Gene Summary

Gene:CBFB; core-binding factor subunit beta
Aliases: PEBP2B
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is the beta subunit of a heterodimeric core-binding transcription factor belonging to the PEBP2/CBF transcription factor family which master-regulates a host of genes specific to hematopoiesis (e.g., RUNX1) and osteogenesis (e.g., RUNX2). The beta subunit is a non-DNA binding regulatory subunit; it allosterically enhances DNA binding by alpha subunit as the complex binds to the core site of various enhancers and promoters, including murine leukemia virus, polyomavirus enhancer, T-cell receptor enhancers and GM-CSF promoters. Alternative splicing generates two mRNA variants, each encoding a distinct carboxyl terminus. In some cases, a pericentric inversion of chromosome 16 [inv(16)(p13q22)] produces a chimeric transcript consisting of the N terminus of core-binding factor beta in a fusion with the C-terminal portion of the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain 11. This chromosomal rearrangement is associated with acute myeloid leukemia of the M4Eo subtype. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:core-binding factor subunit beta
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (13)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit
  • Chromosome Inversion
  • Infant
  • Homologous Transplantat
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sarcoma, Myeloid
  • Base Sequence
  • TFAP2A
  • Cancer RNA
  • Adolescents
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Myeloid Leukemia
  • Messenger RNA
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Core Binding Factor beta Subunit
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Residual Disease
  • Chromosome 21
  • Karyotyping
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Trisomy
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Pathology, Molecular
  • Leukaemia
  • FISH
  • Tumor Burden
  • Transcription Factors
  • Pericardium
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Chromosome 16
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CBFB (cancer-related)

Malik N, Yan H, Moshkovich N, et al.
The transcription factor CBFB suppresses breast cancer through orchestrating translation and transcription.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2071 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Translation and transcription are frequently dysregulated in cancer. These two processes are generally regulated by distinct sets of factors. The CBFB gene, which encodes a transcription factor, has recently emerged as a highly mutated driver in a variety of human cancers including breast cancer. Here we report a noncanonical role of CBFB in translation regulation. RNA immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (RIP-seq) reveals that cytoplasmic CBFB binds to hundreds of transcripts and regulates their translation. CBFB binds to mRNAs via hnRNPK and enhances translation through eIF4B, a general translation initiation factor. Interestingly, the RUNX1 mRNA, which encodes the transcriptional partner of CBFB, is bound and translationally regulated by CBFB. Furthermore, nuclear CBFB/RUNX1 complex transcriptionally represses the oncogenic NOTCH signaling pathway in breast cancer. Thus, our data reveal an unexpected function of CBFB in translation regulation and propose that breast cancer cells evade translation and transcription surveillance simultaneously through downregulating CBFB.

Bashanfer SAA, Saleem M, Heidenreich O, et al.
Disruption of MAPK1 expression in the ERK signalling pathway and the RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 fusion gene attenuate the differentiation and proliferation and induces the growth arrest in t(8;21) leukaemia cells.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(3):2027-2040 [PubMed] Related Publications
The t(8;21) translocation is one of the most frequent chromosome abnormalities associated with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). This abberation deregulates numerous molecular pathways including the ERK signalling pathway among others. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the gene expression patterns following siRNA‑mediated suppression of RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 and MAPK1 in Kasumi‑1 and SKNO‑1 cells and to determine the differentially expressed genes in enriched biological pathways. BeadChip microarray and gene ontology analysis revealed that RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 and MAPK1 suppression reduced the proliferation rate of the t(8;21) cells with deregulated expression of several classical positive regulator genes that are otherwise known to enhance cell proliferation. RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 suppression exerted an anti‑apoptotic effect through the overexpression of BCL2, BIRC3 and CFLAR genes, while MAPK1 suppression induced apopotosis in t(8;21) cells by the apoptotic mitochondrial changes stimulated by the activity of upregulated TP53 and TNFSF10, and downregulated JUN gene. RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 suppression supported myeloid differentiation by the differential expression of CEBPA, CEBPE, ID2, JMJD6, IKZF1, CBFB, KIT and CDK6, while MAPK1 depletion inhibited the differentiation of t(8;21) cells by elevated expression of ADA and downregulation of JUN. RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 and MAPK1 depletion induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Accumulation of cells in the G1 phase was largely the result of downregulated expression of TBRG4, CCNE2, FOXO4, CDK6, ING4, IL8, MAD2L1 and CCNG2 in the case of RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 depletion and increased expression of RASSF1, FBXO6, DADD45A and P53 in the case of MAPK1 depletion. Taken together, the current results demonstrate that MAPK1 promotes myeloid cell proliferation and differentiation simultaneously by cell cycle progression while suppresing apoptosis.

Platzbecker U, Middeke JM, Sockel K, et al.
Measurable residual disease-guided treatment with azacitidine to prevent haematological relapse in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukaemia (RELAZA2): an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial.
Lancet Oncol. 2018; 19(12):1668-1679 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Monitoring of measurable residual disease (MRD) in patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) who achieve a morphological complete remission can predict haematological relapse. In this prospective study, we aimed to determine whether MRD-guided pre-emptive treatment with azacitidine could prevent relapse in these patients.
METHODS: The relapse prevention with azacitidine (RELAZA2) study is an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial done at nine university health centres in Germany. Patients aged 18 years or older with advanced MDS or AML, who had achieved a complete remission after conventional chemotherapy or allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation, were prospectively screened for MRD during 24 months from baseline by either quantitative PCR for mutant NPM1, leukaemia-specific fusion genes (DEK-NUP214, RUNX1-RUNX1T1, CBFb-MYH11), or analysis of donor-chimaerism in flow cytometry-sorted CD34-positive cells in patients who received allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation. MRD-positive patients in confirmed complete remission received azacitidine 75 mg/m
FINDINGS: Between Oct 10, 2011, and Aug 20, 2015, we screened 198 patients with advanced MDS (n=26) or AML (n=172), of whom 60 (30%) developed MRD during the 24-month screening period and 53 (88%) were eligible to start study treatment. 6 months after initiation of azacitidine, 31 (58%, 95% CI 44-72) of 53 patients were relapse-free and alive (p<0·0001; one-sided binomial test for null hypothesis p
INTERPRETATION: Pre-emptive therapy with azacitidine can prevent or substantially delay haematological relapse in MRD-positive patients with MDS or AML who are at high risk of relapse. Our study also suggests that continuous MRD negativity during regular MRD monitoring might be prognostic for patient outcomes.
FUNDING: Celgene Pharma, José Carreras Leukaemia Foundation, National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), and German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) Foundation.

Xiaosu Z, Leqing C, Yazhen Q, et al.
Classifying AML patients with inv(16) into high-risk and low-risk relapsed patients based on peritransplantation minimal residual disease determined by CBFβ/MYH11 gene expression.
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(1):73-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ninety acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with inv(16) were monitored CBFβ/MYH11 transcript around allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). A total of 23 patients received HLA-matched sibling donor transplantation (MSDT) and 67 patients received unmanipulated haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) were analyzed in this study. Patients were divided into four groups based on CBFβ/MYH11 expression prior to transplantation (pre-MRD): with negative (group 1)/positive (group 2) pre-MRD before MSDT; with negative (group 3)/positive (group 4) pre-MRD before haplo-HSCT. The results showed that patients in group 2 had the highest cumulative incidence of relapse (2-year CIR, 40.7%), the lowest leukemia-free survival (2-year LFS, 50.8%), and overall survival (2-year OS, 62.5%). The other three groups of patients had comparable outcomes. The patients were also classified into the other three groups according to CBFβ/MYH11 value of + 1 month after transplantation: group 5: pre- and post-transplant MRD were both negative; group 6: the value of post-transplant MRD was lower than 0.2%; group 7: the value of post-transplant MRD was higher than 0.2%. Group 7 had the highest CIR and the lowest LFS. These results indicated that AML patients with inv(16) were able to be separated into high-risk and low-risk relapse groups based on peritransplant MRD determined by RQ-PCR-based CBFβ/MYH11. Haplo-HSCT might overcome the negative impact of pre-MRD on patient outcomes compared to MSDT.

Pulikkan JA, Hegde M, Ahmad HM, et al.
CBFβ-SMMHC Inhibition Triggers Apoptosis by Disrupting MYC Chromatin Dynamics in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Cell. 2018; 174(1):172-186.e21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The fusion oncoprotein CBFβ-SMMHC, expressed in leukemia cases with chromosome 16 inversion, drives leukemia development and maintenance by altering the activity of the transcription factor RUNX1. Here, we demonstrate that CBFβ-SMMHC maintains cell viability by neutralizing RUNX1-mediated repression of MYC expression. Upon pharmacologic inhibition of the CBFβ-SMMHC/RUNX1 interaction, RUNX1 shows increased binding at three MYC distal enhancers, where it represses MYC expression by mediating the replacement of the SWI/SNF complex component BRG1 with the polycomb-repressive complex component RING1B, leading to apoptosis. Combining the CBFβ-SMMHC inhibitor with the BET inhibitor JQ1 eliminates inv(16) leukemia in human cells and a mouse model. Enhancer-interaction analysis indicated that the three enhancers are physically connected with the MYC promoter, and genome-editing analysis demonstrated that they are functionally implicated in deregulation of MYC expression. This study reveals a mechanism whereby CBFβ-SMMHC drives leukemia maintenance and suggests that inhibitors targeting chromatin activity may prove effective in inv(16) leukemia therapy.

Xia L, Wu L, Bao J, et al.
Circular RNA circ-CBFB promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia through regulating miR-607/FZD3/Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 503(1):385-390 [PubMed] Related Publications
Circular RNA (circRNA) belongs to the non-coding RNA family and is involved in various human cancers, such as lung cancer and colorectal cancer. Nevertheless, whether circRNA expression is related to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) progression remains largely unclear. In our study, we investigated the role of circ-CBFB in CLL. We found that circ-CBFB was markedly overexpressed in CLL cells compared to normal controls. Furthermore, we found that circ-CBFB could serve as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for CLL patients. We also explored the physiological function of circ-CBFB. We found that circ-CBFB knockdown significantly suppressed CLL cell proliferation, arrested cell cycle progression, and induced cellular apoptosis. In terms of its mechanism, we identified circ-CBFB as a sponge of miR-607, which targeted FZD3. By inhibiting miR-607 availability, circ-CBFB promoted FZD3 expression, leading to the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and consequent CLL progression. Taken together, our findings revealed that the circ-CBFB/miR-607/FZD3/Wnt/β-catenin regulatory signaling cascade contributes to CLL progression.

Suguna E, Farhana R, Kanimozhi E, et al.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Diagnosis and Management Based on Current Molecular Genetics Approach.
Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2018; 18(3):199-207 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of ≥20% myeloid premature blast cells in the bone marrow and they are most often found in the peripheral blood. AML is generally classified based on either French-American-British (FAB) or World Health Organization (WHO) systems. For better clinical management, cytogenetic finding in AML is necessary and in patients with normal karyotypes - molecular, epigenetic and proteomic biomarkers are very important in choosing which drugs to prescribe. Mutations of certain genes like NPM1, FLT3, CEBPA, RUNX1 and MLL play a crucial role in the risk management and clinical stratification of AML patients. We reviewed the literature for the current trends of clinical practice based on laboratory based diagnostic tests in AML. Outcome and Result: We listed in AML chromosomal aberrations (translocations, fusions or RUNX1, CBFB, MYHI1, MLL, EVI1, PML-RARA), genes and mutations (NPM1, FLT3, CEPBA, MLL) epigenetic factors (DNMT34, TET2) and proteomic biomarkers (PTP, PTK, PIP) and analysed how on the basis of these factors medical risk was stratified and accordingly managed.
CONCLUSION: AML is genetically and functionally a heterogenous malignant disease. In the western world, leukemia is one of the most common among all cancers. India is ranked 3rd in cancer disease after United States of America and China. Cytogenetic analysis, molecular/proteomic biomarkers and epigenetic factors assist in determining the management strategies and prognosis of the disease. A number of targeted drugs in pre-clinical and clinical trials based on molecular factors and epigenetic mechanisms have been reported to have promising results in AML patients.

Jenkins CE, Gusscott S, Wong RJ, et al.
RUNX1 promotes cell growth in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia by transcriptional regulation of key target genes.
Exp Hematol. 2018; 64:84-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
RUNX1 is frequently mutated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). The spectrum of RUNX1 mutations has led to the notion that it acts as a tumor suppressor in this context; however, other studies have placed RUNX1, along with transcription factors TAL1 and NOTCH1, as core drivers of an oncogenic transcriptional program. To reconcile these divergent roles, we knocked down RUNX1 in human T-ALL cell lines and deleted Runx1 or Cbfb in primary mouse T-cell leukemias. RUNX1 depletion consistently resulted in reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. RUNX1 upregulated variable sets of target genes in each cell line, but consistently included a core set of oncogenic effectors including insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and NRAS. Our results support the conclusion that RUNX1 has a net positive effect on cell growth in the context of established T-ALL.

Jo YS, Kim MS, Yoo NJ, Lee SH
Somatic Mutations and Intratumoral Heterogeneity of MYH11 Gene in Gastric and Colorectal Cancers.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2018; 26(8):562-566 [PubMed] Related Publications
MYH11 functions as a contractile protein, converting chemical energy into mechanical energy through adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis. In cancers, an oncogenic fusion CBFB/MYH11 and frameshift mutations have been reported. Truncating mutants of MYH11 exhibited increased ATPase and motor activity, suggesting their roles in energy balance and movement of cancer cells. MYH11 gene has a mononucleotide repeat (C8) in the coding sequences that could be a mutational target in the cancers exhibiting microsatellite instability (MSI). We analyzed the C8 repeat in 79 gastric cancers (GCs) and 124 colorectal cancers (CRCs) including 113 high MSI (MSI-H) and 90 microsatellite stable/low MSI cases. We detected MYH11 frameshift mutations in 4 (11.8%) GCs and 17 (21.5%) CRCs with MSI-H (21/113, 18.6%), but not in microsatellite stable/low MSI cancers (0/90) (P<0.001). We also analyzed intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) of the MYH11 frameshift mutations and found that 10 of 16 CRCs (62.5%) harbored the regional ITH. Our results show that MYH11 gene harbors somatic frameshift mutations mostly associated with mutational ITH, which together may be features of MSI-H GCs and CRCs. Practically, the data suggest that multiregional analysis is needed for a better evaluation of mutation status in MSI-H tumors to overcome ITH.

Gordiienko I, Shlapatska L, Kholodniuk VM, et al.
CD150 and CD180 are involved in regulation of transcription factors expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.
Exp Oncol. 2017; 39(4):291-298 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Sequential stages of B-cell development is stringently coordinated by transcription factors (TFs) network that include B-lineage commitment TFs (Ikaros, Runx1/Cbfb, E2A, and FOXO1), B-lineage maintenance TFs (EBF1 and PAX5) and stage specific set of TFs (IRF4, IRF8, BCL6, BLIMP1). Deregulation of TFs expression and activity is often occurs in malignant B cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate TFs expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells taking into consideration CD150 cell surface expression. From other side we attempted to regulate TFs expression via CD150 and CD180 cell surface receptors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies were performed on normal peripheral blood B-cell subpopulations and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells isolated from peripheral blood of 67 primary untreated patients with CLL. Evaluation of TFs expression was performed on mRNA level using qRT-PCR and on protein level by western blot analysis.
RESULTS: Median of PAX5 and EBF1 mRNA expression was higher in cell surface CD150 positive (csCD150
CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of TFs expression profile revealed upregulated SPIB mRNA level and downregulated PU.1 in CLL cells. CD150 and CD180 receptors may modulate transcriptional program in CLL cells by regulating the TFs expression levels.

Oo ZM, Illendula A, Grembecka J, et al.
A tool compound targeting the core binding factor Runt domain to disrupt binding to CBFβ in leukemic cells.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2018; 59(9):2188-2200 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The core binding factor (CBF) gene RUNX1 is a target of chromosomal translocations in leukemia, including t(8;21) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Normal CBF function is essential for activity of AML1-ETO, product of the t(8;21), and for survival of several leukemias lacking RUNX1 mutations. Using virtual screening and optimization, we developed Runt domain inhibitors which bind to the Runt domain and disrupt its interaction with CBFβ. On-target activity was demonstrated by the Runt domain inhibitors' ability to depress hematopoietic cell formation in zebrafish embryos, reduce growth and induce apoptosis of t(8;21) AML cell lines, and reduce progenitor activity of mouse and human leukemia cells harboring the t(8;21), but not normal bone marrow cells. Runt domain inhibitors had similar effects on murine and human T cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (T-ALL) cell lines. Our results confirmed that Runt domain inhibitors might prove efficacious in various AMLs and in T-ALL.

Morita K, Noura M, Tokushige C, et al.
Autonomous feedback loop of RUNX1-p53-CBFB in acute myeloid leukemia cells.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):16604 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) and its associating core binding factor-β (CBFB) play pivotal roles in leukemogenesis, and inhibition of RUNX1 has now been widely recognized as a novel strategy for anti-leukemic therapies, it has been elusive how leukemic cells could acquire the serious resistance against RUNX1-inhibition therapies and also whether CBFB could participate in this process. Here, we show evidence that p53 (TP53) and CBFB are sequentially up-regulated in response to RUNX1 depletion, and their mutual interaction causes the physiological resistance against chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Mechanistically, p53 induced by RUNX1 gene silencing directly binds to CBFB promoter and stimulates its transcription as well as its translation, which in turn acts as a platform for the stabilization of RUNX1, thereby creating a compensative RUNX1-p53-CBFB feedback loop. Indeed, AML cells derived from relapsed cases exhibited higher CBFB expression levels compared to those from primary AML cells at diagnosis, and these CBFB expressions were positively correlated to those of p53. Our present results underscore the importance of RUNX1-p53-CBFB regulatory loop in the development and/or maintenance of AML cells, which could be targeted at any sides of this triangle in strategizing anti-leukemia therapies.

Iijima-Yamashita Y, Matsuo H, Yamada M, et al.
Multiplex fusion gene testing in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
Pediatr Int. 2018; 60(1):47-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gene abnormalities, particularly chromosome rearrangements generating gene fusion, are associated with clinical characteristics and prognosis in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Karyotyping is generally performed to enable risk stratification, but the results are not always consistent with those of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and more accurate and rapid methods are required.
METHODS: A total of 487 samples from de novo AML patients enrolled in the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG) AML-05 study (n = 448), and from acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients enrolled in the JPLSG AML-P05 study (n = 39) were available for this investigation. Multiplex quantitative RT-PCR was performed to detect eight important fusion genes: AML1(RUNX1)-ETO(RUNX1T1), CBFB-MYH11, MLL(KMT2A)-AF9(MLLT3), MLL-ELL, MLL-AF6(MLLT4), FUS(TLS)-ERG, NUP98-HOXA9, and PML-RARA.
RESULTS: Fusion genes were detected in 207 (46.2%) of the 448 AML-05 patient samples. After exclusion of two samples with PML-RARA, no chromosomal abnormalities were identified on karyotyping in 19 of 205 patients (9.3%) positive for fusion genes on RT-PCR. Fusion genes were confirmed on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 11 of these 19 patients. In contrast, fusion genes were detected in 37 of 39 patients (94.9%) from the AML-P05 study, and 33 of these results were consistent with the karyotyping. There were discrepancies in four patients (10.8%), three with normal karyotypes and one in whom karyotyping was not possible. All four of these patients were PML-RARA positive on FISH.
CONCLUSIONS: Multiplex quantitative RT-PCR-based fusion gene screening may be effective for diagnosis of pediatric AML.

Matsuo H, Iijima-Yamashita Y, Yamada M, et al.
Monitoring of fusion gene transcripts to predict relapse in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
Pediatr Int. 2018; 60(1):41-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), accurate detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) enables better risk-stratified therapy. There are few studies, however, on the monitoring of multiple fusion transcripts and evaluation of their accuracy as indicators of MRD at multiple time points.
METHODS: We retrospectively examined RNA obtained from 82 pediatric AML patients enrolled in the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG) AML-05 study. The expression of six important fusion transcripts (AML1(RUNX1)-ETO, CBFB-MYH11, MLL(KMT2A)-AF9, MLL-ELL, MLL-AF6, and FUS-ERG) was analyzed at five time points 30-40 days apart following diagnosis.
RESULTS: In patients with AML1-ETO (n = 36 at time point 5), all six patients with >3,000 copies and four of 30 patients with ≤3,000 copies relapsed. AML1-ETO transcripts persisted during treatment even in patients without relapse, as well as CBFB-MYH11 transcripts. In contrast, in patients with MLL-AF9 (n = 9 at time point 5), two patients were positive for MLL-AF9 expression (>50 copies) and both relapsed. Only one of seven MLL-AF9-negative patients relapsed. In the AML1-ETO group, MRD-positive patients (>3,000 copies at time point 5) had significantly lower relapse-free survival (RFS; P < 0.0001) and overall survival (OS; P = 0.009) than MRD-negative patients. Similarly, in the MLL-AF9 group, MRD-positive patients (>50 copies at time point 5) had significantly lower RFS (P = 0.002) and OS (P = 0.002) than MRD-negative patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Detection of MLL-AF9 transcripts on real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction is a promising marker of relapse in pediatric AML. In contrast, the clinical utility of detecting AML1-ETO and CBFB-MYH11 expression is limited, although higher AML1-ETO expression can be a potential predictor of relapse when assessed according to an optimal threshold.

Zhen T, Kwon EM, Zhao L, et al.
Blood. 2017; 130(22):2431-2442 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inversion of chromosome 16 is a consistent finding in patients with acute myeloid leukemia subtype M4 with eosinophilia, which generates a

Douet-Guilbert N, Chauveau A, Gueganic N, et al.
Acute myeloid leukaemia (FAB AML-M4Eo) with cryptic insertion of cbfb resulting in cbfb-Myh11 fusion.
Hematol Oncol. 2017; 35(3):385-389 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inv(16)(p13q22) and t(16;16)(p13;q22) are cytogenetic hallmarks of acute myelomonoblastic leukaemia, most of them associated with abnormal bone marrow eosinophils [acute myeloid leukaemia French-American-British classification M4 with eosinophilia (FAB AML-M4Eo)] and a relatively favourable clinical course. They generate a 5'CBFB-3'MYH11 fusion gene. However, in a few cases, although RT-PCR identified a CBFB-MYH11 transcript, normal karyotype and/or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses using commercially available probes are found. We identified a 32-year-old woman with AML-M4Eo and normal karyotype and FISH results. Using two libraries of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome clones on 16p13 and 16q22, FISH analyses identified an insertion of 16q22 material in band 16p13, generating a CBFB-MYH11 type A transcript. Although very rare, insertions should be searched for in patients with discordant cytological and cytogenetic features because of the therapeutic consequences. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Choi A, Illendula A, Pulikkan JA, et al.
RUNX1 is required for oncogenic
Blood. 2017; 130(15):1722-1733 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The gene encoding the RUNX1 transcription factor is mutated in a subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients, and

Schumacher J, Szankasi P, Kelley TW
Detection and Quantification of Acute Myeloid Leukemia-Associated Fusion Transcripts.
Methods Mol Biol. 2017; 1633:151-161 [PubMed] Related Publications
Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)-based detection of abnormal fusion transcripts is an important strategy for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1, inv(16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11 or t(15;17)(q22;q12); PML-RARA. In RT-qPCR assays, patient-derived cDNA is subjected to amplification using PCR primers directed against the fusion transcript of interest as well as a reference gene for normalization. Quantification is typically performed by constructing standard curves for each PCR run using a series of plasmid standards of known concentration that harbor the same fusion transcript or the same reference gene of interest. Fusion transcripts and reference gene copy numbers are then calculated in patient samples using these standard curves. The process of constructing standard curves is laborious and consumes additional reagents. In this chapter, we give the method details for a multiplex RT-qPCR strategy to detect and quantify the acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-associated fusion transcripts PML-RARA in patients with t(15;17) without the need for standard curves. This general method can also be applied to other AML-associated fusion transcripts such as CBFB-MYH11 and RUNX1-RUNX1T1.

Busse TM, Roth JJ, Wilmoth D, et al.
Copy number alterations determined by single nucleotide polymorphism array testing in the clinical laboratory are indicative of gene fusions in pediatric cancer patients.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(10):730-749 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene fusions resulting from structural rearrangements are an established mechanism of tumorigenesis in pediatric cancer. In this clinical cohort, 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based chromosomal microarrays from 1,211 pediatric cancer patients were evaluated for copy number alterations (CNAs) associated with gene fusions. Karyotype or fluorescence in situ hybridization studies were performed in 42% of the patients. Ten percent of the bone marrow or solid tumor specimens had SNP array-associated CNAs suggestive of a gene fusion. Alterations involving ETV6, ABL1-NUP214, EBF1-PDGFRB, KMT2A(MLL), LMO2-RAG, MYH11-CBFB, NSD1-NUP98, PBX1, STIL-TAL1, ZNF384-TCF3, P2RY8-CRLF2, and RUNX1T1-RUNX1 fusions were detected in the bone marrow samples. The most common alteration among the low-grade gliomas was a 7q34 tandem duplication resulting in a KIAA1549-BRAF fusion. Additional fusions identified in the pediatric brain tumors included FAM131B-BRAF and RAF1-QKI. COL1A1-PDGFB, CRTC1-MAML2, EWSR1, HEY1, PAX3- and PAX7-FOXO1, and PLAG1 fusions were determined in a variety of solid tumors and a novel potential gene fusion, FGFR1-USP6, was detected in an aneurysmal bone cyst. The identification of these gene fusions was instrumental in tumor diagnosis. In contrast to hematologic and solid tumors in adults that are predominantly driven by mutations, the majority of hematologic and solid tumors in children are characterized by CNAs and gene fusions. Chromosomal microarray analysis is therefore a robust platform to identify diagnostic and prognostic markers in the clinical setting.

Tomlinson B, Lazarus HM
Enhancing acute myeloid leukemia therapy - monitoring response using residual disease testing as a guide to therapeutic decision-making.
Expert Rev Hematol. 2017; 10(6):563-574 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Current standards for monitoring the response of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are based on morphologic assessments of the bone marrow and recovery of peripheral blood counts. A growing experience is being developed to enhance the detection of small amounts of AML, or minimal residual disease (MRD). Areas covered: Available techniques include multi-color flow cytometry (MFC) of leukemia associated immunophenotypes (LAIP), quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) for detecting fusion and mutated genes (RUNX1-RUNX1T1, CBFB-MYH11, and NPM1), overexpression of genes such as WT1, and next generation sequencing (NGS) for MRD. Expert commentary: While MRD monitoring is standard of care in some leukemia subsets such as acute promyelocytic leukemia, this approach for the broader AML population does not universally predict outcomes as some patients may experience relapse in the setting of undetectable leukemia while others show no obvious disease progression despite MRD positivity. However, there are instances where MRD can identify patients at increased risk for relapse that may change recommended therapy. Currently, prospective investigations to define clinically relevant MRD thresholds are ongoing. Risk-adapted trials are needed to best define the use of MRD in the follow up of AML patients after initial induction therapy.

Thiel VN, Giaimo BD, Schwarz P, et al.
Heterodimerization of AML1/ETO with CBFβ is required for leukemogenesis but not for myeloproliferation.
Leukemia. 2017; 31(11):2491-2502 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The AML1/Runx1 transcription factor and its heterodimerization partner CBFβ are essential regulators of myeloid differentiation. The chromosomal translocation t(8;21), fusing the DNA binding domain of AML1 to the corepressor eight-twenty-one (ETO), is frequently associated with acute myeloid leukemia and generates the AML1/ETO (AE) fusion protein. AE represses target genes usually activated by AML1 and also affects the endogenous repressive function of ETO at Notch target genes. In order to analyze the contribution of CBFβ in AE-mediated leukemogenesis and deregulation of Notch target genes, we introduced two point mutations in a leukemia-initiating version of AE in mice, called AE9a, that disrupt the AML1/CBFβ interaction (AE9aNT). We report that the AE9a/CBFβ interaction is not required for the AE9a-mediated aberrant expression of AML1 target genes, while upregulation/derepression of Notch target genes does require the interaction with CBFβ. Using retroviral transduction to express AE9a in murine adult bone marrow-derived hematopoietic progenitors, we observed that both AE9a and AE9aNT lead to increased myeloproliferation in vivo. However, both development of leukemia and long-term replating capacity are only observed with AE9a but not with AE9aNT. Thus, deregulation of both AML1 and Notch target genes is required for the development of AE9a-driven leukemia.

Hyde RK, Liu P, Friedman AD
RUNX1 and CBFβ Mutations and Activities of Their Wild-Type Alleles in AML.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017; 962:265-282 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations in RUNX1 and CBFB have long been recognized as important in hematological malignancies. Point mutations and deletions of RUNX1 are frequently found in myelodysplastic syndrome, myeloproliferative disease, and acute myeloid leukemia. Germline mutations in RUNX1 are associated with familial platelet disorder with predisposition to AML. In addition, as will be discussed in other chapters, both RUNX1 and CBFB are involved in recurrent chromosomal rearrangements in leukemia. More recently, roles for the non-mutated RUNX1 and CBFB genes have been identified in multiple leukemia subtypes. This chapter will discuss the roles of RUNX1 and CBFB, both in diseases caused by their mutations or deletions, as well as in the context of chromosomal rearrangements.

Metzeler KH, Bloomfield CD
Clinical Relevance of RUNX1 and CBFB Alterations in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Hematological Disorders.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017; 962:175-199 [PubMed] Related Publications
The translocation t(8;21), leading to a fusion between the RUNX1 gene and the RUNX1T1 locus, was the first chromosomal translocation identified in cancer. Since the first description of this balanced rearrangement in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 1973, RUNX1 translocations and point mutations have been found in various myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms. In this chapter, we summarize the currently available data on the clinical relevance of core binding factor gene alterations in hematological disorders. In the first section, we discuss the prognostic implications of the core binding factor translocations RUNX1-RUNX1T1 and CBFB-MYH11 in AML patients. We provide an overview of the cooperating genetic events in patients with CBF-rearranged AML and their clinical implications, and review current treatment approaches for CBF AML and the utility of minimal residual disease monitoring. In the next sections, we summarize the available data on rare RUNX1 rearrangements in various hematologic neoplasms and the role of RUNX1 translocations in therapy-related myeloid neoplasia. The final three sections of the chapter cover the spectrum and clinical significance of RUNX1 point mutations in AML and myelodysplastic syndromes, in familial platelet disorder with associated myeloid malignancy, and in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Ampuja M, Rantapero T, Rodriguez-Martinez A, et al.
Integrated RNA-seq and DNase-seq analyses identify phenotype-specific BMP4 signaling in breast cancer.
BMC Genomics. 2017; 18(1):68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) plays an important role in cancer pathogenesis. In breast cancer, it reduces proliferation and increases migration in a cell line-dependent manner. To characterize the transcriptional mediators of these phenotypes, we performed RNA-seq and DNase-seq analyses after BMP4 treatment in MDA-MB-231 and T-47D breast cancer cells that respond to BMP4 with enhanced migration and decreased cell growth, respectively.
RESULTS: The RNA-seq data revealed gene expression changes that were consistent with the in vitro phenotypes of the cell lines, particularly in MDA-MB-231, where migration-related processes were enriched. These results were confirmed when enrichment of BMP4-induced open chromatin regions was analyzed. Interestingly, the chromatin in transcription start sites of differentially expressed genes was already open in unstimulated cells, thus enabling rapid recruitment of transcription factors to the promoters as a response to stimulation. Further analysis and functional validation identified MBD2, CBFB, and HIF1A as downstream regulators of BMP4 signaling. Silencing of these transcription factors revealed that MBD2 was a consistent activator of target genes in both cell lines, CBFB an activator in cells with reduced proliferation phenotype, and HIF1A a repressor in cells with induced migration phenotype.
CONCLUSIONS: Integrating RNA-seq and DNase-seq data showed that the phenotypic responses to BMP4 in breast cancer cell lines are reflected in transcriptomic and chromatin levels. We identified and experimentally validated downstream regulators of BMP4 signaling that relate to the different in vitro phenotypes and thus demonstrate that the downstream BMP4 response is regulated in a cell type-specific manner.

Singh AA, Mandoli A, Prange KH, et al.
AML associated oncofusion proteins PML-RARA, AML1-ETO and CBFB-MYH11 target RUNX/ETS-factor binding sites to modulate H3ac levels and drive leukemogenesis.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(8):12855-12865 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromosomal translocations are one of the hallmarks of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), often leading to gene fusions and expression of an oncofusion protein. Over recent years it has become clear that most of the AML associated oncofusion proteins molecularly adopt distinct mechanisms for inducing leukemogenesis. Still these unique molecular properties of the chimeric proteins converge and give rise to a common pathogenic molecular mechanism. In the present study we compared genome-wide DNA binding and transcriptome data associated with AML1-ETO, CBFB-MYH11 and PML-RARA oncofusion protein expression to identify unique and common features. Our analyses revealed targeting of oncofusion binding sites to RUNX1 and ETS-factor occupied genomic regions. In addition, it revealed a highly comparable global histone acetylation pattern, similar expression of common target genes and related enrichment of several biological pathways critical for maintenance of AML, suggesting oncofusion proteins deregulate common gene programs despite their distinct binding signatures and mechanisms of action.

Lefebvre C, Bachelot T, Filleron T, et al.
Mutational Profile of Metastatic Breast Cancers: A Retrospective Analysis.
PLoS Med. 2016; 13(12):e1002201 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Major advances have been achieved in the characterization of early breast cancer (eBC) genomic profiles. Metastatic breast cancer (mBC) is associated with poor outcomes, yet limited information is available on the genomic profile of this disease. This study aims to decipher mutational profiles of mBC using next-generation sequencing.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on 216 tumor-blood pairs from mBC patients who underwent a biopsy in the context of the SAFIR01, SAFIR02, SHIVA, or Molecular Screening for Cancer Treatment Optimization (MOSCATO) prospective trials. Mutational profiles from 772 primary breast tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used as a reference for comparing primary and mBC mutational profiles. Twelve genes (TP53, PIK3CA, GATA3, ESR1, MAP3K1, CDH1, AKT1, MAP2K4, RB1, PTEN, CBFB, and CDKN2A) were identified as significantly mutated in mBC (false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.1). Eight genes (ESR1, FSIP2, FRAS1, OSBPL3, EDC4, PALB2, IGFN1, and AGRN) were more frequently mutated in mBC as compared to eBC (FDR < 0.01). ESR1 was identified both as a driver and as a metastatic gene (n = 22, odds ratio = 29, 95% CI [9-155], p = 1.2e-12) and also presented with focal amplification (n = 9) for a total of 31 mBCs with either ESR1 mutation or amplification, including 27 hormone receptor positive (HR+) and HER2 negative (HER2-) mBCs (19%). HR+/HER2- mBC presented a high prevalence of mutations on genes located on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway (TSC1 and TSC2) as compared to HR+/HER2- eBC (respectively 6% and 0.7%, p = 0.0004). Other actionable genes were more frequently mutated in HR+ mBC, including ERBB4 (n = 8), NOTCH3 (n = 7), and ALK (n = 7). Analysis of mutational signatures revealed a significant increase in APOBEC-mediated mutagenesis in HR+/HER2- metastatic tumors as compared to primary TCGA samples (p < 2e-16). The main limitations of this study include the absence of bone metastases and the size of the cohort, which might not have allowed the identification of rare mutations and their effect on survival.
CONCLUSIONS: This work reports the results of the analysis of the first large-scale study on mutation profiles of mBC. This study revealed genomic alterations and mutational signatures involved in the resistance to therapies, including actionable mutations.

Eisfeld AK, Kohlschmidt J, Schwind S, et al.
Mutations in the CCND1 and CCND2 genes are frequent events in adult patients with t(8;21)(q22;q22) acute myeloid leukemia.
Leukemia. 2017; 31(6):1278-1285 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML) is defined by the presence of either t(8;21)(q22;q22)/RUNX1-RUNX1T1 or inv(16)(p13.1q22)/t(16;16)(p13.1;q22)/CBFB-MYH11. The resulting fusion genes require a 'second hit' to initiate leukemogenesis. Mutation assessment of 177 adults with CBF-AML, including 68 with t(8;21) and 109 with inv(16)/t(16;16), identified not only mutations well known in CBF-AML but also mutations in the CCND1 and CCND2 genes, which represent novel frequent molecular alterations in AML with t(8;21). Altogether, CCND1 (n=2) and CCND2 (n=8) mutations were detected in 10 (15%) patients with t(8;21) in our cohort. A single CCND2 mutation was also found in 1 (0.9%) patient with inv(16). In contrast, CCND1 and CCND2 mutations were detected in only 11 (0.77%) of 1426 non-CBF-AML patients. All CCND2 mutations cluster around the highly conserved amino-acid residue threonine 280 (Thr280). We show that Thr280Ala-mutated CCND2 leads to increased phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein, thereby causing significant cell cycle changes and increased proliferation of AML cell lines. The identification of CCND1 and CCND2 mutations as frequent mutational events in t(8;21) AML may provide further justification for cell cycle-directed therapy in this disease.

Goyama S, Shrestha M, Schibler J, et al.
Protease-activated receptor-1 inhibits proliferation but enhances leukemia stem cell activity in acute myeloid leukemia.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(18):2589-2598 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Eradication of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) is the ultimate goal of treating acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We recently showed that the combined loss of Runx1/Cbfb inhibited the development of MLL-AF9-induced AML. However, c-Kit

Struski S, Lagarde S, Bories P, et al.
NUP98 is rearranged in 3.8% of pediatric AML forming a clinical and molecular homogenous group with a poor prognosis.
Leukemia. 2017; 31(3):565-572 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rare disease whose prognosis is highly variable according to factors such as chromosomal abnormalities. Recurrent genomic rearrangements are detected in half of pediatric AML by karyotype. NUcleoPorin 98 (NUP98) gene is rearranged with 31 different fusion partner genes. These rearrangements are frequently undetected by conventional cytogenetics, as the NUP98 gene is located at the end of the chromosome 11 short arm (11p15). By screening a series of 574 pediatric AML, we detected a NUP98 rearrangement in 22 cases (3.8%), a frequency similar to CBFB-MYH11 fusion gene (4.0%). The most frequent NUP98 fusion gene partner is NSD1. These cases are homogeneous regarding their biological and clinical characteristics, and associated with bad prognosis only improved by bone marrow transplantation. We detailed the biological characteristics of these AML by exome sequencing which demonstrated few recurrent mutations (FLT3 ITD, WT1, CEBPA, NBPF14, BCR and ODF1). The analysis of the clonal structure in these cases suggests that the mutation order in the NUP98-rearranged pediatric AML begins with the NUP98 rearrangement leading to epigenetic dysregulations then followed by mutations of critical hematopoietic transcription factors and finally, activation of the FLT3 signaling pathway.

Akhter A, Mughal MK, Elyamany G, et al.
Multiplexed automated digital quantification of fusion transcripts: comparative study with fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) technique in acute leukemia patients.
Diagn Pathol. 2016; 11(1):89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) classification system defines recurrent chromosomal translocations as the sole diagnostic and prognostic criteria for acute leukemia (AL). These fusion transcripts are pivotal in the pathogenesis of AL. Clinical laboratories universally employ conventional karyotype/FISH to detect these chromosomal translocations, which is complex, labour intensive and lacks multiplexing capacity. Hence, it is imperative to explore and evaluate some newer automated, cost-efficient multiplexed technologies to accommodate the expanding genetic landscape in AL.
METHODS: "nCounter® Leukemia fusion gene expression assay" by NanoString was employed to detect various fusion transcripts in a large set samples (n = 94) utilizing RNA from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) diagnostic bone marrow biopsy specimens. This series included AL patients with various recurrent translocations (n = 49), normal karyotype (n = 19), or complex karyotype (n = 21), as well as normal bone marrow samples (n = 5). Fusion gene expression data were compared with results obtained by conventional karyotype and FISH technology to determine sensitivity/specificity, as well as positive /negative predictive values.
RESULTS: Junction probes for PML/RARA; RUNX1-RUNX1T1; BCR/ABL1 showed 100 % sensitivity/specificity. A high degree of correlation was noted for MLL/AF4 (85 sensitivity/100 specificity) and TCF3-PBX1 (75 % sensitivity/100 % specificity) probes. CBFB-MYH11 fusion probes showed moderate sensitivity (57 %) but high specificity (100 %). ETV6/RUNX1 displayed discordance between fusion transcript assay and FISH results as well as rare non-specific binding in AL samples with normal or complex cytogenetics.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study presents preliminary data with high correlation between fusion transcript detection by a throughput automated multiplexed platform, compared to conventional karyotype/FISH technique for detection of chromosomal translocations in AL patients. Our preliminary observations, mandates further vast validation studies to explore automated molecular platforms in diagnostic pathology.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. CBFB, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/CBFB.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999