Gene Summary

Gene:ALOX5; arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
Aliases: 5-LO, 5LPG, LOG5, 5-LOX
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the lipoxygenase gene family and plays a dual role in the synthesis of leukotrienes from arachidonic acid. The encoded protein, which is expressed specifically in bone marrow-derived cells, catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6-trans-8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid, and further to the allylic epoxide 5(S)-trans-7,9-trans-11,14-cis-eicosatetrenoic acid (leukotriene A4). Leukotrienes are important mediators of a number of inflammatory and allergic conditions. Mutations in the promoter region of this gene lead to a diminished response to antileukotriene drugs used in the treatment of asthma and may also be associated with atherosclerosis and several cancers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (21)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (3)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Lipoxygenase Inhibitors
  • Cell Survival
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase
  • Arachidonic Acid
  • Gene Expression
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Apoptosis
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Chromosome 10
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transcription
  • gamma-Glutamyltransferase
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Xenograft Models
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Young Adult
  • COX2 (PTGS2)
  • 5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins
  • Tandem Repeat Sequences
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Lung Cancer
  • Up-Regulation
  • Transfection
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Genotype
  • Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ALOX5 (cancer-related)

Andersen V, Halekoh U, Tjønneland A, et al.
Intake of Red and Processed Meat, Use of Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Genetic Variants and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Prospective Study of the Danish "Diet, Cancer and Health" Cohort.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Red and processed meat have been associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), whereas long-term use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the risk. The aim was to investigate potential interactions between meat intake, NSAID use, and gene variants in fatty acid metabolism and NSAID pathways in relation to the risk of CRC. A nested case-cohort study of 1038 CRC cases and 1857 randomly selected participants from the Danish prospective "Diet, Cancer and Health" study encompassing 57,053 persons was performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Gene variants in

Reyes I, Reyes N, Suriano R, et al.
Gene expression profiling identifies potential molecular markers of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Cancer Biomark. 2019; 24(1):71-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy worldwide, with the predominant form papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) representing approximately 80% of cases.
OBJECTIVE: This study was addressed to identify potential genes and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of PTC and potential novel biomarkers for this disease.
METHODS: Gene expression profiling was carried out by DNA microarray technology. Validation of microarray data by qRT-PCR, western blot, and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was also performed in a selected set of genes and gene products, with the potential to be used as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, such as those associated with cell adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and immune/inflammatory response.
RESULTS: In this study we found that upregulation of extracellular activities, such as proteoglycans, ECM-receptor interaction, and cell adhesion molecules, were the most prominent feature of PTC. Significantly over-expressed genes included SDC1 (syndecan 1), SDC4 (syndecan 4), KLK7 (kallikrein-related peptidase 7), KLK10 (kallikrein-related peptidase 10), SLPI (secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor), GDF15 (growth/differentiation factor-15), ALOX5 (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase), SFRP2 (secreted Frizzled-related protein 2), among others. Further, elevated KLK10 levels were detected in patients with PTC. Many of these genes belong to KEGG pathway "Proteoglycans in cancer".
CONCLUSIONS: Using DNA microarray analysis allowed the identification of genes and pathways with known important roles in malignant transformation, and also the discovery of novel genes that may be potential biomarkers for PTC.

Kim W, Son B, Lee S, et al.
Targeting the enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism to improve radiotherapy.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2018; 37(2-3):213-225 [PubMed] Related Publications
During radiotherapy, an inflammatory response might be induced by activating various enzymes involved in membrane lipid metabolism. The eicosanoid pathway associated with cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA

Li W, Wang H, Yang Y, et al.
Integrative Analysis of Proteome and Ubiquitylome Reveals Unique Features of Lysosomal and Endocytic Pathways in Gefitinib-Resistant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.
Proteomics. 2018; 18(15):e1700388 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients carrying EGFR activating mutations treated with gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, will develop drug resistance. Ubiquitylation is one of major posttranslational modifications of proteins affecting the stability or function of proteins. However, the role of protein ubiquitylation in gefitinib resistance is poorly understood. To systematically identify the global change in protein expression and ubiquitylation during gefitinib resistance, a quantitative global proteome and ubiquitylome study in a pair of gefitinib-resistant and sensitive NSCLC cells is carried out. Altogether, changes in expression of 3773 proteins are quantified, and changes in ubiquitylation of 2893 lysine sites in 1415 proteins are measured in both cells. Interestingly, lysosomal and endocytic pathways, which are involved in autophagy regulation, are enriched with upregulated proteins or ubiquitylated proteins in gefitinib-resistant cells. In addition, HMGA2 overexpression or ALOX5 knockdown suppresses gefitinib resistance in NSCLC cells by inhibiting autophagy. Overall, these results reveal the previously unknown global ubiquitylome and proteomic features associated with gefitinib resistance, uncover the opposing roles of HMGA2 or ALOX5 in regulating gefitinib resistance and autophagy, and will help to identify new therapeutic targets in overcoming gefitinib resistance.

Weigert A, Strack E, Snodgrass RG, Brüne B
mPGES-1 and ALOX5/-15 in tumor-associated macrophages.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2018; 37(2-3):317-334 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor immune landscape gained considerable interest based on the knowledge that genetic aberrations in cancer cells alone are insufficient for tumor development. Macrophages are basically supporting all hallmarks of cancer and owing to their tremendous plasticity they may exert a whole spectrum of anti-tumor and pro-tumor activities. As part of the innate immune response, macrophages are armed to attack tumor cells, alone or in concert with distinct T cell subsets. However, in the tumor microenvironment, they sense nutrient and oxygen gradients, receive multiple signals, and respond to this incoming information with a phenotype shift. Often, their functional output repertoire is shifted to become tumor-supportive. Incoming and outgoing signals are chemically heterogeneous but also comprise lipid mediators. Here, we review the current understanding whereby arachidonate metabolites derived from the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways shape the macrophage phenotype in a tumor setting. We discuss these findings in the context of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression and concomitant prostaglandin E

Ringleb J, Strack E, Angioni C, et al.
Apoptotic Cancer Cells Suppress 5-Lipoxygenase in Tumor-Associated Macrophages.
J Immunol. 2018; 200(2):857-868 [PubMed] Related Publications
The enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is key in the synthesis of leukotrienes, which are potent proinflammatory lipid mediators involved in chronic inflammatory diseases including cancer. 5-LO is expressed in immune cells but also found in cancer cells. Although the role of 5-LO in tumor cells is beginning to emerge, with the notion that tumor-promoting functions are attributed to its products, the function of 5-LO in the tumor microenvironment remains unclear. To understand the role of 5-LO and its products in the tumor microenvironment, we analyzed its expression and function in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). TAMs were generated by coculturing primary human macrophages (MΦ) with human MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells, which caused cell death of cancer cells followed by phagocytosis of cell debris by MΦ. Expression and activity of 5-LO in TAMs were reduced upon coculture with cancer cells. Downregulation of 5-LO in TAMs required tumor cell death and the direct contact between MΦ and dying cancer cells via Mer tyrosine kinase. Subsequently, upregulation of proto-oncogene c-Myb in TAMs induced a stable transcriptional repression of 5-LO. Reduced 5-LO expression in TAMs was mechanistically coupled to an attenuated T cell recruitment. In primary TAMs from human and murine breast tumors, 5-LO expression was absent or low when compared with monocyte-derived MΦ. Our data reveal that 5-LO, which is required for leukotriene production and subsequent T cell recruitment, is downregulated in TAMs through Mer tyrosine kinase-dependent recognition of apoptotic cancer cells. Mechanistically, we noticed transcriptional repression of 5-LO by proto-oncogene c-Myb and conclude that loss of stromal 5-LO expression favors tumor progression.

Pandey MK, Gupta SC, Nabavizadeh A, Aggarwal BB
Regulation of cell signaling pathways by dietary agents for cancer prevention and treatment.
Semin Cancer Biol. 2017; 46:158-181 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although it is widely accepted that better food habits do play important role in cancer prevention and treatment, how dietary agents mediate their effects remains poorly understood. More than thousand different polyphenols have been identified from dietary plants. In this review, we discuss the underlying mechanism by which dietary agents can modulate a variety of cell-signaling pathways linked to cancer, including transcription factors, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), activator protein-1 (AP-1), β-catenin/Wnt, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor- gamma (PPAR-γ), Sonic Hedgehog, and nuclear factor erythroid 2 (Nrf2); growth factors receptors (EGFR, VEGFR, IGF1-R); protein Kinases (Ras/Raf, mTOR, PI3K, Bcr-abl and AMPK); and pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, interleukins, COX-2, 5-LOX). In addition, modulation of proteasome and epigenetic changes by the dietary agents also play a major role in their ability to control cancer. Both in vitro and animal based studies support the role of dietary agents in cancer. The efficacy of dietary agents by clinical trials has also been reported. Importantly, natural agents are already in clinical trials against different kinds of cancer. Overall both in vitro and in vivo studies performed with dietary agents strongly support their role in cancer prevention. Thus, the famous quote "Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food" made by Hippocrates 25 centuries ago still holds good.

Kapral M, Wawszczyk J, Sośnicki S, et al.
Modulating effect of inositol hexaphosphate on arachidonic acid-dependent pathways in colon cancer cells.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2017; 131:41-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) are key enzymes of arachidonic acid metabolism. Their products, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), a naturally occurring phytochemical, on the expression of genes encoding COX and LOX isoforms and synthesis of their products (PGE

Wang D, Li Y, Zhang C, et al.
MiR-216a-3p inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation through direct targeting COX-2 and ALOX5.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(2):1755-1766 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is a most common digestive system malignant tumor. Despite recent advance in CRC treatment, searching for efficient biomarker and individual treatment therapy remains an urgent need. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a critical role in the development and progression of CRC. In addition, shunting of arachidonic acid metabolism to the 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5, 5-LO) pathway has also been reported to be implicated in the CRC pathogenesis. Cancer cell viability is promoted by ALOX5 through several mechanisms that are similar to those of COX-2. In recent years, it has been widely recognized that through inhibition of target genes, miRNAs can exert both oncogenic and tumor suppressive functions, depending on circumstances. In the present study, we screened for candidate microRNAs (miRNAs) which were predicted to regulate COX-2 and ALOX5 by online tools. Among the candidate miRNAs, miR-216a-3p expression was down-regulated in CRC tissues and cell lines; a higher miR-216a-3p expression was correlated with longer overall survival in patients with CRC. Moreover, ectopic miR-216a-3p expression significantly suppressed CRC cell proliferation. Using luciferase reporter gene, real-time PCR, and western blot assays, we confirmed the miR-216a-3p regulation of COX-2 and ALOX5 through direct targeting; further verified that miR-216a-3p could inhibit COX-2 and ALOX5 expression in CRC cells, thus to affect CRC cell proliferation. Taken together, miR-216a-3p presents a novel target of CRC treatment; rescuing miR-216a-3p expression in CRC might be a promising strategy for CRC treatment.

Codreanu SG, Hoeksema MD, Slebos RJC, et al.
Identification of Proteomic Features To Distinguish Benign Pulmonary Nodules from Lung Adenocarcinoma.
J Proteome Res. 2017; 16(9):3266-3276 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We hypothesized that distinct protein expression features of benign and malignant pulmonary nodules may reveal novel candidate biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer. We performed proteome profiling by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to characterize 34 resected benign lung nodules, 24 untreated lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs), and biopsies of bronchial epithelium. Group comparisons identified 65 proteins that differentiate nodules from ADCs and normal bronchial epithelium and 66 proteins that differentiate ADCs from nodules and normal bronchial epithelium. We developed a multiplexed parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assay to quantify a subset of 43 of these candidate biomarkers in an independent cohort of 20 benign nodules, 21 ADCs, and 20 normal bronchial biopsies. PRM analyses confirmed significant nodule-specific abundance of 10 proteins including ALOX5, ALOX5AP, CCL19, CILP1, COL5A2, ITGB2, ITGAX, PTPRE, S100A12, and SLC2A3 and significant ADC-specific abundance of CEACAM6, CRABP2, LAD1, PLOD2, and TMEM110-MUSTN1. Immunohistochemistry analyses for seven selected proteins performed on an independent set of tissue microarrays confirmed nodule-specific expression of ALOX5, ALOX5AP, ITGAX, and SLC2A3 and cancer-specific expression of CEACAM6. These studies illustrate the value of global and targeted proteomics in a systematic process to identify and qualify candidate biomarkers for noninvasive molecular diagnosis of lung cancer.

Wang Y, Skibbe JR, Hu C, et al.
ALOX5 exhibits anti-tumor and drug-sensitizing effects in MLL-rearranged leukemia.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):1853 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a fatal disease with a high rate of relapse and therapeutic failure due to chemotherapy resistance. In analysis of our Affymetrix microarray profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we found that ALOX5 is especially down-regulated in MLL-rearranged AML, via transcription repression mediated by Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). Colony forming/replating and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) assays showed that Alox5 exhibited a moderate anti-tumor effect both in vitro and in vivo. Strikingly, leukemic cells with Alox5 overexpression showed a significantly higher sensitivity to the standard chemotherapeutic agents, i.e., doxorubicin (DOX) and cytarabine (Ara-C). The drug-sensitizing role of Alox5 was further confirmed in human and murine MLL-rearranged AML cell models in vitro, as well as in the in vivo MLL-rearranged AML BMT model coupled with treatment of "5 + 3" (i.e. DOX plus Ara-C) regimen. Stat and K-Ras signaling pathways were negatively correlated with Alox5 overexpression in MLL-AF9-leukemic blast cells; inhibition of the above signaling pathways mimicked the drug-sensitizing effect of ALOX5 in AML cells. Collectively, our work shows that ALOX5 plays a moderate anti-tumor role and functions as a drug sensitizer, with a therapeutic potential, in MLL-rearranged AML.

Janakiram NB, Mohammed A, Bryant T, et al.
Loss of natural killer T cells promotes pancreatic cancer in LSL-Kras
Immunology. 2017; 152(1):36-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The role of the unique T-cell population, natural killer T (NKT) cells, which have similar functions to NK cells in pancreatic cancer (PC), is not yet evaluated. To address the regulatory roles of NKT cells on tumour progression through tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) and their production of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) in (Kras)-driven pancreatic tumour (KPT) progression, we crossed CD1d

Zappavigna S, Scuotto M, Cossu AM, et al.
The 1,4 benzoquinone-featured 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor RF-Id induces apoptotic death through downregulation of IAPs in human glioblastoma cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35(1):167 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Embelin is a potent dual inhibitor of 5-lipoxigenase (5-LOX) and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 that suppresses proliferation of human glioma cells and induces apoptosis by inhibiting XIAP and NF-κB signaling pathway. Synthetic structural modification yielded the derivative 3-((decahydronaphthalen-6-yl)methyl)-2,5-dihydroxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (RF-Id), an embelin constrained analogue, with improved efficiency against 5-LOX in human neutrophils and anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. Taking into account that lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolites, from arachidonic acid and linoleic acid, have been implicated in tumor progression, here, we determined whether RF-Id was able to hinder glioblastoma (GBM) cancer cell growth and the related mechanisms.
METHODS: U87MG and LN229 cells were plated in 96-wells and treated with increasing concentrations of RF-Id. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. The effects of the compounds on cell cycle, apoptosis, oxidative stress and autophagy were assessed by flow cytometry (FACS). The mode of action was confirmed by Taqman apoptosis array and evaluating caspase cascade and NFκB pathway by western blotting technique.
RESULTS: Here, we found that RF-Id induced a stronger inhibition of GBM cell growth than treatment with embelin. Flow cytometry analysis showed that RF-Id induced about 30 % apoptosis and a slight increase of autophagy after 72 h on U87-MG cells. Moreover, the compound induced an increase in the percentage of cells in G2 and S phase that was paralleled by an increase of p21 and p27 expression but no significant changes of the mitochondrial membrane potential; array analysis showed a significant upregulation of CASP8 and a downregulation of IAP family and NFκB genes in cells treated with RF-Id. RF-Id induced a significant cleavage of caspases 8, 9, 3 and 7, blocked c-IAP2/XIAP interaction by inducing XIAP degradation and inhibited NFκB pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: RF-Id induced a caspase-dependent apoptosis in GBM cells by inhibiting IAP family proteins and NFκB pathway and represents a promising lead compound for designing a new class of anti-cancer drugs with multiple targets.

Chandrasekharan JA, Huang XM, Hwang AC, Sharma-Walia N
Altering the Anti-inflammatory Lipoxin Microenvironment: a New Insight into Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Pathogenesis.
J Virol. 2016; 90(24):11020-11031 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lipoxins are host anti-inflammatory molecules that play a vital role in restoring tissue homeostasis. The efficacy of lipoxins and their analog epilipoxins in treating inflammation and its associated diseases has been well documented. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) are two well-known inflammation related diseases caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Controlling inflammation is one of the strategies adopted to treat KS and PEL, a primary motivation for exploring and evaluating the therapeutic potential of using lipoxins. This study documents how KSHV manipulates and downregulates the secretion of the anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4 in host cells and the viral factors involved in this process using in vitro KS and PEL cells as models. The presence of the lipoxin A4 receptor/formyl peptidyl receptor (ALX/FPR) in KS patient tissue sections and in vitro KS and PEL cell models offers a novel possibility for treating KS and PEL with lipoxins. Treating de novo KSHV-infected endothelial cells with lipoxin and epilipoxin creates an anti-inflammatory environment by decreasing the levels of NF-κB, AKT, ERK1/2, COX-2, and 5-lipoxygenase. Lipoxin treatment on CRISPR/CAS9 technology-mediated ALX/FPR gene deletion revealed the importance of the lipoxin receptor ALX for effective lipoxin signaling. A viral microRNA (miRNA) cluster was identified as the primary factor contributing to the downregulation of lipoxin A4 secretion in host cells. The KSHV miRNA cluster probably targets enzyme 15-lipoxygenase, which is involved in lipoxin A4 synthesis. This study provides a new insight into the potential treatment of KS and PEL using nature's own anti-inflammatory molecule, lipoxin.
IMPORTANCE: KSHV infection has been shown to upregulate several host proinflammatory factors, which aid in its survival and pathogenesis. The influence of KSHV infection on anti-inflammatory molecules is not well studied. Since current treatment methods for KS and PEL are fraught with unwanted side effects and low efficiency, the search for new therapeutics is therefore imperative. The use of nature's own molecule lipoxin as a drug is promising. This study opens up new domains in KSHV research focusing on how the virus modulates lipoxin secretion and warrants further investigation of the therapeutic potential of lipoxin using in vitro cell models for KS and PEL.

Chen GY, Shu YC, Chuang DY, Wang YC
Inflammatory and Apoptotic Regulatory Activity of Tanshinone IIA in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Cells.
Am J Chin Med. 2016; 44(6):1187-1206 [PubMed] Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori infections induce host cell inflammation and apoptosis, however, they are conflicting. Tanshinone IIA is an active compound of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of tanshinone IIA on H. pylori-induced inflammation and apoptosis in vitro. Tanshinone IIA treatments (13.6-54.4[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M) significantly decreased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [p-38 and C-terminal Jun-kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2)] protein expressions and inflammatory substance [cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipooxygenase (5-LOX), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-1[Formula: see text] (IL-1[Formula: see text], IL-6, and IL-8] production in the H. pylori-infected cells. In contrast, tanshinone IIA treatments significantly increased apoptotic relevant protein [Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase 9] expressions and increased mitochondrial transmembrane potential ([Formula: see text] disruption, mitochondrial cytochrome [Formula: see text] (cyt [Formula: see text] release, and caspase cascades. Tanshinone IIA treatments effectively decreased H. pylori-induced inflammation and significantly promoted H. pylori-induced intrinsic apoptosis through NF-kB and MAPK (p-38 and JNK) pathways. Tanshinone IIA has great potential as a candidate to protect host cells from H. pylori-induced severe inflammation and gastric cancer.

Kumar R, Singh AK, Kumar M, et al.
Serum 5-LOX: a progressive protein marker for breast cancer and new approach for therapeutic target.
Carcinogenesis. 2016; 37(9):912-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway has emerged to have a role in carcinogenesis. There is an evidence that both 12-LOX and 5-LOX have procarcinogenic role. We have previously reported the elevated level of serum 12-LOX in breast cancer patients. This study evaluated the serum level of 5-LOX in breast cancer patients and its in vitro inhibition assessment with peptide inhibitor YWCS. The level of 5-LOX was determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The peptide inhibitor of 5-LOX was designed by molecular modeling and kinetic assay was performed by spectrophotometry. The siRNA mediated 5-LOX gene silencing was performed to investigate the effect on proliferation of MDA-MB-231, breast cancer cell line. The serum 5-LOX level in breast cancer (5.69±1.97ng/µl) was almost 2-fold elevated compared to control (3.53±1.0ng/µl) (P < 0.0001). The peptide YWCS had shown competitive inhibitory effects with IC50, 2.2 µM and dissociation constant (K D), 4.92×10(-8) M. The siRNA mediated knockdown of 5-LOX, resulted in the decreased gene expression for 5-LOX and increased cell death in MDA-MB-231 cell line and thereby play a key role in reducing tumor proliferation. Thus, it can be concluded that 5-LOX is one of the potential serum protein marker for breast cancer and a promising therapeutic target for the same.

Jang Y, Park NY, Rostgaard-Hansen AL, et al.
Vitamin E metabolite 13'-carboxychromanols inhibit pro-inflammatory enzymes, induce apoptosis and autophagy in human cancer cells by modulating sphingolipids and suppress colon tumor development in mice.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2016; 95:190-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Vitamin E forms are substantially metabolized to various carboxychromanols including 13'-carboxychromanols (13'-COOHs) that are found at high levels in feces. However, there is limited knowledge about functions of these metabolites. Here we studied δT-13'-COOH and δTE-13'-COOH, which are metabolites of δ-tocopherol and δ-tocotrienol, respectively. δTE-13'-COOH is also a natural constituent of a traditional medicine Garcinia Kola. Both 13'-COOHs are much stronger than tocopherols in inhibition of pro-inflammatory and cancer promoting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and in induction of apoptosis and autophagy in colon cancer cells. The anticancer effects by 13'-COOHs appeared to be partially independent of inhibition of COX-2/5-LOX. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we found that 13'-COOHs increased intracellular dihydrosphingosine and dihydroceramides after short-time incubation in HCT-116 cells, and enhanced ceramides while decreased sphingomyelins during prolonged treatment. Modulation of sphingolipids by 13'-COOHs was observed prior to or coinciding with biochemical manifestation of cell death. Pharmaceutically blocking the increase of these sphingolipids partially counteracted 13'-COOH-induced cell death. Further, 13'-COOH inhibited dihydroceramide desaturase without affecting the protein expression. In agreement with these mechanistic findings, δTE-13'-COOH significantly suppressed the growth and multiplicity of colon tumor in mice. Our study demonstrates that 13'-COOHs have anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, may contribute to in vivo anticancer effect of vitamin E forms and are promising novel cancer prevention agents.

Carrett-Dias M, Almeida LK, Pereira JL, et al.
Cell differentiation and the multiple drug resistance phenotype in human erythroleukemic cells.
Leuk Res. 2016; 42:13-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
The gene expression of Oct-4, a transcription factor and hematopoietic stem cell marker, is higher in Lucena lines, which is MDR, and the gene Alox-5 has also been implicated in the differentiation of some cell lines. The aim of this study was to compare the response to PMA-induced differentiation in MDR and non-MDR cells. We observed the differentiation to megakaryocytes in the K562 cell line, which is non-MDR. The expression of Alox-5 and Nanog genes was downregulated and that of Mdr-1 was upregulated in K562 cells. The Lucena cell line contained a higher number of megakaryocytes than the non-MDR, but this number was not altered by PMA, as well as Mdr-1 gene expression. However, Alox-5 expression was downregulated. Alox-5, Mdr-1, Nanog, Oct-4 and Sox-2 basal expression was also evaluated in the K562, Lucena and FEPS (also MDR) cell lines. The transcription factors gene expression was similar in MDR cell lines. The expression of Alox-5 was higher in the non-MDR cell line, while FEPS had the lowest expression of this gene. The opposite pattern was observed for Mdr-1 gene expression. These results suggest that the Alox-5 gene might play a role in the differentiation of these cell lines.

Che XH, Chen CL, Ye XL, et al.
Dual inhibition of COX-2/5-LOX blocks colon cancer proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(3):1680-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammation is emerging as a new hallmark of cancer. Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, the family of cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenase (LOX) play important roles in AA-related inflammatory cascades. In 94 colorectal cancer samples collected from the Han population, the immunohistochemical results indicated that 68% of the patients with colorectal cancer had a co-expression of both COX-2 and 5-LOX, while both displayed low expression in the matched normal tissues. In cell lines, three colorectal cancer cell lines exhibited high expression of COX-2 and 5-LOX. During stable silencing of the expression of COX-2 or 5-LOX in LoVo cancer cells, we found that downregulation of either COX-2 or 5-LOX significantly diminished the growth, migration and invasion of the colon cancer cells and specifically, downregulation of COX-2 could elicit upregulation of 5-LOX protein and vice versa. The above results suggested that the simultaneous blocking of COX-2 and 5-LOX activity may bring more potential benefits in managing the progression of colon cancer. Therefore, we sought to explore the effectiveness of a dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitor darbufelone on the proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of colon cancer cells, as well as the underlying mechanism of action. The results indicated that darbufelone significantly decreased the proliferative and invasive abilities of the colon cancer cells, in a dose-dependent manner. During the study of the related mechanisms, we found an upregulation of p27 and downregulation of cyclin D1 as well as CDK4 after darbufelone treatment, which indicated that darbufelone could arrest the cell cycle of LoVo cells at the G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, the activation of caspase-3 and -9, upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 demonstrated the occurrence of apoptosis by darbufelone. Finally, darbufelone also prevented the migration and invasion of LoVo cells, which may be ascribed to the upregulation of E-cadherin and ZO-1. In summary, our data suggest that the inhibition of both COX-2/5-LOX may be an effective therapeutic approach for colon cancer management, particularly for those patients with high expression of COX-2/5-LOX.

Hu Y, Li S
Survival regulation of leukemia stem cells.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016; 73(5):1039-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are a subpopulation cells at the apex of hierarchies in leukemia cells and responsible for disease continuous propagation. In this article, we discuss some cellular and molecular components, which are critical for LSC survival. These components include intrinsic signaling pathways and extrinsic microenvironments. The intrinsic signaling pathways to be discussed include Wnt/β-catenin signaling, Hox genes, Hh pathway, Alox5, and some miRNAs, which have been shown to play important roles in regulating LSC survival and proliferation. The extrinsic components to be discussed include selectins, CXCL12/CXCR4, and CD44, which involve in LSC homing, survival, and proliferation by affecting bone marrow microenvironment. Potential strategies for eradicating LSCs will also discuss.

Singh BN, Rawat AK, Bhagat RM, Singh BR
Black tea: Phytochemicals, cancer chemoprevention, and clinical studies.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017; 57(7):1394-1410 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is the most popular, flavored, functional, and therapeutic non-alcoholic drink consumed by two-thirds of the world's population. Black tea leaves are reported to contain thousands of bioactive constituents such as polyphenols, amino acids, volatile compounds, and alkaloids that exhibit a range of promising pharmacological properties. Due to strong antioxidant property, black tea inhibits the development of various cancers by regulating oxidative damage of biomolecules, endogenous antioxidants, and pathways of mutagen and transcription of antioxidant gene pool. Regular drinking of phytochemicals-rich black tea is linked to regulate several molecular targets, including COX-2, 5-LOX, AP-1, JNK, STAT, EGFR, AKT, Bcl2, NF-κB, Bcl-xL, caspases, p53, FOXO1, TNFα, PARP, and MAPK, which may be the basis of how dose of black tea prevents and cures cancer. In vitro and preclinical studies support the anti-cancer activity of black tea; however, its effect in human trails is uncertain, although more clinical experiments are needed at molecular levels to understand its anti-cancer property. This review discusses the current knowledge on phytochemistry, chemopreventive activity, and clinical applications of black tea to reveal its anti-cancer effect.

Ahmad K, Scholz B, Capelo R, et al.
AF4 and AF4-MLL mediate transcriptional elongation of 5-lipoxygenase mRNA by 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):25784-800 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), encoded by the ALOX5 gene, is the key enzyme in the formation of pro-inflammatory leukotrienes. ALOX5 gene transcription is strongly stimulated by calcitriol (1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) and TGFβ (transforming growth factor-β). Here, we investigated the influence of MLL (activator of transcript initiation), AF4 (activator of transcriptional elongation) as well as of the leukemogenic fusion proteins MLL-AF4 (ectopic activator of transcript initiation) and AF4-MLL (ectopic activator of transcriptional elongation) on calcitriol/TGFβ-dependent 5-LO transcript elongation. We present evidence that the AF4 complex directly interacts with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and promotes calcitriol-dependent ALOX5 transcript elongation. Activation of transcript elongation was strongly enhanced by the AF4-MLL fusion protein but was sensitive to Flavopiridol. By contrast, MLL-AF4 displayed no effect on transcriptional elongation. Furthermore, HDAC class I inhibitors inhibited the ectopic effects caused by AF4-MLL on transcriptional elongation, suggesting that HDAC class I inhibitors are potential therapeutics for the treatment of t(4;11)(q21;q23) leukemia.

Mashima R, Okuyama T
The role of lipoxygenases in pathophysiology; new insights and future perspectives.
Redox Biol. 2015; 6:297-310 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are dioxygenases that catalyze the formation of corresponding hydroperoxides from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. LOX enzymes are expressed in immune, epithelial, and tumor cells that display a variety of physiological functions, including inflammation, skin disorder, and tumorigenesis. In the humans and mice, six LOX isoforms have been known. 15-LOX, a prototypical enzyme originally found in reticulocytes shares the similarity of amino acid sequence as well as the biochemical property to plant LOX enzymes. 15-LOX-2, which is expressed in epithelial cells and leukocytes, has different substrate specificity in the humans and mice, therefore, the role of them in mammals has not been established. 12-LOX is an isoform expressed in epithelial cells and myeloid cells including platelets. Many mutations in this isoform are found in epithelial cancers, suggesting a potential link between 12-LOX and tumorigenesis. 12R-LOX can be found in the epithelial cells of the skin. Defects in this gene result in ichthyosis, a cutaneous disorder characterized by pathophysiologically dried skin due to abnormal loss of water from its epithelial cell layer. Similarly, eLOX-3, which is also expressed in the skin epithelial cells acting downstream 12R-LOX, is another causative factor for ichthyosis. 5-LOX is a distinct isoform playing an important role in asthma and inflammation. This isoform causes the constriction of bronchioles in response to cysteinyl leukotrienes such as LTC4, thus leading to asthma. It also induces neutrophilic inflammation by its recruitment in response to LTB4. Importantly, 5-LOX activity is strictly regulated by 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP) though the distribution of 5-LOX in the nucleus. Currently, pharmacological drugs targeting FLAP are actively developing. This review summarized these functions of LOX enzymes under pathophysiological conditions in mammals.

Bessadóttir M, Eiríksson FF, Becker S, et al.
Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of lichen-derived compound protolichesterinic acid are not mediated by its lipoxygenase-inhibitory activity.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2015; 98:39-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their products are involved in several biological functions and have been associated with carcinogenesis. Protolichesterinic acid (PA), a lichen metabolite, inhibits 5- and 12-LOX and has anti-proliferative effects on various cancer cell lines. Here, PA was shown to inhibit proliferation of multiple myeloma cells, RPMI 8226 and U266, and pancreatic cancer cells AsPC-1. Apoptosis was induced only in multiple myeloma cells. Cell-cycle associated changes in expression and sub-cellular localization of 5- and 12-LOX were not affected by PA but increased cytoplasmic localisation was found to accompany morphological changes at later stages. Assessment by mass spectrometry showed that PA entered the pancreatic cancer cells. However, effects on LOX metabolites were only evident after treatment with concentrations exceeding those having anti-proliferative effects and no effects were measurable in the myeloma cells. We conclude that the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of PA are not mediated directly through inhibition of LOX activity.

Zhang C, Yu H, Ni X, et al.
Growth inhibitory effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on colon cancer cells via their growth inhibitory metabolites and fatty acid composition changes.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0123256 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is common. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert growth-inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on colon cancer cells. Metabolites of PUFAs such as prostaglandins (PGs), leukotrienes (LTs) and lipoxins (LXs) play a significant role in colon cancer.
METHODS: Human colon cancer LoVo and RKO cells were cultured with different concentration of PUFAs and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in vitro. Cell morphological changes, fatty acid composition, formation of PGE2, LTB4 and LXA4 and expression of COX-2, ALOX5, PGD synthase (PGDS), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES) were assessed in LoVo and RKO cells when supplemented with PUFAs and 5-FU.
RESULTS: PUFAs and 5-FU inhibited growth of LoVo and RKO cells to the same extent at the doses used and produced significant alterations in their shape. As expected, higher concentrations of supplemented PUFAs were noted in the cells compared to control. LA, GLA, AA, ALA and EPA supplementation to LoVo cells suppressed production of PGE2, LTB4,and ALOX5, mPGES expression, but enhanced that of LXA4; whereas DHA enhanced PGE2 and LXA4 synthesis but decreased LTB4 formation and COX-2, ALOX5, mPGES expression. In contrast, 5-FU enhanced formation of PGE2, LTB4 and mPGES expression, but suppressed LXA4 synthesis and COX-2 expression. PGE2, LTB4 synthesis and ALOX5 expression was suppressed by LA, GLA, ALA and DHA; whereas AA, EPA and 5-FU enhanced PGE2 but paradoxically AA decreased and EPA and 5-FU enhanced LTB4 synthesis in RKO cells. All the PUFAs tested enhanced, while 5-FU decreased LXA4 formation in RKO cells; whereas GLA, AA, and 5-FU augmented while LA, ALA, EPA and DHA enhanced COX-2 expression in RKO cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Tumoricidal action of PUFAs on colorectal LoVo and RKO cancer cells in vitro was associated with increased formation of LXA4, decreased synthesis of PGE2 and LTB4 and suppressed expression of COX-2, ALOX5, mPGES, whereas 5-FU produced contrasting actions on these indices.

Janakiram NB, Mohammed A, Bryant T, et al.
Improved innate immune responses by Frondanol A5, a sea cucumber extract, prevent intestinal tumorigenesis.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015; 8(4):327-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sea cucumbers are a source of antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer compounds. We show that sea cucumber extract Frondanol A5 is capable of enhancing innate immune responses and inhibiting intestinal tumors in APC(Min/+) mice. APC(Min/+) mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 0, 250, or 500 ppm FrondanolA5 for 14 weeks before we assessed intestinal tumor inhibition. Dietary Frondanol A5 suppressed small intestinal polyp sizes and formation up to 30% (P < 0.02) in males and up to 50% (P < 0.01) in females. Importantly, 250 and 500 ppm Frondanol A5 diet suppressed colon tumor multiplicities by 65% (P < 0.007) and 75% (P < 0.0001), compared with untreated male APC(Min/+) mice. In female APC(Min/+) mice, both dose levels of Frondanol A5 suppressed colon tumor multiplicities up to 80% (P < 0.0001). Isolated peritoneal macrophages from treated mice showed increased phagocytosis efficiency (control 24% vs. treated 50%; P < 0.01) and an increase in GILT mRNA expression, indicating increased innate immune responses by these cells in treated animals. Similarly, we observed an increase in GILT expression in treated tumors, compared with untreated tumors. Furthermore, an increase in G-CSF cytokine, a decrease in inflammatory cytokines and marker 5-LOX, its regulator FLAP, proliferation (PCNA), and angiogenesis (VEGF) markers were observed in treatment groups. These data suggest that Frondanol A5 decreased inflammatory angiogenic molecules and increased GILT expression and macrophage phagocytosis. These decreases may have improved the innate immune systems of the treated mice, thus aiding in inhibition of intestinal tumor formation. These results suggest that Frondanol A5 exhibits significant chemopreventive potential against intestinal tumorigenesis.

Teng CF, Hsieh WC, Yang CW, et al.
A biphasic response pattern of lipid metabolomics in the stage progression of hepatitis B virus X tumorigenesis.
Mol Carcinog. 2016; 55(1):105-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metabolic syndrome has closely linked to the development of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). By using the hepatitis B virus (HBV) X (HBx) transgenic mouse model, we studied the dynamic evolution of serum and liver profiles of lipids and global cDNA expression at different stages of HBx tumorigenesis. We observed that the lipid (triglycerides, cholesterol, and fatty acids) profiles revealed a biphasic response pattern during the progression of HBx tumorigenesis: a small peak at early phase and a large peak or terminal switch at the tumor phase. By analyzing cDNA microarray data, the early peak correlated to the oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory response, which then resolved at the middle phase and were followed by the terminal metabolic switch in the tumor tissues. Five lipid metabolism-related genes, the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein 4, 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 9, and apolipoprotein A-IV were identified to be significantly activated in HBx transgenic HCCs and further validated in human HBV-related HCCs. Inhibition of these lipid genes could reverse the effect of HBx on lipid biosynthesis and suppress HBx-induced cell proliferation in vitro. Our results support the concept that metabolic syndrome plays an important role in HBV tumorigenesis. The dysregulation of lipid metabolic genes may predict the disease progression to HCC in chronic hepatitis B patients.

Sarveswaran S, Chakraborty D, Chitale D, et al.
Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase selectively triggers disruption of c-Myc signaling in prostate cancer cells.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(8):4994-5006 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myc is up-regulated in almost all cancer types and is the subject of intense investigation because of its pleiotropic effects controlling a broad spectrum of cell functions. However, despite its recognition as a stand-alone molecular target, development of suitable strategies to block its function is hindered because of its nonenzymatic nature. We reported earlier that arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5-Lox) plays an important role in the survival and growth of prostate cancer cells, although details of the underlying mechanisms have yet to be characterized. By whole genome gene expression array, we observed that inhibition of 5-Lox severely down-regulates the expression of c-Myc oncogene in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, inhibition of 5-Lox dramatically decreases the protein level, nuclear accumulation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activities of c-Myc. Both the 5-Lox inhibition-induced down-regulation of c-Myc and induction of apoptosis are mitigated when the cells are treated with 5-oxoeicosatetraenoic acid, a metabolite of 5-Lox, confirming a role of 5-Lox in these processes. c-Myc is a transforming oncogene widely expressed in prostate cancer cells and maintains their transformed phenotype. Interestingly, MK591, a specific 5-Lox inhibitor, strongly affects the viability of Myc-overactivated prostate cancer cells and completely blocks their invasive and soft agar colony-forming abilities, but it spares nontransformed cells where expression of 5-Lox is undetectable. These findings indicate that the oncogenic function of c-Myc in prostate cancer cells is regulated by 5-Lox activity, revealing a novel mechanism of 5-Lox action and suggesting that the oncogenic function of c-Myc can be suppressed by suitable inhibitors of 5-Lox.

Lucas CM, Harris RJ, Giannoudis A, et al.
Low leukotriene B4 receptor 1 leads to ALOX5 downregulation at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia.
Haematologica. 2014; 99(11):1710-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ALOX5 is implicated in chronic myeloid leukemia development in mouse leukemic stem cells, but its importance in human chronic myeloid leukemia is unknown. Functional ALOX5 was assessed using an LTB4 ELISA and ALOX5, and LTB4R1 mRNA expression was determined via a TaqMan gene expression assay. LTB4R1 and 5-LOX protein levels were assessed by cell surface flow cytometry analysis. At diagnosis ALOX5 was below normal in both blood and CD34(+) stem cells in all patients. On treatment initiation, ALOX5 levels increased in all patients except those who were destined to progress subsequently to blast crisis. LTB4 levels were increased despite low ALOX5 expression, suggesting that the arachidonic acid pathway is functioning normally up to the point of LTB4 production. However, the LTB4 receptor (BLT1) protein in newly diagnosed patients was significantly lower than after a period of treatment (P<0.0001). The low level of LTB4R1 at diagnosis explains the downregulation of ALOX5. In the absence of LTB4R1, the arachidonic acid pathway intermediates (5-HEPTE and LTA4) negatively regulate ALOX5. ALOX5 regulation is aberrant in chronic myeloid leukemia patients and may not be important for the development of the disease. Our data suggest caution when extrapolating mouse model data into human chronic myeloid leukemia.

Huang Y, Tan Q, Wu Y, et al.
RNA Interference Protects Against 5-Lipoxygenase-Induced Cocarcinogen, Benzidine, Oxidation and Cytotoxicity in Human Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells.
Int J Toxicol. 2014; 33(4):297-306 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lipoxygenase (LOX)-catalyzed cooxidation of the human carcinogen benzidine (BZD) has been shown in in vitro enzyme systems. This study aimed to determine whether BZD could be activated by arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) in the human tracheobronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) using RNA interference strategy and a 5-LOX-specific inhibitor, AA861. We show that the soybean LOX catalyzed the cooxidation of BZD, generating BZD diimine. Benzidine induced expression of ALOX5 messenger RNA and 5-LOX protein in HBECs, and significantly decreased cell proliferation, but enhanced DNA damage and apoptosis in HBECs which were significantly inhibited by lentiviral-mediated small hairpin RNA-knockdown of ALOX5 and by AA861. Thus, BZD could upregulate the expression of ALOX5 in HBECs, while inhibition of the protein or gene expression or enzyme activity could prevent BZD-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage in HBECs, which might be caused by the 5-LOX-catalyzed oxidative activation of BZD.

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