TMEFF2

Gene Summary

Gene:TMEFF2; transmembrane protein with EGF-like and two follistatin-like domains 2
Aliases: TR, HPP1, TPEF, TR-2, TENB2, CT120.2
Location:2q32.3
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the tomoregulin family of transmembrane proteins. This protein has been shown to function as both an oncogene and a tumor suppressor depending on the cellular context and may regulate prostate cancer cell invasion. Multiple soluble forms of this protein have been identified that arise from both an alternative splice variant and ectodomain shedding. Additionally, this gene has been found to be hypermethylated in multiple cancer types. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tomoregulin-2
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
TMEFF2 is implicated in:
- extracellular region
- integral to membrane
- molecular_function
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Urothelium
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • CDKN2A
  • Hyperplasia
  • RTPCR
  • Messenger RNA
  • TMEFF2
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cancer DNA
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Disease Progression
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Microsatellite Repeats
  • Lung Cancer
  • Staging
  • Promoter Regions
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Epigenetics
  • Cancer RNA
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Gene Silencing
  • Phenotype
  • Base Sequence
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • DNA Methylation
  • CpG Islands
  • Vimentin
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Chromosome 2
  • Transcription Factors
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Membrane Proteins
Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TMEFF2 (cancer-related)

Wang F, Li S, Wang L, et al.
DATS suppresses growth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by regulation of ERK1/2.
Clin Lab. 2015; 61(3-4):315-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It is well known that garlics contain a large number of organosulfur compounds including diallyl trisulfide (DATS), which possess anticancer properties. However, the effects of DATS on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) growth are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of DATS on ESCC cell growth in vivo and in vitro, as well as the associated signaling pathways.
METHODS: Cell proliferation was measured using the crystal violet assay. The transwell method was used to evaluate the effect of DATS on ESCC cell migration. Also, Western blot was performed to detect the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT1 responds to DATS. Finally, the effect of DATS on ESCC xenografts in nude mice was also investigated.
RESULTS: Our results showed that DATS significantly inhibited ESCC cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. DATS time-dependently (p < 0.05) increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not AKT1. Suppression of ERK1/2 activation with PD9805 also completely blocked DATS-inhibited ESCC cell proliferation. Meanwhile, DATS also robustly suppressed ESCC xenograft growth and increased ERK1/2 activation in nude mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Our finding demonstrated that DATS inhibits the proliferation of ESCC cells by activation of ERK1/2 in vitro and in vivo. These findings revealed that DATS could be used for therapeutic intervention for human ESCC.

Zhu Z, Xu Y, Zhao J, et al.
miR-367 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells by targeting the Smad7-TGF-β signalling pathway.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(8):1367-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/04/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant Smad7 expression contributes to the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells. However, the potential mechanism underlying aberrant Smad7 expression in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains largely unknown.
METHODS: Bioinformatic prediction programmes and luciferase reporter assay were used to identify microRNAs regulating Smad7. The association between miR-367 expression and the overall survival of PDAC patients was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The effects of miR-367 and Smad7 on the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells were investigated both in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: We found that miR-367 downregulated Smad7 expression by directly targeting its 3'-UTR in human pancreatic cancer cells. High level of miR-367 expression correlated with poor prognosis of PDAC patients. Functional studies showed that miR-367 promoted pancreatic cancer invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo through downregulating Smad7. In addition, we showed that miR-367 promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by increasing transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced transcriptional activity.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified and characterised a signalling pathway, the miR-367/Smad7-TGF-β pathway, which is involved in the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells. Our results suggest that miR-367 may be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of human pancreatic cancer.

Reis GF, Pekmezci M, Hansen HM, et al.
CDKN2A loss is associated with shortened overall survival in lower-grade (World Health Organization Grades II-III) astrocytomas.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2015; 74(5):442-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
Lower-grade (World Health Organization Grades II and III) gliomas vary widely in clinical behavior and are classified as astrocytic, oligodendroglial, or mixed. Anaplasia depends greatly on mitotic activity, with CDKN2A loss considered as the most common mechanism for cell cycle dysregulation. We investigated whether loss of the CDKN2A gene is associated with overall survival across pathologically and genetically defined glioma subtypes. After adjustment for IDH mutation, sex, and age, CDKN2A deletion was strongly associated with poorer overall survival in astrocytomas but not in oligodendrogliomas or oligoastrocytomas. Molecular classification of astrocytomas by IDH mutation, TP53 mutation, and /or ATRX loss of expression revealed that CDKN2A loss in IDH/TP53 mutated tumors was strongly associated with worse overall survival. CDKN2A loss in IDH mutated tumors with ATRX loss was only weakly associated with worse overall survival. These findings suggest that CDKN2A testing may provide further clinical aid in lower-grade glioma substratification beyond IDH mutation and 1p19q codeletion status, particularly in IDH/TP53 mutated astrocytomas.

Liu F, Luo LM, Wei YG, et al.
Polymorphisms of the CYP1B1 gene and hepatocellular carcinoma risk in a Chinese population.
Gene. 2015; 564(1):14-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CYP1B1 is a P450 enzyme which is involved in the activation of pro-carcinogens to carcinogens as well as estrogen metabolism. We hypothesized that genetic variants in CYP1B1 may modify individual susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the associations of three CYP1B1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and HCC risk in a case-control study of 468 HCC cases and 515 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method and direct DNA sequencing were performed to detect these polymorphisms.
RESULTS: In overall analysis, we found that only the variant G allele of rs1056836 was associated with a significantly increased risk of HCC among the three SNPs (rs10012, rs1056836 and rs1800440). Moreover, we found that the variant genotypes containing the G allele of rs1056836 were associated with a significantly increased risk of HCC among HbsAg-positive individuals (adjusted OR=2.13, 95% CI=1.18, 3.86), but not among HbsAg-negative individuals. When stratifying by smoking status, we found that the variant GG genotype increased a 13.97-fold (95% CI=1.28, 152.94) risk of HCC among smokers. Furthermore, high risk for liver cirrhosis-positive clinical status was exhibited in HCC patients with rs1056836 CG and GG genotypes as compared with CC homozygotes. For the other two SNPs, we did not find any significant evidence of association with HCC risk in any subgroup.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that CYP1B1 rs1056836 polymorphism may be an important factor contributing to increased susceptibility and pathological development of HCC in Chinese population.

Cromer MK, Choi M, Nelson-Williams C, et al.
Neomorphic effects of recurrent somatic mutations in Yin Yang 1 in insulin-producing adenomas.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(13):4062-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
Insulinomas are pancreatic islet tumors that inappropriately secrete insulin, producing hypoglycemia. Exome and targeted sequencing revealed that 14 of 43 insulinomas harbored the identical somatic mutation in the DNA-binding zinc finger of the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) showed that this T372R substitution changes the DNA motif bound by YY1. Global analysis of gene expression demonstrated distinct clustering of tumors with and without YY1(T372R) mutations. Genes showing large increases in expression in YY1(T372R) tumors included ADCY1 (an adenylyl cyclase) and CACNA2D2 (a Ca(2+) channel); both are expressed at very low levels in normal β-cells and show mutation-specific YY1 binding sites. Both gene products are involved in key pathways regulating insulin secretion. Expression of these genes in rat INS-1 cells demonstrated markedly increased insulin secretion. These findings indicate that YY1(T372R) mutations are neomorphic, resulting in constitutive activation of cAMP and Ca(2+) signaling pathways involved in insulin secretion.

Bi Q, Ranjan A, Fan R, et al.
MTBP inhibits migration and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2015; 32(4):301-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide with increasing incidence. Despite curative surgical resection and advanced chemotherapy, its survival rate remains low. The presence of microvascular invasion and occult metastasis is one of the major causes for this poor outcome. MDM2 Binding Protein (MTBP) has been implicated in the suppression of cell migration and cancer metastasis. However, clinical significance of MTBP, particularly in human cancer, is poorly understood. Specifically, clinical relevance of MTBP in human HCC has never been investigated. Here we demonstrated that expression of MTBP was significantly reduced in human HCC tissues compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues. MTBP expression was negatively correlated with capsular/vascular invasion and lymph node metastasis. Overexpression of MTBP resulted in the suppression of the migratory and metastatic potential of HCC cells, while its downregulation increased the migration. Consistent with the previous report, MTBP endogenously bound to alpha-actinin 4 (ACTN4) and suppressed ACTN4-mediated cell migration in multiple HCC cell lines. However, MTBP also inhibited migratory potential of PLC/PRF/5 HCC cells whose migration was not altered by manipulation of ACTN4 expression. These results suggest that mechanisms behind MTBP-mediated migration suppression may not be limited to the pathway involving ACTN4 in certain cellular contexts. Additionally, as a potential mechanism for reduced MTBP expression in tumors, we found that MTBP expression was increased following the treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs). Our study, for the first time, provides clinical relevance of MTBP in the suppression of HCC metastasis.

Wang LQ, Zhang Y, Yan H, et al.
MicroRNA-373 functions as an oncogene and targets YOD1 gene in cervical cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 459(3):515-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
miR-373 was reported to be elevated in several tumors; however, the role of miR-373 in cervical cancer has not been investigated. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of miR-373 in tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. The expression of miR-373 was investigated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay in 45 cervical specimens and cervical cancer cell lines. The role of miR-373 in tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells was assessed by cell proliferation, colony formation in vitro as well as tumor growth assays in vivo with the overexpression of miR-373 or gene silencing. The functional target gene of miR-373 in cervical cancer cells was identified using integrated bioinformatics analysis, gene expression arrays, and luciferase assay. We founded that the expression of miR-373 is upregulated in human cervical cancer tissues and cervical carcinoma cell lines when compared to the corresponding noncancerous tissues. Ectopic overexpression of miR-373 in human cervical cancer cells promoted cell growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo, whereas silencing the expression of miR-373 decreased the rate of cell growth. YOD1 was identified as a direct and functional target of miR-373 in cervical cancer cells. Expression levels of miR-373 were inversely correlated with YOD1 levels in human cervical cancer tissues. RNAi-mediated knockdown of YOD1 phenocopied the proliferation-promoting effect of miR-373. Moreover, overexpression of YOD1 abrogated miR-373-induced proliferation of cervical cancer cells. These results demonstrate that miR-373 increases proliferation by directly targeting YOD1, a new potential therapeutic target in cervical cancer.

Liu N, Chen T, Wang X, et al.
Msi1 confers resistance to TRAIL by activating ERK in liver cancer cells.
FEBS Lett. 2015; 589(8):897-903 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate TRAIL resistance mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we isolated a stable TRAIL-resistant sub-population of the HCC cell line LH86, designated LH86-TR. Differential activation of AKT was not responsible for acquisition of TRAIL resistance. Cells with both congenital and acquired resistance to TRAIL exhibited increased Msi1 expression, which conferred TRAIL resistance by activating ERK. Forced expression of Msi1 decreased the sensitivity of HCC cells to TRAIL both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, shRNA-mediated depletion of Msi1 enhanced TRAIL efficacy. SiRNA-mediated depletion of ERK overcame TRAIL resistance. Hence, we conclude that Msi1 is a mediator of TRAIL resistance in HCC cells.

Knoop K, Schwenk N, Schmohl K, et al.
Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated, tumor stroma-targeted radioiodine therapy of metastatic colon cancer using the sodium iodide symporter as theranostic gene.
J Nucl Med. 2015; 56(4):600-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The tumor-homing property of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) allows targeted delivery of therapeutic genes into the tumor microenvironment. The application of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) as a theranostic gene allows noninvasive imaging of MSC biodistribution and transgene expression before therapeutic radioiodine application. We have previously shown that linking therapeutic transgene expression to induction of the chemokine CCL5/RANTES allows a more focused expression within primary tumors, as the adoptively transferred MSC develop carcinoma-associated fibroblast-like characteristics. Although RANTES/CCL5-NIS targeting has shown efficacy in the treatment of primary tumors, it was not clear if it would also be effective in controlling the growth of metastatic disease.
METHODS: To expand the potential range of tumor targets, we investigated the biodistribution and tumor recruitment of MSCs transfected with NIS under control of the RANTES/CCL5 promoter (RANTES-NIS-MSC) in a colon cancer liver metastasis mouse model established by intrasplenic injection of the human colon cancer cell line LS174t. RANTES-NIS-MSCs were injected intravenously, followed by (123)I scintigraphy, (124)I PET imaging, and (131)I therapy.
RESULTS: Results show robust MSC recruitment with RANTES/CCL5-promoter activation within the stroma of liver metastases as evidenced by tumor-selective iodide accumulation, immunohistochemistry, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Therapeutic application of (131)I in RANTES-NIS-MSC-treated mice resulted in a significant delay in tumor growth and improved overall survival.
CONCLUSION: This novel gene therapy approach opens the prospect of NIS-mediated radionuclide therapy of metastatic cancer after MSC-mediated gene delivery.

Nikolic A, Cacev T, Aralica G, et al.
Mononucleotide repeats in the SMAD4 gene promoter in colon carcinoma tissue of Croatian patients.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2015; 98(2):133-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was aimed at the analysis of mononucleotide repeats -462T(15) and -4T(12) in the SMAD4 gene promoter in sporadic colon adenocarcinoma tissue of Croatian patients. The analysis has included 60 pairs of samples of colon tumor and adjacent normal tissue. The number of thymidines in the tracts -462T(15) and -4T(12) of the SMAD4 gene promoter was determined by PCR with fluorescently labeled primers followed by the analysis of obtained DNA fragments by capillary electrophoresis. In the normal colon tissue two haplotypes were present: -462T(15)/-4T(12) in 51 patients (85%) and -462T(16)/-4T(12) in 9 patients (15%). Among the cases with haplotype -462T(15)/-4T(12) detected in normal colon tissue, in 5 cases (8%) malignant tissue displayed different haplotypes: 462T(10)/-4T(10), -462T(12)/-4T(12), 462T(13)/-4T(11), -462T(14)/-4T(10) and -462T(15)/-4T(11). Haplotype -462T(14)/-4T(10) was previously found to be associated with significantly decreased SMAD4 gene promoter activity in comparison to the wild type, while the other detected haplotypes remain to be functionally characterized. This study has shown that functionally relevant somatic alterations of the SMAD4 gene promoter are found in some colon cancer tumors. Although not as frequent in colon as in pancreatic cancer, they may be of significance for certain cases and their role in colon tumorigenesis should be investigated further.

Qian J, Hassanein M, Hoeksema MD, et al.
The RNA binding protein FXR1 is a new driver in the 3q26-29 amplicon and predicts poor prognosis in human cancers.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(11):3469-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/09/2015 Related Publications
Aberrant expression of RNA-binding proteins has profound implications for cellular physiology and the pathogenesis of human diseases such as cancer. We previously identified the Fragile X-Related 1 gene (FXR1) as one amplified candidate driver gene at 3q26-29 in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). FXR1 is an autosomal paralog of Fragile X mental retardation 1 and has not been directly linked to human cancers. Here we demonstrate that FXR1 is a key regulator of tumor progression and its overexpression is critical for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell growth in vitro and in vivo. We identified the mechanisms by which FXR1 executes its regulatory function by forming a novel complex with two other oncogenes, protein kinase C, iota and epithelial cell transforming 2, located in the same amplicon via distinct binding mechanisms. FXR1 expression is a candidate biomarker predictive of poor survival in multiple solid tumors including NSCLCs. Because FXR1 is overexpressed and associated with poor clinical outcomes in multiple cancers, these results have implications for other solid malignancies.

Othman MA, Vujić D, Zecević Z, et al.
A cryptic three-way translocation t(10;19;11)(p12.31;q13.31;q23.3) with a derivative Y-chromosome in an infant with acute myeloblastic leukemia (M5b).
Gene. 2015; 563(2):115-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by the malignant transformation of hematopoietic precursors to a pathogenic cell clone. Chromosomal band 11q23 harboring MLL (=mixed lineage leukemia) gene is known to be involved in rearrangements with variety of genes as activating partners of MLL in different AML subtypes. Overall, an unfavorable prognosis is associated with MLL abnormalities. Here we investigated an 11-month-old male presenting with hyperleukocytosis being diagnosed with AML subtype FAB-M5b. In banding cytogenetics a der(19)t(19;?)(q13.3;?) and del(Y)(q11.23) were found as sole aberrations. Molecular cytogenetics revealed that the MLL gene was disrupted and even partially lost due to a t(10;19;11)(p12.31;q13.31;q23.3), an MLL/MLLT10 fusion appeared, and the der(Y) was an asymmetric inverted duplication with breakpoints in Yp11.2 and Yq11.23. The patient got hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from his haploidentical mother. Still three months afterwards 15% of blasts were detected in bone marrow and later the patient was lost during follow-up. The present case highlights the necessity to exclude MLL rearrangements, even when there seems to be no actual hint from banding cytogenetics.

Oshimori N, Oristian D, Fuchs E
TGF-β promotes heterogeneity and drug resistance in squamous cell carcinoma.
Cell. 2015; 160(5):963-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Subsets of long-lived, tumor-initiating stem cells often escape cancer therapies. However, sources and mechanisms that generate tumor heterogeneity and drug-resistant cell population are still unfolding. Here, we devise a functional reporter system to lineage trace and/or genetic ablate signaling in TGF-β-activated squamous cell carcinoma stem cells (SCC-SCs). Dissecting TGF-β's impact on malignant progression, we demonstrate that TGF-β concentrating near tumor-vasculature generates heterogeneity in TGF-β signaling at tumor-stroma interface and bestows slower-cycling properties to neighboring SCC-SCs. While non-responding progenies proliferate faster and accelerate tumor growth, TGF-β-responding progenies invade, aberrantly differentiate, and affect gene expression. Intriguingly, TGF-β-responding SCC-SCs show increased protection against anti-cancer drugs, but slower-cycling alone does not confer survival. Rather, TGF-β transcriptionally activates p21, which stabilizes NRF2, thereby markedly enhancing glutathione metabolism and diminishing effectiveness of anti-cancer therapeutics. Together, these findings establish a surprising non-genetic paradigm for TGF-β signaling in fueling heterogeneity in SCC-SCs, tumor characteristics, and drug resistance.

Kourtis N, Moubarak RS, Aranda-Orgilles B, et al.
FBXW7 modulates cellular stress response and metastatic potential through ​HSF1 post-translational modification.
Nat Cell Biol. 2015; 17(3):322-32 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
​Heat-shock factor 1 (​HSF1) orchestrates the heat-shock response in eukaryotes. Although this pathway has evolved to help cells adapt in the presence of challenging conditions, it is co-opted in cancer to support malignancy. However, the mechanisms that regulate ​HSF1 and thus cellular stress response are poorly understood. Here we show that the ubiquitin ligase ​FBXW7α interacts with ​HSF1 through a conserved motif phosphorylated by ​GSK3β and ​ERK1. ​FBXW7α ubiquitylates ​HSF1 and loss of ​FBXW7α results in impaired degradation of nuclear ​HSF1 and defective heat-shock response attenuation. ​FBXW7α is either mutated or transcriptionally downregulated in melanoma and ​HSF1 nuclear stabilization correlates with increased metastatic potential and disease progression. ​FBXW7α deficiency and subsequent ​HSF1 accumulation activates an invasion-supportive transcriptional program and enhances the metastatic potential of human melanoma cells. These findings identify a post-translational mechanism of regulation of the ​HSF1 transcriptional program both in the presence of exogenous stress and in cancer.

Katano I, Takahashi T, Ito R, et al.
Predominant development of mature and functional human NK cells in a novel human IL-2-producing transgenic NOG mouse.
J Immunol. 2015; 194(7):3513-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
We generated a severe immunodeficient NOD/Shi-scid-IL-2Rγ(null) (NOG) mouse substrain expressing the transgenic human IL-2 gene (NOG-IL-2 Tg). Upon transfer of human cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), CD3(-)CD56(high)CD16(+/-) cells developed unexpectedly, predominantly in the NOG-IL-2 Tg (hu-HSC NOG-IL-2 Tg). These cells expressed various NK receptors, including NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, NKG2D, and CD94, as well as a diverse set of killer cell Ig-like receptor molecules at levels comparable to normal human NK cells from the peripheral blood, which is evidence of their maturity. They produced levels of granzyme A as high as in human peripheral blood-derived NK cells, and a considerable amount of perforin protein was detected in the plasma. Human NK cells in hu-HSC NOG-IL-2 Tg produced IFN-γ upon stimulation, and IL-2, IL-15, or IL-12 treatment augmented the in vitro cytotoxicity. Inoculation of K562 leukemia cells into hu-HSC NOG-IL-2 Tg caused complete rejection of the tumor cells, whereas inoculation into hu-HSC NOG fully reconstituted with human B, T, and some NK cells did not. Moreover, when a CCR4(+) Hodgkin's lymphoma cell line was inoculated s.c. into hu-HSC NOG-IL-2 Tg, the tumor growth was significantly suppressed by treatment with a therapeutic humanized anti-CCR4 Ab (mogamulizumab), suggesting that the human NK cells in the mice exerted active Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in vivo. Taken together, these data suggest that the new NOG-IL-2 Tg strain is a unique model that can be used to investigate the biological and pathological functions of human NK cells in vivo.

Krishnamoorthy V, Carr T, de Pooter RF, et al.
Repression of Ccr9 transcription in mouse T lymphocyte progenitors by the Notch signaling pathway.
J Immunol. 2015; 194(7):3191-200 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
The chemokine receptor CCR9 controls the immigration of multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells into the thymus to sustain T cell development. Postimmigration, thymocytes downregulate CCR9 and migrate toward the subcapsular zone where they recombine their TCR β-chain and γ-chain gene loci. CCR9 is subsequently upregulated and participates in the localization of thymocytes during their selection for self-tolerant receptor specificities. Although the dynamic regulation of CCR9 is essential for early T cell development, the mechanisms controlling CCR9 expression have not been determined. In this article, we show that key regulators of T cell development, Notch1 and the E protein transcription factors E2A and HEB, coordinately control the expression of Ccr9. E2A and HEB bind at two putative enhancers upstream of Ccr9 and positively regulate CCR9 expression at multiple stages of T cell development. In contrast, the canonical Notch signaling pathway prevents the recruitment of p300 to the putative Ccr9 enhancers, resulting in decreased acetylation of histone H3 and a failure to recruit RNA polymerase II to the Ccr9 promoter. Although Notch signaling modestly modulates the binding of E proteins to one of the two Ccr9 enhancers, we found that Notch signaling represses Ccr9 in T cell lymphoma lines in which Ccr9 transcription is independent of E protein function. Our data support the hypothesis that activation of Notch1 has a dominant-negative effect on Ccr9 transcription and that Notch1 and E proteins control the dynamic expression of Ccr9 during T cell development.

Diouf B, Crews KR, Lew G, et al.
Association of an inherited genetic variant with vincristine-related peripheral neuropathy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
JAMA. 2015; 313(8):815-23 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/08/2015 Related Publications
IMPORTANCE: With cure rates of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) exceeding 85%, there is a need to mitigate treatment toxicities that can compromise quality of life, including peripheral neuropathy from vincristine treatment.
OBJECTIVE: To identify genetic germline variants associated with the occurrence or severity of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in children with ALL.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Genome-wide association study of patients in 1 of 2 prospective clinical trials for childhood ALL that included treatment with 36 to 39 doses of vincristine. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy were assessed in 321 patients from whom DNA was available: 222 patients (median age, 6.0 years; range, 0.1-18.8 years) enrolled in 1994-1998 in the St Jude Children's Research Hospital protocol Total XIIIB with toxic effects follow-up through January 2001, and 99 patients (median age, 11.4 years; range, 3.0-23.8 years) enrolled in 2007-2010 in the Children's Oncology Group (COG) protocol AALL0433 with toxic effects follow-up through May 2011. Human leukemia cells and induced pluripotent stem cell neurons were used to assess the effects of lower CEP72 expression on vincristine sensitivity.
EXPOSURE: Treatment with vincristine at a dose of 1.5 or 2.0 mg/m2.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy was assessed at clinic visits using National Cancer Institute criteria and prospectively graded as mild (grade 1), moderate (grade 2), serious/disabling (grade 3), or life threatening (grade 4).
RESULTS: Grade 2 to 4 vincristine-induced neuropathy during continuation therapy occurred in 28.8% of patients (64/222) in the St Jude cohort and in 22.2% (22/99) in the COG cohort. A SNP in the promoter region of the CEP72 gene, which encodes a centrosomal protein involved in microtubule formation, had a significant association with vincristine neuropathy (meta-analysis P = 6.3×10(-9)). This SNP had a minor allele frequency of 37% (235/642), with 50 of 321 patients (16%; 95% CI, 11.6%-19.5%) homozygous for the risk allele (TT at rs924607). Among patients with the high-risk CEP72 genotype (TT at rs924607), 28 of 50 (56%; 95% CI, 41.2%-70.0%) developed at least 1 episode of grade 2 to 4 neuropathy, a higher rate than in patients with the CEP72 CC or CT genotypes (58/271 patients [21.4%; 95% CI, 16.9%-26.7%]; P = 2.4×10(-6)). The severity of neuropathy was greater in patients homozygous for the TT genotype compared with patients with the CC or CT genotype (2.4-fold by Poisson regression [P<.0001] and 2.7-fold based on mean grade of neuropathy: 1.23 [95% CI, 0.74-1.72] vs 0.45 [95% CI, 0.3-0.6]; P = .004 by t test). Reducing CEP72 expression in human neurons and leukemia cells increased their sensitivity to vincristine.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this preliminary study of children with ALL, an inherited polymorphism in the promoter region of CEP72 was associated with increased risk and severity of vincristine-related peripheral neuropathy. If replicated in additional populations, this finding may provide a basis for safer dosing of this widely prescribed anticancer agent.

Scheller T, Hellerbrand C, Moser C, et al.
mTOR inhibition improves fibroblast growth factor receptor targeting in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(5):841-50 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Systemic therapy has proven only marginal effects in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) on tumour and stromal cells in HCC models.
METHODS: Human and murine HCC cells, endothelial cells (ECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), human HCC samples, FGFR inhibitor BGJ398 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin were used. Effects on growth, motility, signalling and angiogenic markers were determined. In vivo subcutaneous and syngeneic orthotopic tumour models were used.
RESULTS: In tumour cells and ECs, targeting FGFR showed significant inhibitory effects on signalling and motility. Minor effects of FGFR inhibition were observed on VSMCs and HSCs, which were significantly enhanced by combining FGFR and mTOR blockade. In vivo daily (5 mg kg(-1)) treatment with BGJ398 led to a significant growth inhibition in subcutaneous tumour models, but only a combination of FGFR and mTOR blockade impaired tumour growth in the orthotopic model. This was paralleled by reduced tumour cell proliferation, vascularisation, pericytes and increased apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Targeting FGFR with BGJ398 affects tumour cells and ECs, whereas only a combination with mTOR inhibition impairs recruitment of VSMCs and HSCs. Therefore, this study provides evidence for combined FGFR/mTOR inhibition in HCC.

Shoshan E, Mobley AK, Braeuer RR, et al.
Reduced adenosine-to-inosine miR-455-5p editing promotes melanoma growth and metastasis.
Nat Cell Biol. 2015; 17(3):311-21 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Although recent studies have shown that adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing occurs in microRNAs (miRNAs), its effects on tumour growth and metastasis are not well understood. We present evidence of CREB-mediated low expression of ADAR1 in metastatic melanoma cell lines and tumour specimens. Re-expression of ADAR1 resulted in the suppression of melanoma growth and metastasis in vivo. Consequently, we identified three miRNAs undergoing A-to-I editing in the weakly metastatic melanoma but not in strongly metastatic cell lines. One of these miRNAs, miR-455-5p, has two A-to-I RNA-editing sites. The biological function of edited miR-455-5p is different from that of the unedited form, as it recognizes a different set of genes. Indeed, wild-type miR-455-5p promotes melanoma metastasis through inhibition of the tumour suppressor gene CPEB1. Moreover, wild-type miR-455 enhances melanoma growth and metastasis in vivo, whereas the edited form inhibits these features. These results demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for RNA editing in melanoma progression.

Puls F, Niblett A, Clarke J, et al.
YAP1-TFE3 epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: a case without vasoformation and a new transcript variant.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 466(4):473-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare vascular tumor of borderline malignancy characterized by recurrent WWTR1-CAMTA1 gene fusions in approximately 90 % of cases. In addition, a recurrent YAP1-TFE3 gene fusion has been identified in WWTR1-CAMTA1 negative epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas. This subset has been reported as having a distinct morphology with more obvious vasoformation, voluminous eosinophilic cytoplasm, and TFE3 positivity on immunohistochemistry. We report a case of a YAP1-TFE3 translocated epithelioid hemangioendothelioma arising in a groin lymph node in a 29-year-old male. Plump spindle cell morphology and absence of vasoformation made correct diagnosis particularly difficult. Immunohistochemistry showed nuclear positivity for both ERG and TFE3, fluorescence in situ hybridization showed break apart for TFE3 and RT-PCR identified a YAP1 exon1 to TFE3 exon 6 transcript, a previously unreported fusion variant. Awareness of this solid morphology and variant fusion will aid in identification of future cases of this rare vascular tumor.

Bakkum-Gamez JN, Wentzensen N, Maurer MJ, et al.
Detection of endometrial cancer via molecular analysis of DNA collected with vaginal tampons.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 137(1):14-22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: We demonstrate the feasibility of detecting EC by combining minimally-invasive specimen collection techniques with sensitive molecular testing.
METHODS: Prior to hysterectomy for EC or benign indications, women collected vaginal pool samples with intravaginal tampons and underwent endometrial brushing. Specimens underwent pyrosequencing for DNA methylation of genes reported to be hypermethylated in gynecologic cancers and recently identified markers discovered by profiling over 200 ECs. Methylation was evaluated individually across CpGs and averaged across genes. Differences between EC and benign endometrium (BE) were assessed using two-sample t-tests and area under the curve (AUC).
RESULTS: Thirty-eight ECs and 28 BEs were included. We evaluated 97 CpGs within 12 genes, including previously reported markers (RASSF1, HSP2A, HOXA9, CDH13, HAAO, and GTF2A1) and those identified in discovery work (ASCL2, HTR1B, NPY, HS3ST2, MME, ADCYAP1, and additional CDH13 CpG sites). Mean methylation was higher in tampon specimens from EC v. BE for 9 of 12 genes (ADCYAP1, ASCL2, CDH13, HS3ST2, HTR1B, MME, HAAO, HOXA9, and RASSF1) (all p<0.05). Among these genes, relative hypermethylation was observed in EC v. BE across CpGs. Endometrial brush and tampon results were similar. Within tampon specimens, AUC was highest for HTR1B (0.82), RASSF1 (0.75), and HOXA9 (0.74). This is the first report of HOXA9 hypermethylation in EC.
CONCLUSION: DNA hypermethylation in EC tissues can also be identified in vaginal pool DNA collected via intravaginal tampon. Identification of additional EC biomarkers and refined collection methods are needed to develop an early detection tool for EC.

Nolan KD, Franco OE, Hance MW, et al.
Tumor-secreted Hsp90 subverts polycomb function to drive prostate tumor growth and invasion.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(13):8271-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 27/03/2016 Related Publications
Prostate cancer remains the second highest contributor to male cancer-related lethality. The transition of a subset of tumors from indolent to invasive disease is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Activation of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) genetic program is a major risk factor for cancer progression. We recently reported that secreted extracellular Hsp90 (eHsp90) initiates EMT in prostate cancer cells, coincident with its enhanced expression in mesenchymal models. Our current work substantially extended these findings in defining a pathway linking eHsp90 signaling to EZH2 function, a methyltransferase of the Polycomb repressor complex. EZH2 is also implicated in EMT activation, and its up-regulation represents one of the most frequent epigenetic alterations during prostate cancer progression. We have now highlighted a novel epigenetic function for eHsp90 via its modulation of EZH2 expression and activity. Mechanistically, eHsp90 initiated sustained activation of MEK/ERK, a signal critical for facilitating EZH2 transcriptional up-regulation and recruitment to the E-cadherin promoter. We further demonstrated that an eHsp90-EZH2 pathway orchestrates an expanded repertoire of EMT-related events including Snail and Twist expression, tumor cell motility, and anoikis resistance. To evaluate the role of eHsp90 in vivo, eHsp90 secretion was stably enforced in a prostate cancer cell line resembling indolent disease. Remarkably, eHsp90 was sufficient to induce tumor growth, suppress E-cadherin, and initiate localized invasion, events that are exquisitely dependent upon EZH2 function. In summary, our findings illuminate a hitherto unknown epigenetic function for eHsp90 and support a model wherein tumor eHsp90 functions as a rheostat for EZH2 expression and activity to orchestrate mesenchymal properties and coincident aggressive behavior.

Walz AL, Ooms A, Gadd S, et al.
Recurrent DGCR8, DROSHA, and SIX homeodomain mutations in favorable histology Wilms tumors.
Cancer Cell. 2015; 27(2):286-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report the most common single-nucleotide substitution/deletion mutations in favorable histology Wilms tumors (FHWTs) to occur within SIX1/2 (7% of 534 tumors) and microRNA processing genes (miRNAPGs) DGCR8 and DROSHA (15% of 534 tumors). Comprehensive analysis of 77 FHWTs indicates that tumors with SIX1/2 and/or miRNAPG mutations show a pre-induction metanephric mesenchyme gene expression pattern and are significantly associated with both perilobar nephrogenic rests and 11p15 imprinting aberrations. Significantly decreased expression of mature Let-7a and the miR-200 family (responsible for mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition) in miRNAPG mutant tumors is associated with an undifferentiated blastemal histology. The combination of SIX and miRNAPG mutations in the same tumor is associated with evidence of RAS activation and a higher rate of relapse and death.

Mur P, Mollejo M, Hernández-Iglesias T, et al.
Molecular classification defines 4 prognostically distinct glioma groups irrespective of diagnosis and grade.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2015; 74(3):241-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
According to World Health Organization criteria, diffuse gliomas are divided into several histological subtypes, including astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas, and 4 malignancy grades (I-IV). Molecular alterations, such as the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (IDH) mutation or 1p/19q loss, are found in these tumors but are not included in the current classification system. Recently, mutation of α thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) gene and its loss of expression have been reported in infiltrating gliomas. We evaluated ATRX protein expression in 272 gliomas and its association with molecular and clinical features. Loss of ATRX expression was more common in tumors with an astrocytic component (astrocytomas II/III, 46.4%; oligoastrocytomas, 47.5%) but was uncommon in oligodendrogliomas (7.3%) and glioblastomas (0.9%). In astrocytic tumors, loss of ATRX expression was significantly associated with longer overall survival. Remarkably, on the basis of IDH mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, and ATRX expression, our study defined 4 molecularly and prognostically different groups of gliomas, showing the relevance of ATRX expression as a new marker for refining the molecular classification of gliomas and for distinguishing clinically distinct prognostic subgroups of patients.

Chen Y, Terajima M, Yang Y, et al.
Lysyl hydroxylase 2 induces a collagen cross-link switch in tumor stroma.
J Clin Invest. 2015; 125(3):1147-62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 27/03/2016 Related Publications
Epithelial tumor metastasis is preceded by an accumulation of collagen cross-links that heighten stromal stiffness and stimulate the invasive properties of tumor cells. However, the biochemical nature of collagen cross-links in cancer is still unclear. Here, we postulated that epithelial tumorigenesis is accompanied by changes in the biochemical type of collagen cross-links. Utilizing resected human lung cancer tissues and a p21CIP1/WAF1-deficient, K-rasG12D-expressing murine metastatic lung cancer model, we showed that, relative to normal lung tissues, tumor stroma contains higher levels of hydroxylysine aldehyde-derived collagen cross-links (HLCCs) and lower levels of lysine aldehyde-derived cross-links (LCCs), which are the predominant types of collagen cross-links in skeletal tissues and soft tissues, respectively. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in tumor cells showed that lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2), which hydroxylates telopeptidyl lysine residues on collagen, shifted the tumor stroma toward a high-HLCC, low-LCC state, increased tumor stiffness, and enhanced tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Together, our data indicate that LH2 enhances the metastatic properties of tumor cells and functions as a regulatory switch that controls the relative abundance of biochemically distinct types of collagen cross-links in the tumor stroma.

Dasgupta S, Putluri N, Long W, et al.
Coactivator SRC-2-dependent metabolic reprogramming mediates prostate cancer survival and metastasis.
J Clin Invest. 2015; 125(3):1174-88 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 27/03/2016 Related Publications
Metabolic pathway reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer cell growth and survival and supports the anabolic and energetic demands of these rapidly dividing cells. The underlying regulators of the tumor metabolic program are not completely understood; however, these factors have potential as cancer therapy targets. Here, we determined that upregulation of the oncogenic transcriptional coregulator steroid receptor coactivator 2 (SRC-2), also known as NCOA2, drives glutamine-dependent de novo lipogenesis, which supports tumor cell survival and eventual metastasis. SRC-2 was highly elevated in a variety of tumors, especially in prostate cancer, in which SRC-2 was amplified and overexpressed in 37% of the metastatic tumors evaluated. In prostate cancer cells, SRC-2 stimulated reductive carboxylation of α-ketoglutarate to generate citrate via retrograde TCA cycling, promoting lipogenesis and reprogramming of glutamine metabolism. Glutamine-mediated nutrient signaling activated SRC-2 via mTORC1-dependent phosphorylation, which then triggered downstream transcriptional responses by coactivating SREBP-1, which subsequently enhanced lipogenic enzyme expression. Metabolic profiling of human prostate tumors identified a massive increase in the SRC-2-driven metabolic signature in metastatic tumors compared with that seen in localized tumors, further implicating SRC-2 as a prominent metabolic coordinator of cancer metastasis. Moreover, SRC-2 inhibition in murine models severely attenuated the survival, growth, and metastasis of prostate cancer. Together, these results suggest that the SRC-2 pathway has potential as a therapeutic target for prostate cancer.

Betts BC, Sagatys EM, Veerapathran A, et al.
CD4+ T cell STAT3 phosphorylation precedes acute GVHD, and subsequent Th17 tissue invasion correlates with GVHD severity and therapeutic response.
J Leukoc Biol. 2015; 97(4):807-19 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
Th17 cells contribute to severe GVHD in murine bone marrow transplantation. Targeted deletion of the RORγt transcription factor or blockade of the JAK2-STAT3 axis suppresses IL-17 production and alloreactivity by Th17 cells. Here, we show that pSTAT3 Y705 is increased significantly in CD4(+) T cells among human recipients of allogeneic HCT before the onset of Grade II-IV acute GVHD. Examination of target-organ tissues at the time of GVHD diagnosis indicates that the amount of RORγt + Th17 cells is significantly higher in severe GVHD. Greater accumulation of tissue-resident Th17 cells also correlates with the use of MTX- compared with Rapa-based GVHD prophylaxis, as well as a poor therapeutic response to glucocorticoids. RORγt is optimally suppressed by concurrent neutralization of TORC1 with Rapa and inhibition of STAT3 activation with S3I-201, supporting that mTOR- and STAT3-dependent pathways converge upon RORγt gene expression. Rapa-resistant T cell proliferation can be totally inhibited by STAT3 blockade during initial allosensitization. We conclude that STAT3 signaling and resultant Th17 tissue accumulation are closely associated with acute GVHD onset, severity, and treatment outcome. Future studies are needed to validate the association of STAT3 activity in acute GVHD. Novel GVHD prevention strategies that incorporate dual STAT3 and mTOR inhibition merit investigation.

McDermott DH, Gao JL, Liu Q, et al.
Chromothriptic cure of WHIM syndrome.
Cell. 2015; 160(4):686-99 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/02/2016 Related Publications
Chromothripsis is a catastrophic cellular event recently described in cancer in which chromosomes undergo massive deletion and rearrangement. Here, we report a case in which chromothripsis spontaneously cured a patient with WHIM syndrome, an autosomal dominant combined immunodeficiency disease caused by gain-of-function mutation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. In this patient, deletion of the disease allele, CXCR4(R334X), as well as 163 other genes from one copy of chromosome 2 occurred in a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) that repopulated the myeloid but not the lymphoid lineage. In competitive mouse bone marrow (BM) transplantation experiments, Cxcr4 haploinsufficiency was sufficient to confer a strong long-term engraftment advantage of donor BM over BM from either wild-type or WHIM syndrome model mice, suggesting a potential mechanism for the patient's cure. Our findings suggest that partial inactivation of CXCR4 may have general utility as a strategy to promote HSC engraftment in transplantation.

Li Y, Sun B, Zhao X, et al.
Subpopulations of uPAR+ contribute to vasculogenic mimicry and metastasis in large cell lung cancer.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2015; 98(2):136-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is closely associated with poor prognosis in various aggressive cancers including large-cell lung cancer (LCLC). Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) refers to the unique capability of aggressive tumor cells to mimic the pattern of embryonic vasculogenic networks involving the blood supply in early tumor formation. We demonstrate the statistically positive correlation of uPAR expression with VM formation, metastasis, and poor prognosis of LCLC patients. uPAR(+) cells sorted from the LCLC H460 cell line show higher invasion, migration capacity, and tube structure formation capability on Matrigel compared with uPAR(-) cells. uPAR(+) tumor cells highly expressed vimentin and VE-cadherin; the epithelial marker E-cadherin was low expressed. Higher EMT-regulated protein twist and snail expressions were also observed in these cells. uPAR(+) cells injected subcutaneously into nude mice markedly increased tumor growth, induced VM formation and liver metastasis; by contrast, uPAR(-) cells did not. The data suggest that uPAR expression may predict VM formation, tumor metastasis and poorer prognosis of LCLC patients. The uPAR gene may be used as a novel therapeutic target for inhibiting angiogenesis and metastasis in LCLC.

Timmermand OV, Tran TA, Strand SE, Axelsson J
Intratherapeutic biokinetic measurements, dosimetry parameter estimates, and monitoring of treatment efficacy using cerenkov luminescence imaging in preclinical radionuclide therapy.
J Nucl Med. 2015; 56(3):444-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: In recent years, there has been increasing interest in noninvasive Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) of in vivo radionuclide distribution in small animals, a method proven to be a high-throughput modality for confirmation of tracer uptake. 11B6 is an IgG1 monoclonal antibody that is specific to free human kallikrein-related peptidase 2, an antigen abundant in malignant prostatic tissue. Free human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 was targeted in prostate cancer xenografts using (177)Lu-labeled 11B6 in either murine or humanized forms for radionuclide therapy. In this setting, CLI was investigated as a tool for providing parameters of dosimetric importance during radionuclide therapy. First, longitudinal imaging of biokinetics using CLI and SPECT was compared. Second, the CLI signal was correlated to quantitative ex vivo tumor activity measurements. Finally, CLI was used to monitor the radionuclide treatment, and the integrated CLI radiance was found to correlate well with subject-specific tumor volume reduction.
METHODS: 11B6 was radiolabeled with (177)Lu through the CHX-A″-DTPA chelator. In vivo CLI and SPECT imaging of (177)Lu-DTPA-11B6 uptake was performed on NMRI and BALB/c nude mice with subcutaneous LNCaP xenografts up to 14 d after injection. Tumor size was measured to assess response to radionuclide therapy.
RESULTS: CLI correlated well with SPECT imaging and could be applied up to 14 d after injection of 20 MBq with the specific tracer used. Through integration of the CLI radiance as a function of time, a dose metric for the tumors could be formed that correlated exponentially with tumor volume reduction.
CONCLUSION: CLI provided valuable intratherapeutic biokinetic measurements for treatment monitoring and could be used as a tool for subject-specific absorbed dose estimation.

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