Gene Summary

Gene:NUP98; nucleoporin 98
Aliases: ADIR2, NUP96, NUP196
Summary:Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) regulate the transport of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, and are composed of many polypeptide subunits, many of which belong to the nucleoporin family. This gene belongs to the nucleoporin gene family and encodes a 186 kDa precursor protein that undergoes autoproteolytic cleavage to generate a 98 kDa nucleoporin and 96 kDa nucleoporin. The 98 kDa nucleoporin contains a Gly-Leu-Phe-Gly (GLGF) repeat domain and participates in many cellular processes, including nuclear import, nuclear export, mitotic progression, and regulation of gene expression. The 96 kDa nucleoporin is a scaffold component of the NPC. Proteolytic cleavage is important for targeting of the proteins to the NPC. Translocations between this gene and many other partner genes have been observed in different leukemias. Rearrangements typically result in chimeras with the N-terminal GLGF domain of this gene to the C-terminus of the partner gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms, at least two of which are proteolytically processed. Some variants lack the region that encodes the 96 kDa nucleoporin. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nuclear pore complex protein Nup98-Nup96; nuclear pore complex protein Nup98
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (29)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 09 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 7
  • Infant
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Myeloid Leukemia
  • Autologous Transplantat
  • Adolescents
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Virus Integration
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl
  • FISH
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Base Sequence
  • Homeobox Genes
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Transcription
  • Bone Marrow Cells
  • Karyotyping
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Oncogenes
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • NUP98
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins
  • Leukaemia
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • HOXA9
  • TOP1
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Mutation
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Chromosome 11
Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NUP98 (cancer-related)

Sontakke P, Koczula KM, Jaques J, et al.
Hypoxia-Like Signatures Induced by BCR-ABL Potentially Alter the Glutamine Uptake for Maintaining Oxidative Phosphorylation.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153226 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Warburg effect is probably the most prominent metabolic feature of cancer cells, although little is known about the underlying mechanisms and consequences. Here, we set out to study these features in detail in a number of leukemia backgrounds. The transcriptomes of human CB CD34+ cells transduced with various oncogenes, including BCR-ABL, MLL-AF9, FLT3-ITD, NUP98-HOXA9, STAT5A and KRASG12V were analyzed in detail. Our data indicate that in particular BCR-ABL, KRASG12V and STAT5 could impose hypoxic signaling under normoxic conditions. This coincided with an upregulation of glucose importers SLC2A1/3, hexokinases and HIF1 and 2. NMR-based metabolic profiling was performed in CB CD34+ cells transduced with BCR-ABL versus controls, both cultured under normoxia and hypoxia. Lactate and pyruvate levels were increased in BCR-ABL-expressing cells even under normoxia, coinciding with enhanced glutaminolysis which occurred in an HIF1/2-dependent manner. Expression of the glutamine importer SLC1A5 was increased in BCR-ABL+ cells, coinciding with an increased susceptibility to the glutaminase inhibitor BPTES. Oxygen consumption rates also decreased upon BPTES treatment, indicating a glutamine dependency for oxidative phosphorylation. The current study suggests that BCR-ABL-positive cancer cells make use of enhanced glutamine metabolism to maintain TCA cell cycle activity in glycolytic cells.

Shiba N, Ohki K, Kobayashi T, et al.
High PRDM16 expression identifies a prognostic subgroup of pediatric acute myeloid leukaemia correlated to FLT3-ITD, KMT2A-PTD, and NUP98-NSD1: the results of the Japanese Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group AML-05 trial.
Br J Haematol. 2016; 172(4):581-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent reports described the NUP98-NSD1 fusion as an adverse prognostic marker for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and PRDM16 (also known as MEL1) as the representative overexpressed gene in patients harbouring NUP98-NSD1 fusion. PRDM16 gene expression levels were measured via real-time polymerase chain reaction in 369 paediatric patients with de novo AML, of whom 84 (23%) exhibited PRDM16 overexpression (PRDM16/ABL1 ratio ≥0·010). The frequencies of patients with high or low PRDM16 expression differed widely with respect to each genetic alteration, as follows: t(8;21), 4% vs. 96%, P < 0·001; inv(16), 0% vs. 100%, P < 0·001; KMT2A (also termed MLL)- partial tandem duplication, 100% vs. 0%, P < 0·001; NUP98-NSD1, 100% vs. 0%, P < 0·001. The overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) among PRDM16-overexpressing patients were significantly worse than in patients with low PRDM16 expression (3-year OS: 51% vs. 81%, P < 0·001, 3-year EFS: 32% vs. 64%, P < 0·001) irrespective of other cytogenetic alterations except for NPM1. PRDM16 gene expression was particularly useful for stratifying FLT3-internal tandem duplication-positive AML patients (3-year OS: high = 30% vs. low = 70%, P < 0·001). PRDM16 overexpression was highly recurrent in de novo paediatric AML patients with high/intermediate-risk cytogenetic profiles and was independently associated with an adverse outcome.

Abe A, Yamamoto Y, Iba S, et al.
ETV6-LPXN fusion transcript generated by t(11;12)(q12.1;p13) in a patient with relapsing acute myeloid leukemia with NUP98-HOXA9.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(3):242-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETV6, which encodes an ETS family transcription factor, is frequently rearranged in human leukemias. We show here that a patient with acute myeloid leukemia with t(7;11)(p15;p15) gained, at the time of relapse, t(11;12)(q12.1;p13) with a split ETV6 FISH signal. Using 3'-RACE PCR analysis, we found that ETV6 was fused to LPXN at 11q12.1, which encodes leupaxin. ETV6-LPXN, an in-frame fusion between exon 4 of ETV6 and exon 2 of LPXN, did not transform the interleukin-3-dependent 32D myeloid cell line to cytokine independence; however, an enhanced proliferative response was observed when these cells were treated with G-CSF without inhibition of granulocytic differentiation. The 32D and human leukemia cell lines each transduced with ETV6-LPXN showed enhanced migration towards the chemokine CXCL12. We show here for the first time that LPXN is a fusion partner of ETV6 and present evidence indicating that ETV6-LPXN plays a crucial role in leukemia progression through enhancing the response to G-CSF and CXCL12.

Burillo-Sanz S, Morales-Camacho RM, Caballero-Velázquez T, et al.
NUP98-HOXA9 bearing therapy-related myeloid neoplasm involves myeloid-committed cell and induces HOXA5, EVI1, FLT3, and MEIS1 expression.
Int J Lab Hematol. 2016; 38(1):64-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Chromosomal rearrangements involving NUP98 gene have been associated with human leukemias such as de novo AML, therapy-related AML (t-AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Genetic fusion NUP98-HOXA9, caused by t(7;11)(p15;p15), is a recurrent cytogenetic alteration in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) usually found in young Asian patients and its description in therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) is rare. Only one Asian case with molecular demonstration of the NUP98-HOXA9 fusion has been reported in therapy-related leukemia. NUP98-HOXA9 leukemogenic mechanism is derived from the transcription factor activity of the chimeric protein, which enhances the expression of genes related to cellular differentiation arrest and proliferation.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied a Caucasian woman with a therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia after Ewing's sarcoma. Molecular demonstration of the genetic fusion NUP98-HOXA9 was performed by RT-PCR, and gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR, including four AML patients with MLL rearrangements for comparative analysis. Cytologic and flow cytometric analysis was also carried out.
RESULTS: After cytologic and flow cytometric analysis diagnostics was therapy-related myeloid neoplasm (t-MN). The major component of blasts in the acute leukemia was with neutrophilic differentiation, but 13% erythroid lineage blasts were also found. Cytogenetic and FISH analysis revealed t(7;11)(p15;p15) and NUP98-HOXA9 fusion gene was demonstrated. Gene expression analysis showed upregulation of EVI1 and MEIS1 in the index patient, both of them previously related to a worst outcome.
CONCLUSION: In this work, we include a detailed molecular, clinical, cytological, and cytometric study of the second t-AML bearing NUP98-HOXA9 genetic fusion.

Hsu CH, Nguyen C, Yan C, et al.
Transcriptome Profiling of Pediatric Core Binding Factor AML.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(9):e0138782 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The t(8;21) and Inv(16) translocations disrupt the normal function of core binding factors alpha (CBFA) and beta (CBFB), respectively. These translocations represent two of the most common genomic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, occurring in approximately 25% pediatric and 15% of adult with this malignancy. Both translocations are associated with favorable clinical outcomes after intensive chemotherapy, and given the perceived mechanistic similarities, patients with these translocations are frequently referred to as having CBF-AML. It remains uncertain as to whether, collectively, these translocations are mechanistically the same or impact different pathways in subtle ways that have both biological and clinical significance. Therefore, we used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate the similarities and differences in genes and pathways between these subtypes of pediatric AMLs. Diagnostic RNA from patients with t(8;21) (N = 17), Inv(16) (N = 14), and normal karyotype (NK, N = 33) were subjected to RNA-seq. Analyses compared the transcriptomes across these three cytogenetic subtypes, using the NK cohort as the control. A total of 1291 genes in t(8;21) and 474 genes in Inv(16) were differentially expressed relative to the NK controls, with 198 genes differentially expressed in both subtypes. The majority of these genes (175/198; binomial test p-value < 10(-30)) are consistent in expression changes among the two subtypes suggesting the expression profiles are more similar between the CBF cohorts than in the NK cohort. Our analysis also revealed alternative splicing events (ASEs) differentially expressed across subtypes, with 337 t(8;21)-specific and 407 Inv(16)-specific ASEs detected, the majority of which were acetylated proteins (p = 1.5 x 10(-51) and p = 1.8 x 10(-54) for the two subsets). In addition to known fusions, we identified and verified 16 de novo fusions in 43 patients, including three fusions involving NUP98 in six patients. Clustering of differentially expressed genes indicated that the homeobox (HOX) gene family, including two transcription factors (MEIS1 and NKX2-3) were down-regulated in CBF compared to NK samples. This finding supports existing data that the dysregulation of HOX genes play a central role in biology CBF-AML hematopoiesis. These data provide comprehensive transcriptome profiling of CBF-AML and delineate genes and pathways that are differentially expressed, providing insights into the shared biology as well as differences in the two CBF subsets.

Cheng X, Byrne M, Brown KD, et al.
PKR inhibits the DNA damage response, and is associated with poor survival in AML and accelerated leukemia in NHD13 mice.
Blood. 2015; 126(13):1585-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increased expression of the interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) has been reported in acute leukemia and solid tumors, but the role of PKR has been unclear. Now, our results indicate that high PKR expression in CD34(+) cells of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients correlates with worse survival and shortened remission duration. Significantly, we find that PKR has a novel and previously unrecognized nuclear function to inhibit DNA damage response signaling and double-strand break repair. Nuclear PKR antagonizes ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) activation by a mechanism dependent on protein phosphatase 2A activity. Thus, inhibition of PKR expression or activity promotes ATM activation, γ-H2AX formation, and phosphorylation of NBS1 following ionizing irradiation. PKR transgenic but not PKR null mice demonstrate a mutator phenotype characterized by radiation-induced and age-associated genomic instability that was partially reversed by short-term pharmacologic PKR inhibition. Furthermore, the age-associated accumulation of somatic mutations that occurs in the Nup98-HOXD13 (NHD13) mouse model of leukemia progression was significantly elevated by co-expression of a PKR transgene, whereas knockout of PKR expression or pharmacologic inhibition of PKR activity reduced the frequency of spontaneous mutations in vivo. Thus, PKR cooperated with the NHD13 transgene to accelerate leukemia progression and shorten survival. Taken together, these results indicate that increased nuclear PKR has an oncogenic function that promotes the accumulation of potentially deleterious mutations. Thus, PKR inhibition may be a therapeutically useful strategy to prevent leukemia progression or relapse, and improve clinical outcomes.

Togni M, Masetti R, Pigazzi M, et al.
Identification of the NUP98-PHF23 fusion gene in pediatric cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia by whole-transcriptome sequencing.
J Hematol Oncol. 2015; 8:69 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The genomic landscape of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who do not carry any cytogenetic abnormality (CN-AML) is particularly heterogeneous and challenging, being characterized by different clinical outcomes. To provide new genetic insights into this AML subset, we analyzed through RNA-seq 13 pediatric CN-AML cases, corroborating our findings in an independent cohort of 168 AML patients enrolled in the AIEOP AML 2002/01 study. We identified a chimeric transcript involving NUP98 and PHF23, resulting from a cryptic t(11;17)(p15;p13) translocation, demonstrating, for the first time, that NUP98-PHF23 is a novel recurrent (2.6%) abnormality in pediatric CN-AML.

Deveau AP, Forrester AM, Coombs AJ, et al.
Epigenetic therapy restores normal hematopoiesis in a zebrafish model of NUP98-HOXA9-induced myeloid disease.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(10):2086-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) occurs when multiple genetic aberrations alter white blood cell development, leading to hyperproliferation and arrest of cell differentiation. Pertinent animal models link in vitro studies with the use of new agents in clinical trials. We generated a transgenic zebrafish expressing human NUP98-HOXA9 (NHA9), a fusion oncogene found in high-risk AML. Embryos developed a preleukemic state with anemia and myeloid cell expansion, and adult fish developed a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). We leveraged this model to show that NHA9 increases the number of hematopoietic stem cells, and that oncogenic function of NHA9 depends on downstream activation of meis1, the PTGS/COX pathway and genome hypermethylation through the DNA methyltransferase, dnmt1. We restored normal hematopoiesis in NHA9 embryos with knockdown of meis1 or dnmt1, as well as pharmacologic treatment with DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors or cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors. DNMT inhibitors reduced genome methylation to near normal levels. Strikingly, we discovered synergy when we combined sub-monotherapeutic doses of a histone deacetylase inhibitor plus either a DNMT inhibitor or COX inhibitor to block the effects of NHA9 on zebrafish blood development. Our work proposes novel drug targets in NHA9-induced myeloid disease, and suggests rational therapies by combining minimal doses of known bioactive compounds.

Garcia-Cuellar MP, Steger J, Füller E, et al.
Pbx3 and Meis1 cooperate through multiple mechanisms to support Hox-induced murine leukemia.
Haematologica. 2015; 100(7):905-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hox homeobox transcription factors drive leukemogenesis efficiently only in the presence of Meis or Pbx proteins. Here we show that Pbx3 and Meis1 need to dimerize to support Hox-induced leukemia and we analyze the molecular details of this cooperation. In the absence of Pbx3, Meis1 was highly unstable. As shown by a deletion analysis Meis1 degradation was contingent on a motif coinciding with the Pbx-binding domain. Either deletion of this sequence or binding to Pbx3 prolonged the half-life of Meis1 by preventing its ubiquitination. Meis1 break-down could also be blocked by inhibition of the ubiquitin proteasome system, indicating tight post-transcriptional control. In addition, Meis1 and Pbx3 cooperated genetically as overexpression of Pbx3 induced endogenous Meis1 transcription. These functional interactions translated into in vivo activity. Blocking Meis1/Pbx3 dimerization abrogated the ability to enhance proliferation and colony-forming cell numbers in primary cells transformed by Hoxa9. Furthermore, expression of Meis1 target genes Flt3 and Trib2 was dependent on Pbx3/Meis1 dimerization. This correlated with the requirement of Meis1 to bind Pbx3 in order to form high affinity DNA/Hoxa9/Meis1/Pbx3 complexes in vitro. Finally, kinetics and severity of disease in transplantation assays indicated that Pbx3/Meis1 dimers are rate-limiting factors for Hoxa9-induced leukemia.

Qiu JJ, Zeisig BB, Li S, et al.
Critical role of retinoid/rexinoid signaling in mediating transformation and therapeutic response of NUP98-RARG leukemia.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(5):1153-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
While the nucleoporin 98-retinoic acid receptor gamma (NUP98-RARG) is the first RARG fusion protein found in acute leukemia, its roles and the molecular basis in oncogenic transformation are currently unknown. Here, we showed that homodimeric NUP98-RARG not only acquired unique nuclear localization pattern and ability of recruiting both RXRA and wild-type NUP98, but also exhibited similar transcriptional properties as RARA fusions found in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Using murine bone marrow retroviral transduction/transformation assay, we further demonstrated that NUP98-RARG fusion protein had gained transformation ability of primary hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which was critically dependent on the C-terminal GLFG domain of NUP98 and the DNA binding domain (DBD) of RARG. In contrast to other NUP98 fusions, cells transformed by the NUP98-RARG fusion were extremely sensitive to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment. Interestingly, while pan-RXR agonists, SR11237 and LGD1069 could specifically inhibit NUP98-RARG transformed cells, mutation of the RXR interaction domain in NUP98-RARG had little effect on its transformation, revealing that therapeutic functions of rexinoid can be independent of the direct biochemical interaction between RXR and the fusion. Together, these results indicate that deregulation of the retinoid/rexinoid signaling pathway has a major role and may represent a potential therapeutic target for NUP98-RARG-mediated transformation.

Deshpande AJ, Deshpande A, Sinha AU, et al.
AF10 regulates progressive H3K79 methylation and HOX gene expression in diverse AML subtypes.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 26(6):896-908 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Homeotic (HOX) genes are dysregulated in multiple malignancies, including several AML subtypes. We demonstrate that H3K79 dimethylation (H3K79me2) is converted to monomethylation (H3K79me1) at HOX loci as hematopoietic cells mature, thus coinciding with a decrease in HOX gene expression. We show that H3K79 methyltransferase activity as well as H3K79me1-to-H3K79me2 conversion is regulated by the DOT1L cofactor AF10. AF10 inactivation reverses leukemia-associated epigenetic profiles, precludes abnormal HOXA gene expression, and impairs the transforming ability of MLL-AF9, MLL-AF6, and NUP98-NSD1 fusions-mechanistically distinct HOX-activating oncogenes. Furthermore, NUP98-NSD1-transformed cells are sensitive to small-molecule inhibition of DOT1L. Our findings demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of the DOT1L/AF10 complex may provide therapeutic benefits in an array of malignancies with abnormal HOXA gene expression.

Imren S, Heuser M, Gasparetto M, et al.
Modeling de novo leukemogenesis from human cord blood with MN1 and NUP98HOXD13.
Blood. 2014; 124(24):3608-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Leukemic transformation of human cells is a complex process. Here we show that forced expression of MN1 in primitive human cord blood cells maintained on stromal cells in vitro induces a transient, but not serially transplantable, myeloproliferation in engrafted mice. However, cotransduction of an activated HOX gene (NUP98HOXD13) with MN1 induces a serially transplantable acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Further characterization of the leukemic cells generated from the dually transduced cells showed the activation of stem cell gene expression signatures also found in primary human AML. These findings show a new forward genetic model of human leukemogenesis and further highlight the relevance of homeobox transcription factors in the transformation process.

Thanasopoulou A, Tzankov A, Schwaller J
Potent co-operation between the NUP98-NSD1 fusion and the FLT3-ITD mutation in acute myeloid leukemia induction.
Haematologica. 2014; 99(9):1465-71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The NUP98-NSD1 fusion, product of the t(5;11)(q35;p15.5) chromosomal translocation, is one of the most prevalent genetic alterations in cytogenetically normal pediatric acute myeloid leukemias and is associated with poor prognosis. Co-existence of an FLT3-ITD activating mutation has been found in more than 70% of NUP98-NSD1-positive patients. To address functional synergism, we determined the transforming potential of retrovirally expressed NUP98-NSD1 and FLT3-ITD in the mouse. Expression of NUP98-NSD1 provided mouse strain-dependent, aberrant self-renewal potential to bone marrow progenitor cells. Co-expression of FLT3-ITD increased proliferation and maintained self-renewal in vitro. Transplantation of immortalized progenitors co-expressing NUP98-NSD1 and FLT3-ITD into mice resulted in acute myeloid leukemia after a short latency. In contrast, neither NUP98-NSD1 nor FLT3-ITD single transduced cells were able to initiate leukemia. Interestingly, as reported for patients carrying NUP98-NSD1, an increased Flt3-ITD to wild-type Flt3 mRNA expression ratio with increased FLT3-signaling was associated with rapidly induced disease. In contrast, there was no difference in the expression levels of the NUP98-NSD1 fusion or its proposed targets HoxA5, HoxA7, HoxA9 or HoxA10 between animals with different latencies to develop disease. Finally, leukemic cells co-expressing NUP98-NSD1 and FLT3-ITD were very sensitive to a small molecule FLT3 inhibitor, which underlines the significance of aberrant FLT3 signaling for NUP98-NSD1-positive leukemias and suggests new therapeutic approaches that could potentially improve patient outcome.

Li FF, Yi S, Wen L, et al.
Oridonin induces NPM mutant protein translocation and apoptosis in NPM1c+ acute myeloid leukemia cells in vitro.
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2014; 35(6):806-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: Skewed cytoplasmic accumulation of NPM mutant protein (NPM1c+) is close related to leukemia pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether oridonin, a diterpenoid isolated from the Chinese traditional medicine Rabdosia rubescens, was able to interfere with NPM1c+ protein trafficking and induce apoptosis in NPM1c+ acute myeloid leukemia cells in vitro.
METHODS: OCI-AML3 cell line harboring a NPM1 gene mutation was examined. Cell growth was detected by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using flow cytometry and Hoechst 33258 staining. The expression and subcellular localization of relevant proteins were detected by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. The mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR.
RESULTS: Oridonin (2-12 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the viability of OCI-AML3 cells (the IC50 value was 3.27±0.23 μmol/L at 24 h). Moreover, oridonin induced OCI-AML3 cell apoptosis accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and nuclear translocation of NPM1c+ protein. Oridonin did not change the expression of Crm1 (the export receptor for nuclear export signal-containing proteins), but induced nuclear translocation of Crm1. Oridonin markedly increased the expression of nucleoporin98 (Nup98), which had an important role in Crm1-mediated nuclear protein export, and induced nuclear accumulation of Nup98. Furthermore, oridonin markedly increased the expression of p14arf and p53.
CONCLUSION: In NPM1c+ leukemia cells, oridonin induces NPM1c+ protein translocation into the nucleus possibly via nuclear accumulation of Crm1; the compound markedly increases p53 and p14arf expression, which may contribute to cell apoptosis.

Sato T, Goyama S, Kataoka K, et al.
Evi1 defines leukemia-initiating capacity and tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(42):5028-38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Relapse of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is triggered by stem cells with a reconstituting capacity similar to that of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and CML stem cells are a source of resistance in drug therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Ecotropic viral integration site 1 (EVI1), a key transcription factor in HSC regulation, is known to predict poor outcomes in myeloid malignancies, however, incapability of prospective isolation of EVI1-high leukemic cells precludes the functional evaluation of intraindividual EVI1-high cells. Introduction of CML into Evi1-internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mice, a versatile HSC-reporter strain, enables us to separate Evi1-high CML cells from the individual. Evi1-IRES-GFP allele models of CML in chronic phase (CML-CP), by retroviral overexpression of BCR-ABL and by crossing BCR-ABL transgenic mice, revealed that Evi1 is predominantly enriched in the stem cell fraction and associated with an enhanced proliferative as well as a leukemia-initiating capacity and that Evi1-high CML-CP cells exhibit resistance to TKIs. Overexpressing BCR-ABL and NUP98-HOXA9 in Evi1-IRES-GFP knock-in mice to model CML in blast crisis (CML-BC), in which Evi1-high cells turned to be a major population as opposed to a minor population in CML-CP models, showed that Evi1-high CML-BC cells have a greater potential to recapitulate the disease and appear resistant to TKIs. Furthermore, given that Evi1 heterozygosity ameliorates CML-CP and CML-BC development and that the combination of Evi1 and BCR-ABL causes acute myeloid leukemia resembling CML-BC, Evi1 could regulate CML development as a potent driver. In addition, in human CML-CP cases, we show that EVI1 is highly expressed in stem cell-enriched CD34+CD38-CD90+ fraction at single-cell level. This is the first report to clarify directly that Evi1-high leukemic cells themselves possess the superior potential to Evi1-low cells in oncogenic self-renewal, which highlights the role of Evi1 as a valuable and a functional marker of CML stem cells.

Takeda A, Yaseen NR
Nucleoporins and nucleocytoplasmic transport in hematologic malignancies.
Semin Cancer Biol. 2014; 27:3-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hematologic malignancies are often associated with chromosomal rearrangements that lead to the expression of chimeric fusion proteins. Rearrangements of the genes encoding two nucleoporins, NUP98 and NUP214, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several types of hematologic malignancies, particularly acute myeloid leukemia. NUP98 rearrangements result in fusion of an N-terminal portion of NUP98 to one of numerous proteins. These rearrangements often follow treatment with topoisomerase II inhibitors and tend to occur in younger patients. They have been shown to induce leukemia in mice and to enhance proliferation and disrupt differentiation in primary human hematopoietic precursors. NUP214 has only a few fusion partners. DEK-NUP214 is the most common NUP214 fusion in AML; it tends to occur in younger patients and is usually associated with FLT3 internal tandem duplications. The leukemogenic activity of NUP214 fusions is less well characterized. Normal nucleoporins, including NUP98 and NUP214, have important functions in nucleocytoplasmic transport, transcription, and mitosis. These functions and their disruptions by oncogenic nucleoporin fusions are discussed.

De Braekeleer E, Douet-Guilbert N, Basinko A, et al.
Hox gene dysregulation in acute myeloid leukemia.
Future Oncol. 2014; 10(3):475-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
In humans, class I homeobox genes (HOX genes) are distributed in four clusters. Upstream regulators include transcriptional activators and members of the CDX family of transcription factors. HOX genes encode proteins and need cofactor interactions, to increase their specificity and selectivity. HOX genes contribute to the organization and regulation of hematopoiesis by controlling the balance between proliferation and differentiation. Changes in HOX gene expression can be associated with chromosomal rearrangements generating fusion genes, such as those involving MLL and NUP98, or molecular defects, such as mutations in NPM1 and CEBPA for example. Several miRNAs are involved in the control of HOX gene expression and their expression correlates with HOX gene dysregulation. HOX genes dysregulation is a dominant mechanism of leukemic transformation. A better knowledge of their target genes and the mechanisms by which their dysregulated expression contributes to leukemogenesis could lead to the development of new drugs.

Gough SM, Lee F, Yang F, et al.
NUP98-PHF23 is a chromatin-modifying oncoprotein that causes a wide array of leukemias sensitive to inhibition of PHD histone reader function.
Cancer Discov. 2014; 4(5):564-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In this report, we show that expression of a NUP98-PHF23 (NP23) fusion, associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in humans, leads to myeloid, erythroid, T-cell, and B-cell leukemia in mice. The leukemic and preleukemic tissues display a stem cell-like expression signature, including Hoxa, Hoxb, and Meis1 genes. The PHF23 plant homeodomain (PHD) motif is known to bind to H3K4me3 residues, and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the NP23 protein binds to chromatin at a specific subset of H3K4me3 sites, including at Hoxa, Hoxb, and Meis1. Treatment of NP23 cells with disulfiram, which inhibits the binding of PHD motifs to H3K4me3, rapidly and selectively killed NP23-expressing myeloblasts; cell death was preceded by decreased expression of Hoxa, Hoxb, and Meis1. Furthermore, AML driven by a related fusion gene, NUP98-JARID1A (NJL), was also sensitive to disulfiram. Thus, the NP23 mouse provides a platform to evaluate compounds that disrupt binding of oncogenic PHD proteins to H3K4me3.

Maegawa S, Gough SM, Watanabe-Okochi N, et al.
Age-related epigenetic drift in the pathogenesis of MDS and AML.
Genome Res. 2014; 24(4):580-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clonal hematologic disorder that frequently evolves to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Its pathogenesis remains unclear, but mutations in epigenetic modifiers are common and the disease often responds to DNA methylation inhibitors. We analyzed DNA methylation in the bone marrow and spleen in two mouse models of MDS/AML, the NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) mouse and the RUNX1 mutant mouse model. Methylation array analysis showed an average of 512/3445 (14.9%) genes hypermethylated in NHD13 MDS, and 331 (9.6%) genes hypermethylated in RUNX1 MDS. Thirty-two percent of genes in common between the two models (2/3 NHD13 mice and 2/3 RUNX1 mice) were also hypermethylated in at least two of 19 human MDS samples. Detailed analysis of 41 genes in mice showed progressive drift in DNA methylation from young to old normal bone marrow and spleen; to MDS, where we detected accelerated age-related methylation; and finally to AML, which markedly extends DNA methylation abnormalities. Most of these genes showed similar patterns in human MDS and AML. Repeat element hypomethylation was rare in MDS but marked the transition to AML in some cases. Our data show consistency in patterns of aberrant DNA methylation in human and mouse MDS and suggest that epigenetically, MDS displays an accelerated aging phenotype.

Salsi V, Ferrari S, Gorello P, et al.
NUP98 fusion oncoproteins promote aneuploidy by attenuating the mitotic spindle checkpoint.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(4):1079-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
NUP98 is a recurrent fusion partner in chromosome translocations that cause acute myelogenous leukemia. NUP98, a nucleoporin, and its interaction partner Rae1, have been implicated in the control of chromosome segregation, but their mechanistic contributions to tumorigenesis have been unclear. Here, we show that expression of NUP98 fusion oncoproteins causes mitotic spindle defects and chromosome missegregation, correlating with the capability of NUP98 fusions to cause premature securin degradation and slippage from an unsatisfied spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). NUP98 fusions, unlike wild-type NUP98, were found to physically interact with the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)(Cdc20) and to displace the BubR1 SAC component, suggesting a possible mechanistic basis for their interference with SAC function. In addition, NUP98 oncoproteins displayed a prolonged half-life in cells. We found that NUP98 stability is controlled by a PEST sequence, absent in NUP98 oncoproteins, whose deletion reproduced the aberrant SAC-interfering activity of NUP98 oncoproteins. Together, our findings suggest that NUP98 oncoproteins predispose myeloid cells to oncogenic transformation or malignant progression by promoting whole chromosome instability.

Zhang Y, Owens K, Hatem L, et al.
Essential role of PR-domain protein MDS1-EVI1 in MLL-AF9 leukemia.
Blood. 2013; 122(16):2888-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A subgroup of leukemogenic mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) fusion proteins (MFPs) including MLL-AF9 activates the Mecom locus and exhibits extremely poor clinical prognosis. Mecom encodes EVI1 and MDS1-EVI1 (ME) proteins via alternative transcription start sites; these differ by the presence of a PRDI-BF1-RIZ1 (PR) domain with histone methyltransferase activity in the ME isoform. Using an ME-deficient mouse, we show that ME is required for MLL-AF9-induced transformation both in vitro and in vivo. And, although Nup98-HOXA9, MEIS1-HOXA9, and E2A-Hlf could transform ME-deficient cells, both MLL-AF9 and MLL-ENL were ineffective, indicating that the ME requirement is specific to MLL fusion leukemia. Further, we show that the PR domain is essential for MFP-induced transformation. These studies clearly indicate an essential role of PR-domain protein ME in MFP leukemia, suggesting that ME may be a novel target for therapeutic intervention for this group of leukemias.

Akiki S, Dyer SA, Grimwade D, et al.
NUP98-NSD1 fusion in association with FLT3-ITD mutation identifies a prognostically relevant subgroup of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia patients suitable for monitoring by real time quantitative PCR.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(11):1053-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cytogenetically cryptic t(5;11)(q35;p15) leading to the NUP98-NSD1 fusion is a rare but recurrent gene rearrangement recently reported to identify a group of young AML patients with poor prognosis. We used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to screen retrospectively diagnostic samples from 54 unselected pediatric AML patients and designed a real time quantitative PCR assay to track individual patient response to treatment. Four positive cases (7%) were identified; three arising de novo and one therapy related AML. All had intermediate risk cytogenetic markers and a concurrent FLT3-ITD but lacked NPM1 and CEBPA mutations. The patients had a poor response to therapy and all proceeded to hematopoietic stem cell transplant. These data lend support to the adoption of screening for NUP98-NSD1 in pediatric AML without otherwise favorable genetic markers. The role of quantitative PCR is also highlighted as a potential tool for managing NUP98-NSD1 positive patients post-treatment.

Shiba N, Ichikawa H, Taki T, et al.
NUP98-NSD1 gene fusion and its related gene expression signature are strongly associated with a poor prognosis in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(7):683-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cryptic t(5;11)(q35;p15.5) creates a fusion gene between the NUP98 and NSD1 genes. To ascertain the significance of this gene fusion, we explored its frequency, clinical impact, and gene expression pattern using DNA microarray in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. NUP98-NSD1 fusion transcripts were detected in 6 (4.8%) of 124 pediatric AML patients. Supervised hierarchical clustering analyses using probe sets that were differentially expressed in these patients detected a characteristic gene expression pattern, including 18 NUP98-NSD1-negative patients (NUP98-NSD1-like patients). In total, a NUP98-NSD1-related gene expression signature (NUP98-NSD1 signature) was found in 19% (24/124) and in 58% (15/26) of cytogenetically normal cases. Their 4-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were poor (33.3% in NUP98-NSD1-positive and 38.9% in NUP98-NSD1-like patients) compared with 100 NUP98-NSD1 signature-negative patients (4-year OS: 86.0%, 4-year EFS: 72.0%). Interestingly, t(7;11)(p15;p15)/NUP98-HOXA13, t(6;11)(q27;q23)/MLL-MLLT4 and t(6;9)(p22;q34)/DEK-NUP214, which are known as poor prognostic markers, were found in NUP98-NSD1-like patients. Furthermore, another type of NUP98-NSD1 fusion transcript was identified by additional RT-PCR analyses using other primers in a NUP98-NSD1-like patient, revealing the significance of this signature to detect NUP98-NSD1 gene fusions and to identify a new poor prognostic subgroup in AML.

Sarova I, Brezinova J, Zemanova Z, et al.
Characterization of chromosome 11 breakpoints and the areas of deletion and amplification in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(7):619-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosome 11 abnormalities are found in many hematological malignancies. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a proto-oncogene MLL (11q23.3) is frequently altered. However, rearrangements involving other regions of chromosome 11 have been reported. Therefore, we have characterized the chromosome 11 breakpoints and common deleted and amplified areas in the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells of newly diagnosed patients with AML. Using molecular-cytogenetic methods (multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH), multicolor banding (mBAND), microarrays, and FISH with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes, chromosome 11 abnormalities were delineated in 54 out of 300 (18%) newly diagnosed AML patients. At least 36 different chromosome 11 breakpoints were identified; two were recurrent (11p15.4 in the NUP98 gene and 11q23.3 in the MLL gene), and three were possibly nonrandom: 11p13 (ch11:29.31-31.80 Mb), 11p12 (ch11:36.75-37.49 Mb) and 11q13.2 (68.31-68.52 Mb). One new MLL gene rearrangement is also described. No commonly deleted region of chromosome 11 was identified. However, some regions were affected more often: 11pter-11p15.5 (n = 4; ch11:0-3.52 Mb), 11p14.1-11p13 (n = 4; ch11:28.00-31.00 Mb) and 11p13 (n = 4; ch11:31.00-31.50 Mb). One commonly duplicated (3 copies) region was identified in chromosomal band 11q23.3-11q24 (n = 9; ch11:118.35-125.00 Mb). In all eight cases of 11q amplification (>3 copies), only the 5' part of the MLL gene was affected. This study highlights several chromosome 11 loci that might be important for the leukemogeneic process in AML.

Funasaka T, Balan V, Raz A, Wong RW
Nucleoporin Nup98 mediates galectin-3 nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 434(1):155-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nucleoporin Nup98 is a component of the nuclear pore complex, and is important in transport across the nuclear pore. Many studies implicate nucleoporin in cancer progression, but no direct mechanistic studies of its effect in cancer have been reported. We show here that Nup98 specifically regulates nucleus-cytoplasm transport of galectin-3, which is a ß-galactoside-binding protein that affects adhesion, migration, and cancer progression, and controls cell growth through the ß-catenin signaling pathway in cancer cells. Nup98 interacted with galectin-3 on the nuclear membrane, and promoted galectin-3 cytoplasmic translocation whereas other nucleoporins did not show these functions. Inversely, silencing of Nup98 expression by siRNA technique localized galectin-3 to the nucleus and retarded cell growth, which was rescued by Nup98 transfection. In addition, Nup98 RNA interference significantly suppressed downstream mRNA expression in the ß-catenin pathway, such as cyclin D1 and FRA-1, while nuclear galectin-3 binds to ß-catenin to inhibit transcriptional activity. Reduced expression of ß-catenin target genes is consistent with the Nup98 reduction and the galectin-3-nucleus translocation rate. Overall, the results show Nup98's involvement in nuclear-cytoplasm translocation of galectin-3 and ß-catenin signaling pathway in regulating cell proliferation, and the results depicted here suggest a novel therapeutic target/modality for cancers.

de Rooij JD, Hollink IH, Arentsen-Peters ST, et al.
NUP98/JARID1A is a novel recurrent abnormality in pediatric acute megakaryoblastic leukemia with a distinct HOX gene expression pattern.
Leukemia. 2013; 27(12):2280-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytogenetic abnormalities and early response to treatment are the main prognostic factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recently, NUP98/NSD1 (t(5; 11)(q35; p15)), a cytogenetically cryptic fusion, was described as recurrent event in AML, characterized by dismal prognosis and HOXA/B gene overexpression. Using split-signal fluorescence in situ hybridization, other NUP98-rearranged pediatric AML cases were identified, including several acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) cases with a cytogenetically cryptic fusion of NUP98 to JARID1A (t(11;15)(p15;q35)). In this study we screened 105 pediatric AMKL cases to analyze the frequency of NUP98/JARID1A and other recurrent genetic abnormalities. NUP98/JARID1A was identified in 11/105 patients (10.5%). Other abnormalities consisted of RBM15/MKL1 (n=16), CBFA2T3/GLIS2 (n=13) and MLL-rearrangements (n=13). Comparing NUP98/JARID1A-positive patients with other pediatric AMKL patients, no significant differences in sex, age and white blood cell count were found. NUP98/JARID1A was not an independent prognostic factor for 5-year overall (probability of overall survival (pOS)) or event-free survival (probability of event-free survival (pEFS)), although the 5-year pOS for the entire AMKL cohort was poor (42 ± 6%). Cases with RBM15/MLK1 fared significantly better in terms of pOS and pEFS, although this was not independent from other risk factors in multivariate analysis. NUP98/JARID1A cases were characterized by HOXA/B gene overexpression, which is a potential druggable pathway. In conclusion, NUP98/JARID1A is a novel recurrent genetic abnormality in pediatric AMKL.

Gorello P, Nofrini V, Brandimarte L, et al.
Inv(11)(p15q22)/NUP98-DDX10 fusion and isoforms in a new case of de novo acute myeloid leukemia.
Cancer Genet. 2013; 206(3):92-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We set up a diagnostic double-color double-fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization (DCDF-FISH) assay to investigate a case of a de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-M4 bearing an inv(11)(p15q22). DCDF-FISH detected the NUP98-DDX10 rearrangement as two fusion signals, at the short and the long arms of the inv(11). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cloning experiments confirmed the NUP98-DDX10 fusion and identified two splicing fusion isoforms: the known "type II fusion," originating from the fusion of NUP98 exon 14 to DDX10 exon 7 and a new in-frame fusion transcript between NUP98 exon 15 and DDX10 exon 7, which we termed "type III fusion."

Lisboa S, Cerveira N, Bizarro S, et al.
POU1F1 is a novel fusion partner of NUP98 in acute myeloid leukemia with t(3;11)(p11;p15).
Mol Cancer. 2013; 12:5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: NUP98 gene rearrangements have been reported in acute myeloid leukemia, giving rise to fusion proteins that seem to function as aberrant transcription factors, and are thought to be associated with poor prognosis.
FINDINGS: A patient with treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia presented a t(3;11)(p11;p15) as the only cytogenetic abnormality. FISH and molecular genetic analyses identified a class 1 homeobox gene, POU1F1, located on chromosome 3p11, as the fusion partner of NUP98. In addition, we have found that the patient harbored an FLT3-ITD mutation, which most likely collaborated with the NUP98-POU1F1 fusion gene in malignant transformation.
CONCLUSIONS: We have identified POU1F1 as the NUP98 fusion partner in therapy-related AML with a t(3;11)(p11;p15). This is the first POU family member identified as a fusion partner in human cancer.

Franks TM, Hetzer MW
The role of Nup98 in transcription regulation in healthy and diseased cells.
Trends Cell Biol. 2013; 23(3):112-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nuclear pore complex (NPC) proteins are known for their critical roles in regulating nucleocytoplasmic traffic of macromolecules across the nuclear envelope. However, recent findings suggest that some nucleoporins (Nups), including Nup98, have additional functions in developmental gene regulation. Nup98, which exhibits transcription-dependent mobility at the NPC but can also bind chromatin away from the nuclear envelope, is frequently involved in chromosomal translocations in a subset of patients suffering from acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A common paradigm suggests that Nup98 translocations cause aberrant transcription when they are recuited to aberrant genomic loci. Importantly, this model fails to account for the potential loss of wild type (WT) Nup98 function in the presence of Nup98 translocation mutants. Here we examine how the cell might regulate Nup98 nucleoplasmic protein levels to control transcription in healthy cells. In addition, we discuss the possibility that dominant negative Nup98 fusion proteins disrupt the transcriptional activity of WT Nup98 in the nucleoplasm to drive AML.

Singer S, Zhao R, Barsotti AM, et al.
Nuclear pore component Nup98 is a potential tumor suppressor and regulates posttranscriptional expression of select p53 target genes.
Mol Cell. 2012; 48(5):799-810 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The p53 tumor suppressor utilizes multiple mechanisms to selectively regulate its myriad target genes, which in turn mediate diverse cellular processes. Here, using conventional and single-molecule mRNA analyses, we demonstrate that the nucleoporin Nup98 is required for full expression of p21, a key effector of the p53 pathway, but not several other p53 target genes. Nup98 regulates p21 mRNA levels by a posttranscriptional mechanism in which a complex containing Nup98 and the p21 mRNA 3'UTR protects p21 mRNA from degradation by the exosome. An in silico approach revealed another p53 target (14-3-3σ) to be similarly regulated by Nup98. The expression of Nup98 is reduced in murine and human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and correlates with p21 expression in HCC patients. Our study elucidates a previously unrecognized function of wild-type Nup98 in regulating select p53 target genes that is distinct from the well-characterized oncogenic properties of Nup98 fusion proteins.

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