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German Childhood Cancer Organisations & Resources (7 links)

Recent Research Publications from Germany

Sparber-Sauer M, Seitz G, Kirsch S, et al.
The impact of local control in the treatment of type II/III pleuropulmonary blastoma. Experience of the Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS).
J Surg Oncol. 2017; 115(2):164-172 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study aims at examining the potential survival benefits of primary versus secondary surgery in the management of children diagnosed with pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) type II/III.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Disease characteristics, treatment, and survival of 29 children with localized PPB type II/III, treated in six prospective Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS) trials, were reviewed retrospectively.
RESULTS: Five year event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of children treated according to CWS protocols was 72%. Patients with tumors ≤10 cm had a 5 year OS of 91% versus 57% in patients with tumors >10 cm (P = 0.025). Five year OS of patients with macroscopically incomplete upfront resections was 44% as opposed to 68% in patients with delayed/secondary microscopically or macroscopically complete resection after an initial biopsy (P = 0.476). Ten patients died of disease, one patient died of second malignancy. Tumor size and complete tumor resection at any time were significant prognostic factors (P = 0.025/0.003) for EFS. EFS for microscopically complete, microscopically incomplete, and macroscopically incomplete resection at any time was 91%, 90%, and 25%, respectively (P = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Primary or secondary microscopically/macroscopically complete tumor resections in combination with chemotherapy correlates with long term survival in children with PPB. J. Surg. Oncol. 2017;115:164-172. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Kleinsimon S, Kauczor G, Jaeger S, et al.
ViscumTT induces apoptosis and alters IAP expression in osteosarcoma in vitro and has synergistic action when combined with different chemotherapeutic drugs.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most common bone tumor and is associated with a poor prognosis. Conventional therapies, surgery and chemotherapy, are still the standard but soon reach their limits. New therapeutic approaches are therefore needed. Conventional aqueous mistletoe extracts from the European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) are used in complementary cancer treatment. These commercial extracts are water-based and do not include water-insoluble compounds such as triterpenic acids. However, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic triterpenic acids possess anti-cancer properties. In this study, a whole mistletoe extract viscumTT re-created by combining an aqueous extract (viscum) and a triterpene extract (TT) was tested for its anti-cancer potential in osteosarcoma.
METHODS: Two osteosarcoma cell lines were treated with three different mistletoe extracts viscum, TT and viscumTT to compare their apoptotic potential. For this purpose, annexin/PI staining and caspase-3, -8 and -9 activity were investigated by flow cytometry. To determine the mechanism of action, alterations in expression of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) were detected by western blot. Apoptosis induction by co-treatment of viscum, TT and viscumTT with doxorubicin, etoposide and ifosfamide was examined by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: In vitro as well as ex vivo, the whole mistletoe extract viscumTT led to strong inhibition of proliferation and synergistic apoptosis induction in osteosarcoma cells. In the investigations of mechanism of action, inhibitors of apoptosis such as XIAP, BIRC5 and CLSPN showed a clear down-regulation after viscumTT treatment. In addition, co-treatment with doxorubicin, etoposide and ifosfamide further enhanced apoptosis induction, also synergistically.
CONCLUSION: ViscumTT treatment results in synergistic apoptosis induction in osteosarcoma cells in vitro and ex vivo. Additionally, conventional standard chemotherapeutic drugs such as doxorubicin, etoposide and ifosfamide were able to dramatically enhance apoptosis induction. These results promise a high potential of viscumTT as an additional adjuvant therapy approach for osteosarcoma.

Related: Apoptosis Doxorubicin Etoposide Osteosarcoma BIRC5

Yu W, Honisch S, Schmidt S, et al.
Chorein Sensitive Orai1 Expression and Store Operated Ca2+ Entry in Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 40(5):1141-1152 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chorein, a protein encoded by VPS13A (vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 13A), is defective in chorea acanthocytosis, a rare disease characterized by acanthocytosis of red blood cells and neuronal cell death with progressive hyperkinetic movement disorder, cognitive dysfunction, behavioral abnormalities and chronic hyperkalemia. Chorein is highly expressed in ZF rhabdomyosarcoma cells and counteracts apoptosis of those cells. Chorein is effective in part by interacting with and fostering stimulation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-p85-subunit. PI3K dependent signaling includes the serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1. The kinase activates NFκB with subsequent up-regulation of the Ca2+ channel subunit Orai1, which accomplishes store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Orai1 and SOCE have been shown to confer survival of tumor cells. The present study thus explored whether chorein impacts on Orai1 expression and SOCE.
METHODS: In rhabdomyosarcoma cells chorein, Orai1, NFκB and SGK1 transcript levels were quantified by RT-PCR, Orai1 protein abundance by Western blotting, FACS analysis and confocal laser microscopy, [Ca2+]i utilizing Fura-2 fluorescence, and SOCE from the increase of [Ca2+]i following store depletion with extracellular Ca2+ removal and inhibition of the sarcoendoplasmatic reticular Ca2+ ATPase with thapsigargin.
RESULTS: The mRNA coding for chorein was most abundant in drug resistant, poorly differentiated human ZF rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Chorein silencing significantly decreased Orai1 transcript levels and Orai1 protein expression, as well as SGK1 and NFκB transcript levels. SOCE in ZF rhabdomyosarcoma cells was significantly blunted by chorein silencing, Orai1 inhibitor 2-APB (50 µM), SGK1 inhibitor EMD638683 (50 µM, 10 h) and NFκB inhibitor wogonin (50 µM, 24 h).
CONCLUSION: Chorein is a stimulator of Orai1 expression and thus of store operated Ca2+ entry. The effect may involve SGK1 and NFκB.

Related: Rhabdomyosarcoma

Meller S, VAN Ellen A, Gevensleben H, et al.
Ectopic Myoglobin Expression Is Associated with a Favourable Outcome in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(12):6235-6241 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Ectopic myoglobin (MB) expression, mediated by alternative and hypoxia-inducible transcription, has recently been demonstrated in several epithelial tumours. This study aimed to examine the expression of MB in hormone-independent head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using imunohistochemistry, ectopic MB expression was analyzed on tissue microarrays (TMAs) of 524 patients with localized and locally advanced primary and recurrent HNSCC who had undergone surgical treatment with curative intent. Associations of MB expression with survival and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed.
RESULTS: MB expression was found in 45.8% of HNSCC patients being significantly lower in normal adjacent tissue (NAT) compared to primary and recurrent tumours (p<0.001) and significantly associated with a favourable overall survival (OS) in HNSCC [p=0.037, hazard ratio (HR)=0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.53-0.98]. Furthermore, MB expression negatively correlated with human papillomavirus (HPV) status (p=0.013).
CONCLUSION: MB is differentially expressed in HNSCC and correlates with a better OS.

Related: Head and Neck Cancers Head and Neck Cancers - Molecular Biology

Stache C, Bils C, Fahlbusch R, et al.
Drug priming enhances radiosensitivity of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma via downregulation of survivin.
Neurosurg Focus. 2016; 41(6):E14 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE In this study, the authors investigated the underlying mechanisms responsible for high tumor recurrence rates of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) after radiotherapy and developed new targeted treatment protocols to minimize recurrence. ACPs are characterized by the activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), known to mediate radioresistance in various tumor entities. The impact of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib or CUDC-101 on radiation-induced cell death and associated regulation of survivin gene expression was evaluated. METHODS The hypothesis that activated EGFR promotes radioresistance in ACP was investigated in vitro using human primary cell cultures of ACP (n = 10). The effects of radiation (12 Gy) and combined radiochemotherapy on radiosensitivity were assessed via cell death analysis using flow cytometry. Changes in target gene expression were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Survivin, identified in qRT-PCR to be involved in radioresistance of ACP, was manipulated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), followed by proliferation and vitality assays to further clarify its role in ACP biology. Immunohistochemically, survivin expression was assessed in patient tumors used for primary cell cultures. RESULTS In primary human ACP cultures, activation of EGFR resulted in significantly reduced cell death levels after radiotherapy. Treatment with TKIs alone and in combination with radiotherapy increased cell death response remarkably, assessed by flow cytometry. CUDC-101 was significantly more effective than gefitinib. The authors identified regulation of survivin expression after therapeutic intervention as the underlying molecular mechanism of radioresistance in ACP. EGFR activation promoting ACP cell survival and proliferation in vitro is consistent with enhanced survivin gene expression shown by qRT-PCR. TKI treatment, as well as the combination with radiotherapy, reduced survivin levels in vitro. Accordingly, ACP showed reduced cell viability and proliferation after survivin downregulation by siRNA. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate an impact of EGFR signaling on radioresistance in ACP. Inhibition of EGFR activity by means of TKI treatment acts as a radiosensitizer on ACP tumor cells, leading to increased cell death. Additionally, the results emphasize the antiapoptotic and pro-proliferative role of survivin in ACP biology and its regulation by EGFR signaling. The suppression of survivin by treatment with TKI and combined radiotherapy represents a new promising treatment strategy that will be further assessed in in vivo models of ACP.

Related: Childhood Craniopharyngioma Pituitary Tumors BIRC5

Prieto R, Pascual JM, Rosdolsky M, et al.
Craniopharyngioma adherence: a comprehensive topographical categorization and outcome-related risk stratification model based on the methodical examination of 500 tumors.
Neurosurg Focus. 2016; 41(6):E13 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE Craniopharyngioma (CP) adherence strongly influences the potential for achieving a radical and safe surgical treatment. However, this factor remains poorly addressed in the scientific literature. This study provides a rational, comprehensive description of CP adherence that can be used for the prediction of surgical risks associated with the removal of these challenging lesions. METHODS This study retrospectively analyzes the evidence provided in pathological, neuroradiological, and surgical CP reports concerning 3 components of the CP attachment: 1) the intracranial structures attached to the tumor; 2) the morphology of the adhesion; and 3) the adhesion strength. From a total of 1781 CP reports published between 1857 and 2016, a collection of 500 CPs providing the best information about the type of CP attachment were investigated. This cohort includes autopsy studies (n = 254); surgical studies with a detailed description or pictorial evidence of CP adherence (n = 298); and surgical CP videos (n = 61) showing the technical steps for releasing the attachment. A predictive model of CP adherence in hierarchical severity levels correlated with surgical outcomes was generated by multivariate analysis. RESULTS The anatomical location of the CP attachment occurred predominantly at the third ventricle floor (TVF) (54%, n = 268), third ventricle walls (23%, n = 114), and pituitary stalk (19%, n = 94). The optic chiasm was involved in 56% (n = 281). Six morphological patterns of CP attachment were identified: 1) fibrovascular pedicle (5.4%); 2) sessile or patch-like (21%); 3) cap-like (over the CP top, 14%); 4) bowl-like (around the CP bottom, 13.5%); 5) ring-like (encircling central band, 19%); and 6) circumferential (enveloping the entire CP, 27%). Adhesion strength was classified in 4 grades: 1) loose (easily dissectible, 8%); 2) tight (requires sharp dissection, 32%); 3) fusion (no clear cleavage plane, 40%); and 4) replacement (loss of brain tissue integrity, 20%). The types of CP attachment associated with the worst surgical outcomes are the ring-like, bowl-like, and circumferential ones with fusion to the TVF or replacement of this structure (p < 0.001). The CP topography is the variable that best predicts the type of CP attachment (p < 0.001). Ring-like and circumferential attachments were observed for CPs invading the TVF (secondary intraventricular CPs) and CPs developing within the TVF itself (infundibulo-tuberal CPs). Brain invasion and peritumoral gliosis occurred predominantly in the ring-like and circumferential adherence patterns (p < 0.001). A multivariate model including the variables CP topography, tumor consistency, and the presence of hydrocephalus, infundibulo-tuberal syndrome, and/or hypothalamic dysfunction accurately predicts the severity of CP attachment in 87% of cases. CONCLUSIONS A comprehensive descriptive model of CP adherence in 5 hierarchical levels of increased severity-mild, moderate, serious, severe, and critical-was generated. This model, based on the location, morphology, and strength of the attachment can be used to anticipate the surgical risk of hypothalamic injury and to plan the degree of removal accordingly.

Related: Childhood Craniopharyngioma Pituitary Tumors

Egger K, Hohenhaus M, Van Velthoven V, et al.
Spinal diffusion tensor tractography for differentiation of intramedullary tumor-suspected lesions.
Eur J Radiol. 2016; 85(12):2275-2280 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Primary MRI diagnosis of spinal intramedullary tumor-suspected lesions can be challenging and often requires spinal biopsy or resection with a substantial risk of neurological deficits. We evaluated whether Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) tractography can facilitate the differential diagnosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive patients with an intramedullary tumor-suspected lesion considered for spinal surgery were studied with a Diffusion-weighted multi-shot read out segmented EPI sequence (RESOLVE). White matter tracts ("streamlines") were calculated using the FACT algorithm and visually co-registered to a T2-weighted 3D sequence. The fused images were assessed concerning spinal streamline appearance as normal, displaced or terminated. Definite diagnosis was verified by histological analysis or further clinical work-up.
RESULTS: All patients with normal appearing streamlines (n=6) showed an acute inflammatory demyelinating pathology in the further clinical work-up. In 10 patients streamline displacing lesions were found from which 5 patients underwent a surgical treatment with histologically confirmed low-grade tumors like ependymomas and pilocytic astrocytomas. In nine patients streamlines were terminated, from which 6 patients received a histology proven diagnoses with a more heterogenous spectrum (3 cases of high grade tumor, 1 case of low grade tumor with intralesional hemorrhage and 2 cases with gliosis but no tumor cells).
CONCLUSION: Using multi-shot DTI spinal tractography acute inflammatory lesions can be differentiated from other tumorous intramedullary lesions. The entity diagnosis of spinal tumors seems to be more challenging, primarily due to the variety of factors like invasivity, expansion or intralesional hemorrhage.

Related: Childhood Astrocytoma Childhood Ependymoma

Gatidis S, Schmidt H, la Fougère C, et al.
Defining optimal tracer activities in pediatric oncologic whole-body (18)F-FDG-PET/MRI.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016; 43(13):2283-2289 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To explore the feasibility of reducing administered tracer activities and to assess optimal activities for combined (18)F-FDG-PET/MRI in pediatric oncology.
METHODS: 30 (18)F-FDG-PET/MRI examinations were performed on 24 patients with known or suspected solid tumors (10 girls, 14 boys, age 12 ± 5.6 [1-18] years; PET scan duration: 4 min per bed position). Low-activity PET images were retrospectively simulated from the originally acquired data sets using randomized undersampling of list mode data. PET data of different simulated administered activities (0.25-2.5 MBq/kg body weight) were reconstructed with or without point spread function (PSF) modeling. Mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmean and SUVmax) as well as SUV variation (SUVvar) were measured in physiologic organs and focal FDG-avid lesions. Detectability of organ structures and of focal (18)F-FDG-avid lesions as well as the occurrence of false-positive PET lesions were assessed at different simulated tracer activities.
RESULTS: Subjective image quality steadily declined with decreasing tracer activities. Compared to the originally acquired data sets, mean relative deviations of SUVmean and SUVmax were below 5 % at (18)F-FDG activities of 1.5 MBq/kg or higher. Over 95 % of anatomic structures and all pathologic focal lesions were detectable at 1.5 MBq/kg (18)F-FDG. Detectability of anatomic structures and focal lesions was significantly improved using PSF. No false-positive focal lesions were observed at tracer activities of 1 MBq/kg (18)F-FDG or higher. Administration of (18)F-FDG activities of 1.5 MBq/kg is, thus, feasible without obvious diagnostic shortcomings, which is equivalent to a dose reduction of more than 50 % compared to current recommendations.
CONCLUSION: Significant reduction in administered (18)F-FDG tracer activities is feasible in pediatric oncologic PET/MRI. Appropriate activities of (18)F-FDG or other tracers for specific clinical questions have to be further established in selected patient populations.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction Children's Cancer Web: Home Page

Khuntikeo N, Sithithaworn P, Loilom W, et al.
Changing patterns of prevalence in Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato infection in children and adolescents in northeast Thailand.
Acta Trop. 2016; 164:469-472 [PubMed] Related Publications
Infection with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato (s.l.), a group 1 carcinogen, is the most important risk factor for developing cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in Southeast Asia. Cholangiocarcinoma is a fatal disease with the world's highest incidence being found in northeast Thailand. Liver fluke infection occurs through eating raw or partially cooked cyprinid fish containing metacercariae and, therefore, the control of O. viverrini s.l. infection should lead to a reduction in CCA incidence. In this report, we review and analyze the age-prevalence profile data of O. viverrini to reveal temporal changes in patterns of prevalence pre- and post-control programs in Thailand. The profiles of O. viverrini prevalence have transformed from high prevalence in school children prior to 1983 to low prevalences after 1994. This pattern strongly suggests the influence of the health education program on the likelihood of school children becoming infected. In conjunction with current developments in health and socioeconomic conditions, we predict that the incidence of CCA will be reduced with time as the population cohorts that experienced the education programs reach the age at which CCA is most likely to develop, i.e. >50 years. The lessons learned in Thailand may be applicable to other areas endemic for human liver flukes.

Related: Extra-Hepatic Bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) Thailand

Giordano M, Samii A, Lawson McLean AC, et al.
Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric neurosurgery: safety and utility.
J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2017; 19(1):77-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE The use of high-field intraoperative MRI has been largely studied for the treatment of intracranial tumors in adult patients. In this study, the authors investigated the safety, advantages, and limitations of high-field iMRI for cranial neurosurgical procedures in pediatric patients, with particular attention to craniopharyngiomas and gliomas. METHODS The authors performed 82 surgical procedures in patients under 16 years of age (range 0.8-15 years) over an 8-year period (2007-2014) using iMRI. The population was divided into 3 groups based on the condition treated: sellar region tumors (Group 1), gliomas (Group 2), and other pathological entities (Group 3). The patients' pre- and postoperative neurological status, the presence of residual tumor, the number of intraoperative scans, and complications were evaluated. RESULTS In Group 1, gross-total resection (GTR) was performed in 22 (88%) of the procedures and subtotal resection (STR) in 3 (12%). In Group 2, GTR, STR, and partial resection (PR) were performed, respectively, in 15 (56%), 7 (26%), and 5 (18%) of the procedures. In Group 3, GTR was performed in 28 (93%) and STR in 2 (7%) of the procedures. In cases of craniopharyngioma (Group 1) and glioma (Group 2) in which a complete removal was planned, iMRI allowed localization of residual lesions and attainment of the surgical goal through further resection, respectively, in 18% and 27% of the procedures. Moreover, in gliomas the resection could be extended from partial to subtotal in 50% of the cases. In 17% of the patients in Group 3, iMRI enabled the identification and further removal of tumor remnants. There was no intra- or postoperative complication related to the use of iMRI despite special technical difficulties in smaller children. CONCLUSIONS In this study, the use of iMRI in children proved to be safe. It was most effective in increasing the extent of tumor resection, especially in patients with low-grade gliomas and craniopharyngiomas. The most prominent disadvantage of high-field iMRI was the limitation with respect to operative positioning due to the configuration of the surgical table.

Related: Childhood Brain Tumours Childhood Brain Tumors

Watrowski R, Heinze G, Jäger C, et al.
Usefulness of the preoperative platelet count in the diagnosis of adnexal tumors.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12079-12087 [PubMed] Related Publications
Platelets seem to play a role in the development of ovarian cancer. Platelet count (PLT) is an ubiquitous available parameter. We analyzed retrospectively data of 756 patients with primary adnexal tumors: 584 benign and 172 malignant (148 invasive and 24 borderline) cases. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of CA125, PLT, and a combination of CA125 and PLT. The cutoff values for CA125 and PLT were 35 U/ml and 350/nl, respectively. The median age of patients with benign and malignant tumors was 45 and 64 years, respectively. A total of 77/172 (44.8 %) malignant and 50/584 (8.6 %) benign cases presented with thrombocytosis (PLT ≥350/nl). The median PLT differed between benign and malignant cases (257/nl vs. 330/nl; p < 0.001), similarly as CA125 did (17 vs. 371 U/ml; p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, age, CA125, and thrombocytosis predicted independently the presence of malignancy. The results of CA125 were false positive in 21 % and false negative in 13 %. If considered together, thrombocytosis + CA125 were false positive only in 9 %, whereas the false negative rate was 12 %. The sensitivity and specificity of CA125, thrombocytosis, and thrombocytosis + CA125 for detecting adnexal malignancy were 0.88/0.78, 0.45/0.91, and 0.81/0.94, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) of CA125, thrombocytosis, and thrombocytosis + CA125 was 0.79, 0.61, and 0.91, respectively. In conclusion, PLT is an ubiquitously available parameter that could be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of pelvic mass. Considering thrombocytosis additionally to CA125 improves the specificity and PPV and reduces the false positive rate in detecting adnexal malignancy.

Related: Ovarian Cancer

Urbanowicz M, Kutzner H, Riveiro-Falkenbach E, Rodriguez-Peralto JL
Infectious Angiogenesis-Different Pathways, the Same Goal.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2016; 38(11):793-801 [PubMed] Related Publications
Infectious angiogenesis is the biological response of neoangiogenesis induced by infectious organisms. The authors present 3 exemplary entities which show paradigmatic clinico-pathological settings of infectious angiogenesis: Bacillary angiomatosis, Orf (ecthyma contagiosum), and Kaposi sarcoma. The authors review the literature and elucidate etiopathogenetic pathways leading to the phenomenon of neovascularization stimulated by infectious organisms. The authors describe the clinical and histological pictures, interactions between microorganisms and host cells, and changes that occur within cellular structures, as well as angiogenic factors that underpin infectious angiogenesis. The importance of chronic inflammation and tumor angiogenesis is emphasized.

Related: Angiogenesis and Cancer Kaposi Sarcoma Skin Cancer

Chieffo D, Tamburrini G, Frassanito P, et al.
Preoperative neurocognitive evaluation as a predictor of brain tumor grading in pediatric patients with supratentorial hemispheric tumors.
Childs Nerv Syst. 2016; 32(10):1931-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the relationship between tumor grading and a selective evaluation of neurocognitive and behavioral functions in children with supratentorial hemispheric brain tumors.
METHODS: Children admitted with a diagnosis of supratentorial hemispheric tumors involving the cerebral hemispheres or the thalamus at the Pediatric Neurosurgery Unit of the Catholic University of Rome between January 2008 and January 2014 were considered for the present study. Exclusion criteria were represented by age less than 2 years, severe neurological deficits, seizures, and a metastatic disease. A selective neurocognitive and behavioral workout was used for children aged less and more than 5 years.
RESULTS: Global cognitive functions as well as selective neurocognitive and behavioral profiles were found to be significantly worse in children with low-grade tumors, compared with those affected by higher-grades histotypes. Frontal locations for cortical tumors and thalamic lesions were significantly related with worse results, with a clear contribution of dominant vs. nondominant hemisphere involvement and an age higher than 5 years.
CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative global and selective neurocognitive evaluation might contribute to the prediction of the tumor aggressiveness. Due to a longer clinical history, more benign tumors more frequently arrive to the diagnosis with a neurocognitive compromise in spite of an apparently mild presence of neurological symptoms and signs.

Giordano M, Arraez C, Samii A, et al.
Neurosurgical tools to extend tumor resection in pediatric hemispheric low-grade gliomas: iMRI.
Childs Nerv Syst. 2016; 32(10):1915-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The treatment of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) in pediatric age is still controversial. However, most authors report longer life expectancy in case of completely removed cerebral gliomas. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) is increasingly utilized in the surgical management of intra-axial tumor in adults following the demonstration of its effectiveness. In this article, we analyze the management of LGG using iMRI focusing on its impact on resection rate and its limits in the pediatric population.
METHODS: We performed review of the literature regarding the treatment of LGG using iMRI focusing on its impact on resection rate and its limits in the pediatric population. Some exemplary cases are also described.
RESULTS: Intraoperative MRI allowed extension of tumor resection after the depiction of residual tumor at the intraoperative imaging control from 21 to 52 % of the cases in the published series. Moreover, the early reoperation rate was significantly lower when compared with the population treated without this tool (0 % vs 7-14 %). Some technical difficulties have been described in literature regarding the use of iMRI in the pediatric population especially for positioning due to the structure of the headrest coil designed for adult patients.
CONCLUSION: The analysis of the literature and our own experience with iMRI in children indicates significant advantages in the resection of LGG offered by the technique. All these advantages are obtained without elongation of the surgical times or increased risk for complications, namely infection. The main limit for a wider diffusion of iMRI for the pediatric neurosurgical center is the cost required, for acquisition of the system, especially for high-field magnet, and the environmental and organizational changes necessary for its use.

Related: Childhood Brain Tumours Childhood Brain Tumors Brain Stem Glioma - Childhood

Kager L, Tamamyan G, Bielack S
Novel insights and therapeutic interventions for pediatric osteosarcoma.
Future Oncol. 2017; 13(4):357-368 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-grade osteosarcomas are the most common primary malignant tumors of bone. With complete surgical resection and multi-agent chemotherapy up to 70% of patients with high-grade osteosarcomas and localized extremity tumors can become long-term survivors. The prognosis, however, is poor for patients with nonresectable, primary metastatic or relapsed disease. Outcome is essentially unchanged for three decades. Herein, we describe selected novel insights into the genomics, biology and immunology of the disease and discuss selected strategies, which hold promise to overcome the current stagnation in the therapeutic success in childhood osteosarcoma.

Related: Bone Cancers Osteosarcoma

Fischbacher D, Merle M, Liepert A, et al.
Cytokine Release Patterns in Mixed Lymphocyte Culture (MLC) of T-Cells with Dendritic Cells (DC) Generated from AML Blasts Contribute to Predict anti-Leukaemic T-Cell Reactions and Patients' Response to Immunotherapy.
Cell Commun Adhes. 2015 Apr - Dec; 22(2-6):49-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
To enlighten interactions between autologous, allogeneic or T-cells from patients after stem cell transplantation with leukaemia-derived-dendritic-cells containing dendritic cells or blast containing mononuclear cells (n = 21, respectively), we determined cytokine-concentrations (interleukin 2, 4, 6, 10, tumor-necrosis-factor-α, interferon-γ) in supernatants of mixed-lymphocyte-culture and in serum (n = 16) of 20 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia and three patients with myelodysplastic syndromes by cytometric-bead-assay. We correlated our data with lytic capabilities of stimulated T-cells in a fluorolysis-assay and clinical data: Dendritic-cell-/mononuclear-cell-stimulation of T-cells resulted in increased cytokine-levels in culture-medium compared to serum. There were no significant differences between cytokine-patterns of cases with/without lytic T-cell-activity, response to immunotherapy (stem cell transplantation/donor-lymphocyte-infusion) or graft-versus-host-disease. However, some predictive cytokine-cut-off-values for antileukaemic T-cell-activity, patients' response to immunotherapy and graft-versus-host-disease could be defined. Cytokine-profiles alone, without functional assays, are no useful tool to predict antileukaemic T-cell-function, although they can indicate lytic T-cell-activity, patients' response to immunotherapy and graft-versus-host-disease.

Related: Cytokines Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukaemia AML - Molecular Biology Stem Cell and Bone Marrow Transplants

Borisch N
Arthroscopic resection of occult dorsal wrist ganglia.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2016; 136(10):1473-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Arthroscopic resection of dorsal wrist ganglia has become a well-accepted practice. However, there is a paucity of results on occult ganglia in the literature. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the subjective outcomes of occult dorsal wrist ganglion cysts resected arthroscopically, and to identify and examine intraarticular findings and relate them to pre-operative MRI findings and histologies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 39 patients, 40 wrists were treated with arthroscopic resection of an occult dorsal wrist ganglion. Radio-carpal arthroscopy and mid-carpal arthroscopy were performed, and a capsular window overlying both compartments at the level of the scapholunate interval was created. The motivation to undergo operation for all patients was pain at rest and on load. In a retrospective study by telephone interview, patients were asked for pain reduction and satisfaction with the operation. 30 patients could be reached after 28.5 months on average.
RESULTS: 29 of the 30 patients were content with the operation. Reduction of pain at rest and on load was significant. MRI was performed pre-operatively in all the cases and could confirm the presence of a ganglion in 31 cases. Intraoperatively, ganglion structures were identified in 25 cases. Histology showed ganglion tissue or myxoid degeneration in 12 of 26 taken samples. Histology was positive in the cases without intraoperative visualization of typical ganglion structures and without confirmation by MRI.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study confirm that a high patient satisfaction can be achieved for arthroscopic treatment of occult dorsal wrist ganglia, which seem especially amenable for arthroscopic treatment. Furthermore, the results suggest that arthroscopic resection of a dorsal capsular window can be indicated if the complaints and the clinical findings are typical for dorsal wrist ganglion, even though MRI findings may be negative.

Holthausen H, Blümcke I
Epilepsy-associated tumours: what epileptologists should know about neuropathology, terminology, and classification systems.
Epileptic Disord. 2016; 18(3):240-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Brain tumours are an ever-challenging issue in neurology and related medical disciplines. This applies in particular to brain tumours associated with childhood-onset epilepsies, in which seizures are the presenting and only neurological symptom, as our current understanding of the biology and clinical behaviour of an individual tumour is far from being evidence-based. Prospective and randomized clinical trials are lacking in the field of epilepsy-associated tumours and a review of the current literature evokes more questions than provides answers. In this review, current areas of controversy in neuropathology, as well as terminology and classification, are discussed from an epileptologist's perspective. An illustrative case report exemplifies this controversy to further promote interdisciplinary discussion and novel research avenues towards comprehensive patient management in the near future.

Related: Childhood Brain Tumours Childhood Brain Tumors

Fogarasi A, De Waele L, Bartalini G, et al.
EFFECTS: an expanded access program of everolimus for patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex.
BMC Neurol. 2016; 16:126 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, has been shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The Everolimus For Fast Expanded aCcess in TSC SEGA (EFFECTS) study was designed to provide everolimus access to patients with SEGA associated with TSC and to mainly assess the safety and also efficacy of everolimus in a real-world setting.
METHODS: EFFECTS was a phase 3b, open-label, noncomparative, multicenter, expanded access study. Eligible patients were ≥ 3 years of age, with a definite diagnosis of TSC, and with at least one SEGA lesion identified by MRI or CT scan. Patients received once daily everolimus (dose adjusted to attain a trough level of 5-15 ng/mL). Safety evaluation was the primary objective and included collection of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs, with their severity and relationship to everolimus. Efficacy evaluation, which was the secondary objective, was based on the best overall response as per medical judgment.
RESULTS: Of the 120 patients enrolled, 100 (83.3%) completed the study. Median age of patients was 11 years (range, 1-47). Median daily dose of everolimus was 5.82 mg (range, 2.0-11.8). Median duration of exposure was 56.5 weeks (range, 0.3-130). The overall incidence of AEs was 74.2%. Aphthous stomatitis (18 [15.0%]), pyrexia (18 [15.0%]), bronchitis (11 [9.2%]), and stomatitis (10 [8.3%]) were the most common AEs reported. Overall, 25 patients had grade 3 AEs; most frequent was stomatitis (4 [3.3%]). Grade 4 AEs were reported in three (2.5%) patients. A total of 62 (51.7%) patients had suspected drug-related AEs, of which 15 (12.5%) were of grade 3 or 4. In eight (6.7%) patients, AEs led to drug discontinuation. With regard to efficacy, 81 (67.5%) patients had a partial response, 35 (29.2%) had a stable disease, and one (0.8%) had progressive disease. The response was unknown in three (2.5%) patients.
CONCLUSION: This study confirms the acceptable safety profile of everolimus in patients with SEGA associated with TSC in a real-world setting. The results further support the efficacy of everolimus in the treatment of SEGA associated with TSC. (EudraCT: 2010-022583-13).

Related: Childhood Astrocytoma Childhood Brain Tumours Childhood Brain Tumors Everolimus (Afinitor)

Friedrich RE, Nuding MA
Optic Pathway Glioma and Cerebral Focal Abnormal Signal Intensity in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Characteristics, Treatment Choices and Follow-up in 134 Affected Individuals and a Brief Review of the Literature.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):4095-121 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Optic pathway glioma (OPG) is a rare neoplasm and a defining feature of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a tumor suppressor genetic disorder. OPG predominantly arises during childhood. In contrast to sporadic OPG, this neoplasm frequently appears to show a more favorable course. Outcome appears to depend on localization of tumor; however, the correlation of imaging findings and visual acuity is in general low. Treatment for symptomatic OPG is not well standardized. Furthermore, determination of visual acuity as the most important parameter of follow-up control is often difficult to determine, particularly in children. Focal abnormal signal intensity (FASI) is a characteristic finding on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of NF1 patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and imaging findings of NF1 patients affected with OPG.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of 925 NF1 patients with appropriate MRI cranial sectional images (N=1,948) were evaluated. A further 50 patients with cranial computed tomograms were included in the study. We compared imaging and clinical findings with respect to localization of OPG. Furthermore, we compared follow-up in treated individuals to those who were only regularly re-examined. The presence of FASI on MRI was determined and correlated to the occurrence of OPG. Dodge classification was applied to categorize OPG location.
RESULTS: OPG was diagnosed in 134 patients. The mean age of patients with symptomatic OPG was 7.6 years (n=57, 42.5%) and 11.6 years (n=77, 57.5%) in asymptomatic patients. The female to male ratio was about 1.1:1. In 48 symptomatic patients, the findings of initial ophthalmological investigations were available. In symptomatic patients, reduced visual acuity was the predominant finding. Strabismus (25%), exophthalmos (22.9%) and amblyopia (20.8%) were most frequently noticed, followed by endrocrinological abnormalities (14.6%). However, these findings did not differ between patients who were treated or who were subjected to a 'wait-and-see' policy. We could not verify an effect of therapy on vision in patients treated for OPG compared to symptomatic patients without treatment. OPG affecting the total optic pathway was more frequently diagnosed in symptomatic patients. FASI did not correlate with functional OPG status.
CONCLUSION: OPG in NF1 is symptomatic in slightly less than 50% of affected individuals. This neurological finding may show a wide range of symptoms. At present, no established treatment protocol emerges from the history of the patients of this study and also from the literature. Although the onset of symptomatic OPG is strongly associated with early childhood, late onset of symptomatic OPG is a feature of adult NF1. Research for association of FASI to neurological findings in these patients should be based on other issues than association with OPG.

Moreno N, Kerl K
Preclinical Evaluation of Combined Targeted Approaches in Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):3883-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Rhabdoid tumors (RT) are aggressive pediatric tumors, which show poor prognosis despite use of multimodal intensive therapy. In these tumors, several different oncogenic pathways and epigenetic regulators (like CDK4/6-cyclinD-Rb-signaling, EZH2, histone deacetylases) are contemporaneously deregulated as a consequence of biallelic SMARCB1/SNF5/INI1 alterations. Since these tumors are highly resistant to current therapies, alternative treatment strategies are urgently required.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we evaluated cytotoxic effects (by MTT tests) of small molecular compounds, which specifically target these deregulated pathways, using either single-drug or combined approaches. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and combined index (CI) were calculated.
RESULTS: All target-directed inhibitors blocked cell growth of three different rhabdoid tumor cell lines in vitro. Several combinations of those target-specific drugs synergistically inhibited cell proliferation of rhabdoid tumors.
CONCLUSION: Supporting earlier reports, combined target-directed approaches are a promising tool for the therapy of malignant rhabdoid tumors.

Related: Bortezomib Malignant Rhabdoid Tumour SMARCB1 EZH2 AURKA

Burkhardt B, Yavuz D, Zimmermann M, et al.
Impact of Fc gamma-receptor polymorphisms on the response to rituximab treatment in children and adolescents with mature B cell lymphoma/leukemia.
Ann Hematol. 2016; 95(9):1503-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies in adult lymphoma patients have indicated a correlation between polymorphisms of Fc gamma-receptors (FcγRs, encoded by the respective FCGR genes) and the response to rituximab treatment. In vitro, cells expressing FcγRIIIa-158V mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) more efficiently than cells expressing FcγRIIIa-158F. The impact of the FCGR2A-131HR polymorphism is unclear. In this study, the FCGR polymorphisms FCGR3A-158VF and FCGR2A-131HR were analyzed in pediatric patients with mature aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma/leukemia (B-NHL). Pediatric patients received a single dose of rituximab monotherapy. Response was evaluated on day 5 followed by standard chemotherapy for B-NHL. Among 105 evaluable patients, a response to rituximab was observed in 21 % of those homozygous for FcγRIIa-131RR (5/24) compared to 48 % of patients who were HH and HR FcγRIIa-131 allele carriers (18/34 and 21/47, respectively; p = 0.044). Among patients with the FCGR3A-158 polymorphism, those homozygous for the FF genotype had a significantly favorable rituximab response rate of 59 % (22/37) compared to 32 % in patients who were FcγRIIIa-158VV and FcγRIIIa-VF allele carriers (2/9 and 20/59, respectively; p = 0.022). A stringent phase II response evaluation of children and adolescents with B-NHL after one dose of rituximab monotherapy showed a significant association between the rituximab response rate and FCGR polymorphisms. These findings support the hypothesis that FCGR polymorphisms represent patient-specific parameters that influence the response to rituximab.

Related: Rituximab (Mabthera)

Massimino M, Biassoni V, Gandola L, et al.
Childhood medulloblastoma.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016; 105:35-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Medulloblastoma accounts for 15-20% of childhood nervous system tumours. The risk of dying was reduced by 30% in the last twenty years. Patients are divided in risk strata according to post-surgical disease, dissemination, histology and some molecular features such as WNT subgroup and MYC status. Sixty to 70% of patients older than 3 years are assigned to the average-risk group. High-risk patients include those with disseminated and/or residual disease, large cell and/or anaplastic histotypes, MYC genes amplification. Current and currently planned clinical trials will: (1) evaluate the feasibility of reducing both the dose of craniospinal irradiation and the volume of the posterior fossa radiotherapy (RT) for those patients at low biologic risk, commonly identified as those having a medulloblastoma of the WNT subgroup; (2) determine whether intensification of chemotherapy (CT) or irradiation can improve outcome in patients with high-risk disease; (3) find target therapies allowing tailored therapies especially for relapsing patients and those with higher biological risk.

Related: Childhood Medulloblastoma / PNET Medulloblastoma

Ellerkamp V, Bortel N, Schmid E, et al.
Photodynamic Therapy Potentiates the Effects of Curcumin on Pediatric Epithelial Liver Tumor Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(7):3363-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Curcumin (CUM) is a promising agent in complementary oncology. The present study analyzed the photoactive properties of curcumin on pediatric epithelial liver tumor cell lines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatoblastoma cell lines (HuH6, HepT1) and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (HepG2, HC-AFW1) were treated with curcumin and exposed to blue light (phototherapy, 480 nm, 300 W). Cell viability (MTT tests), cellular oxidative stress (production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)) and cellular uptake/degradation of curcumin were analyzed.
RESULTS: Significant loss of viability resulted from 24-48 h incubation with curcumin. With photodynamic therapy (PDT), even short time incubation (1 h) with curcumin resulted in significantly lower half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) (p<0.001, two-way ANOVA). Significant ROS production was observed with PDT and curcumin.
CONCLUSION: Phototherapy strongly enhances the anticancer properties of curcumin in pediatric solid liver tumors in vitro.

Related: Liver Cancer Childhood Liver Cancer

Behling F, Barrantes-Freer A, Skardelly M, et al.
Frequency of BRAF V600E mutations in 969 central nervous system neoplasms.
Diagn Pathol. 2016; 11(1):55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Treatment options for oncological diseases have been enhanced by the advent of targeted therapies. The point mutation of the BRAF gene at codon 600 (BRAF V600E) is found in several tumor entities and can be approached with selective inhibitory antibodies. The BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib has demonstrated clinical efficacy in patients with BRAF V600E-mutant melanoma brain metastases and in other cancer diseases. Therefore the BRAF V600E mutation is a highly interesting oncological target in brain tumors.
METHODS: This study assesses the BRAF V600E mutation status in 969 intracranial neoplasms using a tissue microarray method and immunohistochemical staining with the mutation-specific VE-1 antibody, followed by sequencing of positively stained cases.
RESULTS: Out of 784 primary brain tumors seven cases with a BRAF V600E mutation were detected (7/784, 1 %). Six of these cases were neuroepithelial tumors (6/667, 1 %) encompassing 2 astrocytomas WHO grade II (2/42, 5 %), 1 gliosarcoma WHO grade IV (1/75, 1 %) and 3 glioblastomas WHO grade IV (3/312, 1 %). Interestingly, all three mutant glioblastomas showed epithelioid histopathological features. Patients with V600E mutated astrocytic tumors were significantly younger (mean age 15.3 years) than wildtype cases (58.2 years). Among three rhabdoid meningiomas, one case was mutated (1/3) while all other grade I-III meningiomas (1/116, 1 %) and all fifty vestibular schwannomas analyzed were of wildtype status. The vast majority of the BRAF V600E mutations were found in cerebral metastases of malignant melanomas and carcinomas (29/135, 22 %), with false-positive staining found in four breast cancer cases and two non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) samples.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest routine screening for BRAF V600E mutations for glioblastomas WHO grade IV below the age of 30, especially in glioblastomas with epithelioid features and in all rhabdoid meningiomas WHO grade III. For colorectal carcinoma, thyroid cancer, malignant melanoma and gliomas BRAF V600E immunostaining is sufficient for screening purposes. We also recommend routine immunohistochemical staining followed by sequencing validation in rare CNS metastases or metastases of unknown primary. Immunohistochemical analysis using mutation-specific antibodies on tissue microarrays is a feasible, time- and cost-efficient approach to high-throughput screening for specific mutations in large tumor series but sequencing validation is necessary in unexpected cases.

Related: Childhood Astrocytoma Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Melanoma BRAF Thyroid Cancer

Kammer J, Ziesing S, Davila LA, et al.
Neurological Manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in Hospitalized Children and Their Long-Term Follow-Up.
Neuropediatrics. 2016; 47(5):308-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objective In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess frequency, types, and long-term outcome of neurological disease during acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods Medical records of patients hospitalized with acute M. pneumoniae infection were reviewed. Possible risk factors were analyzed by uni- and multivariate regression. Patients with neurological symptoms were followed up by expanded disability status score (EDSS) and the cognitive problems in children and adolescents (KOPKJ) scale. Results Out of 89 patients, 22 suffered from neurological symptoms and signs. Neurological disorders were diagnosed in 11 patients: (meningo-) encephalitis (n = 6), aseptic meningitis (n = 3), transverse myelitis (n = 1), and vestibular neuritis (n = 1), 11 patients had nonspecific neurological symptoms and signs. Multivariate logistic regression identified lower respiratory tract symptoms as a negative predictor (odds ratio [OR] = 0.1, p < 0.001), a preexisting immune deficit was associated with a trend for a decreased risk (OR = 0.12, p = 0.058). Long-term follow-up after a median of 5.1 years (range, 0.6-13 years) showed ongoing neurological deficits in the EDSS in 8/18, and in the KOPKJ in 7/17. Conclusion Neurological symptoms occurred in 25% of hospitalized pediatric patients with M. pneumoniae infection. Outcome was often favorable, but significant sequels were reported by 45%.

Friedrich RE, Scheuer HA, Höltje W
Recurrent Maxillary Odontogenic Myxoma Following Partial Maxillary Resection and Consecutive Osseous Reconstruction Including Tooth Transplantation.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(6):3155-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare tumour arising in the jaws. The tumour is purported to be odontogenic in origin due to the frequent localisation of the tumour inside the jaws in close relation to teeth. The aim of this report was to detail the course of a patient who developed OM of the maxilla, underwent adequate ablative surgery and reconstruction, including tooth transplantation to the original tumour site, and subsequently developed a local recurrence in close proximity to the teeth transplanted to the reconstructed maxilla 6 years after the first diagnosis. Once again, a partial maxillary resection was performed, with no reconstruction. The patient has been free from tumour recurrence for over 20 years. We discuss the current hypothesis on OM pathogenesis and the possible impact of actively dividing cells on tumour re-growth.

Mellgren K, Attarbaschi A, Abla O, et al.
Non-anaplastic peripheral T cell lymphoma in children and adolescents-an international review of 143 cases.
Ann Hematol. 2016; 95(8):1295-305 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCL) are rare in children and adolescents, and data about outcome and treatment results are scarce. The present study is a joint, international, retrospective analysis of 143 reported cases of non-anaplastic PTCL in patients <19 years of age, with a focus on treatment and outcome features. One hundred forty-three patients, between 0.3 and 18.7 years old, diagnosed between 2000 and 2015 were included in the study. PTCL not otherwise specified was the largest subgroup, followed by extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma (HS TCL), and subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma (SP TCL). Probability of overall survival (pOS) at 5 years for the whole group was 0.56 ± 0.05, and probability of event-free survival was (pEFS) 0.45 ± 0.05. Patients with SP TCL had a good outcome with 5-year pOS of 0.78 ± 0.1 while patients with HS TCL were reported with 5-year pOS of only 0.13 ± 0.12. Twenty-five percent of the patients were reported to have a pre-existing condition, and this group had a dismal outcome with 5-year pOS of 0.29 ± 0.09. The distribution of non-anaplastic PTCL subtypes in pediatric and adolescent patients differs from what is reported in adult patients. Overall outcome depends on the subtype with some doing better than others. Pre-existing conditions are frequent and associated with poor outcomes. There is a clear need for subtype-based treatment recommendations for children and adolescents with PTCL.

Robinson GW, Witt H, Resnick A
Exploiting Laboratory Insights to Improve Outcomes of Pediatric Central Nervous System Tumors.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2016; 35:e540-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Over a relatively short period of time, owing to improvements in biotechnology, our ability to identify the molecular mechanisms within pediatric brain tumors has dramatically increased. These findings have reshaped the way that we describe these diseases and have provided insights into how to better treat these often devastating diseases. Although still far from reaching the full therapeutic potential these advancements hold, the impact of these findings is steadily taking hold of pediatric brain tumor management. In this article, we summarize the major discoveries within three common pediatric brain tumor categories; medulloblastoma, ependymoma, and low-grade glioma. We discuss the current impact of these findings on treatment and the direction these findings may take the field of pediatric neuro-oncology.

Related: Childhood Brain Tumours Childhood Brain Tumors Brain and Spinal Cord Tumours Childhood Ependymoma Brain Stem Glioma - Childhood Childhood Medulloblastoma / PNET Medulloblastoma

Kaul D, Florange J, Badakhshi H, et al.
Accelerated hyperfractionation plus temozolomide in glioblastoma.
Radiat Oncol. 2016; 11:70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Hyperfractionated (HFRT) or accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy (AHFRT) have been discussed as a potential treatment for glioblastoma based on a hypothesized reduction of late radiation injury and prevention of repopulation. HFRT and AHFRT have been examined extensively in the pre-Temozolomide era with inconclusive results. In this study we examined the role of accelerated hyperfractionation in the Temozolomide era.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four patients who underwent AHFRT (62 of which received Temozolomide) were compared to 67 patients who underwent normofractionated radiotherapy (NFRT) (64 of which received TMZ) between 02/2009 and 10/2014. Follow-up data were analyzed until 01/2015.
RESULTS: Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 6 months for the entire cohort. For patients treated with NFRT median PFS was 7 months, for patients treated with AHFRT median PFS was 6 months. Median overall survival (OS) was 13 months for all patients. For patients treated with NFRT median OS was 15 months, for patients treated with AHFRT median OS was 10 months. The fractionation regimen was not a predictor of PFS or OS in univariable- or multivariable analysis. There was no difference in acute toxicity profiles between the two treatment groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Univariable and multivariable analysis did not show significant differences between NFRT and AHFRT fractionation regimens in terms of PFS or OS. The benefits are immanent: the regimen does significantly shorten hospitalization time in a patient collective with highly impaired life expectancy. We propose that the role of AHFRT + TMZ should be further examined in future prospective trials.

Related: Childhood Brain Tumours Childhood Brain Tumors Dacarbazine Temozolomide

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