Gene Summary

Gene:UHRF1; ubiquitin like with PHD and ring finger domains 1
Aliases: Np95, hNP95, ICBP90, RNF106, TDRD22, hUHRF1, huNp95
Summary:This gene encodes a member of a subfamily of RING-finger type E3 ubiquitin ligases. The protein binds to specific DNA sequences, and recruits a histone deacetylase to regulate gene expression. Its expression peaks at late G1 phase and continues during G2 and M phases of the cell cycle. It plays a major role in the G1/S transition by regulating topoisomerase IIalpha and retinoblastoma gene expression, and functions in the p53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint. It is regarded as a hub protein for the integration of epigenetic information. This gene is up-regulated in various cancers, and it is therefore considered to be a therapeutic target. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. A related pseudogene exists on chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase UHRF1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: UHRF1 (cancer-related)

Zhang H, Song Y, Yang C, Wu X
UHRF1 mediates cell migration and invasion of gastric cancer.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is a common highly aggressive malignant tumor in worldwide. Ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring-finger protein 1 (UHRF1) has a key role in several kinds of cancers development. However, the biology effect of UHRF1 on the tumorigenesis of GC remains unclear. In this research, the role of UHRF1 in the growth, migration, invasion and apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms were investigated in MGC803 and SGC7901 cells. The UHRF1 knockdown MGC803 and SGC7901 cell lines were used to investigate the roles of UHRF1 on GC cell growth, migration, invasion and apoptosis. The growth, migration and invasion rate of UHRF1 knockdown cells was lower than that of the control. Moreover, ROS generation and caspase-3/caspase-9 activities increased in UHRF1 knockdown cells. And mitochondrial membrane potential decreased in UHRF1 knockdown cells. These findings indicated that UHRF1 promoted the growth, migration and invasion of MGC803 and SGC7901 cells and inhibited apoptosis via a ROS-associated pathway.

Fu H, Xing F, Lv Y, et al.
ICBP90 mediates Notch signaling to facilitate human hepatocellular carcinoma growth.
Tissue Cell. 2018; 54:65-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Notch signaling pathway plays a key role in cell proliferation and development that is closely related to an inverted CCAAT box binding protein (ICBP90), but little is known about whether there is a correlation between Notch signaling and ICBP90. The aim of the current study was to elucidate this. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to determine the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of HepG2 or Hepa1-6 cells treated by N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), a specific inhibitor of the Notch pathway. RT-PCR, Western Blot and in situ immunofluorescence staining were employed to examine expression of ICBP90 in the cells. DAPT caused inhibition of the activation of the Notch signaling pathway, followed by preventing the cells at the G0/G1 phases to enter S and G2/M phases. ICBP90 and Hes-1 proteins were highly expressed in the untreated cells. The reduced levels of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) protein were observed in the DAPT-treated cells, thereby bringing about the down-regulation of ICBP90 with the increment of the DAPT dose. Consistent with this, knockdown of the Hes-1 gene, which encodes a critical transcriptional factor in the Notch pathway, also led to the attenuation of ICBP90. On the contrary, Jagged-1, a Notch ligand, facilitated ICBP90 production. Adriamycin could result in the reduction of ICBP90, which was not accompanied with the alteration of Hes-1. ICBP90 was almost fully distributed within the nuclei, but Hes-1 was visible within both the cytoplasm and nuclei. Our novel findings strongly indicate that inactivation of the Notch signaling pathway impedes hepatocellular carcinoma progress via reduction of ICBP90.

Chow M, Gao L, MacManiman JD, et al.
Maintenance and pharmacologic targeting of ROR1 protein levels via UHRF1 in t(1;19) pre-B-ALL.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(38):5221-5232 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Expression of the transmembrane pseudokinase ROR1 is required for survival of t(1;19)-pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (t(1;19) pre-B-ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and many solid tumors. However, targeting ROR1 with small-molecules has been challenging due to the absence of ROR1 kinase activity. To identify genes that regulate ROR1 expression and may, therefore, serve as surrogate drug targets, we employed an siRNA screening approach and determined that the epigenetic regulator and E3 ubiquitin ligase, UHRF1, is required for t(1;19) pre-B-ALL cell viability in a ROR1-dependent manner. Upon UHRF1 silencing, ROR1 protein is reduced without altering ROR1 mRNA, and ectopically expressed UHRF1 is sufficient to increase ROR1 levels. Additionally, proteasome inhibition rescues loss of ROR1 protein after UHRF1 silencing, suggesting a role for the proteasome in the UHRF1-ROR1 axis. Finally, we show that ROR1-positive cells are twice as sensitive to the UHRF1-targeting drug, naphthazarin, and undergo increased apoptosis compared to ROR1-negative cells. Naphthazarin elicits reduced expression of UHRF1 and ROR1, and combination of naphthazarin with inhibitors of pre-B cell receptor signaling results in further reduction of cell survival compared with either inhibitor alone. Therefore, our work reveals a mechanism by which UHRF1 stabilizes ROR1, suggesting a potential targeting strategy to inhibit ROR1 in t(1;19) pre-B-ALL and other malignancies.

Wei C, Lu N, Wang L, et al.
Upregulation of UHRF1 promotes the progression of melanoma by inducing cell proliferation.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(6):2553-2562 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Melanoma is the most aggressive cutaneous cancer due to its propensity to metastasise and proliferate. Melanoma accounts for 80‑90% of skin‑cancer related deaths worldwide. Alhough numerous published studies have attempted to define the markers of diagnosis and prognosis of melanoma, a sensitive and specific biomarker for melanoma remains unknown. Recently, ubiquitin‑like with PHD and ring finger domains 1 (UHRF1) has attracted attention due to its role in cell proliferation and it has been deemed as a potential therapeutic target for cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role and the clinical significance of UHRF1 in melanoma. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed with tissue microarray (TMA) to examine the expression of UHRF1 and Ki‑67, and the role of UHRF1 in cell proliferation was determined through CCK‑8, colony formation and flow cytometry by interfering with the expression of UHRF1. Subsequently, the relationship among the expression of UHRF1 and several major clinical characteristics of melanoma were analysed to evaluate the role of UHRF1 in the progression of melanoma. Finally, the clinical significance of UHRF1 was estimated in 56 melanoma patients. It was observed that the expression of UHRF1 was significantly upregulated in melanoma compared with benign nevi tissues (P<0.05). In addition, the downregulation of the expression of UHRF1 significantly decreased cell proliferation. Furthermore, the level of UHRF1 was positively correlated with the expression of Ki‑67 in melanoma cells, as well as in melanoma tissues. Clinically, a high level of UHRF1 was prone to be related to a high TNM classification (P=0.017) and Breslow's thickness (P=0.034) of melanoma. Furthermore, a high level of UHRF1 was positively associated with a shorter overall survival of melanoma patients. Importantly, the Cox regression model analysis demonstrated that the expression of UHRF1 was an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival of melanoma patients. In conclusion, the elevated expression of UHRF1 plays an important role in melanoma cell proliferation and progression, and it can be used as a prognostic biomarker for melanoma.

Beck A, Trippel F, Wagner A, et al.
Overexpression of
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10:27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common liver tumor of childhood and occurs predominantly within the first 3 years of life. In accordance to its early manifestation, HB has been described to display an extremely low mutation rate. As substitute, epigenetic modifiers seem to play an exceptional role in its tumorigenesis, which holds promise to develop targeted therapies and establish biomarkers for patient risk stratification.
Results: We examined the role of a newly described protein complex consisting of three epigenetic regulators, namely E3 ubiquitin-like containing PHD and RING finger domain 1 (UHRF1), ubiquitin-specific-processing protease 7 (USP7), and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), in HB. We found the complex to be located on the promoter regions of the pivotal HB-associated tumor suppressor genes (TSGs)
Conclusion: These findings suggest that UHRF1 is critical for aberrant TSG silencing and sustained growth signaling in HB and that

Magnani E, Macchi F, Mancini M, et al.
UHRF1 regulates CDH1 via promoter associated non-coding RNAs in prostate cancer cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2018; 1861(3):258-270 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) transcribed from the promoter and the downstream region can affect the expression of the corresponding coding genes. It has been shown that sense-directed ncRNAs arising from the promoter region of the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) mediate its repression. Here, we show that an antisense-directed ncRNA (paRCDH1-AS) transcribed from the CDH1 promoter is necessary for its expression. paRCDH1-AS acts as a hooking scaffold by recruiting the epigenetic regulators, UHRF1, DNMT3A, SUV39H1 and SUZ12, involved in CDH1 repression. The binding of epigenetic regulators to paCRDH1-AS, indeed, prevents their localization to the chromatin on CDH1 promoter. Moreover, paRCDH1-AS silencing induces CDH1 repression and a switch of the epigenetic profile on the promoter towards a more closed chromatin. Using bioinformatic and experimental approaches we defined that the promoter of the paRCDH1-AS is shared with the E-cadherin gene, showing a bidirectional promoter activity. We found that UHRF1 controls both CDH1 and paRCDH1-AS by directly binding this bidirectional promoter region. Our study provides evidences, for the first time, that UHRF1 recruitment can be affected by promoter-associated non-coding RNAs, opening new perspective regarding the role of UHRF1 in these complex regulatory networks.

He H, Lee C, Kim JK
UHRF1 depletion sensitizes retinoblastoma cells to chemotherapeutic drugs via downregulation of XRCC4.
Cell Death Dis. 2018; 9(2):164 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 1) is highly expressed in various human cancers including retinoblastoma, and associated with tumor-promoting effects such as inhibition of apoptosis and high proliferation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor-promoting functions of UHRF1 in retinoblastoma still remain elusive. Here, we show that stable knockdown of UHRF1 renders retinoblastoma cells sensitized to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs such as etoposide and camptothecin, resulting in enhanced DNA damage and apoptotic cell death. We found that UHRF1-depleted retinoblastoma cells can recognize DNA damages normally but have markedly low expression of XRCC4 (X-ray repair cross complementing 4) among the components of nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair complex. Conversely, overexpression of UHRF1 increased the XRCC4 expression and stable knockdown of XRCC4 sensitized retinoblastoma cells to etoposide treatment, suggesting that XRCC4 is a key mediator for the drug sensitivity upon UHRF1 depletion in retinoblastoma cells. Consistent with the findings, chromatin association of DNA ligase IV in response to acute DNA damage was found to be significantly reduced in UHRF1-depleted retinoblastoma cells and functional complementation for XRCC4 in UHRF1-depleted cells attenuated the drug sensitivity, demonstrating that XRCC4 downregulation in UHRF1-depleted cells impaired DNA repair and consequently induced robust apoptosis upon genotoxic drug treatment. In human primary retinoblastoma, high expression of UHRF1 and XRCC4 could be detected, and elevated XRCC4 expression correlated with reduced apoptosis markers, implying that UHRF1-mediated XRCC4 upregulation under pathophysiological conditions triggered by RB1 gene inactivation may confer protection against endogenous DNA damages that arise during retinoblastoma development. Taken together, these results present a new mechanistic insight into how UHRF1 mediates its tumor-promoting functions in retinoblastoma, and also provide a basis for UHRF1 targeting to improve the efficacy of current chemotherapy for retinoblastoma treatment.

Veland N, Hardikar S, Zhong Y, et al.
The Arginine Methyltransferase PRMT6 Regulates DNA Methylation and Contributes to Global DNA Hypomethylation in Cancer.
Cell Rep. 2017; 21(12):3390-3397 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA methylation plays crucial roles in chromatin structure and gene expression. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns, including global hypomethylation and regional hypermethylation, are associated with cancer and implicated in oncogenic events. How DNA methylation is regulated in developmental and cellular processes and dysregulated in cancer is poorly understood. Here, we show that PRMT6, a protein arginine methyltransferase responsible for asymmetric dimethylation of histone H3 arginine 2 (H3R2me2a), negatively regulates DNA methylation and that PRMT6 upregulation contributes to global DNA hypomethylation in cancer. Mechanistically, PRMT6 overexpression impairs chromatin association of UHRF1, an accessory factor of DNMT1, resulting in passive DNA demethylation. The effect is likely due to elevated H3R2me2a, which inhibits the interaction between UHRF1 and histone H3. Our work identifies a mechanistic link between protein arginine methylation and DNA methylation, which is disrupted in cancer.

Yang C, Li J, Yu L, et al.
Regulation of RIP3 by the transcription factor Sp1 and the epigenetic regulator UHRF1 modulates cancer cell necroptosis.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(10):e3084 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Receptor-interacting kinase-3 (RIP3) is a key regulator of necroptosis. It has been shown that the expression of RIP3 is silenced in most cancer cells and tissues due to genomic methylation. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling RIP3 expression in cancer cells have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that Sp1, a well-characterized zinc-finger transcription factor, directly regulates RIP3 expression in cancer cells. Knockdown of endogenous Sp1 significantly decreases the transcription of Rip3, thereby further inhibiting necroptosis. The re-expression of Sp1 restores the necroptotic response. In addition, knockdown of epigenetic regulator UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like, containing PHD and RING finger domains 1) in RIP3-null cancer cells reduces the methylation level of the Rip3 promoter. This effect is sufficient to trigger the expression of RIP3 in RIP3-null cancer cells. The induced expression of RIP3 by UHRF1 RNAi depends on the presence of Sp1. Remarkably, the ectopic expression of RIP3 in RIP3-null cancer cells results in a decrease in tumor growth in mice. Therefore, our findings offer insights into RIP3 expression control in cancer cells and suggest an inhibitory effect of RIP3 on tumorigenesis.

León-González AJ, Jara-Palacios MJ, Abbas M, et al.
Role of epigenetic regulation on the induction of apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia cells by white grape pomace rich in phenolic compounds.
Food Funct. 2017; 8(11):4062-4069 [PubMed] Related Publications
Grape pomace is a rich source of phenolic compounds commonly employed for elaboration of dietary supplements. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effect of a purified white grape pomace extract (PWGPE) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells and to characterize the underlying mechanism. Apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were assessed by flow cytometry and protein expression levels were analysed by Western blotting. PWGPE induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The anticancer effect was associated with an increased expression of p73 and down-regulation of pro-survival factors, including p-Akt, Bcl-2, and survivin. PWGPE reduced the expression of several proteins that block the expression of apoptosis-related genes such as DNMT1, HDAC1/2, UHRF1, and the polycomb group protein members: EZH2, SUZ12, and BMI1. In addition, the extract induced the formation of ROS, whereas pre-treatment with PEG-catalase and N-acetylcysteine prevented the ROS formation and markedly decreased the induction of apoptosis. These findings suggest that PWGPE-induced apoptosis in Jurkat human leukemia cells, is mediated by mitochondrial depolarization and caspase-3 cleavage, and depends on ROS generation and regulation of epigenetic gene silencing. Therefore, PWGPE may play an important role in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Zhang ZY, Zhu B, Zhao XW, et al.
Regulation of UHRF1 by microRNA-378 modulates medulloblastoma cell proliferation and apoptosis.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(5):3078-3084 [PubMed] Related Publications
A previous study revealed that ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1) promoted cell proliferation and was a potential biomarker in medulloblastoma (MB). In the present study, we reported that miR-378 inhibited the expression of UHRF1 to affect the proliferation of MB through competitive binding to the same region of its 3'-UTR. We found that the expression of miR-378 was significantly downregulated in MB tissues and inversely correlated with the expression of UHRF1. Western blot analysis revealed that overexpression of miR-378 led to the suppression of UHRF1. Moreover, a dual-luciferase assay demonstrated that miR-378 negatively regulated the activity of target gene UHRF1 by binding to its 3'-UTR. An in vitro assay revealed that overexpression of miR-378 suppressed MB cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Ectopic expression of UHRF1 rescued miR-378-suppressed cell proliferation and miR-378-promoted cell apoptosis. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that miR-378 could inhibit the proliferation of MB by downregulation of UHRF1 and act as a potential therapeutic target against MB.

Zhou D, Xie M, He B, et al.
Microarray data re-annotation reveals specific lncRNAs and their potential functions in non-small cell lung cancer subtypes.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(4):5129-5136 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Non‑small‑cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. The most common subtypes of NSCLC are adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to AC and SCC are still largely unknown, especially the roles of long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs). The present study identified differentially expressed lncRNAs between lung AC and SCC by re‑annotation of NSCLC microarray data analysis profiling. The potential functions of lncRNAs were predicted by using coding‑non‑coding gene co‑expressing network. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) was used to investigate lncRNA expression levels in AC cell lines (A549 and L78), SCC cell lines (H226 and H520) and normal cells (NL‑20). Western blotting analysis was used to investigate the protein expression levels in these cell lines. A total of 65 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between AC and SCC including 28 lncRNAs that were downregulated in SCC subtypes compared with those in AC ones, and 37 upregulated lncRNAs in SCC subtypes compared with AC subtypes. Three lncRNAs, sex determining region Y‑box 2 overlapping transcript (SOX2‑OT), NCBP2 antisense RNA 2 (NCBP2‑AS2) and ubiquitin like with PHD and ring finger domains 1 (UHRF1), were predicted to be associated with lung cancer; RT‑qPCR confirmed that SOX2‑OT and NCBP2‑AS2 were associated with lung cancer. Finally, western blot assays demonstrated that there was no difference in β‑catenin and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK‑3β) expression in cancer cells compared with NL‑20, but increased phosphorylated (p‑)β‑catenin and p‑GSK‑3β was detected in lung cancer cell lines compared with NL‑20, particularly in A549 cells. Although these results require further experimental verification, the analysis of lncRNA signatures between AC and SCC has provided insights into the regulatory mechanism of NSCLC development.

Parfett CL, Desaulniers D
A Tox21 Approach to Altered Epigenetic Landscapes: Assessing Epigenetic Toxicity Pathways Leading to Altered Gene Expression and Oncogenic Transformation In Vitro.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
An emerging vision for toxicity testing in the 21st century foresees in vitro assays assuming the leading role in testing for chemical hazards, including testing for carcinogenicity. Toxicity will be determined by monitoring key steps in functionally validated molecular pathways, using tests designed to reveal chemically-induced perturbations that lead to adverse phenotypic endpoints in cultured human cells. Risk assessments would subsequently be derived from the causal in vitro endpoints and concentration vs. effect data extrapolated to human in vivo concentrations. Much direct experimental evidence now shows that disruption of epigenetic processes by chemicals is a carcinogenic mode of action that leads to altered gene functions playing causal roles in cancer initiation and progression. In assessing chemical safety, it would therefore be advantageous to consider an emerging class of carcinogens, the epigenotoxicants, with the ability to change chromatin and/or DNA marks by direct or indirect effects on the activities of enzymes (writers, erasers/editors, remodelers and readers) that convey the epigenetic information. Evidence is reviewed supporting a strategy for in vitro hazard identification of carcinogens that induce toxicity through disturbance of functional epigenetic pathways in human somatic cells, leading to inactivated tumour suppressor genes and carcinogenesis. In the context of human cell transformation models, these in vitro pathway measurements ensure high biological relevance to the apical endpoint of cancer. Four causal mechanisms participating in pathways to persistent epigenetic gene silencing were considered: covalent histone modification, nucleosome remodeling, non-coding RNA interaction and DNA methylation. Within these four interacting mechanisms, 25 epigenetic toxicity pathway components (SET1, MLL1, KDM5, G9A, SUV39H1, SETDB1, EZH2, JMJD3, CBX7, CBX8, BMI, SUZ12, HP1, MPP8, DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, TET1, MeCP2, SETDB2, BAZ2A, UHRF1, CTCF, HOTAIR and ANRIL) were found to have experimental evidence showing that functional perturbations played "driver" roles in human cellular transformation. Measurement of epigenotoxicants presents challenges for short-term carcinogenicity testing, especially in the high-throughput modes emphasized in the Tox21 chemicals testing approach. There is need to develop and validate in vitro tests to detect both, locus-specific, and genome-wide, epigenetic alterations with causal links to oncogenic cellular phenotypes. Some recent examples of cell-based high throughput chemical screening assays are presented that have been applied or have shown potential for application to epigenetic endpoints.

Kim JH, Shim JW, Eum DY, et al.
Downregulation of UHRF1 increases tumor malignancy by activating the CXCR4/AKT-JNK/IL-6/Snail signaling axis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):2798 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like, with PHD and RING finger domains 1) plays a crucial role in DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling and gene expression and is aberrantly upregulated in various types of human cancers. However, the precise role of UHRF1 in cancer remains controversial. In this study, we observed that hypoxia-induced downregulation of UHRF1 contributes to the induction of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. By negatively modulating UHRF1 expression, we further showed that UHRF1 deficiency in itself is sufficient to increase the migratory and invasive properties of cells via inducing EMT, increasing the tumorigenic capacity of cells and leading to the expansion of cancer stem-like cells. Epigenetic changes caused by UHRF1 deficiency triggered the upregulation of CXCR4, thereby activating AKT and JNK to increase the expression and secretion of IL-6. In addition, IL-6 readily activated the JAK/STAT3/Snail signaling axis, which subsequently contributed to UHRF1 deficiency-induced EMT. Our results collectively demonstrate that UHRF1 deficiency may play a pivotal role in the malignant alteration of cancer cells.

Kan G, He H, Zhao Q, et al.
Functional dissection of the role of UHRF1 in the regulation of retinoblastoma methylome.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(24):39497-39511 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains 1) is a critical regulator for DNA methylation, and its frequent overexpression in human cancers has been associated with tumor-promoting effects. However, whether the overexpressed UHRF1 contributes to the establishment and maintenance of tumor methylomes and whether this process can affect the tumorigenesis remain unclear. In this study, we show that UHRF1 is highly expressed in retinoblastoma, and genomes of human primary retinoblastoma and cell lines have differential DNA methylation patterns compared with those of normal retina, characterized by lower global methylation and higher promoter methylation of tumor suppressors. However, our genome-wide DNA methylation study uncovers that UHRF1 down-modulation in retinoblastoma cells exerts minor effects on the existing methylation patterns at both bulk genome and individual gene loci, suggesting that retinoblastoma methylome is primarily maintained by other mechanisms. Furthermore, using two murine retinoblastoma models, we found that high UHRF1 expression does not alter global methylation levels in both premalignant neonatal retina and retinoblastoma tumors, implying that DNA hypomethylation may not be an early mechanism driving retinoblastoma tumorigenesis unlike what has been proposed for other types of cancer. These results suggest that tumor-promoting functions of UHRF1 in retinoblastoma are largely independent of its role in DNA methylation.

Seo JS, Choi YH, Moon JW, et al.
Hinokitiol induces DNA demethylation via DNMT1 and UHRF1 inhibition in colon cancer cells.
BMC Cell Biol. 2017; 18(1):14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA hypermethylation is a key epigenetic mechanism for the silencing of many genes in cancer. Hinokitiol, a tropolone-related natural compound, is known to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. However, the relationship between hinokitiol and DNA methylation is not clear. The aim of our study was to explore whether hinokitiol has an inhibitory ability on the DNA methylation in colon cancer cells.
RESULTS: MTT data showed that hinokitiol had higher sensitivity in colon cancer cells, HCT-116 and SW480, than in normal colon cells, CCD18Co. Hinokitiol reduced DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and ubiquitin-like plant homeodomain and RING finger domain 1 (UHRF1) expression in HCT-116 cells. In addition, the expression of ten-eleven translocation protein 1 (TET1), a known DNA demethylation initiator, was increased by hinokitiol treatment. ELISA and FACS data showed that hinokitiol increased the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) level in the both colon cancer cells, but 5-methylcytosine (5mC) level was not changed. Furthermore, hinokitiol significantly restored mRNA expression of O
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that hinokitiol may exert DNA demethylation by inhibiting the expression of DNMT1 and UHRF1 in colon cancer cells.

Saidi S, Popov Z, Janevska V, Panov S
Overexpression of UHRF1 gene correlates with the major clinicopathological parameters in urinary bladder cancer.
Int Braz J Urol. 2017 Mar-Apr; 43(2):224-229 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Recently, expression of the UHRF1 gene was found to be up-regulated in numerous neoplasms, including the urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine if the expression levels of UHRF1 gene correlates with the major pathological characteristics of the tumor and patients' clinical outcome.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our study, we have analyzed the tissue samples derived from group of 70 patients with histologically confirmed TCC of the urinary bladder, while normal urinary bladder mucosa obtained from 40 patients with nonmalignant diseases was used as a negative control group. Expression of UHRF1 gene in each patient sample was determined using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: UHRF1 gene expression was found to be app. 2.5 times higher in samples from patients with TCC in comparison with normal epithelium derived from control group patients. Analysis show that gene expression correlates with the malignancy of the tumor. A highly significant differences were found between the expression values of samples from low and high grade TCC, as well as between the high grade and control group. UHRF1 expression was higher in patients with non-muscle invasive disease than in those with muscle invasive disease.
CONCLUSIONS: The result of this study indicates that UHRF1 gene expression levels correlates with the major pathological characteristics of TCC samples and with the clinical outcome of those patients. Determination of UHRF1 gene expression could have a potential to be used as a sensitive molecular marker in patients with urinary bladder cancer.

Liu X, Ou H, Xiang L, et al.
Elevated UHRF1 expression contributes to poor prognosis by promoting cell proliferation and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(6):10510-10522 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ubiquitin-like with plant homeodomain and ring finger domains, 1 (UHRF1) is overexpressed in a variety of tumor tissues and is negatively correlated with prognosis of patients with cancers, yet so far, a comprehensive study of UHRF1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been conducted. The present study was designed to explore the expression of UHRF1, associated clinical implications, and its possible functions in HCC. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect UHRF1 expression in HCC specimens including cancerous and noncancerous tissues. Associations of UHRF1 expression with demographic and clinicopathologic features in HCC were analyzed, and the effects of RNA interference of UHRF1 on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and migration were investigated in vitro and in vivo. UHRF1 mRNA and protein expression were both upregulated and negatively correlated with prognosis in HCC patients. Furthermore, inhibition of proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition progression were observed in vitro and in vivo after UHRF1 knockdown, moreover, G2/M arrest was detected in HCC cells. In conclusion, elevated UHRF1 expression contributes to poor prognosis by promoting cell proliferation and metastasis in HCC.

Du S, Xu G, Zou W, et al.
Effect of dihydroartemisinin on UHRF1 gene expression in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells.
Anticancer Drugs. 2017; 28(4):384-391 [PubMed] Related Publications
As the second most common cancer in men around the world, prostate cancer is increasingly gaining more attention. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) has been proven to be a promising anticancer agent in vitro as well as in vivo in accumulating data. However, the detailed mechanisms of how DHA action in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate the effects of DHA, a novel anticancer agent, by inhibiting the expression of ubiquitin like containing PHD and ring finger 1 (UHRF1) in PC-3 cells. The apoptosis and cell-cycle distribution were detected by flow cytometry. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to examine both UHRF1 and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) expressions at mRNA levels, whereas the expressions of UHRF1, DNMT1, and p16 proteins at protein levels were detected by Western blotting. Methylation levels of p16 CpG islands were determined by bisulfite genomic sequencing. We showed that DHA induced the downregulation of UHRF1 and DNMT1, accompanied by an upregulation of p16 in PC-3 cells. Decreased p16 promoter methylation levels in DHA-treated groups were also observed in PC-3 cells. Furthermore, DHA significantly induced apoptosis and G1/S cell-cycle arrest in PC-3 cells. Our results suggested that downregulation of UHRF1/DNMT1 is upstream to many cellular events, including G1 cell arrest, demethylation of p16, and apoptosis. Together, our study provides new evidence that DHA may serve as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of prostate cancer.

Reinhold WC, Varma S, Sunshine M, et al.
The NCI-60 Methylome and Its Integration into CellMiner.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(3):601-612 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A unique resource for systems pharmacology and genomic studies is the NCI-60 cancer cell line panel, which provides data for the largest publicly available library of compounds with cytotoxic activity (∼21,000 compounds), including 108 FDA-approved and 70 clinical trial drugs as well as genomic data, including whole-exome sequencing, gene and miRNA transcripts, DNA copy number, and protein levels. Here, we provide the first readily usable genome-wide DNA methylation database for the NCI-60, including 485,577 probes from the Infinium HumanMethylation450k BeadChip array, which yielded DNA methylation signatures for 17,559 genes integrated into our open access CellMiner version 2.0 (https://discover.nci.nih.gov/cellminer). Among new insights, transcript versus DNA methylation correlations revealed the epithelial/mesenchymal gene functional category as being influenced most heavily by methylation. DNA methylation and copy number integration with transcript levels yielded an assessment of their relative influence for 15,798 genes, including tumor suppressor, mitochondrial, and mismatch repair genes. Four forms of molecular data were combined, providing rationale for microsatellite instability for 8 of the 9 cell lines in which it occurred. Individual cell line analyses showed global methylome patterns with overall methylation levels ranging from 17% to 84%. A six-gene model, including PARP1, EP300, KDM5C, SMARCB1, and UHRF1 matched this pattern. In addition, promoter methylation of two translationally relevant genes, Schlafen 11 (SLFN11) and methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT), served as indicators of therapeutic resistance or susceptibility, respectively. Overall, our database provides a resource of pharmacologic data that can reinforce known therapeutic strategies and identify novel drugs and drug targets across multiple cancer types. Cancer Res; 77(3); 601-12. ©2016 AACR.

Chin HG, Ponnaluri VK, Zhang G, et al.
Transcription factor LSF-DNMT1 complex dissociation by FQI1 leads to aberrant DNA methylation and gene expression.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(50):83627-83640 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcription factor LSF is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and promotes oncogenesis. Factor quinolinone inhibitor 1 (FQI1), inhibits LSF DNA-binding activity and exerts anti-proliferative activity. Here, we show that LSF binds directly to the maintenance DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and its accessory protein UHRF1 both in vivo and in vitro. Binding of LSF to DNMT1 stimulated DNMT1 activity and FQI1 negated the methyltransferase activation. Addition of FQI1 to the cell culture disrupted LSF bound DNMT1 and UHRF1 complexes, resulting in global aberrant CpG methylation. Differentially methylated regions (DMR) containing at least 3 CpGs, were significantly altered by FQI1 compared to control cells. The DMRs were mostly concentrated in CpG islands, proximal to transcription start sites, and in introns and known genes. These DMRs represented both hypo and hypermethylation, correlating with altered gene expression. FQI1 treatment elicits a cascade of effects promoting altered cell cycle progression. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of FQI1 mediated alteration of the epigenome by DNMT1-LSF complex disruption, leading to aberrant DNA methylation and gene expression.

Alhosin M, Omran Z, Zamzami MA, et al.
Signalling pathways in UHRF1-dependent regulation of tumor suppressor genes in cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35(1):174 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) through DNA methylation and histone changes is a main hallmark of cancer. Ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING Finger domains 1 (UHRF1) is a potent oncogene overexpressed in various solid and haematological tumors and its high expression levels are associated with decreased expression of several TSGs including p16

Qin D, Wang W, Lei H, et al.
CDDO-Me reveals USP7 as a novel target in ovarian cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(47):77096-77109 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deubiquitinating enzyme USP7 has been involved in the pathogenesis and progression of several cancers. Targeting USP7 is becoming an attractive strategy for cancer therapy. In this study, we identified synthetic triterpenoid C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3, 12-dioxoolen-1, 9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO-Me) as a novel inhibitor of USP7 but not of other cysteine proteases such as cathepsin B and cathepsin D. CDDO-Me inhibits USP7 activity via a mechanism that is independent of the presence of α, β-unsaturated ketones. Molecular docking studies showed that CDDO-Me fits well in the ubiquitin carboxyl terminus-binding pocket on USP7. Given that CDDO-Me is known to be effective against ovarian cancer cells, we speculated that CDDO-Me may target USP7 in ovarian cancer cells. We demonstrated that ovarian cancer cells have higher USP7 expression than their normal counterparts. Knockdown of USP7 inhibits the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Using the cellular thermal shift assay and the drug affinity responsive target stability assay, we further demonstrated that CDDO-Me directly binds to USP7 in cells, which leads to the decrease of its substrates such as MDM2, MDMX and UHRF1. CDDO-Me suppresses ovarian cancer tumor growth in an xenograft model. In conclusion, we demonstrate that USP7 is a novel target of ovarian cancer cells; targeting USP7 may contribute to the anti-cancer effect of CDDO-Me. The development of novel USP7 selective compounds based on the CDDO-Me-scaffold warrants further investigation.

Lu H, Bhoopatiraju S, Wang H, et al.
Loss of UHRF2 expression is associated with human neoplasia, promoter hypermethylation, decreased 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, and high proliferative activity.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(46):76047-76061 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 2 (UHRF2) binds to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a DNA base involved in tissue development, but it is unknown how their distribution compares with each other in normal and malignant human tissues. We used IHC on human tumor specimens (160 from 19 tumor types) or normal tissue to determine the expression and distribution of UHRF2, Ki-67, and 5hmC. We also examined UHRF2 expression in cord blood progenitors and compared its expression to methylation status in 6 leukemia cell lines and 15 primary human leukemias. UHRF2 is highly expressed, paralleling that of 5hmC, in most non-neoplastic, differentiated tissue with low Ki-67 defined proliferative activity. UHRF2 is expressed in common lymphoid progenitors and mature lymphocytes but not common myeloid progenitors or monocytes. In contrast, UHRF2 immunostaining in human cancer tissues revealed widespread reduction or abnormal cytoplasmic localization which correlated with a higher Ki-67 and reduced 5hmC. UHRF2 expression is reduced in some leukemia cell lines, this correlates with promoter hypermethylation, and similar UHRF2 methylation profiles are seen in primary human leukemia samples. Thus, UHRF2 and 5hmC are widely present in differentiated human tissues, and UHRF2 protein is poorly expressed or mislocalized in diverse human cancers.

Huang P, Cheng CL, Chang YH, et al.
Molecular gene signature and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(32):51898-51907 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The current staging system for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is inadequate for predicting outcome. Risk score, a linear combination of the values for the expression of each gene multiplied by a weighting value which was estimated from univariate Cox proportional hazard regression, can be useful. The aim of this study is to analyze survival-related genes with TaqMan Low-Density Array (TLDA) and risk score to explore gene-signature in lung cancer. A total of 96 NSCLC specimens were collected and randomly assigned to a training (n = 48) or a testing cohort (n = 48). A panel of 219 survival-associated genes from published studies were used to develop a 6-gene risk score. The risk score was used to classify patients into high or low-risk signature and survival analysis was performed. Cox models were used to evaluate independent prognostic factors. A 6-gene signature including ABCC4, ADRBK2, KLHL23, PDS5A, UHRF1 and ZNF551 was identified. The risk score in both training (HR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.14-8.67, p = 0.03) and testing cohorts (HR = 5.42, 95% CI: 1.56-18.84, p = 0.01) was the independent prognostic factor. In merged public datasets including GSE50081, GSE30219, GSE31210, GSE19188, GSE37745, GSE3141 and GSE31908, the risk score (HR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.25-1.80, p < 0.0001) was also the independent prognostic factor. The risk score generated from expression of a small number of genes did perform well in predicting overall survival and may be useful in routine clinical practice.

Ge TT, Yang M, Chen Z, et al.
UHRF1 gene silencing inhibits cell proliferation and promotes cell apoptosis in human cervical squamous cell carcinoma CaSki cells.
J Ovarian Res. 2016; 9(1):42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Up-regulation of UHRF1 has been observed in a variety of cancers and appears to serve as an independent prognostic factor.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of UHRF1 gene silencing on apoptosis and proliferation of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) CaSki cells.
METHODS: This study consisted of 47 CSCC tissues and 40 normal cervical tissues. The CaSki cells were assigned into Blank group (CaSki cells not transfected), NC group (CaSki cells transfected with control siRNA), and UHRF1 Silence group (CaSki cells transfected with UHRF1 siRNA). qRT-PCR and Western blot were used for UHRF1 mRNA and protein expressions, CKK-8 assay for cell proliferation, flow cytometry for cell cycle and apoptosis, Western blot for expressions of apoptosis-related proteins. Nude mice tumor transplant experiment was performed.
RESULTS: UHRF1 exhibited higher mRNA and protein expressions in the CSCC tissues than normal cervical tissues (both P < 0.05). The cell proliferation ability in the UHRF1 Silence group was reduced when compared with the Blank group and the NC group, the cells at S-G2M stage in the UHRF1 Silence group were dropped when compared with the Blank group and the NC group (P < 0.05), while the cells at G0/G1 stage were elevated (P < 0.05), and the proportion of Annexin V positive cells in the UHRF1 Silence group was increased in comparison with the Blank group and the NC group (P < 0.05). Nude mice tumor transplant experiment indicated that the growth rate and weight of tumor in the Blank group and NC group was higher and heavier than the UHRF1 Silence group (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: UHRF1 showed a high expression in CSCC and UHRF1 silencing can reduce proliferation and enhance apoptosis of the CaSki cells.

Lai M, Liang L, Chen J, et al.
Multidimensional Proteomics Reveals a Role of UHRF2 in the Regulation of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT).
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2016; 15(7):2263-78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UHRF1 is best known for its positive role in the maintenance of DNMT1-mediated DNA methylation and is implicated in a variety of tumor processes. In this paper, we provided evidence to demonstrate a role of UHRF2 in cell motility and invasion through the regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process by acting as a transcriptional co-regulator of the EMT-transcription factors (TFs). We ectopically expressed UHRF2 in gastric cancer cell lines and performed multidimensional proteomics analyses. Proteome profiling analysis suggested a role of UHRF2 in repression of cell-cell adhesion; analysis of proteome-wide TF DNA binding activities revealed the up-regulation of many EMT-TFs in UHRF2-overexpressing cells. These data suggest that UHRF2 is a regulator of cell motility and the EMT program. Indeed, cell invasion experiments demonstrated that silencing of UHRF2 in aggressive cells impaired their abilities of migration and invasion in vitro Further ChIP-seq identified UHRF2 genomic binding motifs that coincide with several TF binding motifs including EMT-TFs, and the binding of UHRF2 to CDH1 promoter was validated by ChIP-qPCR. Moreover, the interactome analysis with IP-MS uncovered the interaction of UHRF2 with TFs including TCF7L2 and several protein complexes that regulate chromatin remodeling and histone modifications, suggesting that UHRF2 is a transcription co-regulator for TFs such as TCF7L2 to regulate the EMT process. Taken together, our study identified a role of UHRF2 in EMT and tumor metastasis and demonstrated an effective approach to obtain clues of UHRF2 function without prior knowledge through combining evidence from multidimensional proteomics analyses.

Matsushita R, Yoshino H, Enokida H, et al.
Regulation of UHRF1 by dual-strand tumor-suppressor microRNA-145 (miR-145-5p and miR-145-3p): Inhibition of bladder cancer cell aggressiveness.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(19):28460-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, the guide-strand of miRNA integrates into the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC), whereas the passenger-strand is inactivated through degradation. Analysis of our miRNA expression signature of bladder cancer (BC) by deep-sequencing revealed that microRNA (miR)-145-5p (guide-strand) and miR-145-3p (passenger-strand) were significantly downregulated in BC tissues. It is well known that miR-145-5p functions as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer. However, the impact of miR-145-3p on cancer cells is still ambiguous. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional significance of miR-145-3p and BC oncogenic pathways and targets regulated by miR-145-5p/miR-145-3p. Ectopic expression of either miR-145-5p or miR-145-3p in BC cells significantly suppressed cancer cell growth, migration and invasion and it also induced apoptosis. The gene encoding ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 1 (UHRF1) was a direct target of these miRNAs. Silencing of UHRF1 induced apoptosis and inhibited cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in BC cells. In addition, overexpressed UHRF1 was confirmed in BC clinical specimens, and the high UHRF1 expression group showed a significantly poorer cause specific survival rate in comparison with the low expression group. Taken together, our present data demonstrated that both strands of miR-145 (miR-145-5p: guide-strand and miR-145-3p: passenger-strand) play pivotal roles in BC cells by regulating UHRF1. The identification of the molecular target of a tumor suppressive miRNAs provides novel insights into the potential mechanisms of BC oncogenesis and suggests novel therapeutic strategies.

Soleimani A, Ghanadi K, Noormohammadi Z, Irani S
The correlation between miR-146a C/G polymorphism and UHRF1 gene expression level in gastric tumor.
J Dig Dis. 2016; 17(3):169-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the polymorphism of miR-146a and The ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring-finger domains 1 (UHRF1) expression in patients with gastric cancer.
METHODS: MiR-146a rs2910164 was genotyped in 130 patients with gastric cancer and 130 cancer-free individuals using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism. UHRF1 expression was analyzed in 22 gastric cancer tissues and their adjacent normal tissues using quantitative real-time PCR.
RESULTS: No significant differences in genotype distributions of miR-146a rs2910164 were found between cases and controls, but we observed that grade II tumors were more frequently detected in patients with CG/CC genotype compared to those with CC genotype. UHRF1 expressions in cancerous tissues were significantly higher than in noncancerous tissues (1.89-fold). Patients with CC genotype showed a significant increase in UHRF1 expression in comparison to the carriers of GG/CG genotype. A higher UHRF1 expression was associated with cancer stage IV and grade III (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: The overexpression of UHRF1 was correlated with the stage and grade of gastric cancer and is associated with the genotype distribution of rs2910164.

Wan X, Yang S, Huang W, et al.
UHRF1 overexpression is involved in cell proliferation and biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Biochemical recurrence (BCR) is widely used to define the treatment success and to make decisions on if or how to initiate a secondary therapy, but uniform criteria to define BCR after radical prostatectomy (RP) is not yet completely assessed. UHRF1 has a unique function in regulating the epigenome by linking DNA methylation with histone marks. The clinical value of UHRF1 in PCa has not been well done. Therefore, we evaluated the prognostic significance of UHRF1.
METHOD: UHRF1 expression in PCa cells was monitored by qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses. UHRF1 expression was knocked down using specific siRNAs, and the effects of knockdown on the proliferation, migration, cell cycle, and apoptosis of PCa cell lines were investigated. UHRF1 protein expression was evaluated in 225 PCa specimens using immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays. Correlations between UHRF1 expression and the clinical features of PCa were assessed.
RESULTS: The results showed that UHRF1 was overexpressed in almost all of the PCa cell lines. In PCa cells, UHRF1 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and migration, and induced apoptosis. UHRF1 expression levels were correlated with some clinical features of PCa. Multivariate analysis showed that UHRF1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for biochemical recurrence-free survival.
CONCLUSIONS: UHRF1 functions as an oncogene in prostate cancer and appears to be capable of predicting the risk of biochemical recurrence in PCa patients after radical prostatectomy, and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for PCa.

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