Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: SPRY1 (cancer-related)
Liu JQ, Niu Q, Hu YH, et al.The Bidirectional Effects of Arsenic on miRNA-21: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Biomed Environ Sci. 2018; 31(9):654-666 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Arsenic is a metalloid environmental carcinogen involved in the occurrence and development of many cancers. miRNA-21 plays a crucial role in arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which miRNA-21 influences arsenic-induced cancer.
METHODS: We used meta-analysis of published studies to determine how arsenic induces cancerous cells through miRNA-21.
RESULTS: Low-dose arsenic exposure (⪕ 5 μmol/L) can increase miRNA-21 and phosphorylated signal transducter and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) expression, and decrease programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and protein sprouty homolog 1 (Spry1) expression. High-dose arsenic exposure (> 5 μmol/L), can increase miRNA-21 expression, and decrease Spry1 and E-cadherin expression. Short-term arsenic exposure (⪕ 24 h) can increase miRNA-21 and pSTAT3 expression, and decrease PDCD4 expression. Moreover, long-term arsenic exposure (> 24 h) can increase the miRNA-21, STAT3, and pSTAT3 expression, and decrease PDCD4 expression. We found that activation of miRNA-21 and pSTAT3 were most pronounced following long-term arsenic exposure at low doses, and the effects on PDCD4 expression were most pronounced following short-term arsenic exposure at low doses. miRNA-21 inhibitors increased the expression of tumor suppressor genes PDCD4, PTEN, and Spry1 and miRNA-21-mimics suppressed the expression of these tumor suppressor genes.
CONCLUSION: Arsenic can cause cancer by activating miRNA-21 and inhibiting the expression of PDCD4, PTEN, and Spry1.
SOX7 is a transcription factor and acts as a tumor suppressor, but its target genes in cancers are poorly explored. We revealed SOX7-mediated gene expression profile in breast cancer cells using microarray chips and discovered multiple altered signaling pathways. When combinatorially analyzing the microarray data with a gene array dataset from 759 breast cancer patients, we identified four genes as potential targets of SOX7 and validated them by quantitative PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Among these four genes, we determined that SOX7-activated
Glioblastoma (GB) is the most aggressive brain malignancy. Although some potential glioblastoma biomarkers have already been identified, there is a lack of cell membrane-bound biomarkers capable of distinguishing brain tissue from glioblastoma and/or glioblastoma stem cells (GSC), which are responsible for the rapid post-operative tumor reoccurrence. In order to find new GB/GSC marker candidates that would be cell surface proteins (CSP), we have performed meta-analysis of genome-scale mRNA expression data from three data repositories (GEO, ArrayExpress and GLIOMASdb). The search yielded ten appropriate datasets, and three (GSE4290/GDS1962, GSE23806/GDS3885, and GLIOMASdb) were used for selection of new GB/GSC marker candidates, while the other seven (GSE4412/GDS1975, GSE4412/GDS1976, E-GEOD-52009, E-GEOD-68848, E-GEOD-16011, E-GEOD-4536, and E-GEOD-74571) were used for bioinformatic validation. The selection identified four new CSP-encoding candidate genes—
Chai C, Song LJ, Han SY, et al.MicroRNA-21 promotes glioma cell proliferation and inhibits senescence and apoptosis by targeting SPRY1 via the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
CNS Neurosci Ther. 2018; 24(5):369-380 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: Our study aims to investigate the effect of microRNA-21 (miR-21) on the proliferation, senescence, and apoptosis of glioma cells by targeting SPRY1 via the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
METHODS: Glioma tissues and brain tissues were collected for this study after surgical decompression for traumatic brain injury. RT-qPCR was employed to measure mRNA levels of miR-21, SPRY1, PTEN, PI3K, and AKT, and Western blotting was conducted to determine protein levels of SPRY1, PTEN, PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, Caspase-3, Caspase-9, P53, GSK3, and p-GSK3. Human glioma U87 cells were assigned into the blank, negative control (NC), miR-21 mimics, miR-21 inhibitors, siRNA-SPRY1, and miR-21 inhibitors + siRNA-SPRY1 groups, with human HEB cells serving as the normal group. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were determined by MTT and flow cytometry, respectively.
RESULTS: Compared with control group, an increased expression of miR-21, PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, P53, and p-GSK3, and a decreased expression of SPRY1, PTEN, Caspase-3, and Caspase-9 were observed in the glioma group, and no significant differences were found in the expression of GSK3. SPRY1 was verified to be the target gene of miR-21. Compared with the blank and NC groups, levels of PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, P53, and p-GSK3 increased while levels of SPRY1, PTEN, Caspase-3, and Caspase-9 decreased in the miR-21 mimics and siRNA-SPRY1 groups; the miR-21 inhibitors group reversed the tendency; furthermore, the miR-21 inhibitors group showed decreased cell proliferation but promoted apoptosis, which were opposite to the results of the miR-21 mimics and siRNA-SPRY1 groups.
CONCLUSION: MicroRNA-21 might promote cell proliferation and inhibit cell senescence and apoptosis of human glioma cells by targeting SPRY1 via the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
BACKGROUND: In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), epigenomic and genomic studies have expanded the existing knowledge about the disease biology and led to the identification of potential biomarkers relevant for implementation of personalized medicine. In this study, an attempt has been made to examine and integrate the global DNA methylation changes with gene expression profile and their impact on clinical outcome in early stage CLL patients.
RESULTS: The integration of DNA methylation profile (
CONCLUSIONS: The DNA methylation changes associated with mRNA expression of
SMARCB1 (also known as SNF5, INI1, and BAF47), a core subunit of the SWI/SNF (BAF) chromatin-remodeling complex, is inactivated in nearly all pediatric rhabdoid tumors. These aggressive cancers are among the most genomically stable, suggesting an epigenetic mechanism by which SMARCB1 loss drives transformation. Here we show that, despite having indistinguishable mutational landscapes, human rhabdoid tumors exhibit distinct enhancer H3K27ac signatures, which identify remnants of differentiation programs. We show that SMARCB1 is required for the integrity of SWI/SNF complexes and that its loss alters enhancer targeting-markedly impairing SWI/SNF binding to typical enhancers, particularly those required for differentiation, while maintaining SWI/SNF binding at super-enhancers. We show that these retained super-enhancers are essential for rhabdoid tumor survival, including some that are shared by all subtypes, such as SPRY1, and other lineage-specific super-enhancers, such as SOX2 in brain-derived rhabdoid tumors. Taken together, our findings identify a new chromatin-based epigenetic mechanism underlying the tumor-suppressive activity of SMARCB1.
The goal of this study was to explore the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to cervical cancer (CC) in a population from Xinjiang Uygur. Participating were 247 patients with CC and 285 healthy women. Fourteen SNPs in nine miRNA genes were selected. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the correlation of SNPs with CC. The minor allele "C" of rs300574 in SPRY1 was associated with an increased risk of CC based on analysis of the allele, codominant, recessive and log-additive models, but an opposite result was found with the over-dominant model. The minor allele "C" of rs1042725 in HMGA2 was associated with an increased risk of CC in the allele, dominant and log-additive models. In clinical stage III/IVCC patients, rs4728 in SPRY2 was associated with decreased risk. Finally, rs3744935 in BCL2 was associated with CC in the allele and codominant models. In sum, we have detected associations between four SNPs, rs300574 (SPRY1), rs3744935 (BCL2), rs1042725 (HMGA2), and rs4728 (SPRY2), and CC risk in women from Xinjiang Uygur.
Mao XH, Chen M, Wang Y, et al.MicroRNA-21 regulates the ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway to affect the proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of human melanoma A375 cells by targeting SPRY1, PDCD4, and PTEN.
Mol Carcinog. 2017; 56(3):886-894 [PubMed
] Related Publications
This study aims to explore the effects of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway on human melanoma A375 cells. The melanoma tissues and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from 45 melanoma patients. qRT-PCR was conducted to quantify the expression of miR-21 and the gene mRNA expressions. Human melanoma A375 cells were divided into the Mock, negative control (NC), miR-21 inhibitors, miR-21 inhibitors + siRNA-SPRY1, miR-21 inhibitors + siRNA-PDCD4, and miR-21 inhibitors + siRNA-PTEN groups. Western blotting was used to determine protein expressions. CCK8 assay and Transwell assay were performed to evaluate the proliferation, migration, and invasion of A375 cells. Annexin V/propidium iodide double staining was adopted to detect cell apoptosis. MiR-21 expression was higher in melanoma tissues than in adjacent tissues, while the mRNA and protein expressions of SPRY1, PDCD4, and PTEN were lower in melanoma tissues than in adjacent tissues. Compared with the Mock and NC groups, the miR-21 inhibitors group exhibited increased expressions of SPRY1, PDCD4, and PTEN and decreased expressions of ERK, p-ERK, NF-κB p65, and p-NF-κB p65. After transfection of miR-21 inhibitors, the proliferation, migration, and invasion of A375 cells were inhibited, while the apoptosis of A375 cells was promoted. However, the effects of miR-21 inhibitors on the growth, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of A375 cells were reversed after transfection of siRNA-SPRY1, siRNA-PDCD4, or siRNA-PTEN. MiR-21 can promote the proliferation, migration, and inhibit the apoptosis of human melanoma A375 cells by inhibiting SPRY1, PDCD4, and PTEN via ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zhang W, Lv Y, Xue Y, et al.Co-expression modules of NF1, PTEN and sprouty enable distinction of adult diffuse gliomas according to pathway activities of receptor tyrosine kinases.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(37):59098-59114 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inter-individual variability causing elevated signaling of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) may have hampered the efficacy of targeted therapies. We developed a molecular signature for clustering adult diffuse gliomas based on the extent of RTK pathway activities. Glioma gene modules co-expressed with NF1 (NF1-M), Sprouty (SPRY-M) and PTEN (PTEN-M) were identified, their signatures enabled robust clustering of adult diffuse gliomas of WHO grades II-IV from five independent data sets into two subtypes with distinct activities of RAS-RAF-MEK-MAPK cascade and PI3K-AKT pathway (named RMPAhigh and RMPAlow subtypes) in a morphology-independent manner. The RMPAhigh gliomas were associated with poor prognosis compared to the RMPAlow gliomas. The RMPAhigh and RMPAlow glioma subtypes harbored unique sets of genomic alterations in the RTK signaling-related genes. The RMPAhigh gliomas were enriched in immature vessel cells and tumor associated macrophages, and both cell types expressed high levels of pro-angiogenic RTKs including MET, VEGFR1, KDR, EPHB4 and NRP1. In gliomas with major genomic lesions unrelated to RTK pathway, high RMPA signature was associated with short survival. Thus, the RMPA signatures capture RTK activities in both glioma cells and glioma microenvironment, and RTK signaling in the glioma microenvironment contributes to glioma progression.
Cidre-Aranaz F, Grünewald TG, Surdez D, et al.EWS-FLI1-mediated suppression of the RAS-antagonist Sprouty 1 (SPRY1) confers aggressiveness to Ewing sarcoma.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(6):766-776 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma is characterized by chromosomal translocations fusing the EWS gene with various members of the ETS family of transcription factors, most commonly FLI1. EWS-FLI1 is an aberrant transcription factor driving Ewing sarcoma tumorigenesis by either transcriptionally inducing or repressing specific target genes. Herein, we showed that Sprouty 1 (SPRY1), which is a physiological negative feedback inhibitor downstream of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors (FGFRs) and other RAS-activating receptors, is an EWS-FLI1 repressed gene. EWS-FLI1 knockdown specifically increased the expression of SPRY1, while other Sprouty family members remained unaffected. Analysis of SPRY1 expression in a panel of Ewing sarcoma cells showed that SPRY1 was not expressed in Ewing sarcoma cell lines, suggesting that it could act as a tumor suppressor gene in these cells. In agreement, induction of SPRY1 in three different Ewing sarcoma cell lines functionally impaired proliferation, clonogenic growth and migration. In addition, SPRY1 expression inhibited extracellular signal-related kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling induced by serum and basic FGF (bFGF). Moreover, treatment of Ewing sarcoma cells with the potent FGFR inhibitor PD-173074 reduced bFGF-induced proliferation, colony formation and in vivo tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner, thus mimicking SPRY1 activity in Ewing sarcoma cells. Although the expression of SPRY1 was low when compared with other tumors, SPRY1 was variably expressed in primary Ewing sarcoma tumors and higher expression levels were significantly associated with improved outcome in a large patient cohort. Taken together, our data indicate that EWS-FLI1-mediated repression of SPRY1 leads to unrestrained bFGF-induced cell proliferation, suggesting that targeting the FGFR/MAPK pathway can constitute a promising therapeutic approach for this devastating disease.
Sprouty (Spry) proteins have been implicated in cancer progression, but their role in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a subtype of lethal and aggressive breast cancer, is unknown. Here, we reported that Spry1 is significantly expressed in TNBC specimen and MDA-MB-231 cells. To understand Spry1 regulation of signaling events controlling breast cancer phenotype, we used lentiviral delivery of human Spry1 shRNAs to suppress Spry1 expression in MDA-MB-231, an established TNBC cell line. Spry1 knockdown MDA-MB-231 cells displayed an epithelial phenotype with increased membrane E-cadherin expression. Knockdown of Spry1 impaired MDA-MB-231 cell migration, Matrigel invasion, and anchorage-dependent and -independent growth. Tumor xenografts originating from Spry1 knockdown MDA-MB-231 cells grew slower, had increased E-cadherin expression, and yielded fewer lung metastases compared to control. Furthermore, suppressing Spry1 in MDA-MB-231 cells impaired the induction of Snail and Slug expression by EGF, and this effect was associated with increased EGFR degradation and decreased EGFR/Grb2/Shp2/Gab1 signaling complex formation. The same phenotype was also observed in the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-157. Together, our results show that unlike in some tumors, where Spry may mediate tumor suppression, Spry1 plays a selective role in at least a subset of TNBC to promote the malignant phenotype via enhancing EGF-mediated mesenchymal phenotype.
Sprouty (SPRY) appears to act as a tumor suppressor in cancer, whereas we reported that SPRY2 functions as a putative oncogene in colorectal cancer (CRC) [Oncogene, 2010, 29: 5241-5253]. In general, various studies established inhibition of cell proliferation by SPRY in cancer. The mechanisms by which SPRY regulates cell proliferation in CRC are investigated. We demonstrate, for the first time, suppression of SPRY2 augmented EGF-dependent oncogenic signaling, however, surprisingly decreased cell proliferation in colon cancer cells. Our data suggest that cell cycle inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) transcriptional activity being regulated by SPRY2. Indeed, suppression of SPRY2 significantly increased p21(WAF1/CIP1) mRNA and protein expression as well as p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter activity. Conversely, overexpressing SPRY2 triggered a decrease in p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter activity. Concurrent down-regulation of both SPRY1 and SPRY2 also increased p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression in colon cancer cells. Increased nuclear localization of p21(WAF1/CIP1) in SPRY2 downregulated colon cancer cells may explain the inhibition of cell proliferation in colon cancer cells. Underscoring the biological relevance of these findings in SPRY1 and SPRY2 mutant mouse, recombination of floxed SPRY1 and SPRY2 alleles in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in increased expression and nuclear localization of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and decreased cell proliferation. In CRC, the relationship of SPRY with p21 may provide unique strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Deregulation of FGF receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling is common in prostate cancer. Normally, to moderate RTK signalling, induction of Sprouty (SPRY) and Sprouty-related (SPRED) antagonists occurs. Whilst decreased SPRY and SPRED has been described in some cancers, their role in prostate cancer is poorly understood. Therefore, we hypothesise that due to the need for tight regulation of RTK signalling, SPRY and SPRED negative regulators provide a degree of redundancy which ensures that a suppression of one or more family member does not lead to disease. Contrary to this, our analyses of prostates from 24-week-old Spry1- or Spry2-deficientmice, either hemizygous (+/-) or homozygous (-/-) for the null allele, revealed a significantly greater incidence of PIN compared to wild-type littermates. We further investigated redundancy of negative regulators in the clinical setting in a preliminary analysis of Gene Expression Omnibus and Oncomine human prostate cancer datasets. Consistent with our hypothesis, in two datasets analysed a significant cosuppression of SPRYs and SPREDs is evident. These findings demonstrate the importance of negative regulators of receptor tyrosine signalling, such as Spry, in the clinical setting, and highlight their importance for future pharmacopeia.
BACKGROUND: Androgens drive the onset and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) via androgen receptor (AR) signalling. The principal treatment for PCa is androgen deprivation therapy, although the majority of patients eventually develop a lethal castrate-resistant form of the disease, where despite low serum testosterone levels AR signalling persists. Advanced PCa often has hyper-activated RAS/ERK1/2 signalling thought to be due to loss of function of key negative regulators of the pathway, the details of which are not fully understood.
METHODS: We recently carried out a genome-wide study and identified a subset of 226 novel androgen-regulated genes (PLOS ONE 6:e29088, 2011). In this study we have meta-analysed this dataset with genes and pathways frequently mutated in PCa to identify androgen-responsive regulators of the RAS/ERK1/2 pathway.
RESULTS: We find the PTGER4 and TSPYL2 genes are up-regulated by androgen stimulation and the ADCY1, OPKR1, TRIB1, SPRY1 and PTPRR are down-regulated by androgens. Further characterisation of PTPRR protein in LNCaP cells revealed it is an early and direct target of the androgen receptor which negatively regulates the RAS/ERK1/2 pathway and reduces cell proliferation in response to androgens.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that loss of PTPRR in clinical PCa is one factor that might contribute to activation of the RAS/ERK1/2 pathway.
So WK, Cheng JC, Fan Q, et al.Loss of Sprouty2 in human high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas promotes EGF-induced E-cadherin down-regulation and cell invasion.
FEBS Lett. 2015; 589(3):302-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Sprouty (SPRY) proteins are well-characterized factors that inhibit receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Our Human Exonic Evidence-Based Oligonucleotide (HEEBO) microarray results showed that the mRNA levels of SPRY2, but not of SPRY1 or SPRY4, are down-regulated in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) tissues and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell lines. Molecular inversion probe (MIP) copy number analysis showed the deletion of the SPRY2 locus in HGSC. Overexpression of SPRY2 reduced EGF-induced cell invasion by attenuating EGF-induced E-cadherin down-regulation. Moreover, a positive correlation between SPRY2 and E-cadherin protein levels was observed in HGSC tissues. This study reveals the loss of SPRY2 in HGSC and indicates an important tumor-suppressive role for SPRY2 in mediating the stimulatory effect of EGF on human EOC progression.
Metastasis of solid tumors is associated with poor prognosis and bleak survival rates. Tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells (TIMs) are known to promote metastasis, but the mechanisms underlying their collaboration with tumor cells remain unknown. Here, we report an oncogenic role for microRNA (miR) in driving M2 reprogramming in TIMs, characterized by the acquisition of pro-tumor and pro-angiogenic properties. The expression of miR-21, miR-29a, miR-142-3p and miR-223 increased in myeloid cells during tumor progression in mouse models of breast cancer and melanoma metastasis. Further, we show that these miRs are regulated by the CSF1-ETS2 pathway in macrophages. A loss-of-function approach utilizing selective depletion of the miR-processing enzyme Dicer in mature myeloid cells blocks angiogenesis and metastatic tumor growth. Ectopic expression of miR-21 and miR-29a promotes angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation through the downregulation of anti-angiogenic genes such as Col4a2, Spry1 and Timp3, whereas knockdown of the miRs impedes these processes. miR-21 and miR-29a are expressed in Csf1r+ myeloid cells associated with human metastatic breast cancer, and levels of these miRs in CD115+ non-classical monocytes correlates with metastatic tumor burden in patients. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-21 and miR-29a are essential for the pro-tumor functions of myeloid cells and the CSF1-ETS2 pathway upstream of the miRs serves as an attractive therapeutic target for the inhibition of M2 remodeling of macrophages during malignancy. In addition, miR-21 and miR-29a in circulating myeloid cells may potentially serve as biomarkers to measure therapeutic efficacy of targeted therapies for CSF1 signaling.
Ovarian cancer (OC) can be classified into five biologically distinct molecular subgroups: epithelial-A (Epi-A), Epi-B, mesenchymal (Mes), Stem-A and Stem-B. Among them, Stem-A expresses genes relating to stemness and is correlated with poor clinical prognosis. In this study, we show that frizzled family receptor 7 (FZD7), a receptor for Wnt signalling, is overexpressed in the Stem-A subgroup. To elucidate the functional roles of FZD7, we used an RNA interference gene knockdown approach in three Stem-A cell lines: CH1, PA1 and OV-17R. Si-FZD7 OC cells showed reduced cell proliferation with an increase in the G0/G1 sub-population, with no effect on apoptosis. The cells also displayed a distinctive morphologic change by colony compaction to become more epithelial-like and polarised with smaller internuclear distances and increased z-axis height. Immunofluorescence (IF) staining patterns of pan-cadherin and β-catenin suggested an increase in cadherin-based cell-cell adhesion in si-FZD7 cells. We also observed a significant rearrangement in the actin cytoskeleton and an increase in tensile contractility in si-FZD7 OC cells, as evident by the loss of stress fibres and the redistribution of phospho-myosin light chain (pMLC) from the sites of cell-cell contacts to the periphery of cell colonies. Furthermore, there was reciprocal regulation of RhoA (Ras homolog family member A) and Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rho family, small GTP-binding protein Rac1)) activities upon FZD7 knockdown, with a significant reduction in RhoA activity and a concomitant upregulation in Rac1 activity. These changes in pMLC and RhoA, as well as the increased TopFlash reporter activities in si-FZD7 cells, suggested involvement of the non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Selected PCP pathway genes (cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 3 (CELSR3), prickle homolog 4 (Drosophila) (PRICKLE4), dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (DAAM1), profilin 2 (PFN2), protocadherin 9 (PCDH9), protocadherin α1 (PCDHA1), protocadherin β17 pseudogene (PCDHB17), protocadherin β3 (PCDHB3), sprouty homolog 1 (SPRY1) and protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7)) were found to be more highly expressed in Stem-A than non Stem-A subgroup of OC. Taken together, our results suggest that FZD7 might drive aggressiveness in Stem-A OC by regulating cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, maintenance of the Mes phenotype and cell migration via casein kinase 1ɛ-mediated non-canonical Wnt/PCP pathway.
Masoumi-Moghaddam S, Amini A, Ehteda A, et al.The expression of the Sprouty 1 protein inversely correlates with growth, proliferation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells.
J Ovarian Res. 2014; 7:61 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Our recent study on a panel of human ovarian cancer cells revealed that SKOV-3 cells barely express the Sprouty isoform 1 (Spry1) while 1A9 cells maintain it at a level similar to normal ovarian cells. Here we investigated the functional outcomes of induced alterations in the expression of Spry1 in the two cell lines in vitro.
METHODS: Using the Spry1 specific plasmid and siRNA, the expression of Spry1 was induced and conversely silenced in SKOV-3 and 1A9 cells, respectively. The functional outcome was investigated by means of proliferation, MTT, scratch-wound, migration and invasion assays and selection of the stable clones. Mechanism of the effect was explored by Western blot.
RESULTS: In the Spry1-transfected SKOV-3 cells, a significant reduction in growth and proliferation was evident. Stable clones of the Spry1-transfected SKOV-3 were almost undetectable after day 14. The number of migrated and invaded cells and the percentage of the scratch closure were significantly lower in the Spry1-transfected group. Spry1 silencing in 1A9 cells, on the other hand, led to a significant increase in cell growth and proliferation. The number of migrated and invaded cells and the percentage of the scratch closure significantly increased in Spry1-silenced 1A9 group. Mechanistically, overexpression of Bax, activation of caspases 3, 7, 8 and 9, cleavage of PARP and attenuation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl were observed along with reduced activation of Erk and Akt and increased amount and activity of PTEN in the Spry1-transfected SKOV-3 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Here, we report the inverse correlation between the expression of Spry1 and growth, proliferation, invasion and migration of ovarian cancer cells.
Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease and thus, it is important to understand whether among the heterogeneous collection of cell types, androgen-deprivation insensitive cells exist prior to hormonal manipulation. We established several LNCaP subclones with distinct insensitivities to androgen deprivation from a parental LNCaP cell line. In the resulting clones, the sensitivity to androgen-deprivation negatively correlated with their PSA expression levels. In two of these clones, an androgen insensitive clone, LNCaP-cl1, and an androgen sensitive clone, LNCaP-cl5, the DNA copy number differed significantly, indicating that these clones contain genetically distinct cells. LNCaP-cl1 had higher PSA expression but lower invasiveness and tumor growth potential than LNCaP-cl5. The expression levels of two genes that are known to be regulated by miR-21, an androgen-regulated microRNA, Sprouty1 (SPRY1) and Jagged1 (JAG1) were significantly lower in LNCaP-cl1 than in LNCaP-cl5. Knocking down SPRY1 in LNCaP cells enhanced PSA expression and cell proliferation. JAG1 administration in LNCaP cells enhanced cell invasion and JAG1 knockdown in PC3 cells suppressed cell invasion and tumor formation. These results indicated that the expression differences in SPRY1 and JAG1 may contribute to the phenotypic differences between the LNCaP-cl1 and LNCaP-cl5 clones. In tissue samples, SPRY1 expression levels were significantly lower in prostate cancer patients with PSA recurrence after surgical treatment (P = 0.0076) and JAG1 expression levels were significantly higher in Gleason sum (GS) 8-9 disease than in GS 5-6 (P = 0.0121). In summary a random population of LNCaP cells comprises a heterogeneous group of cells with different androgen-deprivation sensitivities and potential for invasiveness.
Mekkawy AH, Pourgholami MH, Morris DLHuman Sprouty1 suppresses growth, migration, and invasion in human breast cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):5037-48 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Expression of human Sprouty1 (hSpry1) gene is downregulated in most breast cancer patients, implicating it as an important tumor suppressor gene. So, we hypothesized that overexpression of hSpry1 gene may suppress breast cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion. Here, we demonstrate that in breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and T47D, transfection-induced overexpression of hSpry1 reduced cell population, proliferation, and colony formation in vitro without affecting cell apoptosis. Adhesion molecules act as both positive and negative modulators of cellular migration and invasion. Here, we found that overexpression of hSpry1 enhances the initial establishment events in breast cancer cell adhesion to type IV collagen and vitronectin. Moreover, the overexpression of hSpry1 in the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells causes a significant reduction in cellular migration and invasion through Matrigel membranes. In addition, we showed that hSpry1 overexpression prevents VEGF secretion. VEGF is essential for primary tumor growth, migration, and invasion. Thus, our study provides a novel mechanism of tumor suppression activity of hSpry1.
Genes of the Sprouty family (Spry1-4) are feedback inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling. As such, they restrain proliferation of many cell types and have been proposed as tumor-suppressor genes. Although their most widely accepted target is the Extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK) pathway, the mechanisms by which Spry proteins inhibit RTK signaling are poorly understood. In the present work, we describe a novel mechanism by which Spry1 restricts proliferation, independently of the ERK pathway. In vivo analysis of thyroid glands from Spry1 knockout mice reveals that Spry1 induces a senescence-associated secretory phenotype via activation of the NFκB pathway. Consistently, thyroids from Spry1 knockout mice are bigger and exhibit decreased markers of senescence including Ki67 labeling and senescence-associated β-galactosidase. Although such 'escape' from senescence is not sufficient to promote thyroid tumorigenesis in adult mice up to 5 months, the onset of Phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten)-induced tumor formation is accelerated when Spry1 is concomitantly eliminated. Accordingly, we observe a reduction of SPRY1 levels in human thyroid malignancies when compared with non-tumoral tissue. We propose that Spry1 acts as a sensor of mitogenic activity that not only attenuates RTK signaling but also induces a cellular senescence response to avoid uncontrolled proliferation.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)-initiating cells (GICs) represent a tumor subpopulation with neural stem cell-like properties that is responsible for the development, progression and therapeutic resistance of human GBM. We have recently shown that blockade of NFκB pathway promotes terminal differentiation and senescence of GICs both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that induction of differentiation may be a potential therapeutic strategy for GBM. MicroRNAs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of GBM, but a high-throughput analysis of their role in GIC differentiation has not been reported. We have established human GIC cell lines that can be efficiently differentiated into cells expressing astrocytic and neuronal lineage markers. Using this in vitro system, a microarray-based high-throughput analysis to determine global expression changes of microRNAs during differentiation of GICs was performed. A number of changes in the levels of microRNAs were detected in differentiating GICs, including over-expression of hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-29a, hsa-miR-29b, hsa-miR-221 and hsa-miR-222, and down-regulation of hsa-miR-93 and hsa-miR-106a. Functional studies showed that miR-21 over-expression in GICs induced comparable cell differentiation features and targeted SPRY1 mRNA, which encodes for a negative regulator of neural stem-cell differentiation. In addition, miR-221 and miR-222 inhibition in differentiated cells restored the expression of stem cell markers while reducing differentiation markers. Finally, miR-29a and miR-29b targeted MCL1 mRNA in GICs and increased apoptosis. Our study uncovers the microRNA dynamic expression changes occurring during differentiation of GICs, and identifies miR-21 and miR-221/222 as key regulators of this process.
INTRODUCTION: Canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways are involved in the genesis of multiple tumors; however, their role in pituitary tumorigenesis is mostly unknown.
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated gene and protein expression of Wnt pathways in pituitary tumors and whether these expression correlate to clinical outcome.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genes of the WNT canonical pathway: activating ligands (WNT11, WNT4, WNT5A), binding inhibitors (DKK3, sFRP1), β-catenin (CTNNB1), β-catenin degradation complex (APC, AXIN1, GSK3β), inhibitor of β-catenin degradation complex (AKT1), sequester of β-catenin (CDH1), pathway effectors (TCF7, MAPK8, NFAT5), pathway mediators (DVL-1, DVL-2, DVL-3, PRICKLE, VANGL1), target genes (MYB, MYC, WISP2, SPRY1, TP53, CCND1); calcium dependent pathway (PLCB1, CAMK2A, PRKCA, CHP); and planar cell polarity pathway (PTK7, DAAM1, RHOA) were evaluated by QPCR, in 19 GH-, 18 ACTH-secreting, 21 non-secreting (NS) pituitary tumors, and 5 normal pituitaries. Also, the main effectors of canonical (β-catenin), planar cell polarity (JNK), and calcium dependent (NFAT5) Wnt pathways were evaluated by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: There are no differences in gene expression of canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways between all studied subtypes of pituitary tumors and normal pituitaries, except for WISP2, which was over-expressed in ACTH-secreting tumors compared to normal pituitaries (4.8x; p = 0.02), NS pituitary tumors (7.7x; p = 0.004) and GH-secreting tumors (5.0x; p = 0.05). β-catenin, NFAT5 and JNK proteins showed no expression in normal pituitaries and in any of the pituitary tumor subtypes. Furthermore, no association of the studied gene or protein expression was observed with tumor size, recurrence, and progressive disease. The hierarchical clustering showed a regular pattern of genes of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways randomly distributed throughout the dendrogram.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data reinforce previous reports suggesting no activation of canonical Wnt pathway in pituitary tumorigenesis. Moreover, we describe, for the first time, evidence that non-canonical Wnt pathways are also not mis-expressed in the pituitary tumors.
Kral RM, Mayer CE, Vanas V, et al.In non-small cell lung cancer mitogenic signaling leaves Sprouty1 protein levels unaffected.
Cell Biochem Funct. 2014; 32(1):96-100 [PubMed
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Sprouty1 protein belongs to a family of receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling inhibitors, whose members are usually regulated by growth factors to form a negative feedback loop. Correspondingly fluctuations of Sprouty1 mRNA in response to single growth factors have been observed. In this report, we investigate Sprouty1 protein levels and show that in non-small cell lung carcinoma-derived cells, the expression levels are unaffected by the serum content in the cellular environment. Although cells harboring K-Ras mutations express insignificant higher Sprouty1 levels, ectopic expression of constitutive active Ras in normal human lung fibroblasts fails to augment Sprouty1 protein content. Furthermore, serum starvation for three days has no influence on Sprouty1 expression and addition of serum or of singular growth factors leaves Sprouty protein levels unchanged. Cell cycle analysis reveals that Sprouty1 levels remain constant throughout the whole cell cycle. These data demonstrate that Sprouty1 expression is not connected with mitogenic signaling and cell proliferation.
The EWS/FLI translocation product is the causative oncogene in Ewing sarcoma and acts as an aberrant transcription factor. EWS/FLI dysregulates gene expression during tumorigenesis by abnormally activating or repressing genes. The expression levels of thousands of genes are affected in Ewing sarcoma, however, it is unknown which of these genes contribute to the transformed phenotype. Here we characterize BCL11B as an up-regulated EWS/FLI target that is necessary for the maintenance of transformation in patient derived Ewing sarcoma cells lines. BCL11B, a zinc finger transcription factor, acts as a transcriptional repressor in Ewing's sarcoma and contributes to the EWS/FLI repressed gene signature. BCL11B repressive activity is mediated by the NuRD co-repressor complex. We further demonstrate that re-expression of SPRY1, a repressed target of BCL11B, limits the transformation capacity of Ewing sarcoma cells. These data define a new pathway downstream of EWS/FLI required for oncogenic maintenance in Ewing sarcoma.
OBJECTIVE: To establish the functions of miR-21 and the roles of two feedback regulation loops, miR-21-Spry1-ERK/NF-κB and miR-21-Pdcd4-JNK/c-Jun, in arsenite-transformed human embryo lung fibroblast (HELF) cells.
METHODS: For arsenite-transformed HELF cells, apoptosis, clonogenicity, and capacity for migration were determined by Hoechst staining, assessment of their capacity for anchorage-independent growth, and wound-healing, respectively, after blockage, with inhibitors or with siRNAs, of signal pathways for JNK/c-Jun or ERK/NF-κB. Decreases of miR-21 levels were determined with anti-miR-21, and the up-regulation of Pdcd4 and Spry1 was assessed in transfected cells; these cells were molecularly characterized by RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, Western blots, and immunofluorescence assays.
RESULTS: MiR-21 was highly expressed in arsenite-transformed HELF cells and normal HELF cells acutely treated with arsenite, an effect that was concomitant with activation of JNK/c-Jun and ERK/NF-κB and down-regulation of Pdcd4 and Spry1 protein levels. However, there were no significant changes in mRNA levels for Pdcd4 and Spry1, which suggested that miR-21 regulates the expressions of Pdcd4 and Spry1 through translational repression. In arsenite-transformed HELF cells, blockages of JNK/c-Jun or ERK/NF-κB with inhibitors or with siRNAs prevented the increases of miR-21and the decreases of the protein levels but not the mRNA levels of Pdcd4 and Spry1. Down-regulation of miR-21 and up-regulations of Pdcd44 or Spry1 blocked the arsenite-induced activations of JNK/c-Jun or ERK/NF-κB, indicating that knockdown of miR-21 inhibits feedback of ERK activation and JNK activation via increases of Pdcd4 and Spry1 protein levels, respectively. Moreover, in arsenite-transformed HELF cells, inhibition of miR-21 promoted cell apoptosis, inhibited clonogenicity, and reduced migration.
CONCLUSION: The results indicate that miR-21 is both a target and a regulator of ERK/NF-κB and JNK/c-Jun and the feedback regulations of miR-21 and MAPKs via Pdcd4 and Spry1, respectively, are involved in arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HELF cells.
Jin XL, Sun QS, Liu F, et al.microRNA 21-mediated suppression of Sprouty1 by Pokemon affects liver cancer cell growth and proliferation.
J Cell Biochem. 2013; 114(7):1625-33 [PubMed
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Transcriptional repressor Pokemon is a critical factor in embryogenesis, development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and oncogenesis, thus behaving as an oncogene. Oncomine database suggests a potential correlation between the expressions of Pokemon and Sprouty1. This study investigated the regulatory role of Pokemon in Sprouty1 expression and the effect on liver cancer cell growth and proliferation, revealing a novel miR-21-mediated regulatory circuit. In normal (HL-7702) and cancer (QGY-7703) liver cell lines, Sprouty1 expression is inversely correlated with Pokemon levels. Targeted expression or siRNA-mediated silencing showed that Pokemon is a repressor of Sprouty1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, but Pokemon cannot affect the promoter activity of Sprouty1. Sprouty1 is a target of miR-21 and interestingly, we found that miR-21 is up-regulated by Pokemon in liver cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that Pokemon up-regulated miR-21 transcription in a dose-dependent manner, and ChIP assay exhibited a direct binding of Pokemon to the miR-21 promoter at -747 to -399 bp. Site-directed mutagenesis of the GC boxes at -684 to -679 bp and -652 to -647 bp of miR-21 promoter abolished the regulatory activity by Pokemon. Furthermore, we found that the modulation of Pokemon and miR-21 expression affected the growth and proliferation of liver cancer cells QGY-7703. In summary, our findings demonstrate that Pokemon suppresses Sprouty1 expression through a miR-21-mediated mechanism, affecting the growth and proliferation of liver cancer cells. This study recognized miR-21 and Sprouty1 as novel targets of the Pokemon regulatory network.
Interferons (IFNs) have important antiviral and antineoplastic properties, but the precise mechanisms required for generation of these responses remain to be defined. We provide evidence that during engagement of the Type I IFN receptor (IFNR), there is up-regulation of expression of Sprouty (Spry) proteins 1, 2, and 4. Our studies demonstrate that IFN-inducible up-regulation of Spry proteins is Mnk kinase-dependent and results in suppressive effects on the IFN-activated p38 MAP kinase (MAPK), the function of which is required for transcription of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Our data establish that ISG15 mRNA expression and IFN-dependent antiviral responses are enhanced in Spry1,2,4 triple knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts, consistent with negative feedback regulatory roles for Spry proteins in IFN-mediated signaling. In other studies, we found that siRNA-mediated knockdown of Spry1, Spry2, or Spry4 promotes IFN-inducible antileukemic effects in vitro and results in enhanced suppressive effects on malignant hematopoietic progenitors from patients with polycythemia vera. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that Spry proteins are potent regulators of Type I IFN signaling and negatively control induction of Type I IFN-mediated biological responses.
Henke A, Grace OC, Ashley GR, et al.Stromal expression of decorin, Semaphorin6D, SPARC, Sprouty1 and Tsukushi in developing prostate and decreased levels of decorin in prostate cancer.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e42516 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND AND AIM: During prostate development, mesenchymal-epithelial interactions regulate organ growth and differentiation. In adult prostate, stromal-epithelial interactions are important for tissue homeostasis and also play a significant role in prostate cancer. In this study we have identified molecules that show a mesenchymal expression pattern in the developing prostate, and one of these showed reduced expression in prostate cancer stroma.
METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five candidate molecules identified by transcript profiling of developmental prostate mesenchyme were selected using a wholemount in situ hybridisation screen and studied Decorin (Dcn), Semaphorin6D (Sema6D), SPARC/Osteonectin (SPARC), Sprouty1 (Spry-1) and Tsukushi (Tsku). Expression in rat tissues was evaluated using wholemount in situ hybridisation (postnatal day (P) 0.5) and immunohistochemistry (embryonic day (E) E17.5, E19.5; P0.5; P6; 28 & adult). Four candidates (Decorin, SPARC, Spry-1, Tsukushi) were immunolocalised in human foetal prostate (weeks 14, 16, 19) and expression of Decorin was evaluated on a human prostate cancer tissue microarray. In embryonic and perinatal rats Decorin, Semaphorin6D, SPARC, Spry-1 and Tsukushi were expressed with varying distribution patterns throughout the mesenchyme at E17.5, E19.5, P0.5 and P6.5. In P28 and adult prostates there was either a decrease in the expression (Semaphorin6D) or a switch to epithelial expression of SPARC, and Spry-1, whereas Decorin and Tsukushi were specific to mesenchyme/stroma at all ages. Expression of Decorin, SPARC, Spry-1 and Tsukushi in human foetal prostates paralleled that in rat. Decorin showed mesenchymal and stromal-specific expression at all ages and was further examined in prostate cancer, where stromal expression was significantly reduced compared with non-malignant prostate.
CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: We describe the spatio-temporal expression of Decorin, Semaphorin6D, SPARC, Spry-1 and Tsukushi in developing prostate and observed similar mesenchymal expression patterns in rat and human. Additionally, Decorin showed reduced expression in prostate cancer stroma compared to non-malignant prostate stroma.
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a malignancy derived from the calcitonin-producing C-cells of the thyroid gland. Oncogenic mutations of the Ret proto-oncogene are found in all heritable forms of MTC and roughly one half of the sporadic cases. However, several lines of evidence argue for the existence of additional genetic lesions necessary for the development of MTC. Sprouty (Spry) family of genes is composed of four members in mammals (Spry1-4). Some Spry family members have been proposed as candidate tumor-suppressor genes in a variety of cancerous pathologies. In this work, we show that targeted deletion of Spry1 causes C-cell hyperplasia, a precancerous lesion preceding MTC, in young adult mice. Expression of Spry1 restrains proliferation of the MTC-derived cell line, TT. Finally, we found that the Spry1 promoter is frequently methylated in MTC and that Spry1 expression is consequently decreased. These findings identify Spry1 as a candidate tumor-suppressor gene in MTC.