC-derived cell line, TT. Finally, we found that the Spry1 promoter is frequently methylated in MTC and that Spry1 expression is consequently decreased. These findings identify Spry1 as a candidate tumor-suppressor gene in MTC.

Sirivatanauksorn Y, Sirivatanauksorn V, Srisawat C, et al.
Differential expression of sprouty genes in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Surg Oncol. 2012; 105(3):273-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sprouty (Spry) proteins are important modulators of the RTK/Ras/MAPK pathway, overactivation of which is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thus far, the roles of Sprouty in HCC is still unclear.
METHODS: The expressions of SPRY1, SPRY2, SPRY3, and SPRY4, at the mRNA levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in paired HCC and non-tumor liver tissues from 31 patients.
RESULTS: The expression levels of SPRY1, SPRY2, and SPRY4 in tumor tissues were significantly different from those in non-tumor tissues with the average log fold change values of 0.15, -0.34, and -0.37, respectively; however, that of SPRY3 was not significantly different. SPRY1 expression was also found to be significantly up-regulated in the cases without underlying cirrhosis compared with those with cirrhosis (log fold change of 0.35 and -0.02, respectively, P < 0.05), whereas SPRY2 expression was significantly lower in the cases with advanced HCC (log fold change of -0.12 and -0.52 in early and advanced stages, respectively, P < 0.05) and in those with angiolymphatic invasion (log fold change of -0.47 and -0.16 in the presence and absence thereof, P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that Sprouty genes are differentially expressed in HCC and might provide some insight into their roles in HCC carcinogenesis.

Darimipourain M, Wang S, Ittmann M, Kwabi-Addo B
Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of Sprouty1, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor in prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2011; 14(4):279-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sprouty1 (Spry1) is a negative regulator of fibroblast growth factor signaling with a potential tumor suppressor function in prostate cancer (PCa). Spry1 is downregulated in human PCa, and Spry1 expression can markedly inhibit PCa proliferation in vitro. We have reported DNA methylation as a mechanism for controlling Spry1 expression. However, promoter methylation does not seem to explain gene silencing in all PCa cases studied to suggest other mechanisms of gene inactivation, such as alterations in trans-acting factors and/or post-transcriptional activity may be responsible for the decreased expression in those cases. Binding sites for Wilm's tumor (WT1) transcription factors EGR1, EGR3 and WTE are highly conserved between the mouse and human Spry1 promoter regions, suggesting an evolutionary conserved mechanism(s) involving WT1 and EGR in Spry1 regulation. Spry1 mRNA contains multiple microRNA (miRNA) binding sites in its 3'UTR region suggesting post-transcriptional control. We demonstrate that Spry1 is a target for miR-21-mediated gene silencing. miRNA-based therapeutic approaches to treat cancer are emerging. Spry1 is highly regulated by miRNAs and could potentially be an excellent candidate for such approaches.

Slovak ML, Bedell V, Hsu YH, et al.
Molecular karyotypes of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells at disease onset reveal distinct copy number alterations in chemosensitive versus refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(10):3443-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To determine the recurring DNA copy number alterations (CNA) in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) using laser capture microdissected CD30(+) Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Archived tissues from 27 CD30(+) HL plus control samples were analyzed by DNA microarrays. The HL molecular karyotypes were compared with the genomic profiles of germinal center B cells and treatment outcome (chemotherapy responsive vs. primary refractory disease).
RESULTS: Gains and losses observed in more than 35% of HL samples were localized to 22 and 12 chromosomal regions, respectively. Frequent gains (>65%) were associated with growth and proliferation, NF-κB activation, cell-cycle control, apoptosis, and immune and lymphoid development. Frequent losses (>40%) observed encompassed tumor suppressor genes (SPRY1, NELL1, and ID4, inhibitor of DNA binding 4), transcriptional repressors (TXNIP, thioredoxin interacting protein), SKP2 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2; ubiquitin ligase component), and an antagonist of NF-κB activation (PPARGC1A). In comparison to the germinal center profiles, the most frequent imbalances in HL were losses in 5p13 (AMACR, GDNF, and SKP2), and gains in 7q36 (SHH, sonic hedgehog homolog) and 9q34 (ABL1, CDK9, LCN2, and PTGES). Gains (>35%) in the HL chemoresponsive patients housed genes known to regulate T-cell trafficking or NF-κB activation (CCL22, CX3CL1, CCL17, DOK4, and IL10), whereas the refractory samples showed frequent loss of 4q27 (interleukin; IL21/IL2) and 17p12, and gain of 19q13.3 (BCL3/RELB).
CONCLUSION: We identified nonrandom CNAs in the molecular karyotypes of classical HL. Several recurring genetic lesions correlated with disease outcome. These findings may be useful prognostic markers in the counseling and management of patients and for the development of novel therapeutic approaches in primary refractory HL.

Kamalakaran S, Varadan V, Giercksky Russnes HE, et al.
DNA methylation patterns in luminal breast cancers differ from non-luminal subtypes and can identify relapse risk independent of other clinical variables.
Mol Oncol. 2011; 5(1):77-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
The diversity of breast cancers reflects variations in underlying biology and affects the clinical implications for patients. Gene expression studies have identified five major subtypes- Luminal A, Luminal B, basal-like, ErbB2+ and Normal-Like. We set out to determine the role of DNA methylation in subtypes by performing genome-wide scans of CpG methylation in breast cancer samples with known expression-based subtypes. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using a set of most varying loci clustered the tumors into a Luminal A majority (82%) cluster, Basal-like/ErbB2+ majority (86%) cluster and a non-specific cluster with samples that were also inconclusive in their expression-based subtype correlations. Contributing methylation loci were both gene associated loci (30%) and non-gene associated (70%), suggesting subtype dependant genome-wide alterations in the methylation landscape. The methylation patterns of significant differentially methylated genes in luminal A tumors are similar to those identified in CD24 + luminal epithelial cells and the patterns in basal-like tumors similar to CD44 + breast progenitor cells. CpG islands in the HOXA cluster and other homeobox (IRX2, DLX2, NKX2-2) genes were significantly more methylated in Luminal A tumors. A significant number of genes (2853, p < 0.05) exhibited expression-methylation correlation, implying possible functional effects of methylation on gene expression. Furthermore, analysis of these tumors by using follow-up survival data identified differential methylation of islands proximal to genes involved in Cell Cycle and Proliferation (Ki-67, UBE2C, KIF2C, HDAC4), angiogenesis (VEGF, BTG1, KLF5), cell fate commitment (SPRY1, OLIG2, LHX2 and LHX5) as having prognostic value independent of subtypes and other clinical factors.

Mekkawy AH, De Bock CE, Lin Z, et al.
Novel protein interactors of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010; 399(4):738-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has been implicated in tumor growth and metastasis. The crystal structure of uPAR revealed that the external surface is largely free to interact with a number of proteins. Additionally, due to absence of an intracellular cytoplasmic protein domain, many of the biological functions of uPAR necessitate interactions with other proteins. Here, we used yeast two-hybrid screening of breast cancer cDNA library to identify hSpry1 and HAX1 proteins as putative candidate proteins that interact with uPAR bait constructs. Interaction between these two candidates and uPAR was confirmed by GST-pull down, co-immunoprecipitation assays and confocal microscopy. These novel interactions that have been identified may also provide further evidence that uPAR can interact with a number of other proteins which may influence a range of biological functions.

Schaaf G, Hamdi M, Zwijnenburg D, et al.
Silencing of SPRY1 triggers complete regression of rhabdomyosarcoma tumors carrying a mutated RAS gene.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(2):762-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
RAS oncogenes are among the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer, but effective strategies for therapeutic inhibition of the RAS pathway have been elusive. Sprouty1 (SPRY1) is an upstream antagonist of RAS that is activated by extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), providing a negative feedback loop for RAS signaling, and other evidence suggests that SPRY1 may have a tumor suppressor function. Studies of RAS status in the human childhood tumor rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) indicated mutations in approximately half of the tumors of the embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma subtype (ERMS) but not the alveolar subtype (ARMS). ERMS tumors also showed overexpression of SPRY1, which was indeed upregulated by mutant RAS. However, we found that, in the presence of mutant RAS, the function of SPRY1 was changed from an antagonist to an agonist of RAS signaling. Thus, SPRY1 supported formation of activated ERK and mitogen-activated protein/ERK kinase and was essential for ERMS cell proliferation and survival. Conversely, silencing of SPRY1 in ERMS cells (but not ARMS cells) abolished their tumorigenicity in mice. Moreover, silencing of SPRY1 caused regression of established ERMS tumors (but not ARMS tumors) formed in xenograft settings. Our findings argue that SPRY1 inhibition can offer a therapeutic strategy to treat childhood RMS and possibly other tumors carrying oncogenic RAS mutations.

Christgen M, Geffers R, Ballmaier M, et al.
Down-regulation of the fetal stem cell factor SOX17 by H33342: a mechanism responsible for differential gene expression in breast cancer side population cells.
J Biol Chem. 2010; 285(9):6412-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human solid tumors contain rare cancer side population (SP) cells, which expel the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342 (H33342) and display cancer stem cell characteristics. Transcriptional profiling of cancer SP cells isolated by H33342 fluorescence analysis is a newly emerging approach to discover cancer stem cell markers and aberrant differentiation pathways. Using Affymetrix expression microarrays and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, we investigated differential gene expression between SP and non-SP (NSP) cells isolated from human mammary carcinoma cell lines. A total of 136 genes were up-regulated in breast cancer SP relative to NSP cells, one of which was the fetal stem cell factor and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway target SOX17. Strikingly, we discovered that SOX17 was down-regulated by H33342 in a dose-dependent manner. In SP cells, which expel H33342, down-regulation of SOX17 was less pronounced than in NSP cells, which retain H33342. As a result of this, SOX17 displayed a 10-20-fold overexpression in cancer SP relative to NSP cells. Similar results were obtained for further stemness-related genes, namely EPC1 and SPRY1. These findings establish a previously unidentified gene-regulatory impact of H33342 as a novel mechanism responsible for differential gene expression in cancer SP cells. This has significant implications for the future interpretation of cancer SP cells.

Fernandez SV, Russo J
Estrogen and xenoestrogens in breast cancer.
Toxicol Pathol. 2010; 38(1):110-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is growing concern that estrogenic environmental compounds that act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals might potentially have adverse effects on hormone-sensitive organs such as the breast. This concern is further fueled by evidence indicating that natural estrogens, specifically 17beta-estradiol, are important factors in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. We have developed an in vitro-in vivo model in which we have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of E2 in human breast epithelial cells MCF-10F. Hypermethylation of NRG1, STXBP6, BMP6, CSS3, SPRY1, and SNIP were found at different progression stages in this model. The use of this powerful and unique model has provided a tool for exploring whether bisphenol A and butyl benzyl phthalate have relevance in the initiation of breast cancer. These studies provide firsthand evidence that the natural estrogen 17beta-estradiol and xenoestrogenic substances like bisphenol A are able to induce neoplastic transformation in human breast epithelial cells.

Spurlock G, Bennett E, Chuzhanova N, et al.
SPRED1 mutations (Legius syndrome): another clinically useful genotype for dissecting the neurofibromatosis type 1 phenotype.
J Med Genet. 2009; 46(7):431-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Mutations of the SPRED1 gene, one of a family of Sprouty (Spry)/Spred proteins known to "downregulate" mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling, have been identified in patients with a mild neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) phenotype with pigmentary changes but no neurofibromas (Legius syndrome).To ascertain the frequency of SPRED1 mutations as a cause of this phenotype and to investigate whether other SPRED/SPRY genes may be causal, a panel of unrelated mild NF1 patients were screened for mutations of the SPRED1-3 and the SPRY1-4 genes.
METHODS: 85 patients with a mild NF1 phenotype were screened for SPRED1 mutations. 44 patients negative for both NF1 and SPRED1 mutations were then screened for SPRED2-3 and SPRY1-4 mutations. Complexity analysis was applied to analyse the flanking sequences surrounding the identified SPRED1 mutations for the presence of direct and inverted repeats or symmetric sequence elements in order to infer probable mutational mechanism.
RESULTS: SPRED1 mutations were identified in 6 cases; 5 were novel and included 3 nonsense (R16X, E73X, R262X), 2 frameshift (c.1048_c1049 delGG, c.149_1152del 4 bp), and a single missense mutation (V44D). Short direct or inverted repeats detected immediately adjacent to some SPRED1 mutations may have led to the formation of the microdeletions and base pair substitutions.
DISCUSSION: The identification of SPRED1 gene mutation in NF1-like patients has major implications for counselling NF1 families.

Kwabi-Addo B, Ren C, Ittmann M
DNA methylation and aberrant expression of Sprouty1 in human prostate cancer.
Epigenetics. 2009; 4(1):54-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sprouty1 is a negative regulator of fibroblast growth factor signaling with a potential tumor suppressor function in prostate cancer (PCa). Sprouty1 is downregulated in human PCa and Sprouty1 expression can markedly inhibit PCa proliferation in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of DNA methylation in Sprouty1 expression in human prostate tumors. We used pyrosequencing to quantitatively measure the methylation status of the Sprouty1 promoter region in prostate tissues and cell lines and assessed Sprouty1 mRNA expression by quantitative RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates significantly higher % methylation of Sprouty1 promoter in the PCa tissues when compared to matched normal tissues. Hypermethylation of Sprouty1 promoter was detected in PCa cell lines compared to the normal prostate epithelial cells. The increased % methylation was associated with reduced Sprouty1 mRNA expression in the PCa tissues and cell lines. Methylation modification of the Sprouty1 promoter using Sss1 methylase abolished promoter activity whereas global demethylation with 5'-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine treatment induced Sprouty1 expression. Our data demonstrates that DNA methylation in the Sprouty1 promoter region is responsible for downregulating Sprouty1 expression in prostate cancer.

Calvisi DF, Ladu S, Gorden A, et al.
Mechanistic and prognostic significance of aberrant methylation in the molecular pathogenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Clin Invest. 2007; 117(9):2713-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide, accounting for an estimated 600,000 deaths annually. Aberrant methylation, consisting of DNA hypomethylation and/or promoter gene CpG hypermethylation, is implicated in the development of a variety of solid tumors, including HCC. We analyzed the global levels of DNA methylation as well as the methylation status of 105 putative tumor suppressor genes and found that the extent of genome-wide hypomethylation and CpG hypermethylation correlates with biological features and clinical outcome of HCC patients. We identified activation of Ras and downstream Ras effectors (ERK, AKT, and RAL) due to epigenetic silencing of inhibitors of the Ras pathway in all HCC. Further, selective inactivation of SPRY1 and -2, DAB2, and SOCS4 and -5 genes and inhibitors of angiogenesis (BNIP3, BNIP3L, IGFBP3, and EGLN2) was associated with poor prognosis. Importantly, several epigenetically silenced putative tumor suppressor genes found in HCC were also inactivated in the nontumorous liver. Our results assign both therapeutic and chemopreventive significance to methylation patterns in human HCC and open the possibility of using molecular targets, including those identified in this study, to effectively inhibit HCC development and progression.

Ishida M, Ichihara M, Mii S, et al.
Sprouty2 regulates growth and differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells through RET tyrosine kinase.
Cancer Sci. 2007; 98(6):815-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Sprouty (SPRY) family of proteins includes important regulators of downstream signaling initiated by receptor tyrosine kinases. In the present study, we investigated the role of SPRY proteins in intracellular signaling via the RET receptor tyrosine kinase activated by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Expression of SPRY1, SPRY2, SPRY3 and SPRY4 in HEK293T cells transfected with RET and GDNF receptor family alpha1 (GFRalpha1) genes significantly reduced sustained ERK activation as well as ELK-1 activation. Because expression of SPRY2 was efficiently induced by GDNF in TGW human neuroblastoma cells expressing RET and GFRalpha1, we further investigated the role of SPRY2 in the growth and differentiation of TGW cells. Expression of wild-type SPRY2 (WT-SPRY2) decreased the growth of TGW cells. In contrast, expression of a dominant negative form of SPRY2 (MT-SPRY2, with a mutated tyrosine residue) enhanced cell proliferation. In addition, expression of WT-SPRY2 reduced GDNF-dependent neurite outgrowth of TGW cells, whereas expression of MT-SPRY2 enhanced it. Taken together, our results suggest that SPRY2 regulates GDNF-dependent proliferation and differentiation of TGW neuroblastoma cells mediated by RET tyrosine kinase.

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