Turcot Syndrome


Turcot Syndrome is characterised by malignant tumors of the central nervous system (mostly astrocytomas and medulloblastoma) associated with familial polyposis of the colon. There are different sub-types (Paraf F et al, 1997).

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 10 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Mutated Genes and Abnormal Protein Expression (5)

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PMS2 7p22.1 MLH4, PMSL2, HNPCC4, PMS2CL Germline
-PMS2 mutations in Turcot Syndrome
MLH1 3p21.3 FCC2, COCA2, HNPCC, hMLH1, HNPCC2 Germline
-MLH1 mutations in Turcot Syndrome
APC 5q21-q22 GS, DP2, DP3, BTPS2, DP2.5, PPP1R46 Germline
-APC mutations in Turcot Syndrome
MSH2 2p21 FCC1, COCA1, HNPCC, LCFS2, HNPCC1 Germline
-MSH2 mutations in Turcot Syndrome
MSH6 2p16 GTBP, HSAP, p160, GTMBP, HNPCC5 Germline
-MSH6 mutations in Turcot Syndrome

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Useful Links (4 links)

Latest Publications

Colle R, Cohen R, Cochereau D, et al.
Immunotherapy and patients treated for cancer with microsatellite instability.
Bull Cancer. 2017; 104(1):42-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a tumor phenotype linked to somatic or germline (Lynch syndrome) inactivating alterations of DNA mismatch repair genes. A broad spectrum of neoplasms exhibits MSI phenotype, mainly colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, and gastric cancer. MSI tumors are characterized by dense immune infiltration and high load of tumor neo-antigens. Growing evidence is accumulating on the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibition for patients treated for MSI solid tumors. We present a comprehensive overview of MSI phenotype, its biological landscape and current diagnostic methods. Then we focus on MSI as a predictive biomarker of response to immune checkpoint inhibition in the context of colorectal cancer and non-colorectal tumors.

Pohl M, Schmiegel W
Therapeutic Strategies in Diseases of the Digestive Tract - 2015 and Beyond Targeted Therapies in Colon Cancer Today and Tomorrow.
Dig Dis. 2016; 34(5):574-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer type in Western countries. Significant progress has been made in the last decade in the therapy of metastatic CRC (mCRC) with a median overall survival (OS) of patients exceeding 30 months. The integration of biologic targeted therapies and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies (MABs) in the treatment of patients with genomically selected all-RAS wild-type mCRC leads to a significant progress in advanced incurable disease state. After the introduction of the anti-VEGF MAB bevacizumab, the FDA approved with ramucirumab the second antiangiogenic MAB for the mCRC treatment. Further new drugs are on the horizon and new diagnostic tools will be introduced soon.
KEY MESSAGES: Molecular heterogeneity of mCRC has been recognized as pivotal in the evolution of clonal populations during anti-EGFR therapies. Mutations in RAS genes predict a lack of response to anti-EGFR MABs. Mutations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase-phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways like BRAF or PIK3CA mutations or HER2/ERBB2 or MET amplifications bypass EGFR signaling and also may confer resistance to anti-EGFR MABs. HER2/ERBB2 amplification is a further driver of resistance to anti-EGFR MABs in mCRC. The phase II study of HER2 Amplification for Colo-Rectal Cancer Enhanced Stratification (HERACLES) discovers that a dual HER2-targeted therapy may be an option for HER2-amplified mCRC. The mismatch repair deficiency predicts responsiveness to an immune checkpoint blockade with the anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab.
CONCLUSIONS: The understanding of primary (de novo) and secondary (acquired) resistance to anti-EGFR therapies, new targeted therapies, immuno-oncology and about predictive biomarkers in mCRC is guiding the development of rational therapeutic strategies. Combinations of targeted therapies are necessary to effectively treat drug-resistant cancers. Liquid biopsy is an upcoming new tool in the primary diagnosis and follow-up analysis of mutations in circulating tumor DNA.

Tougeron D, Mouillet G, Trouilloud I, et al.
Efficacy of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Colon Cancer With Microsatellite Instability: A Large Multicenter AGEO Study.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2016; 108(7) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) colon cancer (CC) is reportedly resistant to 5-fluorouracil (5FU) adjuvant chemotherapy while preliminary data suggest chemosensitivity to oxaliplatin. We assessed the efficacy of fluoropyrimidine with and without oxaliplatin in a large cohort of dMMR CC patients.
METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study included all consecutive patients who underwent curative surgical resection for stage II or III dMMR CC between 2000 and 2011. Prognostic factors were analyzed using Cox models, and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: A total of 433 dMMR CC patients were included (56.8% stage II, 43.2% stage III). Mean follow-up was 47.0 months. The patients received surgery alone (n = 263) or surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of fluoropyrimidine with (n = 119) or without (n = 51) oxaliplatin. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 16.7% of stage II and 69.0% of stage III CC patients. As compared with surgery alone, adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy improved disease-free survival (DFS) in multivariable analysis (HR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.19 to 0.65, P < .001), contrary to adjuvant fluoropyrimidine alone (HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.36 to 1.49, P = .38). In the subgroup analysis, the DFS benefit of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy was statistically significant in multivariable analysis only in stage III (HR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.19 to 0.87, P = .02).
CONCLUSION: This study supports the use of adjuvant chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidine plus oxaliplatin in stage III dMMR CC.

Buecher B
Colorectal adenomatous polyposis syndromes: Genetic determinism, clinical presentation and recommendations for care.
Bull Cancer. 2016; 103(2):199-209 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal adenomatous polyposis constitutes a diverse group of disorders with different modes of inheritance. Molecular diagnosis of this condition has become more complex. In fact, somatic mosaicism for APC mutations now appears to be more frequent than previously thought and rare germline alterations of this gene may be implicated in patients tested negative for "classical" APC mutations (point mutations and large genomic rearrangements). Moreover, the knowledge concerning several aspects of the MUTYH-associated polyposis has improved since its first description in 2002 and germline mutations in new genes have recently been implicated in some cases of unexplained adenomatous polyposis. Genetic testing in probands and their relatives should be conducted in the context of pre- and post-test genetic counseling. The recent advent of New Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques affords the opportunity to rapidly screen patients for a comprehensive panel of colorectal cancer susceptibility genes in a cost-effective fashion. This type of approach will probably replace the classical sequential approach based on clinical presumptive diagnoses in the near future. The risk of colorectal cancer is very high in affected patients in the absence of appropriate care. Clinical management is complex and should be provided in centers with special expertise in these diseases. This review focuses on the various colorectal adenomatous polyposis syndromes with special attention to more innovative and important aspects.

Sahnane N, Bernasconi B, Carnevali I, et al.
Disruption of the APC gene by t(5;7) translocation in a Turcot family.
Cancer Genet. 2016; 209(3):107-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Turcot syndrome (TS) refers to the combination of colorectal polyps and primary tumours of the central nervous system. TS is a heterogeneous genetic condition due to APC and/or mismatch repair germline mutations. When APC is involved the vast majority of mutations are truncating, but in approximately 20%-30% of patients with familial polyposis no germline mutation can be found. A 30-year-old Caucasian woman with a positive pedigree for TS was referred to our Genetic Counselling Service. She was negative for APC and MUTYH but showed a reciprocal balanced translocation t(5;7)(q22;p15) at chromosome analysis. FISH analysis using specific BAC probes demonstrated that 5q22 breakpoint disrupted the APC gene. Transcript analysis by MLPA and digital PCR revealed that the cytogenetic rearrangement involving the 3' end of the APC gene caused a defective expression of a truncated transcript. This result allowed cytogenetic analysis to be offered to all the other family members and segregation analysis clearly demonstrated that all the carriers were affected, whereas non-carriers did not have the polyposis. A cytogenetic approach permitted the identification of the mutation-causing disease in this family, and the segregation analysis together with the transcript study supported the pathogenetic role of this mutation. Karyotype analysis was used as a predictive test in all members of this family. This family suggests that clinically positive TS and FAP cases, which test negative with standard molecular analysis, could be easily and cost-effectively resolved by a classical and molecular cytogenetic approach.

Ripperger T, Schlegelberger B
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoma in the context of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome.
Eur J Med Genet. 2016; 59(3):133-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is one of the rare diseases associated with a high risk of cancer. Causative mutations are found in DNA mismatch repair genes PMS2, MSH6, MSH2 or MLH1 that are well known in the context of Lynch syndrome. CMMRD follows an autosomal recessive inheritance trait and is characterized by childhood brain tumors and hematological malignancies as well as gastrointestinal cancer in the second and third decades of life. There is a high risk of multiple cancers, occurring synchronously and metachronously. In general, the prognosis is poor. About one third of CMMRD patients develop hematological malignancies as primary (sometimes the only) malignancy or as secondary neoplasm. T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, mainly of mediastinal origin, are the most frequent hematological malignancies. Besides malignant diseases, non-neoplastic features are frequently observed, e.g. café-au-lait spots sometimes resembling neurofibromatosis type I, hypopigmented skin lesions, numerous adenomatous polyps, multiple pilomatricomas, or impaired immunoglobulin class switch recombination. Within the present review, we summarize previously published CMMRD patients with at least one hematological malignancy, provide an overview of steps necessary to substantiate the diagnosis of CMMRD, and refer to the recent most relevant literature.

Aronson M, Gallinger S, Cohen Z, et al.
Gastrointestinal Findings in the Largest Series of Patients With Hereditary Biallelic Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome: Report from the International Consortium.
Am J Gastroenterol. 2016; 111(2):275-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Hereditary biallelic mismatch repair deficiency (BMMRD) is caused by biallelic mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes and manifests features of neurofibromatosis type 1, gastrointestinal (GI) polyposis, and GI, brain, and hematological cancers. This is the first study to characterize the GI phenotype in BMMRD using both retrospective and prospective surveillance data.
METHODS: The International BMMRD Consortium was created to collect information on BMMRD families referred from around the world. All patients had germline biallelic MMR mutations or lack of MMR protein staining in normal and tumor tissue. GI screening data were obtained through medical records with annual updates.
RESULTS: Thirty-five individuals from seven countries were identified with BMMRD. GI data were available on 24 of 33 individuals (73%) of screening age, totaling 53 person-years. The youngest age of colonic adenomas was 7, and small bowel adenoma was 11. Eight patients had 19 colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRC; median age 16.7 years, range 8-25), and 11 of 18 (61%) CRC were distal to the splenic flexure. Eleven patients had 15 colorectal surgeries (median 14 years, range 9-25). Four patients had five small bowel adenocarcinomas (SBC; median 18 years, range 11-33). Two CRC and two SBC were detected during surveillance within 6-11 months and 9-16 months, respectively, of last consecutive endoscopy. No patient undergoing surveillance died of a GI malignancy. Familial clustering of GI cancer was observed.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence and penetrance of GI neoplasia in children with BMMRD is high, with rapid development of carcinoma. Colorectal and small bowel surveillance should commence at ages 3-5 and 8 years, respectively.

Johansson G, Andersson U, Melin B
Recent developments in brain tumor predisposing syndromes.
Acta Oncol. 2016; 55(4):401-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
The etiologies of brain tumors are in the most cases unknown, but improvements in genetics and DNA screening have helped to identify a wide range of brain tumor predisposition disorders. In this review we are discussing some of the most common predisposition disorders, namely: neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2, schwannomatosis, rhabdoid tumor predisposition disorder, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin), tuberous sclerosis complex, von Hippel-Lindau, Li-Fraumeni and Turcot syndromes. Recent findings from the GLIOGENE collaboration and the newly identified glioma causing gene POT1, will also be discussed. Genetics. We will describe these disorders from a genetic and clinical standpoint, focusing on the difference in clinical symptoms depending on the underlying gene or germline mutation. Central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Most of these disorders predispose the carriers to a wide range of symptoms. Herein, we will focus particularly on tumors affecting the CNS and discuss improvements of targeted therapy for the particular disorders.

Agaimy A, Daum O, Märkl B, et al.
SWI/SNF Complex-deficient Undifferentiated/Rhabdoid Carcinomas of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Series of 13 Cases Highlighting Mutually Exclusive Loss of SMARCA4 and SMARCA2 and Frequent Co-inactivation of SMARCB1 and SMARCA2.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2016; 40(4):544-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Undifferentiated gastrointestinal tract carcinomas are rare highly aggressive neoplasms with frequent but not obligatory rhabdoid features. Recent studies showed loss of SMARCB1 (INI1), a core subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, in 50% of tested cases. However, the molecular pathways underlying histologically similar but SMARCB1-intact cases are unknown. We herein analyzed 13 cases for expression of 4 SWI/SNF complex subunits SMARCB1, SMARCA2, SMARCA4, and ARID1A and the mismatch-repair proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 by immunohistochemistry. Patients included 12 men and 1 woman aged 32 to 81 years (median, 57 y). Site of origin was colon (5), small bowel (2), stomach (3), small+large intestine (1), small intestine+ampulla of Vater (1), and esophagogastric junction (1). All tumors showed anaplastic large to medium-sized cells with variable rhabdoid features, pleomorphic giant cells, and, rarely, spindle cell foci. Abortive gland formation was seen in 3 cases and bona fide glandular component in 1 case. Most cases strongly expressed vimentin and variably pancytokeratin. In total, 12/13 cases (92%) showed loss of at least 1 SWI/SNF component. Loss of SMARCB1 (5/13), SMARCA2 (10/13), SMARCA4 (2/13), and ARID1A (2/13) was observed either in combination or isolated. SMARCA2 loss was isolated in 5 cases and coexisted with lost SMARCB1 in 5 cases (all 5 SMARCB1-deficient tumors showed loss of SMARCA2 as well). Co-inactivation of SMARCB1 and SMARCA4 or of SMARCA2 and SMARCA4 was not observed. Two mismatch-repair-deficient cases (MLH1/PMS2) showed concurrent loss of SMARCB1, SMARCA2, and (one of them) ARID1A. This study illustrates for the first time loss of different components of the SWI/SNF complex other than SMARCB1 in undifferentiated gastrointestinal carcinomas including novel SMARCA4-deficient and SMARCA2-deficient cases. Our results underline the close link between SWI/SNF deficiency and the aggressive rhabdoid phenotype. Frequent loss of SMARCA2 possibly points to fragility/vulnerability of the SWI/SNF complex as a consequence of lost core subunit SMARCB1. The exact molecular mechanisms underlying co-inactivation of different SWI/SNF subunits merit further investigations.

Olsen J, Eiholm S, Kirkeby LT, et al.
CDX2 downregulation is associated with poor differentiation and MMR deficiency in colon cancer.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2016; 100(1):59-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Homeobox genes are often deregulated in cancer and can have both oncogenic and tumor-suppressing potential. The Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) is an intestine-specific transcription factor. CDX2 has been implicated in differentiation, proliferation, cell adhesion, and migration. In this study, we investigated CDX2 mRNA and protein expression in relation to the clinicopathological characteristics of colon cancer, including mismatch repair status and recurrence risk.
METHODS: Tumor samples were obtained from colon cancer patients. Biopsies from tumor tissue and normal adjacent tissue were fixed in liquid nitrogen for RNA extraction or in formalin and paraffin embedded (FFPE) for immunohistochemical staining. CDX2 mRNA expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR. FFPE sections were stained for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and CDX2.
RESULTS: A total of 191 patient samples were included in the study and analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Of these samples, 97 were further evaluated by RT-qPCR. There was no significant difference in CDX2 mRNA expression between tumor and normal tissues. CDX2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in right-sided tumors (p<0.05), poorly differentiated tumors (p<0.05), and MMR-deficient tumors (p<0.05). Similarly, CDX2 protein expression was more often low or absent in right-sided tumors (p<0.01), poorly differentiated tumors (p<0.001), and MMR-deficient tumors (p<0.001). Low CDX2 protein or mRNA expression was not associated with recurrence risk.
CONCLUSION: We found that CDX2 downregulation is associated with MMR deficiency, right-sided tumors, and poor differentiation at both the mRNA and protein level. Whether CDX2 plays an active role in tumor progression in MSI/MMR-deficient tumors remains to be elucidated.

Rekhi B
Mismatch repair protein deficient endometrioid adenocarcinomas, metastasizing to adrenal gland and lymph nodes: Unusual cases with diagnostic implications.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2015 Oct-Dec; 58(4):491-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, certain endometrial carcinomas have been found to be associated with mismatch repair (MMR) protein defects/deficiency. A 39-year-old female presented with cough, decreased appetite and significant weight loss since 2 months. Earlier, she had undergone total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH-BSO) for endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Imaging disclosed an 8 cm-sized adrenal mass that was surgically excised. Histopathology of the adrenal tumor, endocervical tumor, and endometrial biopsy revealed Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Grade II to III endometrioid adenocarcinoma. By immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin 7, epithelial membrane antigen, PAX8, MLH1 and PMS2 while negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), MSH2 and MSH6. She underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A 34-year-old lady presented with vaginal bleeding since 9 months. She underwent TAH-BSO, reported as FIGO Grade III endometrioid adenocarcinoma. By immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were negative for ER, PR, MLH1, and PMS2 while positive for MSH2 and MSH6. She underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, she developed multiple nodal and pericardial metastases and succumbed to the disease within a year post-diagnosis. Certain high-grade endometrioid adenocarcinomas occurring in younger women are MMR protein deficient and display an aggressive clinical course. Adrenal metastasis in endometrial carcinomas is rare.

Jia J, Wang Z, Cai J, Zhang Y
PMS2 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer is posttranslationally regulated by Akt and essential for platinum-induced apoptosis.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(3):3059-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal of the gynecologic malignancies, mainly due to the advanced stage at diagnosis and development of cisplatin resistance. The sensitivity of tumor cells to cisplatin is frequently affected by defect in DNA mismatch repair (MMR), which repairs mispaired DNA sequences and regulates DNA-damage-induced apoptosis. However, the role of postmeiotic segregation increased 2 (PMS2), a member of MMR protein family, in cisplatin resistance remains elusive. In the present study, we demonstrated the frequent deficiency of PMS2 and phosphorylation of Akt in EOC cell lines and tissues. Results of complex immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and protein stability assay indicated that activated Akt could directly bind to PMS2 and cause degradation of PMS2 in EOC cells. In addition, functional experiments revealed that PMS2 was required for cisplatin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. These findings provide a novel insight into molecular mechanisms linking MMR with chemoresistance and suggest that stabilization of PMS2 expression may be useful in overcoming the cisplatin resistance in EOC.

Urganci N, Genc DB, Kose G, et al.
Colorectal Cancer due to Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Mimicking Neurofibromatosis I.
Pediatrics. 2015; 136(4):e1047-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is an extremely rare tumor of childhood that can be associated with cancer predisposition syndromes. A patient with CRC related to constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome with features of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is presented here. A 13-year-old boy was admitted for a 4-month history of diarrhea and rectal bleeding. The patient had extensive café au lait spots, freckling, and Lisch nodules. He fulfilled the NF-1 diagnostic criteria. Colonoscopy showed numerous polyps and a colorectal mass lesion, of which a biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma, an uncommon pathology associated with NF-1. High microsatellite instability and homozygous mutation of PMS2 gene in tumor tissue and blood lymphocytes, respectively, confirmed the diagnosis of CMMRD. Unfortunately, because family history related to CMMRD was negative, the parents denied the diagnosis and refused the therapy, and the patient was lost to follow-up. CMMRD is a rare cancer predisposition syndrome with phenotypical features resembling NF-1. The disease may be suspected in the setting of NF-1 features and CRC, high-grade brain tumors, or hematologic malignancies. Lack of family history related to CMMRD may be a major obstacle to convincing parents of the presence of an inherited disease in their progeny.

Lavoine N, Colas C, Muleris M, et al.
Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome: clinical description in a French cohort.
J Med Genet. 2015; 52(11):770-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is a childhood cancer predisposition syndrome involving biallelic germline mutations of MMR genes, poorly recognised by clinicians so far.
METHODS: Retrospective review of all 31 patients with CMMRD diagnosed in French genetics laboratories in order to describe the characteristics, treatment and outcome of the malignancies and biological diagnostic data.
RESULTS: 67 tumours were diagnosed in 31 patients, 25 (37%) Lynch syndrome-associated malignancies, 22 (33%) brain tumours, 17 (25%) haematological malignancies and 3 (5%) sarcomas. The median age of onset of the first tumour was 6.9 years (1.2-33.5). Overall, 22 patients died, 9 (41%) due to the primary tumour. Median survival after the diagnosis of the primary tumour was 27 months (0.26-213.2). Failure rate seemed to be higher than expected especially for T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (progression/relapse in 6/12 patients). A familial history of Lynch syndrome was identified in 6/23 families, and consanguinity in 9/23 families. PMS2 mutations (n=18) were more frequent than other mutations (MSH6 (n=6), MLH1 (n=4) and MSH2 (n=3)).
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this unselected series of patients confirms the extreme severity of this syndrome with a high mortality rate mostly related to multiple childhood cancers, and highlights the need for its early detection in order to adapt treatment and surveillance.

Carethers JM, Stoffel EM
Lynch syndrome and Lynch syndrome mimics: The growing complex landscape of hereditary colon cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2015; 21(31):9253-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) was previously synonymous with Lynch syndrome; however, identification of the role of germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes has made it possible to differentiate Lynch syndrome from other conditions associated with familial colorectal cancer (CRC). Broadly, HNPCC may be dichotomized into conditions that demonstrate defective DNA MMR and microsatellite instability (MSI) vs those conditions that demonstrate intact DNA MMR. Conditions characterized by MMR deficient CRCs include Lynch syndrome (germline MMR mutation), Lynch-like syndrome (biallelic somatic MMR mutations), constitutional MMR deficiency syndrome (biallelic germline MMR mutations), and sporadic MSI CRC (somatic biallelic methylation of MLH1). HNPCC conditions with intact DNA MMR associated with familial CRC include polymerase proofreading associated polyposis and familial colorectal cancer type X. Although next generation sequencing technologies have elucidated the genetic cause for some HNPCC conditions, others remain genetically undefined. Differentiating between Lynch syndrome and the other HNPCC disorders has profound implications for cancer risk assessment and surveillance of affected patients and their at-risk relatives. Clinical suspicion coupled with molecular tumor analysis and testing for germline mutations can help differentiate the clinical mimicry within HNPCC and facilitate diagnosis and management.

Amayiri N, Al-Hussaini M, Swaidan M, et al.
Synchronous glioblastoma and medulloblastoma in a child with mismatch repair mutation.
Childs Nerv Syst. 2016; 32(3):553-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Synchronous primary malignant brain tumors are rare. We present a 5-year-old boy with synchronous glioblastoma and medulloblastoma. Both tumor samples had positive p53 stain and loss of PMS2 and MLH1 stains. The child had multiple café au lait spots and a significant family history of cancer. After subtotal resection of both tumors, he received craniospinal radiation with concomitant temozolomide followed by chemotherapy, alternating cycles of cisplatin/lomustine/vincristine with temozolomide. Then, he started maintenance treatment with cis-retinoic acid (100 mg/m(2)/day for 21 days). He remained asymptomatic for 34 months despite a follow-up brain MRI consistent with glioblastoma relapse 9 months before his death. Cis-retinoic acid may have contributed to prolong survival in this child with a probable biallelic mismatch repair syndrome.

Amayiri N, Tabori U, Campbell B, et al.
High frequency of mismatch repair deficiency among pediatric high grade gliomas in Jordan.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 138(2):380-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Biallelic mismatch repair deficiency (bMMRD) is a cancer predisposition syndrome affecting primarily individuals from consanguinous families resulting in multiple childhood cancers including high grade gliomas (HGG). This is the first study to assess the prevalence of bMMRD among patients with HGG in countries where consanguinity is high. We collected molecular and clinical information on all children diagnosed with HGG and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET) between 2003 and 2013 at King Hussein Cancer Center, Jordan. Comparison was made to a similar cohort from Toronto. Clinical data regarding presence of café au lait macules(CAL), family history of cancer, consanguinity, pathology and treatment were collected. Tumors were centrally reviewed and tested for MMRD by immunohistochemistry of the corresponding proteins. Forty-two patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including 36 with HGG. MMRD was observed in 39% of HGG of whom 79% also lost MMR staining in the corresponding normal cells suggestive of bMMRD. P53 dysfunction was highly enriched in MMR deficient tumors (p = 0.0003).The frequency of MMRD was significantly lower in Toronto cohort (23%, p = 0.03). Both evidence of CAL and consanguinity correlated with bMMRD (p = 0.005 and 0.05,respectively) but family history of cancer didn't. HGG with all three bMMRD risk factors had evidence of MMRD and all children affected by multiple bMMRD related cancers had identical gene loss by immunohistochemical staining. In Jordan, the frequency of clinical and immunohistochemical alterations suggestive of bMMRD in pediatric HGG is high. Genetic testing will enable appropriate counseling and cancer screening to improve survival of these patients.

Elhasid R, Dvir R, Rosenfeld Keidar H, et al.
Management of Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia in a Child With Biallelic Mismatch Repair Deficiency.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2015; 37(8):e490-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germline biallelic mismatch repair deficiency (bMMRD) results in a unique cancer predisposition syndrome in which the affected children are susceptible to the development of malignancies, especially brain, gastrointestinal, and lymphoid cancers. Acute myeloblastic leukemia is rarely reported in this syndrome. Here we report the decision-making challenges in a bMMRD child with acute myeloblastic leukemia. Our experience should alert physicians to include bMMRD in the differential diagnosis of a child with hyper/hypopigmented spots and leukemia. Furthermore, the presence of the above and consanguinity emphasizes the need to rule out bMMRD when an allogeneic bone marrow transplant is considered and to enable the surveillance of other family members for earlier detection of cancers in these children.

Chu MM, Liu SS, Tam KF, et al.
The Significance of Mismatch Repair Deficiency in Young Patients With Endometrial Cancer.
Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2015; 34(5):403-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this study was to identify the tumor characteristics associated with mismatch repair deficiency in young patients with endometrial carcinoma. Young patients (45 yr old or younger) with endometrial carcinoma treated by hysterectomy in our institution between July 2001 and June 2009 were identified. The clinical and pathologic data were obtained by review of clinical records. Among the 122 cases identified, paraffin sections were available in 67 cases for immunohistochemical staining and frozen tissue available in 62 cases for microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis. Both paraffin sections and frozen tissue were available in 36 cases. Among the 67 cases with immunohistochemical staining, 22 (32.8%) showed loss of expression of at least 1 mismatch repair protein. Defective MLH1 or MSH2 expression was associated with poor prognostic factors, including a higher incidence of pelvic lymph nodes metastasis (P=0.018) and higher stage (P=0.022) for MLH1, and an increased risk of lymphovascular permeation (P=0.015) for MSH2. On the contrary, defective MSH6 protein expression was associated with a lower incidence of high-grade tumors (P=0.04). Among the 62 cases with MSI analysis, 12 (19.4%) tumors were classified as microsatellite-high (MSI-H), whereas 2 (3.2%) were classified as microsatellite-low (MSI-L). There was no difference in the pathologic characteristics between MSI-stable and MSI-H tumor. We concluded that defective mismatch repair expression is important in young patients with endometrial carcinoma, with MSH6 protein being most commonly affected. The phenotype resulting from defective MSH6 expression was different from that caused by MLH1 or MSH2 loss.

Jongmans MC, Gidding CE, Loeffen J, et al.
[Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome].
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2015; 159:A8602 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is characterised by a significantly increased risk for developing cancer in childhood. It arises when both parents have a mutation in the same mismatch repair gene and pass it on to their child.
CASE DESCRIPTION: An 8-year-old girl was diagnosed with CMMR-D syndrome after she developed a brain tumour at the age of 4 and a T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma at the age of 6. She had multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and died of myelodysplastic syndrome at the age of 11.
CONCLUSION: In children with cancer CMMR-D syndrome can be recognized particularly if there are multiple primary malignancies and skin hyperpigmentations and hypopigmentations. The parents of these children are at high risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer (Lynch syndrome), amongst others.

Mork ME, You YN, Ying J, et al.
High Prevalence of Hereditary Cancer Syndromes in Adolescents and Young Adults With Colorectal Cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(31):3544-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Established guidelines recommend evaluation for hereditary cancer syndromes in patients younger than 50 years diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC). This group has been well described in the literature; however, patients diagnosed as adolescents and young adults are not well represented in CRC studies. Here, we define the clinical profile, including the extent of hereditary cancer syndromes and family history of cancer, in patients diagnosed with CRC at age 35 or younger.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed patients who underwent genetic counseling at our institution during 5 years (2009 to 2013). Data were collected regarding demographics, clinicopathologic information, tumor and genetic testing, and family history. Patients with an identified hereditary cancer syndrome were compared with those without a syndrome.
RESULTS: Of the 193 patients with evaluable data, 35% had an identifiable hereditary cancer syndrome, including 23 with Lynch syndrome, 22 with mutation-negative Lynch syndrome, 16 with familial adenomatous polyposis, two with constitutional mismatch repair deficiency, two with biallelic MUTYH mutations, and one with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Patients without a hereditary syndrome more frequently presented with metastatic disease, whereas patients with a syndrome were more likely to present at earlier stages and to have a family history of cancer. Nevertheless, a substantial proportion of the hereditary syndromes (19%) were diagnosed in individuals with no family history of the disease.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that patients diagnosed with CRC at age 35 years or younger should receive genetic counseling regardless of their family history and phenotype.

Ponti G, Manfredini M, Tomasi A, Pellacani G
Muir-Torre Syndrome and founder mismatch repair gene mutations: A long gone historical genetic challenge.
Gene. 2016; 589(2):127-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
A "cancer predisposing syndrome" later labeled as Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch Syndrome, was firstly described by Warthin, about one century ago. An increased predisposition to the development of multiple familial tumors is described as characteristic of this syndrome where visceral and cutaneous malignancies may appear at an early age namely endometrial, gastric, small bowel, ureteral and renal pelvis, ovarian, hepatobiliary tract, pancreatic, brain (Turcot Syndrome) and sebaceous glands (Muir-Torre Syndrome). The latter, a variant of Lynch Syndrome, is characterized by the presence of sebaceous skin adenomas, carcinomas and/or keratoacanthomas associated with visceral malignancies. Both Lynch Syndrome and Muir-Torre Syndrome have been recognized due to germline mutations in mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6. To date, 56 Lynch Syndrome founder mutations dependent on MLH1, MSH2 and, although less frequently found, MSH6 and PMS2 are described. Some of these founder mutations, principally of MSH2 gene, have been described to cause Muir-Torre phenotype and have been traced in large and outbreed Muir-Torre Syndrome families living in different US and European territories. Due to the evidences of highly specific Muir-Torre phenotypes related to the presence of widespread MSH2 founder mutations, preliminary search for these MSH2 common mutations in individuals carrying sebaceous tumors and/or keratoacanthomas, at early age or in association to visceral and familial tumors, permits cost-effective and time-saving diagnostic strategies for Lynch/Muir-Torre Syndromes.

Bodo S, Colas C, Buhard O, et al.
Diagnosis of Constitutional Mismatch Repair-Deficiency Syndrome Based on Microsatellite Instability and Lymphocyte Tolerance to Methylating Agents.
Gastroenterology. 2015; 149(4):1017-29.e3 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with bi-allelic germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2) develop a rare but severe variant of Lynch syndrome called constitutional MMR deficiency (CMMRD). This syndrome is characterized by early-onset colorectal cancers, lymphomas or leukemias, and brain tumors. There is no satisfactory method for diagnosis of CMMRD because screens for mutations in MMR genes are noninformative for 30% of patients. MMR-deficient cancer cells are resistant to genotoxic agents and have microsatellite instability (MSI), due to accumulation of errors in repetitive DNA sequences. We investigated whether these features could be used to identify patients with CMMRD.
METHODS: We examined MSI by PCR analysis and tolerance to methylating or thiopurine agents (functional characteristics of MMR-deficient tumor cells) in lymphoblastoid cells (LCs) from 3 patients with CMMRD and 5 individuals with MMR-proficient LCs (controls). Using these assays, we defined experimental parameters that allowed discrimination of a series of 14 patients with CMMRD from 52 controls (training set). We then used the same parameters to assess 23 patients with clinical but not genetic features of CMMRD.
RESULTS: In the training set, we identified parameters, based on MSI and LC tolerance to methylation, that detected patients with CMMRD vs controls with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Among 23 patients suspected of having CMMRD, 6 had MSI and LC tolerance to methylation (CMMRD highly probable), 15 had neither MSI nor LC tolerance to methylation (unlikely to have CMMRD), and 2 were considered doubtful for CMMRD based on having only 1 of the 2 features.
CONCLUSION: The presence of MSI and tolerance to methylation in LCs identified patients with CMMRD with 100% sensitivity and specificity. These features could be used in diagnosis of patients.

Waldmann E, Ferlitsch M, Binder N, et al.
Tumor and Patient Characteristics of Individuals with Mismatch Repair Deficient Colorectal Cancer.
Digestion. 2015; 91(4):286-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To investigate tumor and patient characteristics of individuals with mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient colorectal carcinomas.
METHODS: We immunhistochemically investigated tissue samples of 307 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer for defects in DNA MMR proteins (hMLH1, hMSH2, hMSH6, hPMS2) and those with mutations further for microsatellite instability (MSI) and BRAF V600E mutations.
RESULTS: 32/308 (10.4%) tumors showed MMR deficiency. Seventy five percent (n = 24) had loss of hMLH1 and hPMS2 expression, 3% (n = 1) of hPMS2 alone, 18.8% (n = 6) of hMSH6 and hMSH2, 3% (n = 1) of hMSH2 alone. All MMR-deficient tumors showed high MSI. These tumors occurred preferably in the right-sided colon, in women and showed specific histological features. We obtained the family history of 18/32 patients; 2 (11.1%) met Amsterdam Criteria, 5 (27.8%) Bethesda Guidelines and 6 (33.3%) revised Bethesda Guidelines. BRAF V600E mutations were found in 16 (67%) of hMLH1 and none of the hMSH2 deficient tumors.
CONCLUSION: We suggest using immunhistochemical testing of tumor tissues with subsequent MSI analysis, which may be justified as a screening method for MMR deficiency in colorectal cancer, since it identifies patients with possibly hereditary defects and unalike response to chemotherapy.

Durno CA, Sherman PM, Aronson M, et al.
Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of biallelic mismatch repair deficiency (BMMR-D) syndrome.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(8):977-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lynch syndrome, the most common inherited colorectal cancer syndrome in adults, is an autosomal dominant condition caused by heterozygous germ-line mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Inheriting biallelic (homozygous) mutations in any of the MMR genes results in a different clinical syndrome termed biallelic mismatch repair deficiency (BMMR-D) that is characterised by gastrointestinal tumours, skin lesions, brain tumours and haematologic malignancies. This recently described and under-recognised syndrome can present with adenomatous polyps leading to early-onset small bowel and colorectal adenocarcinoma. An important clue in the family history that suggests underling BMMR-D is consanguinity. Interestingly, pedigrees of BMMR-D patients typically show a paucity of Lynch syndrome cancers and most parents are unaffected. Therefore, a family history of cancers is often non-contributory. Detection of BMMR-D can lead to more appropriate genetic counselling and the implementation of targeted surveillance protocols to achieve earlier tumour detection that will allow surgical resection. This review describes an approach for diagnosis and management of these patients and their families.

Daou B, Zanello M, Varlet P, et al.
An Unusual Case of Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome With Anaplastic Ganglioglioma, Colonic Adenocarcinoma, Osteosarcoma, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, and Signs of Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Case Report.
Neurosurgery. 2015; 77(1):E145-52; discussion E152 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is a disorder with recessive inheritance caused by biallelic mismatch repair gene mutations, in which mismatch repair defects are inherited from both parents. This syndrome is associated with multiple cancers occurring in childhood. The most common tumors observed with CMMRD include brain tumors, digestive tract tumors, and hematological malignancies. The aim of this study was to report new phenotypic expressions of CMMRD syndrome and add new insight to the existing knowledge about this disease. A review of the literature was conducted and recommendation for surveillance and follow-up in patients with CMMRD are proposed.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We report for the first time in the literature, the case of a 22-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with CMMRD syndrome, with the development of 2 unusual tumors: an anaplastic ganglioglioma and an osteosarcoma. She presented initially with an anaplastic ganglioglioma and later developed several malignancies including colonic adenocarcinoma, osteosarcoma, and acute myeloid leukemia. The patient had an atypical course of her disease with development of the initial malignancy at an older age and a remarkably long survival period despite developing aggressive tumors.
CONCLUSION: Many aspects of this disease are still unknown. We identified a case of CMMRD in a patient presenting with an anaplastic ganglioglioma, who underwent successful surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy and has had one of the longest survival periods known with this disease. This case broadens the tumor spectrum observed with CMMRD syndrome with anaplastic ganglioglioma and osteosarcoma as new phenotypic expressions of this genetic defect.

Li L, Hamel N, Baker K, et al.
A homozygous PMS2 founder mutation with an attenuated constitutional mismatch repair deficiency phenotype.
J Med Genet. 2015; 52(5):348-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inherited mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes predispose to different cancer syndromes depending on whether they are mono-allelic or bi-allelic. This supports a causal relationship between expression level in the germline and phenotype variation. As a model to study this relationship, our study aimed to define the pathogenic characteristics of a recurrent homozygous coding variant in PMS2 displaying an attenuated phenotype identified by clinical genetic testing in seven Inuit families from Northern Quebec.
METHODS: Pathogenic characteristics of the PMS2 mutation NM_000535.5:c.2002A>G were studied using genotype-phenotype correlation, single-molecule expression detection and single genome microsatellite instability analysis.
RESULTS: This PMS2 mutation generates a de novo splice site that competes with the authentic site. In homozygotes, expression of the full-length protein is reduced to a level barely detectable by conventional diagnostics. Median age at primary cancer diagnosis is 22 years among 13 NM_000535.5:c.2002A>G homozygotes, versus 8 years in individuals carrying bi-allelic truncating mutations. Residual expression of full-length PMS2 transcript was detected in normal tissues from homozygotes with cancers in their 20s.
CONCLUSIONS: Our genotype-phenotype study of c.2002A>G illustrates that an extremely low level of PMS2 expression likely delays cancer onset, a feature that could be exploited in cancer preventive intervention.

Samdani T, Schultheis M, Stadler Z, et al.
Lymph node yield after colectomy for cancer: is absence of mismatch repair a factor?
Dis Colon Rectum. 2015; 58(3):288-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nodal staging is crucial in determining the use of adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer. The number of metastatic lymph nodes has been positively correlated with the number of lymph nodes examined. Current guidelines recommend that at minimum 12 to 14 lymph nodes be assessed. In some studies, mismatch repair deficiency has been associated with lymph node yield.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to determine whether mismatch repair-deficient colorectal tumors are associated with increased lymph node yield.
DESIGN: We queried an institutional database to analyze colectomy specimens with immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair genes in patients treated for colorectal cancer between 1999 and 2012. Before 2006, immunohistochemistry was performed at the request of an oncologist or surgeon. After 2006, it was routinely performed for patients <50 years of age. We measured the association of clinical and pathologic features with lymph node quantity. Fourteen predictors and confounders were jointly analyzed in a multivariable linear regression model.
SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a single tertiary care institution.
PATIENTS: Tissue specimens from 256 patients were reviewed.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The correlation of tumor, patient, and operative variables to the yield of mesenteric lymph nodes was measured.
RESULTS: Of 256 colectomy specimens reviewed, 94 had mismatch repair deficiency. On univariate analysis, mismatch repair deficiency was associated with lower lymph node yield, older patient age, right-sided tumors, and poor differentiation. The linear regression model identified 5 variables with independent relationships to lymph node yield, including patient age, specimen length, lymph node ratio, perineural invasion, and tumor size. A positive correlation was observed with tumor size, specimen length, and perineural invasion. Tumor location had a more complex, nonlinear, quadratic relationship with lymph node yield; proximal tumors were associated with a higher yield than more distal lesions. Mismatch repair deficiency was not independently associated with lymph node yield.
LIMITATIONS: Mismatch repair immunohistochemistry based on patient age, family history, and pathologic features may reduce the generalizability of these results. Our sample size was too small to identify variables with small measures of effect. The retrospective nature of the study did not permit a true assessment of the extent of mesenteric resection.
CONCLUSIONS: Patient age, length of bowel resected, lymph node ratio, perineural invasion, tumor size, and tumor location were significant predictors of lymph node yield. However, when controlling for surgical and pathologic factors, mismatch repair protein expression did not predict lymph node yield.

Murnyák B, Szepesi R, Hortobágyi T
[Molecular genetics of familial tumour syndromes of the central nervous system].
Orv Hetil. 2015; 156(5):171-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although most of the central nervous system tumours are sporadic, rarely they are associated with familial tumour syndromes. These disorders usually present with an autosomal dominant inheritance and neoplasia develops at younger age than in sporadic cases. Most of these tumours are bilateral, multiplex or multifocal. The causative mutations occur in genes involved in cell cycle regulation, cell growth, differentiation and DNA repair. Studying these hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes associated with nervous system tumours can facilitate the deeper understanding of the molecular background of sporadic tumours and the development of novel therapeutic agents. This review is an update on hereditary tumour syndromes with nervous system involvement with emphasis on molecular genetic characteristics and their clinical implications.

Hoell JI, Gombert M, Ginzel S, et al.
Constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency and whole-exome sequencing as the means of the rapid detection of the causative MSH6 defect.
Klin Padiatr. 2014; 226(6-7):357-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cases of children with more than one type of cancer either diagnosed simultaneously or successively, rarely occur in pediatric oncology. A second malignant neoplasm may be caused by mutagenic effects of the treatment of the primary malignancy and/or may point towards an underlying genetic cancer susceptibility syndrome. One example of such a syndrome is constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency, (CMMR-D) which carries an increased risk of various tumors including childhood hematologic malignancies and Lynch syndrome associated tumors. Timely diagnosis of CMMR-D is crucial, since this diagnosis has implications for the entire family.
PATIENT: We report the case of a 15-year-old girl who was born to consanguineous parents. At the age of 20 months she was diagnosed with a T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Treatment was given according to NHL-BFM 95. 12 years later, an invasive adenocarcinoma of the colon was surgically removed which relapsed shortly afterwards.
METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing of germline DNA was employed to rapidly detect the underlying mutation in this suspected CMMR-D patient.
RESULTS: After a short turnaround time of less than 3 weeks, the diagnosis of CMMR-D could be confirmed by the identification of a homozygous 29-bp deletion in MSH6 (exon 6), which was confirmed by independent methods.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that "bed-side" whole-exome sequencing is both feasible and cost-effective and may be the method of choice to rapidly uncover the genetical basis of (inherited) diseases.

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