Gene Summary

Gene:ZEB2; zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2
Aliases: SIP1, SIP-1, ZFHX1B, HSPC082, SMADIP1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Zfh1 family of 2-handed zinc finger/homeodomain proteins. It is located in the nucleus and functions as a DNA-binding transcriptional repressor that interacts with activated SMADs. Mutations in this gene are associated with Hirschsprung disease/Mowat-Wilson syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (19)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Signal Transduction
  • Breast Cancer
  • Stromal Cells
  • Western Blotting
  • Chromosome 2
  • Apoptosis
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Lung Cancer
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Promoter Regions
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cadherins
  • siRNA
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Phenotype
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Liver Cancer
  • Stomach Cancer
  • MicroRNAs
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cell Line
  • Kidney Cancer
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Up-Regulation
  • Cell Movement
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cancer RNA
  • RT-PCR
  • Virus Latency
  • Disease Progression
  • DNA Methylation
  • Down-Regulation
Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ZEB2 (cancer-related)

Zhang Z, Yang C, Gao W, et al.
FOXA2 attenuates the epithelial to mesenchymal transition by regulating the transcription of E-cadherin and ZEB2 in human breast cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 361(2):240-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Forkhead Box A2 (FOXA2) transcription factor is required for embryonic development and for normal functions of multiple adult tissues, in which the maintained expression of FOXA2 is usually related to preventing the progression of malignant transformation. In this study, we found that FOXA2 prevented the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human breast cancer. We observed a strong correlation between the expression levels of FOXA2 and the epithelial phenotype. Knockdown of FOXA2 promoted the mesenchymal phenotype, whereas stable overexpression of FOXA2 attenuated EMT in breast cancer cells. FOXA2 was found to endogenously bind to and stimulate the promoter of E-cadherin that is crucial for epithelial phenotype of the tumor cells. Meanwhile, FOXA2 prevented EMT of breast cancer cells by repressing the expression of EMT-related transcription factor ZEB2 through recruiting a transcriptional corepressor TLE3 to the ZEB2 promoter. The stable overexpression of FOXA2 abolished metastasis of breast cancer cells in vivo. This study confirmed that FOXA2 inhibited EMT in breast cancer cells by regulating the transcription of EMT-related genes such as E-cadherin and ZEB2.

Abera MB, Kazanietz MG
Protein kinase Cα mediates erlotinib resistance in lung cancer cells.
Mol Pharmacol. 2015; 87(5):832-41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
Overexpression and mutational activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are given as a primary therapy for advanced patients with EGFR-activating mutations; however, the majority of these tumors relapse and patients eventually develop resistance to TKIs. To address a potential role of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes in the resistance to TKIs, we used the isogenic NSCLC H1650 cell line and its erlotinib-resistant derivative H1650-M3, a cell line that displays a mesenchymal-like morphology driven by transforming growth factor-β signaling. We found that H1650-M3 cells display remarkable PKCα upregulation and PKCδ downregulation. Notably, silencing PKCα from H1650-M3 cells using RNA interference caused a significant reduction in the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers vimentin, Zeb2, Snail, and Twist. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition or PKCα RNA interference depletion and PKCδ restoring sensitized H1650-M3 cells to erlotinib. Whereas ectopic overexpression of PKCα in parental H1650 cells was not sufficient to alter the expression of EMT genes or to confer resistance to erlotinib, it caused downregulation of PKCδ expression, suggesting a unidirectional crosstalk. Finally, mechanistic studies revealed that PKCα upregulation in H1650-M3 cells is driven by transforming growth factor-β. Our results identified important roles for specific PKC isozymes in erlotinib resistance and EMT in lung cancer cells, and highlight PKCα as a potential target for lung cancer treatment.

Tan EJ, Kahata K, Idås O, et al.
The high mobility group A2 protein epigenetically silences the Cdh1 gene during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2015; 43(1):162-78 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
The loss of the tumour suppressor E-cadherin (Cdh1) is a key event during tumourigenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) triggers EMT by inducing the expression of non-histone chromatin protein High Mobility Group A2 (HMGA2). We have previously shown that HMGA2, together with Smads, regulate a network of EMT-transcription factors (EMT-TFs) like Snail1, Snail2, ZEB1, ZEB2 and Twist1, most of which are well-known repressors of the Cdh1 gene. In this study, we show that the Cdh1 promoter is hypermethylated and epigenetically silenced in our constitutive EMT cell model, whereby HMGA2 is ectopically expressed in mammary epithelial NMuMG cells and these cells are highly motile and invasive. Furthermore, HMGA2 remodels the chromatin to favour binding of de novo DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) to the Cdh1 promoter. E-cadherin expression could be restored after treatment with the DNA de-methylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Here, we describe a new epigenetic role for HMGA2, which follows the actions that HMGA2 initiates via the EMT-TFs, thus achieving sustained silencing of E-cadherin expression and promoting tumour cell invasion.

Tian Y, Pan Q, Shang Y, et al.
MicroRNA-200 (miR-200) cluster regulation by achaete scute-like 2 (Ascl2): impact on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(52):36101-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 26/12/2015 Related Publications
Ascl2, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is a downstream target of WNT signaling that controls the fate of intestinal cryptic stem cells and colon cancer progenitor cells. However, its involvement in colon cancer and downstream molecular events is largely undefined; in particular, the mechanism by which Ascl2 regulates the plasticity of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) programs in colon cancer cells remains unknown. In this study, we systematically demonstrate that Ascl2 loss of function in colon cancer cells promotes MET by derepressing the expression of microRNA (miR)-200s (i.e. miR-200b, miR-200a, miR-429, miR-200c, and miR-141) and further activating their expression through a transcriptional mechanism that involves direct binding to the most proximal E-box (E-box2) in the miR-200b-a-429 promoter. Activation of miR-200s due to Ascl2 deficiency led to the inhibition of ZEB1/2 expression and the alteration of epithelial and mesenchymal features. Transfection of miR-200b, miR-200a, and miR-429 inhibitors into Ascl2-deficient colon cancer cells promoted the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in a reversible manner. Transfection of miR-200a or miR-429 inhibitors into Ascl2-deficient colon cancer cells increased cellular proliferation and migration. Ascl2 mRNA levels and the miR-200a, miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-141, or miR-429 levels in the colon cancerous samples were inversely correlated. These results provide the first evidence of a link between Ascl2 and miR-200s in the regulation of EMT-MET plasticity in colon cancer.

Wang CA, Drasin D, Pham C, et al.
Homeoprotein Six2 promotes breast cancer metastasis via transcriptional and epigenetic control of E-cadherin expression.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(24):7357-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2015 Related Publications
Misexpression of developmental transcription factors occurs often in human cancers, where embryonic programs may be reinstated in a context that promotes or sustains malignant development. In this study, we report the involvement of the kidney development transcription factor Six2 in the metastatic progression of human breast cancer. We found that Six2 promoted breast cancer metastasis by a novel mechanism involving both transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of E-cadherin. Downregulation of E-cadherin by Six2 was necessary for its ability to increase soft agar growth and in vivo metastasis in an immunocompetent mouse model of breast cancer. Mechanistic investigations showed that Six2 represses E-cadherin expression by upregulating Zeb2, in part, through a microRNA-mediated mechanism and by stimulating promoter methylation of the E-cadherin gene (Cdh1). Clinically, SIX2 expression correlated inversely with CDH1 expression in human breast cancer specimens, corroborating the disease relevance of their interaction. Our findings establish Six2 as a regulator of metastasis in human breast cancers and demonstrate an epigenetic function for SIX family transcription factors in metastatic progression through the regulation of E-cadherin.

Oktyabri D, Tange S, Terashima M, et al.
EED regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer cells induced by TGF-β.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 453(1):124-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histone methylation is involved in various biological and pathological processes including cancer development. In this study, we found that EED, a component of Polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2) that catalyzes methylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27), was involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells induced by Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β). The expression of EED was increased during TGF-β-induced EMT and knockdown of EED inhibited TGF-β-induced morphological conversion of the cells associated with EMT. EED knockdown antagonized TGF-β-dependent expression changes of EMT-related genes such as CDH1, ZEB1, ZEB2 and microRNA-200 (miR-200) family. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that EED was implicated in TGF-β-induced transcriptional repression of CDH1 and miR-200 family genes through the regulation of histone H3 methylation and EZH2 occupancies on their regulatory regions. Our study demonstrated a novel role of EED, which regulates PRC2 activity and histone methylation during TGF-β-induced EMT of cancer cells.

Wong TS, Gao W, Chan JY
Interactions between E-cadherin and microRNA deregulation in head and neck cancers: the potential interplay.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:126038 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2015 Related Publications
E-cadherin expression in the head and neck epithelium is essential for the morphogenesis and homeostasis of epithelial tissues. The cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts are required for the anchorage-dependent growth of epithelial cells. Further, survival and proliferation require physical tethering created by proper cell-cell adhesion. Otherwise, the squamous epithelial cells will undergo programmed cell death. Head and neck cancers can escape from anoikis and enter into the epithelial-mesenchymal transition stages via the modulation of E-cadherin expression with epigenetic mechanisms. At epigenetic level, gene expression control is not dependent on the DNA sequence. In the context of E-cadherin regulation in head and neck cancers, 2 major mechanisms including de novo promoter hypermethylation and microRNA dysregulation are most extensively studied. Both of them control E-cadherin expression at transcription level and subsequently hinder the overall E-cadherin protein level in the head and neck cancer cells. Increasing evidence suggested that microRNA mediated E-cadherin expression in the head and neck cancers by directly/indirectly targeting the transcription suppressors of E-cadherin, ZEB1 and ZEB2.

Ishii H, Saitoh M, Sakamoto K, et al.
Epithelial splicing regulatory proteins 1 (ESRP1) and 2 (ESRP2) suppress cancer cell motility via different mechanisms.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(40):27386-99 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/10/2015 Related Publications
ESRP1 (epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1) and ESRP2 regulate alternative splicing events associated with epithelial phenotypes of cells, and both are down-regulated during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. However, little is known about their expression and functions during carcinogenesis. In this study, we found that expression of both ESRP1 and ESRP2 is plastic: during oral squamous cell carcinogenesis, these proteins are up-regulated relative to their levels in normal epithelium but down-regulated in invasive fronts. Importantly, ESRP1 and ESRP2 are re-expressed in the lymph nodes, where carcinoma cells metastasize and colonize. In head and neck carcinoma cell lines, ESRP1 and ESRP2 suppress cancer cell motility through distinct mechanisms: knockdown of ESRP1 affects the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton through induction of Rac1b, whereas knockdown of ESRP2 attenuates cell-cell adhesion through increased expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated transcription factors. Down-regulation of ESRP1 and ESRP2 is thus closely associated with a motile phenotype of cancer cells.

Chen F, Zhuang M, Peng J, et al.
Baicalein inhibits migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells through suppression of the TGF-β signaling pathway.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 10(4):1999-2003 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway exhibits an important role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Excessive expression of TGF-β activates Smad4, leading to the upregulation of downstream metastasis-associated genes. Thus, the inhibition of the TGF-β/Smad4 signaling pathway may be a novel strategy for treatment of cancer metastasis. Baicalein, a flavonoid derived from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis, has been reported to exert strong anti-tumor activity towards various types of cancer. In the present study the effect of baicalein on migration and invasion of cancer cells was evaluated using wound-healing and Transwell assays. In order to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of the anti-metastatic effects of baicalein, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analyses were performed to examine the effect on the expression of TGF‑β, Smad4, N-cadherin, vimentin, ZEB1 and ZEB2. It was determined that baicalein inhibited the migration and invasion of AGS cells by suppressing the TGF-β/Smad4 signaling pathway. In addition, baicalein treatment reduced the expression of the metastasis-associated N-cadherin, vimentin, ZEB1 and ZEB2, downstream target genes of the TGF‑β/Smad4 signaling pathway. Collectively, these results suggest that inhibition of the metastasis of cancer cells via inactivation of TGF-β/Smad4 signaling is one of the mechanisms by which baicalein may treat cancer.

Ji X, Lu H, Zhou Q, Luo K
LARP7 suppresses P-TEFb activity to inhibit breast cancer progression and metastasis.
Elife. 2014; 3:e02907 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/10/2015 Related Publications
Transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase (Pol) II is essential for gene expression during cell growth and differentiation. The positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) stimulates transcriptional elongation by phosphorylating Pol II and antagonizing negative elongation factors. A reservoir of P-TEFb is sequestered in the inactive 7SK snRNP where 7SK snRNA and the La-related protein LARP7 are required for the integrity of this complex. Here, we show that P-TEFb activity is important for the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and breast cancer progression. Decreased levels of LARP7 and 7SK snRNA redistribute P-TEFb to the transcriptionally active super elongation complex, resulting in P-TEFb activation and increased transcription of EMT transcription factors, including Slug, FOXC2, ZEB2, and Twist1, to promote breast cancer EMT, invasion, and metastasis. Our data provide the first demonstration that the transcription elongation machinery plays a key role in promoting breast cancer progression by directly controlling the expression of upstream EMT regulators.

Lu YM, Shang C, Ou YL, et al.
miR-200c modulates ovarian cancer cell metastasis potential by targeting zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) expression.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(8):134 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was to investigate the effect of miR-200c on regulation of ovarian cancer cell metastasis potential and explore the underlying molecular events. qRT-PCR was used to analyze the level of miR-200c expression in 48 ovarian cancer and 30 normal ovarian tissue samples. pre-miR-200c was used to manipulate miR-200c expression in ovarian cancer cells for detection of changed phenotypes of tumor cells. Bioinformatics analysis was then used to predict target genes of miR-200c and GO and pathway analyses drew the miR-200c-related gene network. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed the target of miR-200c as ZEB2. Western blot was used to detect gene expressions in ovarian cancer cells. Level of miR-200c expression was much higher in ovarian cancer than in normal ovarian tissues, and miR-200c expression was inversely associated with advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis of ovarian cancer (p < 0.01). The database search predicted 186 miR-200c-targeting genes, and GO analysis showed that functions of these target genes were enriched in the protein binding and other biological processes. Furthermore, miR-200c expression inhibited ovarian cancer cell ES-2 migration and invasion capacity by suppression of ZEB2 expression (p < 0.01). Overexpression of miR-200c regulated E-cadherin and vimentin expression in ovarian cancer cells. This study demonstrated high miR-200c expression in ovarian cancer tissues and ZEB2 as a targeting gene of miR-200c, which mediated the effects of miR-200c on regulation of ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion capacity and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Thus, targeting of miR-200c or ZEB2 may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for control of ovarian cancer.

Wu SM, Ai HW, Zhang DY, et al.
MiR-141 targets ZEB2 to suppress HCC progression.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(10):9993-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with HCC tumorigenesis. The present study was designed to define the role of miR-141 in HCC. The expression of miR-141 was significantly decreased in four HCC cell lines. Overexpression of miR-141 suppressed both the growth and the motility of HCC cells. Furthermore, we identified zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) as a target of miR-141 and miR-141 functioned as a tumor suppressor via ZEB2 targeting in HCC. These data provide a novel potential therapeutic target for HCC treatment.

Hou P, Zhao Y, Li Z, et al.
LincRNA-ROR induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and contributes to breast cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1287 [PubMed] Related Publications
LncRNAs have critical roles in various biological processes ranging from embryonic development to human diseases, including cancer progression, although their detailed mechanistic functions remain illusive. The lncRNA linc-ROR has been shown to contribute to the maintenance of induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells. In this study, we discovered that linc-ROR was upregulated in breast tumor samples, and ectopic overexpression of linc-ROR in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells induced an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program. Moreover, we showed that linc-ROR enhanced breast cancer cell migration and invasion, which was accompanied by generation of stem cell properties. Contrarily, silencing of linc-ROR repressed breast tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, our data revealed that linc-ROR was associated with miRNPs and functioned as a competing endogenous RNA to mi-205. Specifically, linc-ROR prevented the degradation of mir-205 target genes, including the EMT inducer ZEB2. Thus our results indicate that linc-ROR functions as an important regulator of EMT and can promote breast cancer progression and metastasis through regulation of miRNAs. Potentially, the findings of this study implicate the relevance of linc-ROR as a possible therapeutic target for aggressive and metastatic breast cancers.

Zheng YB, Luo HP, Shi Q, et al.
miR-132 inhibits colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis via directly targeting ZEB2.
World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20(21):6515-22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/10/2015 Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the biological role and underlying mechanism of miR-132 in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and invasion.
METHODS: Quantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to examine the expression levels of miR-132 in five CRC cell lines (SW480, SW620, HCT116, HT29 and LoVo) and a normal colonic cell line NCM460, as well as in tumor tissues with or without metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the prognostic significance of miR-132 in CRC patients. The biological effects of miR-132 were assessed in CRC cell lines using the transwell assay. Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses were employed to evaluate the expression of miR-132 targets. The regulation of ZEB2 by miR-132 was confirmed using the luciferase activity assay.
RESULTS: miR-132 was significantly down-regulated in the CRC cell lines compared with the normal colonic cell line (P < 0.05), as well as in the CRC tissues with distant metastases compared with the tissues without metastases (10.52 ± 4.69 vs 23.11 ± 7.84) (P < 0.001). Down-regulation of miR-132 was associated with tumor size (P = 0.016), distant metastasis (P = 0.002), and TNM stage (P = 0.020) in CRC patients. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis indicated that patients with low expression of miR-132 tended to have worse disease-free survival than patients with high expression of miR-132 (P < 0.001). Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-132 markedly inhibited cell invasion (P < 0.05) and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CRC cell lines. Further investigation revealed ZEB2, an EMT regulator, was a downstream target of miR-132.
CONCLUSION: Our study indicated that miR-132 plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of CRC.

Fujii R, Imanishi Y, Shibata K, et al.
Restoration of E-cadherin expression by selective Cox-2 inhibition and the clinical relevance of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) accompanied by the downregulation of E-cadherin has been thought to promote metastasis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is presumed to contribute to cancer progression through its multifaceted function, and recently its inverse relationship with E-cadherin was suggested. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether selective Cox-2 inhibitors restore the expression of E-cadherin in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells, and to examine the possible correlations of the expression levels of EMT-related molecules with clinicopathological factors in HNSCC.
METHODS: We used quantitative real-time PCR to examine the effects of three selective Cox-2 inhibitors, i.e., celecoxib, NS-398, and SC-791 on the gene expressions of E-cadherin (CDH-1) and its transcriptional repressors (SIP1, Snail, Twist) in the human HNSCC cell lines HSC-2 and HSC-4. To evaluate the changes in E-cadherin expression on the cell surface, we used a flowcytometer and immunofluorescent staining in addition to Western blotting. We evaluated and statistically analyzed the clinicopathological factors and mRNA expressions of Cox-2, CDH-1 and its repressors in surgical specimens of 40 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC).
RESULTS: The selective Cox-2 inhibitors upregulated the E-cadherin expression on the cell surface of the HNSCC cells through the downregulation of its transcriptional repressors. The extent of this effect depended on the baseline expression levels of both E-cadherin and Cox-2 in each cell line. A univariate analysis showed that higher Cox-2 mRNA expression (p = 0.037), lower CDH-1 mRNA expression (p = 0.020), and advanced T-classification (p = 0.036) were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis in TSCC. A multivariate logistic regression revealed that lower CDH-1 mRNA expression was the independent risk factor affecting lymph node metastasis (p = 0.041).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the appropriately selective administration of certain Cox-2 inhibitors may have an anti-metastatic effect through suppression of the EMT by restoring E-cadherin expression. In addition, the downregulation of CDH-1 resulting from the EMT may be closely involved in lymph node metastasis in TSCC.

Li H, Xu L, Li C, et al.
Ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b represses IGF-I-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition via ZEB2 and microRNA-200c regulation in gastric cancer cells.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:136 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) can induce epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in many epithelial tumors; however, the molecular mechanism by which this occurs is not clearly understood. Additionally, little is known about the involvement of IGF-I in gastric cancer.
METHODS: Two gastric cancer cell lines were treated with IGF-I to induce EMT and levels of transcription factor ZEB2 and microRNA-200c (miR-200c) were measured. Cells were treated with Akt/ERK inhibitors to investigate the role of these pathways in IGF-I-mediated EMT. Transfection of shRNA plasmids was used to silence the ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b to assess its involvement in this process. The relationship between IGF-IR and Cbl-b expression, and the effect of IGF-IR and Cbl-b on metastasis were analyzed in primary gastric adenocarcinoma patients.
RESULTS: IGF-I-induced gastric cancer cell EMT was accompanied by ZEB2 up-regulation. Furthermore, both Akt/ERK inhibitors and knockdown of Akt/ERK gene reversed IGF-I-induced ZEB2 up-regulation and EMT through up-regulation of miR-200c, suggesting the involvement of an Akt/ERK-miR-200c-ZEB2 axis in IGF-I-induced EMT. The ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b also ubiquitinated and degraded IGF-IR and inhibited the Akt/ERK-miR-200c-ZEB2 axis, leading to the repression of IGF-I-induced EMT. There was a significant negative correlation between the expression of IGF-IR and Cbl-b in gastric cancer patient tissues (r = -0.265, p < 0.05). More of patients with IGF-IR-positive expression and Cbl-b-negative expression were with lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b represses IGF-I-induced EMT, likely through targeting IGF-IR for degradation and further inhibiting the Akt/ERK-miR-200c-ZEB2 axis in gastric cancer cells.

Ramachandran I, Ganapathy V, Gillies E, et al.
Wnt inhibitory factor 1 suppresses cancer stemness and induces cellular senescence.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1246 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/10/2015 Related Publications
Hyperactivation of the Wingless-type (Wnt)/β-catenin pathway promotes tumor initiation, tumor growth and metastasis in various tissues. Although there is evidence for the involvement of Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation in salivary gland tumors, the precise mechanisms are unknown. Here we report for the first time that downregulation of the Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) is a widespread event in salivary gland carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CaExPA). We also show that WIF1 downregulation occurs in the CaExPA precursor lesion pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and indicates a higher risk of progression from benign to malignant tumor. Our results demonstrate that diverse mechanisms including WIF1 promoter hypermethylation and loss of heterozygosity contribute to WIF1 downregulation in human salivary gland tumors. In accordance with a crucial role in suppressing salivary gland tumor progression, WIF1 re-expression in salivary gland tumor cells inhibited cell proliferation, induced more differentiated phenotype and promoted cellular senescence, possibly through upregulation of tumor-suppressor genes, such as p53 and p21. Most importantly, WIF1 significantly diminished the number of salivary gland cancer stem cells and the anchorage-independent cell growth. Consistent with this observation, WIF1 caused a reduction in the expression of pluripotency and stemness markers (OCT4 and c-MYC), as well as adult stem cell self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation markers, such as WNT3A, TCF4, c-KIT and MYB. Furthermore, WIF1 significantly increased the expression of microRNAs pri-let-7a and pri-miR-200c, negative regulators of stemness and cancer progression. In addition, we show that WIF1 functions as a positive regulator of miR-200c, leading to downregulation of BMI1, ZEB1 and ZEB2, with a consequent increase in downstream targets such as E-cadherin. Our study emphasizes the prognostic and therapeutic potential of WIF1 in human salivary gland CaExPA. Moreover, our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which WIF1 regulates cancer stemness and senescence, which might have major implications in the field of cancer biology.

Cheng C, Wan F, Liu L, et al.
Overexpression of SATB1 is associated with biologic behavior in human renal cell carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e97406 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/10/2015 Related Publications
Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein-1 (SATB1) has been reported to be aberrantly expressed in various cancers and correlated with the malignant behavior of cancer cells. However, the function of SATB1 in RCC remains unclear. With the combination of immunohistochemistry, western blotting, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR, and cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays, we found that levels of SATB1 mRNA and protein were dramatically increased in human ccRCC tissues (P<0.001 for both), and upregulation of SATB1 was significantly associated with depth of invasion (P<0.001), lymph node status (P = 0.001) and TNM stage (P = 0.009). SATB1 knockdown inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of 786-O cells, whereas SATB1 overexpression promoted the growth and aggressive phenotype of ACHN cells in vitro. Furthermore, SATB1 expression was positively correlated with ZEB2 expression (P = 0.013), and inversely linked to levels of SATB2 and E-cadherin (P = 0.005 and P<0.001, respectively) in ccRCC tissues. Our data provide a basis for the concept that overexpression of SATB1 may play a critical role in the acquisition of an aggressive phenotype for RCC cells through EMT, providing new insights into the significance of SATB1 in invasion and metastasis of ccRCC, which may contribute to fully elucidating the exact mechanism of development and progression of RCC.

Zhao C, Qiao Y, Jonsson P, et al.
Genome-wide profiling of AP-1-regulated transcription provides insights into the invasiveness of triple-negative breast cancer.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(14):3983-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive clinical subtype accounting for up to 20% of all breast cancers, but its malignant determinants remain largely undefined. Here, we show that in TNBC the overexpression of Fra-1, a component of the transcription factor AP-1, offers prognostic potential. Fra-1 depletion or its heterodimeric partner c-Jun inhibits the proliferative and invasive phenotypes of TNBC cells in vitro. Similarly, RNAi-mediated attenuation of Fra-1 or c-Jun reduced cellular invasion in vivo in a zebrafish tumor xenograft model. Exploring the AP-1 cistrome and the AP-1-regulated transcriptome, we obtained insights into the transcriptional regulatory networks of AP-1 in TNBC cells. Among the direct targets identified for Fra-1/c-Jun involved in proliferation, adhesion, and cell-cell contact, we found that AP-1 repressed the expression of E-cadherin by transcriptional upregulation of ZEB2 to stimulate cell invasion. Overall, this work illuminates the pathways through which TNBC cells acquire invasive and proliferative properties.

Sun Z, Zhang Z, Liu Z, et al.
MicroRNA-335 inhibits invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer by targeting ZEB2.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(6):982 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs have been suggested to play a vital role in regulate tumor progression and invasion. However, the expression of miR-335 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its clinical significance are not known. Here, we report that miR-335 is a tumor suppressor by regulating expression of ZEB2. In this study, we showed that downregulated miR-335 levels in highly invasive CRC cell lines and tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that patients with reduced miR-335 had a poor overall survival. Furthermore, enhancing the expression of miR-335 inhibited CRC cell migration and invasion in vitro and lung and liver metastasis in vivo, while silencing its expression resulted in increased migration and invasion. Additionally, we identified a novel miR-335 target, ZEB2, and the direct interaction between them was verified by 3'-untranslated region dual-luciferase reporter assay. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that miR-335 functions as a tumor suppressor and play a role in inhibiting metastasis of CRC cells through targeting ZEB2. These findings suggest that miR-335 may be useful as a new potential therapeutic target for CRC.

Mei Q, Li F, Quan H, et al.
Busulfan inhibits growth of human osteosarcoma through miR-200 family microRNAs in vitro and in vivo.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(7):755-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma typically arises in tissues of mesenchymal origin, and is the most malignant bone tumor characterized by high local aggressiveness, with poor therapeutic outcome. Busulfan has been widely used to treat CML. So far, there are no reports on the therapeutic effect of busulfan on osteosarcoma. Here, we showed that busulfan dose-dependently reduced the cell viability and proliferation, and induced cell apoptosis, senescence, and reactive oxygen species levels in two osteosarcoma cell lines. Moreover, a series of loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments further indicated that busulfan may have its anti-osteosarcoma effect by upregulating the microRNA-200 (miR-200) family which subsequently downregulated its target genes ZEB1 and ZEB2. Furthermore, treatment with busulfan potentially inhibited the growth of implanted osteosarcoma in nude mice. Taken together, our data suggest that busulfan may have an anti-osteosarcoma effect through downregulating ZEB1 and ZEB2 through activating the miR-200 family, highlighting a possibility of using busulfan as a novel therapy for osteosarcoma.

Jacob S, Nayak S, Fernandes G, et al.
Androgen receptor as a regulator of ZEB2 expression and its implications in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014; 21(3):473-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Zinc finger E-box-binding protein 2 (ZEB2) is known to help mediate the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and thereby it facilitates cancer metastasis. This study was initiated to explore whether ZEB2 expression differs in prostate cancer (PCa, n=7) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, n=7) tissues. In PCa tissues, the levels of both immunoreactive ZEB2 and androgen receptor (AR) were found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) when compared with BPH tissues. Co-regulation of AR and ZEB2 prompted us to investigate the role of androgenic stimuli in ZEB2 expression. ZEB2 expression was found to be significantly (P<0.05) upregulated after androgen stimulation and downregulated following AR silencing in LNCaP cells, an androgen-dependent PCa cell line. This finding suggested AR as a positive regulator of ZEB2 expression in androgen-dependent cells. Paradoxically, androgen-independent (AI) cell lines PC3 and DU145, known to possess low AR levels, showed significantly (P<0.05) higher expression of ZEB2 compared with LNCaP cells. Furthermore, forced expression of AR in PC3 (PC3-AR) and DU145 (DU-AR) cells led to reductions in ZEB2 expression, invasiveness, and migration. These cells also exhibited an increase in the levels of E-cadherin (a transcriptional target of ZEB2). Co-transfection of AR and ZEB2 cDNA constructs prevented the decline in invasiveness and migration to a significant extent. Additionally, ZEB2 downregulation was associated with an increase in miR200a/miR200b levels in PC3-AR cells and with a decrease in miR200a/miR200b levels in AR-silenced LNCaP cells. Thus, AR acts as a positive regulator of ZEB2 expression in androgen-dependent cells and as a negative regulator in AI PCa cells.

Rhodes LV, Tate CR, Segar HC, et al.
Suppression of triple-negative breast cancer metastasis by pan-DAC inhibitor panobinostat via inhibition of ZEB family of EMT master regulators.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 145(3):593-604 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/10/2015 Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive breast cancer subtype that lacks effective targeted therapies. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key contributor in the metastatic process. We previously showed the pan-deacetylase inhibitor LBH589 induces CDH1 expression in TNBC cells, suggesting regulation of EMT. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of LBH589 on the metastatic qualities of TNBC cells and the role of EMT in this process. A panel of breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and BT-549), drugged with LBH589, was examined for changes in cell morphology, migration, and invasion in vitro. The effect on in vivo metastasis was examined using immunofluorescent staining of lung sections. EMT gene expression profiling was used to determine LBH589-induced changes in TNBC cells. ZEB overexpression studies were conducted to validate requirement of ZEB in LBH589-mediated proliferation and tumorigenesis. Our results indicate a reversal of EMT by LBH589 as demonstrated by altered morphology and altered gene expression in TNBC. LBH589 was shown to be a more potent inhibitor of EMT than other HDAC inhibitors, SAHA and TMP269. Additionally, we found that LBH589 inhibits metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells in vivo. These effects of LBH589 were mediated in part by inhibition of ZEB, as overexpression of ZEB1 or ZEB2 mitigated the effects of LBH589 on MDA-MB-231 EMT-associated gene expression, migration, invasion, CDH1 expression, and tumorigenesis. These data indicate therapeutic potential of LBH589 in targeting EMT and metastasis of TNBC.

Meneses-Morales I, Tecalco-Cruz AC, Barrios-García T, et al.
SIP1/NHERF2 enhances estrogen receptor alpha transactivation in breast cancer cells.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 42(11):6885-900 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/10/2015 Related Publications
The estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that possesses two activating domains designated AF-1 and AF-2 that mediate its transcriptional activity. The role of AF-2 is to recruit coregulator protein complexes capable of modifying chromatin condensation status. In contrast, the mechanism responsible for the ligand-independent AF-1 activity and for its synergistic functional interaction with AF-2 is unclear. In this study, we have identified the protein Na+/H+ Exchanger RegulatoryFactor 2 (NHERF2) as an ERα-associated coactivator that interacts predominantly with the AF-1 domain of the nuclear receptor. Overexpression of NHERF2 in breast cancer MCF7 cells produced an increase in ERα transactivation. Interestingly, the presence of SRC-1 in NHERF2 stably overexpressing MCF7 cells produced a synergistic increase in ERα activity. We show further that NHERF2 interacts with ERα and SRC-1 in the promoter region of ERα target genes. The binding of NHERF2 to ERα in MCF7 cells increased cell proliferation and the ability of MCF7 cells to form tumors in a mouse model. We analyzed the expression of NHERF2 in breast cancer tumors finding a 2- to 17-fold increase in its mRNA levels in 50% of the tumor samples compared to normal breast tissue. These results indicate that NHERF2 is a coactivator of ERα that may participate in the development of estrogen-dependent breast cancer tumors.

Fang S, Zeng X, Zhu W, et al.
Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) regulated by miR-200b contributes to multi-drug resistance of small cell lung cancer.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2014; 96(3):438-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) was closely related to the oncogenesis, development and response to chemotherapy of cancer. However, its biological functions in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the roles of ZEB2 in chemoresistance of SCLC and its possible molecular mechanism. Expression of ZEB2 was examined in sixty-eight cases of SCLC tissues by immunohistochemistry. Knockdown of ZEB2 was carried out in SCLC multidrug resistant cells (H69AR) to assess its influence on chemoresistance. The results showed that ZEB2 was expressed in 23.5% (16/68) of SCLC. Overexpression of ZEB2 was associated with the poor pathologic stage of SCLC (P < 0.001 by the Fisher's Exact Test) and the shorter survival time (by the Kaplan-Meier method). Inhibition of ZEB2 expression using small interfering RNA in H69AR cells sensitized cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs through increasing drug-induced cell apoptosis accompanied with S phase arrest. In silico analysis demonstrated that there are complementary binding sites between miR-200b and ZEB2 3'-UTR, and identified miR-200b as a potential regulator of ZEB2. We found that miR-200b was down-regulated in the resistant cells and enforced expression of miR-200b by miRNA mimics increased cell sensitivity. Overexpression of miR-200b led to the downregulation of ZEB2 at protein level. Luciferase reporter gene assay showed that 3'UTR ZEB2 activity was regulated by miR-200b. Our results suggest that ZEB2 modulates drug resistance and is regulated by miR-200b. All findings provide insight into the ZEB2 signaling mechanism and ZEB2 may be a potentially novel target for multi-drug resistance in SCLC.

Yuan JH, Yang F, Wang F, et al.
A long noncoding RNA activated by TGF-β promotes the invasion-metastasis cascade in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 25(5):666-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cell dissemination is well established, but the involvement of lncRNAs in TGF-β signaling is still unknown. In this study, we observed that the lncRNA-activated by TGF-β (lncRNA-ATB) was upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastases and associated with poor prognosis. lncRNA-ATB upregulated ZEB1 and ZEB2 by competitively binding the miR-200 family and then induced EMT and invasion. In addition, lncRNA-ATB promoted organ colonization of disseminated tumor cells by binding IL-11 mRNA, autocrine induction of IL-11, and triggering STAT3 signaling. Globally, lncRNA-ATB promotes the invasion-metastasis cascade. Thus, these findings suggest that lncRNA-ATB, a mediator of TGF-β signaling, could predispose HCC patients to metastases and may serve as a potential target for antimetastatic therapies.

Sahlberg SH, Spiegelberg D, Glimelius B, et al.
Evaluation of cancer stem cell markers CD133, CD44, CD24: association with AKT isoforms and radiation resistance in colon cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e94621 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/10/2015 Related Publications
The cell surface proteins CD133, CD24 and CD44 are putative markers for cancer stem cell populations in colon cancer, associated with aggressive cancer types and poor prognosis. It is important to understand how these markers may predict treatment outcomes, determined by factors such as radioresistance. The scope of this study was to assess the connection between EGFR, CD133, CD24, and CD44 (including isoforms) expression levels and radiation sensitivity, and furthermore analyze the influence of AKT isoforms on the expression patterns of these markers, to better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms in the cell. Three colon cancer cell-lines were used, HT-29, DLD-1, and HCT116, together with DLD-1 isogenic AKT knock-out cell-lines. All three cell-lines (HT-29, HCT116 and DLD-1) expressed varying amounts of CD133, CD24 and CD44 and the top ten percent of CD133 and CD44 expressing cells (CD133high/CD44high) were more resistant to gamma radiation than the ten percent with lowest expression (CD133low/CD44low). The AKT expression was lower in the fraction of cells with low CD133/CD44. Depletion of AKT1 or AKT2 using knock out cells showed for the first time that CD133 expression was associated with AKT1 but not AKT2, whereas the CD44 expression was influenced by the presence of either AKT1 or AKT2. There were several genes in the cell adhesion pathway which had significantly higher expression in the AKT2 KO cell-line compared to the AKT1 KO cell-line; however important genes in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway (CDH1, VIM, TWIST1, SNAI1, SNAI2, ZEB1, ZEB2, FN1, FOXC2 and CDH2) did not differ. Our results demonstrate that CD133high/CD44high expressing colon cancer cells are associated with AKT and increased radiation resistance, and that different AKT isoforms have varying effects on the expression of cancer stem cell markers, which is an important consideration when targeting AKT in a clinical setting.

Miao L, Xiong X, Lin Y, et al.
Down-regulation of FoxM1 leads to the inhibition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer cells.
Cancer Genet. 2014; 207(3):75-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Emerging evidence suggests that FoxM1 may have a crucial role in the development and progression of human gastric cancer. Therefore, we sought to determine the role of FoxM1 in gastric cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The down-regulation of FoxM1 expression by the transfection of cells with FoxM1 siRNA decreased cell migration, invasion, and proliferation. Moreover, the over-expression of FoxM1 promoted cell migration, invasion, and proliferation, which led to the acquisition of an EMT phenotype by up-regulating the protein expression of the mesenchymal cell markers ZEB1, ZEB2, and vimentin and by down-regulating the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin in gastric epithelial cells. More important, the depletion of FoxM1 levels in gastric cancer cells led to significant decreases in the NF-κB p65 subunit, cyclin D1, Hes-1, VEGF, and EpCAM protein levels. Real-time PCR examination showed that the down-regulation of FoxM1 expression significantly inhibited vimentin and N-cadherin expression compared to that in control cells. Most important, cells transfected with FoxM1 siRNA displayed an elongated/irregular fibroblastoid morphology and reduction of the vimentin expression. Our current study strongly suggests that FoxM1 signaling has important roles in tumor cell aggressiveness through the acquisition of the EMT phenotype in gastric cancer cells.

Chang BP, Wang DS, Xing JW, et al.
miR-200c inhibits metastasis of breast cancer cells by targeting HMGB1.
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2014; 34(2):201-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
miR-200c has been shown to regulate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by inhibiting ZEB1 and ZEB2 expression in breast cancer cells. This study further examined the role of miR-200c in the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer that goes beyond the regulation on ZEB1 and ZEB2 expression. In this study, the bioinformatics software (miRanda) was used to predict the target gene of miR-200c and Renilla luciferase assay to verify the result. The metastatic breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 were cultured and transfected with the miR-200c mimic or inhibitor. The expressions of miR-200c and HMGB1 were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Transwell assay and wound healing assay were employed to examine the invasive and migrating ability of transfected cells. Target prediction and Renilla luciferase analysis revealed that HMGB1 was a putative target gene of miR-200c. After transfection of MDA-MB-231 cells with the miR-200c mimic or inhibitor, the expression of miR-200c was significantly increased or decreased when compared with cells transfected with the miR-200c mimic NC or inhibitor NC. Moreover, the expression of HMGB1 was reversely correlated with that of miR-200c in transfected cells. Tranwell assay showed that the number of invasive cells was significantly reduced in miR-200c mimic group when compared with miR-200c inhibitor group. It was also found that the migrating ability of cells transfected with miR-200c mimics was much lower than that of cells transfected with miR-200c inhibitors. It was suggested that miR-200c can suppress the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells by regulating the expression of HMGB1. miR-200c and HMGB1 may become useful biomarkers for progression of breast cancer and targets of gene therapy.

Guo F, Cogdell D, Hu L, et al.
MiR-101 suppresses the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by targeting ZEB1 and ZEB2 in ovarian carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(5):2021-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/10/2015 Related Publications
Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy; the majority of patients succumb to the disease within 5 years of diagnosis. The poor survival rate is attributed to diagnosis at advanced stage, when the tumor has metastasized. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a necessary step toward metastatic tumor progression. Through integrated computational analysis, we recently identified a master microRNA (miRNA) network that includes miR-101 and regulates EMT in ovarian carcinoma. In the present study, we characterized the functions of miR-101. Using reporter gene assays, we demonstrated that miR-101 suppressed the expression of the E-cadherin repressors ZEB1 and ZEB2 by directly targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of both ZEB1 and ZEB2. Introduction of miR-101 significantly inhibited EMT and cell migration and invasion. Introducing cDNAs of ZEB1 and ZEB2 without 3'UTR abrogated miR-101-induced EMT alteration, respectively. Our findings showed that miR-101 represents a redundant mechanism for the miR-200 family that regulates EMT through two major E-cadherin transcriptional repressors.

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