ALOX5

Gene Summary

Gene:ALOX5; arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
Aliases: 5-LO, 5LPG, LOG5, 5-LOX
Location:10q11.21
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the lipoxygenase gene family and plays a dual role in the synthesis of leukotrienes from arachidonic acid. The encoded protein, which is expressed specifically in bone marrow-derived cells, catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6-trans-8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid, and further to the allylic epoxide 5(S)-trans-7,9-trans-11,14-cis-eicosatetrenoic acid (leukotriene A4). Leukotrienes are important mediators of a number of inflammatory and allergic conditions. Mutations in the promoter region of this gene lead to a diminished response to antileukotriene drugs used in the treatment of asthma and may also be associated with atherosclerosis and several cancers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
Source:NCBIAccessed: 14 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (21)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (3)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 14 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Lung Cancer
  • Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Breast Cancer
  • Membrane Proteins
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Cell Division
  • 5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins
  • VEGFA
  • Xenograft Models
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Messenger RNA
  • Young Adult
  • Lipoxygenase Inhibitors
  • Tandem Repeat Sequences
  • Transfection
  • COX2 (PTGS2)
  • Gene Expression
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Smoking
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genotype
  • Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase
  • Trans-Activators
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Cell Survival
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Up-Regulation
  • Apoptosis
  • Prostate Cancer
  • RTPCR
  • Chromosome 10
  • Transcription
  • Arachidonic Acid
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genetic Predisposition
Tag cloud generated 14 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ALOX5 (cancer-related)

Chen GY, Shu YC, Chuang DY, Wang YC
Inflammatory and Apoptotic Regulatory Activity of Tanshinone IIA in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Cells.
Am J Chin Med. 2016; 44(6):1187-1206 [PubMed] Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori infections induce host cell inflammation and apoptosis, however, they are conflicting. Tanshinone IIA is an active compound of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of tanshinone IIA on H. pylori-induced inflammation and apoptosis in vitro. Tanshinone IIA treatments (13.6-54.4[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M) significantly decreased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [p-38 and C-terminal Jun-kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2)] protein expressions and inflammatory substance [cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipooxygenase (5-LOX), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-1[Formula: see text] (IL-1[Formula: see text], IL-6, and IL-8] production in the H. pylori-infected cells. In contrast, tanshinone IIA treatments significantly increased apoptotic relevant protein [Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase 9] expressions and increased mitochondrial transmembrane potential ([Formula: see text] disruption, mitochondrial cytochrome [Formula: see text] (cyt [Formula: see text] release, and caspase cascades. Tanshinone IIA treatments effectively decreased H. pylori-induced inflammation and significantly promoted H. pylori-induced intrinsic apoptosis through NF-kB and MAPK (p-38 and JNK) pathways. Tanshinone IIA has great potential as a candidate to protect host cells from H. pylori-induced severe inflammation and gastric cancer.

Carrett-Dias M, Almeida LK, Pereira JL, et al.
Cell differentiation and the multiple drug resistance phenotype in human erythroleukemic cells.
Leuk Res. 2016; 42:13-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
The gene expression of Oct-4, a transcription factor and hematopoietic stem cell marker, is higher in Lucena lines, which is MDR, and the gene Alox-5 has also been implicated in the differentiation of some cell lines. The aim of this study was to compare the response to PMA-induced differentiation in MDR and non-MDR cells. We observed the differentiation to megakaryocytes in the K562 cell line, which is non-MDR. The expression of Alox-5 and Nanog genes was downregulated and that of Mdr-1 was upregulated in K562 cells. The Lucena cell line contained a higher number of megakaryocytes than the non-MDR, but this number was not altered by PMA, as well as Mdr-1 gene expression. However, Alox-5 expression was downregulated. Alox-5, Mdr-1, Nanog, Oct-4 and Sox-2 basal expression was also evaluated in the K562, Lucena and FEPS (also MDR) cell lines. The transcription factors gene expression was similar in MDR cell lines. The expression of Alox-5 was higher in the non-MDR cell line, while FEPS had the lowest expression of this gene. The opposite pattern was observed for Mdr-1 gene expression. These results suggest that the Alox-5 gene might play a role in the differentiation of these cell lines.

Che XH, Chen CL, Ye XL, et al.
Dual inhibition of COX-2/5-LOX blocks colon cancer proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(3):1680-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammation is emerging as a new hallmark of cancer. Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, the family of cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenase (LOX) play important roles in AA-related inflammatory cascades. In 94 colorectal cancer samples collected from the Han population, the immunohistochemical results indicated that 68% of the patients with colorectal cancer had a co-expression of both COX-2 and 5-LOX, while both displayed low expression in the matched normal tissues. In cell lines, three colorectal cancer cell lines exhibited high expression of COX-2 and 5-LOX. During stable silencing of the expression of COX-2 or 5-LOX in LoVo cancer cells, we found that downregulation of either COX-2 or 5-LOX significantly diminished the growth, migration and invasion of the colon cancer cells and specifically, downregulation of COX-2 could elicit upregulation of 5-LOX protein and vice versa. The above results suggested that the simultaneous blocking of COX-2 and 5-LOX activity may bring more potential benefits in managing the progression of colon cancer. Therefore, we sought to explore the effectiveness of a dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitor darbufelone on the proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of colon cancer cells, as well as the underlying mechanism of action. The results indicated that darbufelone significantly decreased the proliferative and invasive abilities of the colon cancer cells, in a dose-dependent manner. During the study of the related mechanisms, we found an upregulation of p27 and downregulation of cyclin D1 as well as CDK4 after darbufelone treatment, which indicated that darbufelone could arrest the cell cycle of LoVo cells at the G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, the activation of caspase-3 and -9, upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 demonstrated the occurrence of apoptosis by darbufelone. Finally, darbufelone also prevented the migration and invasion of LoVo cells, which may be ascribed to the upregulation of E-cadherin and ZO-1. In summary, our data suggest that the inhibition of both COX-2/5-LOX may be an effective therapeutic approach for colon cancer management, particularly for those patients with high expression of COX-2/5-LOX.

Hu Y, Li S
Survival regulation of leukemia stem cells.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016; 73(5):1039-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are a subpopulation cells at the apex of hierarchies in leukemia cells and responsible for disease continuous propagation. In this article, we discuss some cellular and molecular components, which are critical for LSC survival. These components include intrinsic signaling pathways and extrinsic microenvironments. The intrinsic signaling pathways to be discussed include Wnt/β-catenin signaling, Hox genes, Hh pathway, Alox5, and some miRNAs, which have been shown to play important roles in regulating LSC survival and proliferation. The extrinsic components to be discussed include selectins, CXCL12/CXCR4, and CD44, which involve in LSC homing, survival, and proliferation by affecting bone marrow microenvironment. Potential strategies for eradicating LSCs will also discuss.

Ahmad K, Scholz B, Capelo R, et al.
AF4 and AF4-MLL mediate transcriptional elongation of 5-lipoxygenase mRNA by 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):25784-800 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), encoded by the ALOX5 gene, is the key enzyme in the formation of pro-inflammatory leukotrienes. ALOX5 gene transcription is strongly stimulated by calcitriol (1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) and TGFβ (transforming growth factor-β). Here, we investigated the influence of MLL (activator of transcript initiation), AF4 (activator of transcriptional elongation) as well as of the leukemogenic fusion proteins MLL-AF4 (ectopic activator of transcript initiation) and AF4-MLL (ectopic activator of transcriptional elongation) on calcitriol/TGFβ-dependent 5-LO transcript elongation. We present evidence that the AF4 complex directly interacts with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and promotes calcitriol-dependent ALOX5 transcript elongation. Activation of transcript elongation was strongly enhanced by the AF4-MLL fusion protein but was sensitive to Flavopiridol. By contrast, MLL-AF4 displayed no effect on transcriptional elongation. Furthermore, HDAC class I inhibitors inhibited the ectopic effects caused by AF4-MLL on transcriptional elongation, suggesting that HDAC class I inhibitors are potential therapeutics for the treatment of t(4;11)(q21;q23) leukemia.

Mashima R, Okuyama T
The role of lipoxygenases in pathophysiology; new insights and future perspectives.
Redox Biol. 2015; 6:297-310 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are dioxygenases that catalyze the formation of corresponding hydroperoxides from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. LOX enzymes are expressed in immune, epithelial, and tumor cells that display a variety of physiological functions, including inflammation, skin disorder, and tumorigenesis. In the humans and mice, six LOX isoforms have been known. 15-LOX, a prototypical enzyme originally found in reticulocytes shares the similarity of amino acid sequence as well as the biochemical property to plant LOX enzymes. 15-LOX-2, which is expressed in epithelial cells and leukocytes, has different substrate specificity in the humans and mice, therefore, the role of them in mammals has not been established. 12-LOX is an isoform expressed in epithelial cells and myeloid cells including platelets. Many mutations in this isoform are found in epithelial cancers, suggesting a potential link between 12-LOX and tumorigenesis. 12R-LOX can be found in the epithelial cells of the skin. Defects in this gene result in ichthyosis, a cutaneous disorder characterized by pathophysiologically dried skin due to abnormal loss of water from its epithelial cell layer. Similarly, eLOX-3, which is also expressed in the skin epithelial cells acting downstream 12R-LOX, is another causative factor for ichthyosis. 5-LOX is a distinct isoform playing an important role in asthma and inflammation. This isoform causes the constriction of bronchioles in response to cysteinyl leukotrienes such as LTC4, thus leading to asthma. It also induces neutrophilic inflammation by its recruitment in response to LTB4. Importantly, 5-LOX activity is strictly regulated by 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP) though the distribution of 5-LOX in the nucleus. Currently, pharmacological drugs targeting FLAP are actively developing. This review summarized these functions of LOX enzymes under pathophysiological conditions in mammals.

Bessadóttir M, Eiríksson FF, Becker S, et al.
Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of lichen-derived compound protolichesterinic acid are not mediated by its lipoxygenase-inhibitory activity.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2015; 98:39-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their products are involved in several biological functions and have been associated with carcinogenesis. Protolichesterinic acid (PA), a lichen metabolite, inhibits 5- and 12-LOX and has anti-proliferative effects on various cancer cell lines. Here, PA was shown to inhibit proliferation of multiple myeloma cells, RPMI 8226 and U266, and pancreatic cancer cells AsPC-1. Apoptosis was induced only in multiple myeloma cells. Cell-cycle associated changes in expression and sub-cellular localization of 5- and 12-LOX were not affected by PA but increased cytoplasmic localisation was found to accompany morphological changes at later stages. Assessment by mass spectrometry showed that PA entered the pancreatic cancer cells. However, effects on LOX metabolites were only evident after treatment with concentrations exceeding those having anti-proliferative effects and no effects were measurable in the myeloma cells. We conclude that the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of PA are not mediated directly through inhibition of LOX activity.

Zhang C, Yu H, Ni X, et al.
Growth inhibitory effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on colon cancer cells via their growth inhibitory metabolites and fatty acid composition changes.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0123256 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is common. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert growth-inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on colon cancer cells. Metabolites of PUFAs such as prostaglandins (PGs), leukotrienes (LTs) and lipoxins (LXs) play a significant role in colon cancer.
METHODS: Human colon cancer LoVo and RKO cells were cultured with different concentration of PUFAs and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in vitro. Cell morphological changes, fatty acid composition, formation of PGE2, LTB4 and LXA4 and expression of COX-2, ALOX5, PGD synthase (PGDS), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES) were assessed in LoVo and RKO cells when supplemented with PUFAs and 5-FU.
RESULTS: PUFAs and 5-FU inhibited growth of LoVo and RKO cells to the same extent at the doses used and produced significant alterations in their shape. As expected, higher concentrations of supplemented PUFAs were noted in the cells compared to control. LA, GLA, AA, ALA and EPA supplementation to LoVo cells suppressed production of PGE2, LTB4,and ALOX5, mPGES expression, but enhanced that of LXA4; whereas DHA enhanced PGE2 and LXA4 synthesis but decreased LTB4 formation and COX-2, ALOX5, mPGES expression. In contrast, 5-FU enhanced formation of PGE2, LTB4 and mPGES expression, but suppressed LXA4 synthesis and COX-2 expression. PGE2, LTB4 synthesis and ALOX5 expression was suppressed by LA, GLA, ALA and DHA; whereas AA, EPA and 5-FU enhanced PGE2 but paradoxically AA decreased and EPA and 5-FU enhanced LTB4 synthesis in RKO cells. All the PUFAs tested enhanced, while 5-FU decreased LXA4 formation in RKO cells; whereas GLA, AA, and 5-FU augmented while LA, ALA, EPA and DHA enhanced COX-2 expression in RKO cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Tumoricidal action of PUFAs on colorectal LoVo and RKO cancer cells in vitro was associated with increased formation of LXA4, decreased synthesis of PGE2 and LTB4 and suppressed expression of COX-2, ALOX5, mPGES, whereas 5-FU produced contrasting actions on these indices.

Janakiram NB, Mohammed A, Bryant T, et al.
Improved innate immune responses by Frondanol A5, a sea cucumber extract, prevent intestinal tumorigenesis.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015; 8(4):327-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sea cucumbers are a source of antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer compounds. We show that sea cucumber extract Frondanol A5 is capable of enhancing innate immune responses and inhibiting intestinal tumors in APC(Min/+) mice. APC(Min/+) mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 0, 250, or 500 ppm FrondanolA5 for 14 weeks before we assessed intestinal tumor inhibition. Dietary Frondanol A5 suppressed small intestinal polyp sizes and formation up to 30% (P < 0.02) in males and up to 50% (P < 0.01) in females. Importantly, 250 and 500 ppm Frondanol A5 diet suppressed colon tumor multiplicities by 65% (P < 0.007) and 75% (P < 0.0001), compared with untreated male APC(Min/+) mice. In female APC(Min/+) mice, both dose levels of Frondanol A5 suppressed colon tumor multiplicities up to 80% (P < 0.0001). Isolated peritoneal macrophages from treated mice showed increased phagocytosis efficiency (control 24% vs. treated 50%; P < 0.01) and an increase in GILT mRNA expression, indicating increased innate immune responses by these cells in treated animals. Similarly, we observed an increase in GILT expression in treated tumors, compared with untreated tumors. Furthermore, an increase in G-CSF cytokine, a decrease in inflammatory cytokines and marker 5-LOX, its regulator FLAP, proliferation (PCNA), and angiogenesis (VEGF) markers were observed in treatment groups. These data suggest that Frondanol A5 decreased inflammatory angiogenic molecules and increased GILT expression and macrophage phagocytosis. These decreases may have improved the innate immune systems of the treated mice, thus aiding in inhibition of intestinal tumor formation. These results suggest that Frondanol A5 exhibits significant chemopreventive potential against intestinal tumorigenesis.

Teng CF, Hsieh WC, Yang CW, et al.
A biphasic response pattern of lipid metabolomics in the stage progression of hepatitis B virus X tumorigenesis.
Mol Carcinog. 2016; 55(1):105-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metabolic syndrome has closely linked to the development of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). By using the hepatitis B virus (HBV) X (HBx) transgenic mouse model, we studied the dynamic evolution of serum and liver profiles of lipids and global cDNA expression at different stages of HBx tumorigenesis. We observed that the lipid (triglycerides, cholesterol, and fatty acids) profiles revealed a biphasic response pattern during the progression of HBx tumorigenesis: a small peak at early phase and a large peak or terminal switch at the tumor phase. By analyzing cDNA microarray data, the early peak correlated to the oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory response, which then resolved at the middle phase and were followed by the terminal metabolic switch in the tumor tissues. Five lipid metabolism-related genes, the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein 4, 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 9, and apolipoprotein A-IV were identified to be significantly activated in HBx transgenic HCCs and further validated in human HBV-related HCCs. Inhibition of these lipid genes could reverse the effect of HBx on lipid biosynthesis and suppress HBx-induced cell proliferation in vitro. Our results support the concept that metabolic syndrome plays an important role in HBV tumorigenesis. The dysregulation of lipid metabolic genes may predict the disease progression to HCC in chronic hepatitis B patients.

Sarveswaran S, Chakraborty D, Chitale D, et al.
Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase selectively triggers disruption of c-Myc signaling in prostate cancer cells.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(8):4994-5006 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myc is up-regulated in almost all cancer types and is the subject of intense investigation because of its pleiotropic effects controlling a broad spectrum of cell functions. However, despite its recognition as a stand-alone molecular target, development of suitable strategies to block its function is hindered because of its nonenzymatic nature. We reported earlier that arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5-Lox) plays an important role in the survival and growth of prostate cancer cells, although details of the underlying mechanisms have yet to be characterized. By whole genome gene expression array, we observed that inhibition of 5-Lox severely down-regulates the expression of c-Myc oncogene in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, inhibition of 5-Lox dramatically decreases the protein level, nuclear accumulation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activities of c-Myc. Both the 5-Lox inhibition-induced down-regulation of c-Myc and induction of apoptosis are mitigated when the cells are treated with 5-oxoeicosatetraenoic acid, a metabolite of 5-Lox, confirming a role of 5-Lox in these processes. c-Myc is a transforming oncogene widely expressed in prostate cancer cells and maintains their transformed phenotype. Interestingly, MK591, a specific 5-Lox inhibitor, strongly affects the viability of Myc-overactivated prostate cancer cells and completely blocks their invasive and soft agar colony-forming abilities, but it spares nontransformed cells where expression of 5-Lox is undetectable. These findings indicate that the oncogenic function of c-Myc in prostate cancer cells is regulated by 5-Lox activity, revealing a novel mechanism of 5-Lox action and suggesting that the oncogenic function of c-Myc can be suppressed by suitable inhibitors of 5-Lox.

Lucas CM, Harris RJ, Giannoudis A, et al.
Low leukotriene B4 receptor 1 leads to ALOX5 downregulation at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia.
Haematologica. 2014; 99(11):1710-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ALOX5 is implicated in chronic myeloid leukemia development in mouse leukemic stem cells, but its importance in human chronic myeloid leukemia is unknown. Functional ALOX5 was assessed using an LTB4 ELISA and ALOX5, and LTB4R1 mRNA expression was determined via a TaqMan gene expression assay. LTB4R1 and 5-LOX protein levels were assessed by cell surface flow cytometry analysis. At diagnosis ALOX5 was below normal in both blood and CD34(+) stem cells in all patients. On treatment initiation, ALOX5 levels increased in all patients except those who were destined to progress subsequently to blast crisis. LTB4 levels were increased despite low ALOX5 expression, suggesting that the arachidonic acid pathway is functioning normally up to the point of LTB4 production. However, the LTB4 receptor (BLT1) protein in newly diagnosed patients was significantly lower than after a period of treatment (P<0.0001). The low level of LTB4R1 at diagnosis explains the downregulation of ALOX5. In the absence of LTB4R1, the arachidonic acid pathway intermediates (5-HEPTE and LTA4) negatively regulate ALOX5. ALOX5 regulation is aberrant in chronic myeloid leukemia patients and may not be important for the development of the disease. Our data suggest caution when extrapolating mouse model data into human chronic myeloid leukemia.

Wen Z, Liu H, Li M, et al.
Increased metabolites of 5-lipoxygenase from hypoxic ovarian cancer cells promote tumor-associated macrophage infiltration.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(10):1241-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), a member of the lipoxygenase gene family, is a key enzyme assisting in the conversion of arachidonic acid to 5-HETE and leukotrienes. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have a critical role in the progression and metastasis of many tumors, including ovarian tumors. Moreover, TAMs are often found in a high density in the hypoxic areas of tumors. However, the relevant mechanisms have not been studied explicitly until now. In this study, we found that the expression of 5-LOX strongly correlated with the density of TAMs in hypoxic areas of human ovarian tumor tissues. In cultured ovarian cancer cells, 5-LOX metabolites were increased under hypoxic conditons. Increased 5-LOX metabolites from hypoxic ovarian cancer cells promoted migration and invasion of macrophages, which was further demonstrated to be mediated by the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 expression through the p38 pathway. Besides, we also showed that 5-LOX metabolites enhanced the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor through upregulation of MMP-7. Furthermore, in animal models, Zileuton (a selective and specific 5-LOX inhibitor) reduced the MMP-7 expression and the number of macrophages infiltrating in the xenograft. Our findings suggest for the first time that increased metabolites of 5-LOX from hypoxic ovarian cancer cells promote TAM infiltration. These results of this study have immediate translational implications for the therapeutic exploitation of TAMs.

DeKelver RC, Lewin B, Lam K, et al.
Cooperation between RUNX1-ETO9a and novel transcriptional partner KLF6 in upregulation of Alox5 in acute myeloid leukemia.
PLoS Genet. 2013; 9(10):e1003765 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fusion protein RUNX1-ETO (AML1-ETO, RUNX1-RUNX1T1) is expressed as the result of the 8q22;21q22 translocation [t(8;21)], which is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities found in acute myeloid leukemia. RUNX1-ETO is thought to promote leukemia development through the aberrant regulation of RUNX1 (AML1) target genes. Repression of these genes occurs via the recruitment of the corepressors N-COR and SMRT due to their interaction with ETO. Mechanisms of RUNX1-ETO target gene upregulation remain less well understood. Here we show that RUNX1-ETO9a, the leukemogenic alternatively spliced transcript expressed from t(8;21), upregulates target gene Alox5, which is a gene critically required for the promotion of chronic myeloid leukemia development by BCR-ABL. Loss of Alox5 expression reduces activity of RUNX1-ETO9a, MLL-AF9 and PML-RARα in vitro. However, Alox5 is not essential for the induction of leukemia by RUNX1-ETO9a in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that the upregulation of Alox5 by RUNX1-ETO9a occurs via the C₂H₂ zinc finger transcription factor KLF6, a protein required for early hematopoiesis and yolk sac development. Furthermore, KLF6 is specifically upregulated by RUNX1-ETO in human leukemia cells. This identifies KLF6 as a novel mediator of t(8;21) target gene regulation, providing a new mechanism for RUNX1-ETO transcriptional control.

Jin TB, Li XL, Yang H, et al.
Association of polymorphisms in FLT3, EGFR, ALOX5, and NEIL3 with glioblastoma in the Han Chinese population.
Med Oncol. 2013; 30(4):718 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the highest-grade glioma in astrocytoma. Patients often have poor prognosis due to therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence. Identification of the genetic factors of GBM could be important contribution to early prevention of this disease. We genotyped 17 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) from nine genes in this study, including 72 cases and 302 controls. SNP genotyping was conducted using Sequenom MassARRAY RS1000. Statistical analysis of the association between tSNPs and GBM was performed using the χ (2) test and SNPStats software. The rs3829382 in FLT3 was associated with increased odds of developing GBM using the χ (2) test. When we analyzed tSNPs under different inheritance models, we found rs9642393 in EGFR increased odds of developing GBM in the dominant model. After stratification by gender, we found that rs12645561 in NEIL3 and rs2291427 in ALOX5 were associated with developing GBM. Polymorphisms within FLT3, EGFR, NEIL3, and ALOX5 may contribute to the occurrence of GBM in the Han Chinese population. However, the functional significance of these polymorphisms needs further investigation.

Bell E, Ponthan F, Whitworth C, et al.
Cell survival signalling through PPARδ and arachidonic acid metabolites in neuroblastoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e68859 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Retinoic acid (RA) has paradoxical effects on cancer cells: promoting cell death, differentiation and cell cycle arrest, or cell survival and proliferation. Arachidonic acid (AA) release occurs in response to RA treatment and, therefore, AA and its downstream metabolites may be involved in cell survival signalling. To test this, we inhibited phospholipase A2-mediated AA release, cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases with small-molecule inhibitors to determine if this would sensitise cells to cell death after RA treatment. The data suggest that, in response to RA, phospholipase A2-mediated release of AA and subsequent metabolism by lipoxygenases is important for cell survival. Evidence from gene expression reporter assays and PPARδ knockdown suggests that lipoxygenase metabolites activate PPARδ. The involvement of PPARδ in cell survival is supported by results of experiments with the PPARδ inhibitor GSK0660 and siRNA-mediated knockdown. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR studies demonstrated that inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase after RA treatment resulted in a strong up-regulation of mRNA for PPARδ2, a putative inhibitory PPARδ isoform. Over-expression of PPARδ2 using a tetracycline-inducible system in neuroblastoma cells reduced proliferation and induced cell death. These data provide evidence linking lipoxygenases and PPARδ in a cell survival-signalling mechanism and suggest new drug-development targets for malignant and hyper-proliferative diseases.

Li Y, Zhao H, Wang Y, et al.
Isoliquiritigenin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating arachidonic acid metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013; 272(1):37-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids and its downstream pathways have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in growth control of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid phytoestrogen from licorice, induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating multiple key enzymes in AA metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer. Isoliquiritigenin diminished cell viability, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, and clonogenic ability in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231cells, and induced apoptosis as evidenced by an analysis of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry and hoechst staining. Furthermore, isoliquiritigenin inhibited mRNA expression of multiple forms of AA-metabolizing enzymes, including phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenases (COX)-2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A, and decreased secretion of their products, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), without affecting COX-1, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). In addition, it downregulated the levels of phospho-PI3K, phospho-PDK (Ser(241)), phospho-Akt (Thr(308)), phospho-Bad (Ser(136)), and Bcl-xL expression, thereby activating caspase cascades and eventually cleaving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Conversely, the addition of exogenous eicosanoids, including PGE2, LTB4 and a 20-HETE analog (WIT003), and caspase inhibitors, or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed isoliquiritigenin-induced apoptosis. Notably, isoliquiritigenin induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice, together with decreased intratumoral levels of eicosanoids and phospho-Akt (Thr(308)). Collectively, these data suggest that isoliquiritigenin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating AA metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer.

Holm JB, Grygorczyk R, Lambert IH
Volume-sensitive release of organic osmolytes in the human lung epithelial cell line A549: role of the 5-lipoxygenase.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013; 305(1):C48-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pathophysiological conditions challenge cell volume homeostasis and perturb cell volume regulatory mechanisms leading to alterations of cell metabolism, active transepithelial transport, cell migration, and death. We report that inhibition of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) with AA861 or ETH 615-139, the cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor (CysLT₁) with the antiasthmatic drug Zafirlukast, or the volume-sensitive organic anion channel (VSOAC) with DIDS blocks the release of organic osmolytes (taurine, meAIB) and the concomitant cell volume restoration following hypoosmotic swelling of human type II-like lung epithelial cells (A549). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in A549 cells upon hypotonic cell swelling by a diphenylene iodonium-sensitive NADPH oxidase. The swelling-induced taurine release is suppressed by ROS scavenging (butylated hydroxytoluene, N-acetyl cysteine) and potentiated by H₂O₂. Ca²⁺ mobilization with ionomycin or ATP stimulates the swelling-induced taurine release whereas calmodulin inhibition (W7) inhibits the release. Chelation of the extracellular Ca²⁺ (EGTA) had no effect on swelling-induced taurine release but prevented ATP-induced stimulation. H₂O₂, ATP, and ionomycin were unable to stimulate the taurine release in the presence of AA861 or Zafirlukast, placing 5-LO and CysLT₁ as essential elements in the swelling-induced activation of VSOAC with ROS and Ca²⁺ as potent modulators. Inhibition of tyrosine kinases (genistein, cucurbitacin) reduces volume-sensitive taurine release, adding tyrosine kinases (Janus kinase) as regulators of VSOAC activity. Caspase-3 activity during hypoxia is unaffected by inhibition of 5-LO/CysLT₁ but reduced when swelling-induced taurine loss via VSOAC is prevented by DIDS excess extracellular taurine, indicating a beneficial role of taurine under hypoxia.

You X, Liu F, Zhang T, et al.
Hepatitis B virus X protein upregulates oncogene Rab18 to result in the dysregulation of lipogenesis and proliferation of hepatoma cells.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(7):1644-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) contributes to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through inducing dysregulation of lipogenesis. However, the mechanism by which HBx induces the abnormal lipogenesis is not well known. In this study, we report that the oncogene Rab18, a member of Ras family, enhances the HBx-induced hepatocarcinogenesis through inducing dysregulation of lipogenesis and proliferation. Our data showed that the expression levels of Rab18 were positively associated with those of HBx in clinical HCC tissues. HBx was able to upregulate the expression of Rab18 in p21-HBx transgenic mice and hepatoma cell lines. Next, we identified the mechanism by which HBx upregulated Rab18. The results demonstrated that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) were able to stimulate Rab18 promoter through activating transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response element-binding (CREB). In addition, we identified another pathway that HBx activated Rab18. We found that miR-429 was able to directly target the 3' untranslated region of Rab18, suggesting that Rab18 is one of the target genes of miR-429. Then, we found that HBx was able to downregulate miR-429 in hepatoma cells. The oil red O staining showed that HBx resulted in the dysregulation of lipogenesis through Rab18. Moreover, Rab18 contributed to the HBx-enhanced proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. HBx enhances hepatocarcinogenesis through leading to the dysregulation of lipogenesis and proliferation of hepatoma cells, involving two pathways such as HBx/COX-2/5-LOX/AP-1/CREB/Rab18 and HBx/miR-429/Rab18.

Kleinstein SE, Heath L, Makar KW, et al.
Genetic variation in the lipoxygenase pathway and risk of colorectal neoplasia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(5):437-49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Arachidonate lipoxygenase (ALOX) enzymes metabolize arachidonic acid to generate potent inflammatory mediators and play an important role in inflammation-associated diseases. We investigated associations between colorectal cancer risk and polymorphisms in ALOX5, FLAP, ALOX12, and ALOX15, and their interactions with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. We genotyped fifty tagSNPs, one candidate SNP, and two functional promoter variable nucleotide tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms in three US population-based case-control studies of colon cancer (1,424 cases/1,780 controls), rectal cancer (583 cases/775 controls), and colorectal adenomas (485 cases/578 controls). Individuals with variant genotypes of the ALOX5 VNTR had a decreased risk of rectal cancer, with the strongest association seen for individuals with one or more alleles of >5 repeats (wild type = 5, OR>5/≥5 = 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.92; P = 0.01). Four SNPs in FLAP (rs17239025), ALOX12 (rs2073438), and ALOX15 (rs4796535 and rs2619112) were associated with rectal cancer risk at P ≤ 0.05. One SNP in FLAP (rs12429692) was associated with adenoma risk. A false discovery rate (FDR) was applied to account for false positives due to multiple testing; the ALOX15 associations were noteworthy at 25% FDR. Colorectal neoplasia risk appeared to be modified by NSAID use in individuals with variant alleles in FLAP and ALOX15. One noteworthy interaction (25% FDR) was observed for rectal cancer. Genetic variability in ALOXs may affect risk of colorectal neoplasia, particularly for rectal cancer. Additionally, genetic variability in FLAP and ALOX15 may modify the protective effect of NSAID use against colorectal neoplasia.

Yabushita S, Fukamachi K, Tanaka H, et al.
Metabolomic and transcriptomic profiling of human K-ras oncogene transgenic rats with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(6):1251-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most debilitating malignancies in humans, and one of the reasons for this is the inability to diagnose this disease early in its development. To search for biomarkers that can be used for early diagnosis of PDAC, we established a rat model of human PDAC in which expression of a human K-ras(G12V) oncogene and induction of PDAC are regulated by the Cre/lox system. In the present study, transgenic rats bearing PDAC and control transgenic rats with normal pancreatic tissues were used for metabolomic analysis of serum and pancreatic tissue by non-targeted and targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and transcriptomic analysis of pancreatic tissue by microarray. Comparison of the metabolic profiles of the serum and pancreatic tissue of PDAC-bearing and control rats identified palmitoleic acid as a metabolite, which was significantly decreased in the serum of PDAC-bearing animals. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that several transcripts involved in anaerobic glycolysis and nucleotide degradation were increased and transcripts involved in the trichloroacetic acid cycle were decreased. Other transcripts that were changed in PDAC-bearing rats were adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase (decreased: fatty acid biosynthesis), fatty acid synthase (increased: fatty acid biosynthesis) and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (increased: arachidonic acid metabolism). Overall, our results suggest that the decreased serum levels of palmitoleic acid in rats with PDAC was likely due to its decrease in pancreatic tissue and that palmitoleic acid should be investigated in human samples to assess its diagnostic significance as a serum biomarker for human PDAC.

Woessner DW, Lim CS
Disrupting BCR-ABL in combination with secondary leukemia-specific pathways in CML cells leads to enhanced apoptosis and decreased proliferation.
Mol Pharm. 2013; 10(1):270-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder caused by expression of the fusion gene BCR-ABL following a chromosomal translocation in the hematopoietic stem cell. Therapeutic management of CML uses tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which block ABL-signaling and effectively kill peripheral cells with BCR-ABL. However, TKIs are not curative, and chronic use is required in order to treat CML. The primary failure for TKIs is through the development of a resistant population due to mutations in the TKI binding regions. This led us to develop the mutant coiled-coil, CC(mut2), an alternative method for BCR-ABL signaling inhibition by targeting the N-terminal oligomerization domain of BCR, necessary for ABL activation. In this article, we explore additional pathways that are important for leukemic stem cell survival in K562 cells. Using a candidate-based approach, we test the combination of CC(mut2) and inhibitors of unique secondary pathways in leukemic cells. Transformative potential was reduced following silencing of the leukemic stem cell factor Alox5 by RNA interference. Furthermore, blockade of the oncogenic protein MUC-1 by the novel peptide GO-201 yielded reductions in proliferation and increased cell death. Finally, we found that inhibiting macroautophagy using chloroquine in addition to blocking BCR-ABL signaling with the CC(mut2) was most effective in limiting cell survival and proliferation. This study has elucidated possible combination therapies for CML using novel blockade of BCR-ABL and secondary leukemia-specific pathways.

Pringels S, Van Damme N, De Craene B, et al.
Clinical procedure for colon carcinoma tissue sampling directly affects the cancer marker-capacity of VEGF family members.
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:515 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: mRNA levels of members of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor family (VEGF-A, -B, -C, -D, Placental Growth Factor/PlGF) have been investigated as tissue-based markers of colon cancer. These studies, which used specimens obtained by surgical resection or colonoscopic biopsy, yielded contradictory results. We studied the effect of the sampling method on the marker accuracy of VEGF family members.
METHODS: Comparative RT-qPCR analysis was performed on healthy colon and colon carcinoma samples obtained by biopsy (n = 38) or resection (n = 39) to measure mRNA expression levels of individual VEGF family members. mRNA levels of genes encoding the eicosanoid enzymes cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and of genes encoding the hypoxia markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) were included as markers for cellular stress and hypoxia.
RESULTS: Expression levels of COX2, 5-LOX, GLUT-1 and CAIX revealed the occurrence in healthy colon resection samples of hypoxic cellular stress and a concurrent increment of basal expression levels of VEGF family members. This increment abolished differential expression of VEGF-B and VEGF-C in matched carcinoma resection samples and created a surgery-induced underexpression of VEGF-D. VEGF-A and PlGF showed strong overexpression in carcinoma samples regardless of the sampling method.
CONCLUSIONS: Sampling-induced hypoxia in resection samples but not in biopsy samples affects the marker-reliability of VEGF family members. Therefore, biopsy samples provide a more accurate report on VEGF family mRNA levels. Furthermore, this limited expression analysis proposes VEGF-A and PlGF as reliable, sampling procedure insensitive mRNA-markers for molecular diagnosis of colon cancer.

Bishayee K, Chakraborty D, Ghosh S, et al.
Lycopodine triggers apoptosis by modulating 5-lipoxygenase, and depolarizing mitochondrial membrane potential in androgen sensitive and refractory prostate cancer cells without modulating p53 activity: signaling cascade and drug-DNA interaction.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2013; 698(1-3):110-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
When the prostate cancer cells become unresponsive to androgen therapy, resistance to chemotherapy becomes imminent, resulting in high mortality. To combat this situation, lycopodine, a pharmacologically important bioactive component derived from Lycopodium clavatum spores, was tested against hormone sensitive (LnCaP) and refractory (PC3) prostate cancer cells in vitro. This study aims to check if lycopodine has demonstrable anti-cancer effects and if it has, to find out the possible mechanism of its action. The MTT assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect. Depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle, EGF receptor activity and apoptosis were recorded by FACS; profiles of different anti- and pro-apoptotic genes and their products were studied by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, indirect-ELISA, western blotting. Drug-DNA interaction was determined by CD spectroscopy. Administration of lycopodine down-regulated the expression of 5-lipoxygenase and the 5-oxo-ETE receptor (OXE receptor1) and EGF receptor, and caused up-regulation of cytochrome c with depolarization of mitochondrial inner membrane potential, without palpable change in p53 activity, resulting in apoptosis, cell arrest at G0/G1 stage and ultimately reduced proliferation of cancer cells; concomitantly, there was externalization of phosphotidyl serine residues. CD spectroscopic analysis revealed intercalating property of lycopodine with DNA molecule, implicating its ability to block cellular DNA synthesis. The overall results suggest that lycopodine is a promising candidate suitable for therapeutic use as an anti-cancer drug.

Zhao Y, Wang W, Wang Q, et al.
Lipid metabolism enzyme 5-LOX and its metabolite LTB4 are capable of activating transcription factor NF-κB in hepatoma cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012; 418(4):647-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
The issue that lipid metabolism enzyme and its metabolites regulate transcription factors in cancer cell is not fully understood. In this study, we first report that the lipid metabolism enzyme 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and its metabolite leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are capable of activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in hepatoma cells. We found that the treatment of MK886 (an inhibitor of 5-LOX) or knockdown of 5-LOX was able to downregulate the expression of NF-κB p65 at the mRNA level and decreased the phosphorylation level of inhibitor κBα (IκBα) in the cytoplasm of hepatoma HepG2 or H7402 cells, which resulted in the decrease of the level of nuclear NF-κB p65. These were confirmed by immunofluorescence staining in HepG2 cell. Moreover, the above treatments were able to decrease the transcriptional activity of NF-κB in the cells. The LTB4, one of metabolites of 5-LOX, is responsible for 5-LOX-activated NF-κB in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that the lipid metabolism enzyme 5-LOX and its metabolite LTB4 are capable of activating transcription factor NF-κB in hepatoma cells. Our finding provides new insight into the significance of lipid metabolism in activation of transcription factors in cancer.

White KL, Schildkraut JM, Palmieri RT, et al.
Ovarian cancer risk associated with inherited inflammation-related variants.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(5):1064-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The importance of inflammation pathways to the development of many human cancers prompted us to examine the associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in inflammation-related genes and risk of ovarian cancer. In a multisite case-control study, we genotyped SNPs in a large panel of inflammatory genes in 930 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 1,037 controls using a custom array and analyzed by logistic regression. SNPs with P < 0.10 were evaluated among 3,143 cases and 2,102 controls from the Follow-up of Ovarian Cancer Genetic Association and Interaction Studies (FOCI) post-GWAS collaboration. Combined analysis revealed association with SNPs rs17561 and rs4848300 in the interleukin gene IL1A which varied by histologic subtype (P(heterogeneity) = 0.03). For example, IL1A rs17561, which correlates with numerous inflammatory phenotypes, was associated with decreased risk of clear cell, mucinous, and endometrioid subtype, but not with the most common serous subtype. Genotype at rs1864414 in the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase ALOX5 was also associated with decreased risk. Thus, inherited variation in IL1A and ALOX5 seems to affect ovarian cancer risk which, for IL1A, is limited to rarer subtypes. Given the importance of inflammation in tumorigenesis and growing evidence of subtype-specific features in ovarian cancer, functional investigations will be important to help clarify the importance of inherited variation related to inflammation in ovarian carcinogenesis.

Ding X, Zhu C, Qiang H, et al.
Enhancing antitumor effects in pancreatic cancer cells by combined use of COX-2 and 5-LOX inhibitors.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2011; 65(7):486-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and lipoxygenase (LOX)-5 are involved in carcinogenesis of pancreatic cancer. COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib displays inhibitory effects in pancreatic cancer cell growth. Recently, it has been reported that COX-2 inhibitor may not be able to suppress pancreatic tumor growth in vivo and its application is further limited by untoward side effects. The present study provides evidence that combined use of celecoxib and 5-LOX inhibitor MK886 markedly suppresses pancreatic tumor cell growth in vitro. Compared to the single inhibitor treatment, dual treatment with celecoxib and MK886 exerted additive antitumor effects in pancreatic tumor cells. We found that MK886 reversed celecoxib-induced increases in 5-LOX gene expression and Erk1/2 activation in pancreatic tumor cells. Moreover, Dual treatment of pancreatic tumor cells with celecoxib and MK886 inhibited the levels of LBT4 receptor BLT1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Our results imply that combined use of celecoxib and MK886 might be an effective way to treat clinical patients with pancreatic cancer.

Sethi G, Shanmugam MK, Ramachandran L, et al.
Multifaceted link between cancer and inflammation.
Biosci Rep. 2012; 32(1):1-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasing evidence from epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies suggests that dysregulated inflammatory response plays a pivotal role in a multitude of chronic ailments including cancer. The molecular mechanism(s) by which chronic inflammation drives cancer initiation and promotion include increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen intermediates, increased expression of oncogenes, COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2), 5-LOX (5-lipoxygenase) and MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases), and pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB (nuclear factor κB), STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), AP-1 (activator protein 1) and HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) that mediate tumour cell proliferation, transformation, metastasis, survival, invasion, angiogenesis, chemoresistance and radioresistance. These inflammation-associated molecules are activated by a number of environmental and lifestyle-related factors including infectious agents, tobacco, stress, diet, obesity and alcohol, which together are thought to drive as much as 90% of all cancers. The present review will focus primarily on the role of various inflammatory intermediates responsible for tumour initiation and progression, and discuss in detail the critical link between inflammation and cancer.

Sarveswaran S, Thamilselvan V, Brodie C, Ghosh J
Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase triggers apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via down-regulation of protein kinase C-epsilon.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011; 1813(12):2108-17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous studies have shown that human prostate cancer cells constitutively generate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) metabolites from arachidonic acid, and inhibition of 5-LOX blocks production of 5-LOX metabolites and triggers apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. This apoptosis is prevented by exogenous metabolites of 5-LOX, suggesting an essential role of 5-LOX metabolites in the survival of prostate cancer cells. However, downstream signaling mechanisms which mediate the survival-promoting effects of 5-LOX metabolites in prostate cancer cells are still unknown. Recently, we reported that MK591, a specific inhibitor of 5-LOX activity, induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells without inhibition of Akt, or ERK, two well-characterized regulators of pro-survival mechanisms, suggesting the existence of an Akt and ERK-independent survival mechanism in prostate cancer cells regulated by 5-LOX. Here, we report that 5-LOX inhibition-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells occurs via rapid inactivation of protein kinase C-epsilon (PKCε), and that exogenous 5-LOX metabolites prevent both 5-LOX inhibition-induced down-regulation of PKCε and induction of apoptosis. Interestingly, pre-treatment of prostate cancer cells with diazoxide (a chemical activator of PKCε), or KAE1-1 (a cell-permeable, octa-peptide specific activator of PKCε) prevents 5-LOX inhibition-induced apoptosis, which indicates that inhibition of 5-LOX triggers apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via down-regulation of PKCε. Altogether, these findings suggest that metabolism of arachidonic acid by 5-LOX activity promotes survival of prostate cancer cells via signaling through PKCε, a pro-survival serine/threonine kinase.

Xie Z, Bi C, Cheong LL, et al.
Determinants of sensitivity to DZNep induced apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(6):e21583 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The 3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), one of S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) hydrolase inhibitors, has shown antitumor activities in a broad range of solid tumors and acute myeloid leukemia. Here, we examined its effects on multiple myeloma (MM) cells and found that, at 500 nM, it potently inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in 2 of 8 MM cell lines. RNA from un-treated and DZNep treated cells was profiled by Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarray and genes with a significant change in gene expression were determined by significance analysis of microarray (SAM) testing. ALOX5 was the most down-regulated gene (5.8-fold) in sensitive cells and was expressed at low level in resistant cells. The results were corroborated by quantitative RT-PCR. Western-blot analysis indicated ALOX5 was highly expressed only in sensitive cell line H929 and greatly decreased upon DZNep treatment. Ectopic expression of ALOX5 reduced sensitivity to DZNep in H929 cells. Furthermore, down-regulation of ALOX5 by RNA interference could also induce apoptosis in H929. Gene expression analysis on MM patient dataset indicated ALOX5 expression was significantly higher in MM patients compared to normal plasma cells. We also found that Bcl-2 was overexpressed in DZNep insensitive cells, and cotreatment with DZNep and ABT-737, a Bcl-2 family inhibitor, synergistically inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of DZNep insensitive MM cells. Taken together, this study shows one of mechanisms of the DZNep efficacy on MM correlates with its ability to down-regulate the ALOX5 levels. In addition, DZNep insensitivity might be associated with overexpression of Bcl-2, and the combination of ABT-737 and DZNep could synergistically induced apoptosis. These results suggest that DZNep may be exploited therapeutically for a subset of MM.

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