Gene Summary

Gene:NUP98; nucleoporin 98
Aliases: ADIR2, NUP96, NUP196
Summary:Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) regulate the transport of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, and are composed of many polypeptide subunits, many of which belong to the nucleoporin family. This gene belongs to the nucleoporin gene family and encodes a 186 kDa precursor protein that undergoes autoproteolytic cleavage to generate a 98 kDa nucleoporin and 96 kDa nucleoporin. The 98 kDa nucleoporin contains a Gly-Leu-Phe-Gly (GLGF) repeat domain and participates in many cellular processes, including nuclear import, nuclear export, mitotic progression, and regulation of gene expression. The 96 kDa nucleoporin is a scaffold component of the NPC. Proteolytic cleavage is important for targeting of the proteins to the NPC. Translocations between this gene and many other partner genes have been observed in different leukemias. Rearrangements typically result in chimeras with the N-terminal GLGF domain of this gene to the C-terminus of the partner gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms, at least two of which are proteolytically processed. Some variants lack the region that encodes the 96 kDa nucleoporin. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nuclear pore complex protein Nup98-Nup96; nuclear pore complex protein Nup98
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (29)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Virus Integration
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Base Sequence
  • TOP1
  • Chromosome 11
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Autologous Transplantat
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Karyotyping
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Leukaemia
  • FISH
  • RUNX1 Translocation Partner 1 Protein
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Adolescents
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes
  • Mutation
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl
  • Transcription
  • HOXA9
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Chromosome 7
  • Homeobox Genes
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins
  • NUP98
  • Infant
  • Myeloid Leukemia
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Transduction
  • Bone Marrow Cells
  • Nuclear Proteins
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NUP98 (cancer-related)

Masetti R, Guidi V, Ronchini L, et al.
The changing scenario of non-Down syndrome acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in children.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2019; 138:132-138 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pediatric non-Down-syndrome acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (non-DS-AMKL) is a heterogeneous subtype of leukemia that has historically been associated with poor prognosis. Until the advent of large-scale genomic sequencing, the management of patients with non-DS-AMKL was very difficult due to the absence of reliable biological prognostic markers. The sequencing of large cohort of pediatric non-DS-AMKL samples led to the discovery of novel genetic aberrations, including high-frequency fusions, such as CBFA2T3-GLIS2 and NUP98-KDM5 A, as well as less frequent aberrations, such as HOX rearrangements. These new insights into the genetic landscape of pediatric non-DS-AMKL has allowed refining the risk-group stratification, leading to important changes in the prognostic scenario of these patients. This review summarizes the most important molecular pathogenic mechanisms of pediatric non-DS-AMKL. A critical discussion on how novel genetic abnormalities have refined the risk profile assessment and changed the management of these patients in clinical practice is also provided.

Roussy M, Bilodeau M, Jouan L, et al.
NUP98-BPTF gene fusion identified in primary refractory acute megakaryoblastic leukemia of infancy.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(6):311-319 [PubMed] Related Publications
The advent of large scale genomic sequencing technologies significantly improved the molecular classification of acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia (AMKL). AMKL represents a subset (∼10%) of high fatality pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recurrent and mutually exclusive chimeric gene fusions associated with pediatric AMKL are found in 60%-70% of cases and include RBM15-MKL1, CBFA2T3-GLIS2, NUP98-KDM5A and MLL rearrangements. In addition, another 4% of AMKL harbor NUP98 rearrangements (NUP98r), with yet undetermined fusion partners. We report a novel NUP98-BPTF fusion in an infant presenting with primary refractory AMKL. In this NUP98r, the C-terminal chromatin recognition modules of BPTF, a core subunit of the NURF (nucleosome remodeling factor) ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex, are fused to the N-terminal moiety of NUP98, creating an in frame NUP98-BPTF fusion, with structural homology to NUP98-KDM5A. The leukemic blasts expressed two NUP98-BPTF splicing variants, containing one or two tandemly spaced PHD chromatin reader domains. Our study also identified an unreported wild type BPTF splicing variant encoding for 2 PHD domains, detected both in normal cord blood CD34

Shimada A, Iijima-Yamashita Y, Tawa A, et al.
Risk-stratified therapy for children with FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia: results from the JPLSG AML-05 study.
Int J Hematol. 2018; 107(5):586-595 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia harboring internal tandem duplication of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (AML

Iijima-Yamashita Y, Matsuo H, Yamada M, et al.
Multiplex fusion gene testing in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
Pediatr Int. 2018; 60(1):47-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gene abnormalities, particularly chromosome rearrangements generating gene fusion, are associated with clinical characteristics and prognosis in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Karyotyping is generally performed to enable risk stratification, but the results are not always consistent with those of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and more accurate and rapid methods are required.
METHODS: A total of 487 samples from de novo AML patients enrolled in the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG) AML-05 study (n = 448), and from acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients enrolled in the JPLSG AML-P05 study (n = 39) were available for this investigation. Multiplex quantitative RT-PCR was performed to detect eight important fusion genes: AML1(RUNX1)-ETO(RUNX1T1), CBFB-MYH11, MLL(KMT2A)-AF9(MLLT3), MLL-ELL, MLL-AF6(MLLT4), FUS(TLS)-ERG, NUP98-HOXA9, and PML-RARA.
RESULTS: Fusion genes were detected in 207 (46.2%) of the 448 AML-05 patient samples. After exclusion of two samples with PML-RARA, no chromosomal abnormalities were identified on karyotyping in 19 of 205 patients (9.3%) positive for fusion genes on RT-PCR. Fusion genes were confirmed on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 11 of these 19 patients. In contrast, fusion genes were detected in 37 of 39 patients (94.9%) from the AML-P05 study, and 33 of these results were consistent with the karyotyping. There were discrepancies in four patients (10.8%), three with normal karyotypes and one in whom karyotyping was not possible. All four of these patients were PML-RARA positive on FISH.
CONCLUSIONS: Multiplex quantitative RT-PCR-based fusion gene screening may be effective for diagnosis of pediatric AML.

Thibodeau ML, Steinraths M, Brown L, et al.
Genomic and Cytogenetic Characterization of a Balanced Translocation Disrupting NUP98.
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2017; 152(3):117-121 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 41-year-old Asian woman with bilateral renal angiomyolipomas (AML) was incidentally identified to have a balanced translocation, 46,XX,t(11;12)(p15.4;q15). She had no other features or family history to suggest a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. Her healthy daughter had the same translocation and no renal AML at the age of 3 years. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on genomic maternal DNA isolated from blood. A targeted de novo assembly was then conducted with ABySS for chromosomes 11 and 12. Sanger sequencing was used to validate the translocation breakpoints. As a result, genomic characterization of chromosomes 11 and 12 revealed that the 11p breakpoint disrupted the NUP98 gene in intron 1, causing a separation of the promoter and transcription start site from the rest of the gene. The translocation breakpoint on chromosome 12q was located in a gene desert. NUP98 has not yet been associated with renal AML pathogenesis, but somatic NUP98 alterations are recurrently implicated in hematological malignancies, most often following a gene fusion event. We also found evidence for complex structural events involving chromosome 12, which appear to disrupt the TDG gene. We identified a TDGP1 partially processed pseudogene at 12p12.1, which adds complexity to the de novo assembly. In conclusion, this is the first report of a germline constitutional structural chromosome rearrangement disrupting NUP98 that occurred in a generally healthy woman with bilateral renal AML.

Kivioja JL, Lopez Martí JM, Kumar A, et al.
Chimeric NUP98-NSD1 transcripts from the cryptic t(5;11)(q35.2;p15.4) in adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2018; 59(3):725-732 [PubMed] Related Publications
The t(5;11)(q35;p15.4) is a clinically significant marker of poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which is difficult to detect due to sub-telomeric localization of the breakpoints. To facilitate the detection of this rearrangement, we studied NUP98-NSD1 transcript variants in patients with the t(5;11) using paired-end RNA sequencing and standard molecular biology techniques. We discovered three NUP98-NSD1 transcripts with two fusion junctions (NUP98 exon 11-12/NSD1 exon 6), alternative 5' donor site in NUP98 exon 7, and NSD1 exon 7 skipping. Two of the transcripts were in-frame and occurred in all t(5;11) samples (N = 5). The exonic splicing events were present in all samples (N = 23) regardless of the NUP98-NSD1 suggesting that these novel splice events are unassociated with t(5;11). In conclusion, we provide evidence of two different NUP98-NSD1 fusion transcripts in adult AML, which result in functional proteins and represent suitable molecular entities for monitoring t(5;11) AML patients.

Yamato G, Yamaguchi H, Handa H, et al.
Clinical features and prognostic impact of PRDM16 expression in adult acute myeloid leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(11):800-809 [PubMed] Related Publications
High PRDM16 (also known as MEL1) expression is a representative marker of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with NUP98-NSD1 and is a significant predictive marker for poor prognosis in pediatric AML. However, the clinical features of adult AML with PRDM16 expression remain unclear. PRDM16 is highly homologous to MDS1/EVI1, which is an alternatively spliced transcript of MECOM (also known as EVI1). We investigated PRDM16 expression in 151 AML patients, with 47 (31%) exhibiting high PRDM16 expression (PRDM16/ABL1 ratio ≥ 0.010). High PRDM16 expression significantly correlated with DNMT3A (43% vs. 15%, P < 0.001) and NPM1 (43% vs. 21%, P = 0.010) mutations and partial tandem duplication of KMT2A (22% vs. 1%, P < 0.001). Remarkably, high-PRDM16-expression patients were frequent in the noncomplete remission group (48% vs. 21%, P = 0.002). Overall survival (OS) was significantly worse in high-PRDM16-expression patients than in low-PRDM16-expression patients (5-year OS, 18% vs. 34%; P = 0.002). This trend was observed more clearly among patients aged <65 years (5-year OS, 21% vs. 50%; P = 0.001), particularly in FLT3-ITD-negative patients in the intermediate cytogenetic risk group (5-year OS, 25% vs. 59%; P = 0.009). These results suggest that high PRDM16 expression is a significant predictive marker for poor prognosis in adult AML patients, similar to pediatric AML patients.

Busse TM, Roth JJ, Wilmoth D, et al.
Copy number alterations determined by single nucleotide polymorphism array testing in the clinical laboratory are indicative of gene fusions in pediatric cancer patients.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(10):730-749 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene fusions resulting from structural rearrangements are an established mechanism of tumorigenesis in pediatric cancer. In this clinical cohort, 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based chromosomal microarrays from 1,211 pediatric cancer patients were evaluated for copy number alterations (CNAs) associated with gene fusions. Karyotype or fluorescence in situ hybridization studies were performed in 42% of the patients. Ten percent of the bone marrow or solid tumor specimens had SNP array-associated CNAs suggestive of a gene fusion. Alterations involving ETV6, ABL1-NUP214, EBF1-PDGFRB, KMT2A(MLL), LMO2-RAG, MYH11-CBFB, NSD1-NUP98, PBX1, STIL-TAL1, ZNF384-TCF3, P2RY8-CRLF2, and RUNX1T1-RUNX1 fusions were detected in the bone marrow samples. The most common alteration among the low-grade gliomas was a 7q34 tandem duplication resulting in a KIAA1549-BRAF fusion. Additional fusions identified in the pediatric brain tumors included FAM131B-BRAF and RAF1-QKI. COL1A1-PDGFB, CRTC1-MAML2, EWSR1, HEY1, PAX3- and PAX7-FOXO1, and PLAG1 fusions were determined in a variety of solid tumors and a novel potential gene fusion, FGFR1-USP6, was detected in an aneurysmal bone cyst. The identification of these gene fusions was instrumental in tumor diagnosis. In contrast to hematologic and solid tumors in adults that are predominantly driven by mutations, the majority of hematologic and solid tumors in children are characterized by CNAs and gene fusions. Chromosomal microarray analysis is therefore a robust platform to identify diagnostic and prognostic markers in the clinical setting.

Rzymski T, Mikula M, Żyłkiewicz E, et al.
SEL120-34A is a novel CDK8 inhibitor active in AML cells with high levels of serine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT5 transactivation domains.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(20):33779-33795 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inhibition of oncogenic transcriptional programs is a promising therapeutic strategy. A substituted tricyclic benzimidazole, SEL120-34A, is a novel inhibitor of Cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8), which regulates transcription by associating with the Mediator complex. X-ray crystallography has shown SEL120-34A to be a type I inhibitor forming halogen bonds with the protein's hinge region and hydrophobic complementarities within its front pocket. SEL120-34A inhibits phosphorylation of STAT1 S727 and STAT5 S726 in cancer cells in vitro. Consistently, regulation of STATs- and NUP98-HOXA9- dependent transcription has been observed as a dominant mechanism of action in vivo. Treatment with the compound resulted in a differential efficacy on AML cells with elevated STAT5 S726 levels and stem cell characteristics. In contrast, resistant cells were negative for activated STAT5 and revealed lineage commitment. In vivo efficacy in xenotransplanted AML models correlated with significant repression of STAT5 S726. Favorable pharmacokinetics, confirmed safety and in vivo efficacy provide a rationale for the further clinical development of SEL120-34A as a personalized therapeutic approach in AML.

Yamamoto K, Minami Y, Yakushijin K, et al.
Coexpression of NUP98/TOP1 and TOP1/NUP98 in de novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia with t(11;20)(p15;q12) and t(2;5)(q33;q31).
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2016; 150(3-4):287-292 [PubMed] Related Publications
The t(11;20)(p15;q11∼12) translocation is a very rare but recurrent cytogenetic aberration that occurs in myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML). This translocation was shown to form a fusion gene between NUP98 at 11p15 and TOP1 at 20q12. Here, we describe a new case of de novo AML M2 with t(11;20) which was associated with another balanced translocation. An 81-year-old man was admitted to undergo salvage therapy for relapsed AML. G-banding and spectral karyotyping showed 46,XY,t(2;5)(q33;q31),t(11;20)(p15;q12)[20]. Expression of the NUP98/TOP1 fusion transcript was confirmed: NUP98 exon 13 was in-frame fused with TOP1 exon 8. The reciprocal TOP1/NUP98 fusion transcript was also detected: TOP1 exon 7 was fused with NUP98 exon 14. After achieving hematological complete remission, the karyotype converted to 46,XY,t(2;5)(q33;q31)[19]/46,sl,t(11;20)(p15;q12)[1]. FISH analysis demonstrated that the 5q31 breakpoint of t(2;5) was centromeric to EGR1. In all 10 cases described in the literature, the NUP98 exon 13/TOP1 exon 8 fusion transcript was expressed, indicating that it may be responsible for the pathogenesis of MDS/AML with t(11;20). On the other hand, the TOP1/NUP98 transcript was coexpressed in 4 cases of de novo AML, but not in 3 cases of therapy-related MDS. Thus, this reciprocal fusion may be associated with progression to AML.

Shima Y, Yumoto M, Katsumoto T, Kitabayashi I
MLL is essential for NUP98-HOXA9-induced leukemia.
Leukemia. 2017; 31(10):2200-2210 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rearrangements involving the NUP98 gene resulting in fusions to several partner genes occur in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. This study demonstrates that the second FG repeat domain of the NUP98 moiety of the NUP98-HOXA9 fusion protein is important for its cell immortalization and leukemogenesis activities. We demonstrate that NUP98-HOXA9 interacts with mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) via this FG repeat domain and that, in the absence of MLL, NUP98-HOXA9-induced cell immortalization and leukemogenesis are severely inhibited. Molecular analyses indicate that MLL is important for the recruitment of NUP98-HOXA9 to the HOXA locus and for NUP98-HOXA9-induced HOXA gene expression. Our data indicate that MLL is crucial for NUP98-HOXA9 leukemia initiation.

Valerio DG, Xu H, Chen CW, et al.
Histone Acetyltransferase Activity of MOF Is Required for
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(7):1753-1762 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromatin-based mechanisms offer therapeutic targets in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that are of great current interest. In this study, we conducted an RNAi-based screen to identify druggable chromatin regulator-based targets in leukemias marked by oncogenic rearrangements of the

de Rooij JD, Branstetter C, Ma J, et al.
Pediatric non-Down syndrome acute megakaryoblastic leukemia is characterized by distinct genomic subsets with varying outcomes.
Nat Genet. 2017; 49(3):451-456 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in which cells morphologically resemble abnormal megakaryoblasts. While rare in adults, AMKL accounts for 4-15% of newly diagnosed childhood AML cases. AMKL in individuals without Down syndrome (non-DS-AMKL) is frequently associated with poor clinical outcomes. Previous efforts have identified chimeric oncogenes in a substantial number of non-DS-AMKL cases, including RBM15-MKL1, CBFA2T3-GLIS2, KMT2A gene rearrangements, and NUP98-KDM5A. However, the etiology of 30-40% of cases remains unknown. To better understand the genomic landscape of non-DS-AMKL, we performed RNA and exome sequencing on specimens from 99 patients (75 pediatric and 24 adult). We demonstrate that pediatric non-DS-AMKL is a heterogeneous malignancy that can be divided into seven subgroups with varying outcomes. These subgroups are characterized by chimeric oncogenes with cooperating mutations in epigenetic and kinase signaling genes. Overall, these data shed light on the etiology of AMKL and provide useful information for the tailoring of treatment.

Hara Y, Shiba N, Ohki K, et al.
Prognostic impact of specific molecular profiles in pediatric acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in non-Down syndrome.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(5):394-404 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pediatric acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in non-Down syndrome (AMKL) is a unique subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Novel CBFA2T3-GLIS2 and NUP98-KDM5A fusions recurrently found in AMKL were recently reported as poor prognostic factors. However, their detailed clinical and molecular characteristics in patients treated with recent improved therapies remain uncertain. We analyzed molecular features of 44 AMKL patients treated on two recent Japanese AML protocols, the AML99 and AML-05 trials. We identified CBFA2T3-GLIS2, NUP98-KDM5A, RBM15-MKL1, and KMT2A rearrangements in 12 (27%), 4 (9%), 2 (5%), and 3 (7%) patients, respectively. Among 459 other AML patients, NUP98-KDM5A was identified in 3 patients, whereas CBFA2T3-GLIS2 and RBM15-MKL1 were only present in AMKL. GATA1 mutations were found in 5 patients (11%). Four-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates of CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive patients in AMKL were 41.7% and 16.7%, respectively. Three-year cumulative incidence of relapse in CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive patients was significantly higher than that of CBFA2T3-GLIS2-negative patients (75.0% vs. 35.7%, P = 0.024). In multivariate analyses, CBFA2T3-GLIS2 was an independent poor prognostic factor for OS (HR, 4.34; 95% CI, 1.31-14.38) and EFS (HR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.20-7.23). Furthermore, seven (54%) of 13 infant AMKL patients were CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive. Notably, out of 7 CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive infants, six (86%) relapsed and five (71%) died. Moreover, all of CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive patients who experienced induction failure (n = 3) were infants, indicating worse prognosis of CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive infants. These findings indicated the significance of CBFA2T3-GLIS2 as a poor prognostic factor in AMKL patients, particularly in infants.

Ning Y
A cryptic translocation leading to NUP98-PHF23 fusion in AML.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2016; 29(4):320-323 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosome translocations leading to gene fusions have emerged as important oncogenic drivers of various types of malignancies. Detection and characterization of these fusion genes not only help diagnosis and management of specific malignancies, but also contribute to our understanding of the genetic basis and pathogenesis of these diseases. NUP98 gene encodes a 98 kDa nucleoporin, which is a component of the nuclear pore complex that mediates transport of mRNA and proteins between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Due to its participation in translocations leading to the formation of fusion with at least 29 different partner genes, NUP98 is considered one of the most promiscuous fusion genes in hematologic malignancies. We discuss our identification and characterization of a NUP98-PHF23 fusion from a cryptic translocation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Xu H, Valerio DG, Eisold ME, et al.
NUP98 Fusion Proteins Interact with the NSL and MLL1 Complexes to Drive Leukemogenesis.
Cancer Cell. 2016; 30(6):863-878 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The nucleoporin 98 gene (NUP98) is fused to a variety of partner genes in multiple hematopoietic malignancies. Here, we demonstrate that NUP98 fusion proteins, including NUP98-HOXA9 (NHA9), NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13), NUP98-NSD1, NUP98-PHF23, and NUP98-TOP1 physically interact with mixed lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1) and the non-specific lethal (NSL) histone-modifying complexes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing illustrates that NHA9 and MLL1 co-localize on chromatin and are found associated with Hox gene promoter regions. Furthermore, MLL1 is required for the proliferation of NHA9 cells in vitro and in vivo. Inactivation of MLL1 leads to decreased expression of genes bound by NHA9 and MLL1 and reverses a gene expression signature found in NUP98-rearranged human leukemias. Our data reveal a molecular dependency on MLL1 function in NUP98-fusion-driven leukemogenesis.

Pan M, Zhang Q, Liu P, et al.
Inhibition of the nuclear export of p65 and IQCG in leukemogenesis by NUP98-IQCG.
Front Med. 2016; 10(4):410-419 [PubMed] Related Publications
NUP98 fuses with approximately 34 different partner genes via translocation in hematological malignancies. Transgenic or retrovirus-mediated bone marrow transplanted mouse models reveal the leukemogenesis of some NUP98-related fusion genes. We previously reported the fusion protein NUP98-IQ motif containing G (IQCG) in a myeloid/T lymphoid bi-phenoleukemia patient with t(3;11) and confirmed its leukemogenic ability. Herein, we demonstrated the association of NUP98-IQCG with CRM1, and found that NUP98-IQCG expression inhibits the CRM1-mediated nuclear export of p65 and enhances the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-κB. Moreover, IQCG could be entrapped in the nucleus by NUP98-IQCG, and the fusion protein interacts with calmodulin via the IQ motif in a calcium-independent manner. Therefore, the inhibition of nuclear exports of p65 and IQCG might contribute to the leukemogenesis of NUP98-IQCG.

Struski S, Lagarde S, Bories P, et al.
NUP98 is rearranged in 3.8% of pediatric AML forming a clinical and molecular homogenous group with a poor prognosis.
Leukemia. 2017; 31(3):565-572 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rare disease whose prognosis is highly variable according to factors such as chromosomal abnormalities. Recurrent genomic rearrangements are detected in half of pediatric AML by karyotype. NUcleoPorin 98 (NUP98) gene is rearranged with 31 different fusion partner genes. These rearrangements are frequently undetected by conventional cytogenetics, as the NUP98 gene is located at the end of the chromosome 11 short arm (11p15). By screening a series of 574 pediatric AML, we detected a NUP98 rearrangement in 22 cases (3.8%), a frequency similar to CBFB-MYH11 fusion gene (4.0%). The most frequent NUP98 fusion gene partner is NSD1. These cases are homogeneous regarding their biological and clinical characteristics, and associated with bad prognosis only improved by bone marrow transplantation. We detailed the biological characteristics of these AML by exome sequencing which demonstrated few recurrent mutations (FLT3 ITD, WT1, CEBPA, NBPF14, BCR and ODF1). The analysis of the clonal structure in these cases suggests that the mutation order in the NUP98-rearranged pediatric AML begins with the NUP98 rearrangement leading to epigenetic dysregulations then followed by mutations of critical hematopoietic transcription factors and finally, activation of the FLT3 signaling pathway.

Collins CT, Hess JL
Deregulation of the HOXA9/MEIS1 axis in acute leukemia.
Curr Opin Hematol. 2016; 23(4):354-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HOXA9 is a homeodomain transcription factor that plays an essential role in normal hematopoiesis and acute leukemia, in which its overexpression is strongly correlated with poor prognosis. The present review highlights recent advances in the understanding of genetic alterations leading to deregulation of HOXA9 and the downstream mechanisms of HOXA9-mediated transformation.
RECENT FINDINGS: A variety of genetic alterations including MLL translocations, NUP98-fusions, NPM1 mutations, CDX deregulation, and MOZ-fusions lead to high-level HOXA9 expression in acute leukemias. The mechanisms resulting in HOXA9 overexpression are beginning to be defined and represent attractive therapeutic targets. Small molecules targeting MLL-fusion protein complex members, such as DOT1L and menin, have shown promising results in animal models, and a DOT1L inhibitor is currently being tested in clinical trials. Essential HOXA9 cofactors and collaborators are also being identified, including transcription factors PU.1 and C/EBPα, which are required for HOXA9-driven leukemia. HOXA9 targets including IGF1, CDX4, INK4A/INK4B/ARF, mir-21, and mir-196b and many others provide another avenue for potential drug development.
SUMMARY: HOXA9 deregulation underlies a large subset of aggressive acute leukemias. Understanding the mechanisms regulating the expression and activity of HOXA9, along with its critical downstream targets, shows promise for the development of more selective and effective leukemia therapies.

Wang J, Papanicolau-Sengos A, Chintala S, et al.
Collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney is associated with CDKN2A deletion and SLC family gene up-regulation.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(21):29901-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The genetic landscape and molecular features of collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) of the kidney remain largely unknown. Herein, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) and transcriptome sequencing (RNASeq) on 7 CDC samples (CDC1 -7). Among the 7 samples, 4 samples with matched non-tumor tissue were used for copy number analysis by SNP array data. No recurrent somatic SNVs were observed except for MLL, which was found to be mutated (p.V297I and p.F407C) in 2 samples. We identified somatic SNVs in 14 other cancer census genes including: ATM, CREBBP, PRDM1, CBFB, FBXW7, IKZF1, KDR, KRAS, NACA, NF2, NUP98, SS18, TP53, and ZNF521. SNP array data identified a CDKN2A homozygous deletion in 3 samples and SNV analysis showed a non-sense mutation of the CDKN2A gene with unknown somatic status. To estimate the recurrent rate of CDKN2A abnormalities, we performed FISH screening of additional samples and confirmed the frequent loss (62.5%) of CDKN2A expression. Since cisplatin based therapy is the common treatment option for CDC, we investigated the expression of solute carrier (SLC) family transporters and found 45% alteration. In addition, SLC7A11 (cystine transporter, xCT), a cisplatin resistance associated gene, was found to be overexpressed in 4 out of 5 (80%) cases of CDC tumors tested, as compared to matched non-tumor tissue. In summary, our study provides a comprehensive genomic analysis of CDC and identifies potential pathways suitable for targeted therapies.

de Rooij JD, Masetti R, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, et al.
Recurrent abnormalities can be used for risk group stratification in pediatric AMKL: a retrospective intergroup study.
Blood. 2016; 127(26):3424-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genetic abnormalities and early treatment response are the main prognostic factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a rare subtype of AML. Deep sequencing has identified CBFA2T3/GLIS2 and NUP98/KDM5A as recurrent aberrations, occurring in similar frequencies as RBM15/MKL1 and KMT2A-rearrangements. We studied whether these cytogenetic aberrations can be used for risk group stratification. To assess frequencies and outcome parameters of recurrent cytogenetic aberrations in AMKL, samples and clinical data of patients treated by the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica, Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster Study Group, Children's Oncology Group, Dutch Childhood Oncology Group, and the Saint Louis Hôpital were collected, enabling us to screen 153 newly diagnosed pediatric AMKL cases for the aforementioned aberrations and to study their clinical characteristics and outcome. CBFA2T3/GLIS2 was identified in 16% of the cases; RBM15/MKL1, in 12%; NUP98/KDM5A and KMT2A rearrangements, in 9% each; and monosomy 7, in 6%. These aberrations were mutually exclusive. RBM15/MKL1-rearranged patients were significantly younger. No significant differences in sex and white blood cell count were found. NUP98/KDM5A, CBFA2T3/GLIS2, KMT2A-rearranged lesions and monosomy 7 (NCK-7) independently predicted a poor outcome, compared with RBM15/MKL1-rearranged patients and those with AMKL not carrying these molecular lesions. NCK-7-patients (n = 61) showed a 4-year probability of overall survival of 35 ± 6% vs 70 ± 5% in the RBM15/MKL1-other groups (n = 92, P < .0001) and 4-year probability of event-free survival of 33 ± 6% vs 62 ± 5% (P = .0013), the 4-year cumulative incidence of relapse being 42 ± 7% and 19 ± 4% (P = .003), respectively. We conclude that these genetic aberrations may be used for risk group stratification of pediatric AMKL and for treatment tailoring.

Ho H, Skaist AM, Pallavajjala A, et al.
NUP98-PHF23 fusion is recurrent in acute myeloid leukemia and shares gene expression signature of leukemic stem cells.
Leuk Res. 2016; 45:1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosome translocations involving nucleoporin 98 gene (NUP98) have been identified in a wide array of hematologic malignancies, and the resulting NUP98-associated fusions are known to play a critical role in leukemogensis through dysregulation of gene expression. Although NUP98-associated fusions were initially thought to be rare, application of molecular technologies has revealed that cryptic translocations involving NUP98 are more frequent than previously appreciated. We report an additional case of t(11;17)(p15;p13) resulting in the fusion of NUP98 and plant homeodomain finger 23 (PHF23) in a pediatric patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using RNA sequencing, we determined in-frame fusion points and also analyzed the gene expression profile of NUP98-PHF23 positive AML. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) demonstrates that NUP98-PHF23 fusion shares gene expression signature of NUP98-HOXA9 fusion, the prototype of the NUP98-associated fusions, as well as the signature of leukemic stem cells. To our knowledge this is the first transcriptome analysis of human samples with NUP98-PHF23 positive AML. Our findings are in support of the gene expression study of NUP98-PHF23 mouse model and validate the usefulness of the mouse model in developing therapeutic strategies for the treatment of subsets of AML.

Sontakke P, Koczula KM, Jaques J, et al.
Hypoxia-Like Signatures Induced by BCR-ABL Potentially Alter the Glutamine Uptake for Maintaining Oxidative Phosphorylation.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153226 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Warburg effect is probably the most prominent metabolic feature of cancer cells, although little is known about the underlying mechanisms and consequences. Here, we set out to study these features in detail in a number of leukemia backgrounds. The transcriptomes of human CB CD34+ cells transduced with various oncogenes, including BCR-ABL, MLL-AF9, FLT3-ITD, NUP98-HOXA9, STAT5A and KRASG12V were analyzed in detail. Our data indicate that in particular BCR-ABL, KRASG12V and STAT5 could impose hypoxic signaling under normoxic conditions. This coincided with an upregulation of glucose importers SLC2A1/3, hexokinases and HIF1 and 2. NMR-based metabolic profiling was performed in CB CD34+ cells transduced with BCR-ABL versus controls, both cultured under normoxia and hypoxia. Lactate and pyruvate levels were increased in BCR-ABL-expressing cells even under normoxia, coinciding with enhanced glutaminolysis which occurred in an HIF1/2-dependent manner. Expression of the glutamine importer SLC1A5 was increased in BCR-ABL+ cells, coinciding with an increased susceptibility to the glutaminase inhibitor BPTES. Oxygen consumption rates also decreased upon BPTES treatment, indicating a glutamine dependency for oxidative phosphorylation. The current study suggests that BCR-ABL-positive cancer cells make use of enhanced glutamine metabolism to maintain TCA cell cycle activity in glycolytic cells.

Hönes JM, Botezatu L, Helness A, et al.
GFI1 as a novel prognostic and therapeutic factor for AML/MDS.
Leukemia. 2016; 30(6):1237-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic and epigenetic aberrations contribute to the initiation and progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). GFI1, a zinc-finger transcriptional repressor, exerts its function by recruiting histone deacetylases to target genes. We present data that low expression of GFI1 is associated with an inferior prognosis of AML patients. To elucidate the mechanism behind this, we generated a humanized mouse strain with reduced GFI1 expression (GFI1-KD). Here we show that AML development induced by onco-fusion proteins such as MLL-AF9 or NUP98-HOXD13 is accelerated in mice with low human GFI1 expression. Leukemic cells from animals that express low levels of GFI1 show increased H3K9 acetylation compared to leukemic cells from mice with normal human GFI1 expression, resulting in the upregulation of genes involved in leukemogenesis. We investigated a new epigenetic therapy approach for this subgroup of AML patients. We could show that AML blasts from GFI1-KD mice and from AML patients with low GFI1 levels were more sensitive to treatment with histone acetyltransferase inhibitors than cells with normal GFI1 expression levels. We suggest therefore that GFI1 has a dose-dependent role in AML progression and development. GFI1 levels are involved in epigenetic regulation, which could open new therapeutic approaches for AML patients.

Romana S, Radford-Weiss I, Lapierre JM, et al.
Formation of Nup98-containing nuclear bodies in HeLa sublines is linked to genomic rearrangements affecting chromosome 11.
Chromosoma. 2016; 125(4):789-805 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nup98 is an important component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and also a rare but recurrent target for chromosomal translocation in leukaemogenesis. Nup98 contains multiple cohesive Gly-Leu-Phe-Gly (GLFG) repeats that are critical notably for the formation of intranuclear GLFG bodies. Previous studies have reported the existence of GLFG bodies in cells overexpressing exogenous Nup98 or in a HeLa subline (HeLa-C) expressing an unusual elevated amount of endogenous Nup98. Here, we have analysed the presence of Nup98-containing bodies in several human cell lines. We found that HEp-2, another HeLa subline, contains GLFG bodies that are distinct from those identified in HeLa-C. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) revealed that HEp-2 cells express additional truncated forms of Nup98 fused to a non-coding region of chromosome 11q22.1. Cytogenetic analyses using FISH and array-CGH further revealed chromosomal rearrangements that were distinct from those observed in leukaemic cells. Indeed, HEp-2 cells feature a massive amplification of juxtaposed NUP98 and 11q22.1 loci on a chromosome marker derived from chromosome 3. Unexpectedly, minor co-amplifications of NUP98 and 11q22.1 loci were also observed in other HeLa sublines, but on rearranged chromosomes 11. Altogether, this study reveals that distinct genomic rearrangements affecting NUP98 are associated with the formation of GLFG bodies in specific HeLa sublines.

Shiba N, Ohki K, Kobayashi T, et al.
High PRDM16 expression identifies a prognostic subgroup of pediatric acute myeloid leukaemia correlated to FLT3-ITD, KMT2A-PTD, and NUP98-NSD1: the results of the Japanese Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group AML-05 trial.
Br J Haematol. 2016; 172(4):581-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent reports described the NUP98-NSD1 fusion as an adverse prognostic marker for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and PRDM16 (also known as MEL1) as the representative overexpressed gene in patients harbouring NUP98-NSD1 fusion. PRDM16 gene expression levels were measured via real-time polymerase chain reaction in 369 paediatric patients with de novo AML, of whom 84 (23%) exhibited PRDM16 overexpression (PRDM16/ABL1 ratio ≥0·010). The frequencies of patients with high or low PRDM16 expression differed widely with respect to each genetic alteration, as follows: t(8;21), 4% vs. 96%, P < 0·001; inv(16), 0% vs. 100%, P < 0·001; KMT2A (also termed MLL)- partial tandem duplication, 100% vs. 0%, P < 0·001; NUP98-NSD1, 100% vs. 0%, P < 0·001. The overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) among PRDM16-overexpressing patients were significantly worse than in patients with low PRDM16 expression (3-year OS: 51% vs. 81%, P < 0·001, 3-year EFS: 32% vs. 64%, P < 0·001) irrespective of other cytogenetic alterations except for NPM1. PRDM16 gene expression was particularly useful for stratifying FLT3-internal tandem duplication-positive AML patients (3-year OS: high = 30% vs. low = 70%, P < 0·001). PRDM16 overexpression was highly recurrent in de novo paediatric AML patients with high/intermediate-risk cytogenetic profiles and was independently associated with an adverse outcome.

Abe A, Yamamoto Y, Iba S, et al.
ETV6-LPXN fusion transcript generated by t(11;12)(q12.1;p13) in a patient with relapsing acute myeloid leukemia with NUP98-HOXA9.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(3):242-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETV6, which encodes an ETS family transcription factor, is frequently rearranged in human leukemias. We show here that a patient with acute myeloid leukemia with t(7;11)(p15;p15) gained, at the time of relapse, t(11;12)(q12.1;p13) with a split ETV6 FISH signal. Using 3'-RACE PCR analysis, we found that ETV6 was fused to LPXN at 11q12.1, which encodes leupaxin. ETV6-LPXN, an in-frame fusion between exon 4 of ETV6 and exon 2 of LPXN, did not transform the interleukin-3-dependent 32D myeloid cell line to cytokine independence; however, an enhanced proliferative response was observed when these cells were treated with G-CSF without inhibition of granulocytic differentiation. The 32D and human leukemia cell lines each transduced with ETV6-LPXN showed enhanced migration towards the chemokine CXCL12. We show here for the first time that LPXN is a fusion partner of ETV6 and present evidence indicating that ETV6-LPXN plays a crucial role in leukemia progression through enhancing the response to G-CSF and CXCL12.

Burillo-Sanz S, Morales-Camacho RM, Caballero-Velázquez T, et al.
NUP98-HOXA9 bearing therapy-related myeloid neoplasm involves myeloid-committed cell and induces HOXA5, EVI1, FLT3, and MEIS1 expression.
Int J Lab Hematol. 2016; 38(1):64-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Chromosomal rearrangements involving NUP98 gene have been associated with human leukemias such as de novo AML, therapy-related AML (t-AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Genetic fusion NUP98-HOXA9, caused by t(7;11)(p15;p15), is a recurrent cytogenetic alteration in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) usually found in young Asian patients and its description in therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) is rare. Only one Asian case with molecular demonstration of the NUP98-HOXA9 fusion has been reported in therapy-related leukemia. NUP98-HOXA9 leukemogenic mechanism is derived from the transcription factor activity of the chimeric protein, which enhances the expression of genes related to cellular differentiation arrest and proliferation.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied a Caucasian woman with a therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia after Ewing's sarcoma. Molecular demonstration of the genetic fusion NUP98-HOXA9 was performed by RT-PCR, and gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR, including four AML patients with MLL rearrangements for comparative analysis. Cytologic and flow cytometric analysis was also carried out.
RESULTS: After cytologic and flow cytometric analysis diagnostics was therapy-related myeloid neoplasm (t-MN). The major component of blasts in the acute leukemia was with neutrophilic differentiation, but 13% erythroid lineage blasts were also found. Cytogenetic and FISH analysis revealed t(7;11)(p15;p15) and NUP98-HOXA9 fusion gene was demonstrated. Gene expression analysis showed upregulation of EVI1 and MEIS1 in the index patient, both of them previously related to a worst outcome.
CONCLUSION: In this work, we include a detailed molecular, clinical, cytological, and cytometric study of the second t-AML bearing NUP98-HOXA9 genetic fusion.

Hsu CH, Nguyen C, Yan C, et al.
Transcriptome Profiling of Pediatric Core Binding Factor AML.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(9):e0138782 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The t(8;21) and Inv(16) translocations disrupt the normal function of core binding factors alpha (CBFA) and beta (CBFB), respectively. These translocations represent two of the most common genomic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, occurring in approximately 25% pediatric and 15% of adult with this malignancy. Both translocations are associated with favorable clinical outcomes after intensive chemotherapy, and given the perceived mechanistic similarities, patients with these translocations are frequently referred to as having CBF-AML. It remains uncertain as to whether, collectively, these translocations are mechanistically the same or impact different pathways in subtle ways that have both biological and clinical significance. Therefore, we used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate the similarities and differences in genes and pathways between these subtypes of pediatric AMLs. Diagnostic RNA from patients with t(8;21) (N = 17), Inv(16) (N = 14), and normal karyotype (NK, N = 33) were subjected to RNA-seq. Analyses compared the transcriptomes across these three cytogenetic subtypes, using the NK cohort as the control. A total of 1291 genes in t(8;21) and 474 genes in Inv(16) were differentially expressed relative to the NK controls, with 198 genes differentially expressed in both subtypes. The majority of these genes (175/198; binomial test p-value < 10(-30)) are consistent in expression changes among the two subtypes suggesting the expression profiles are more similar between the CBF cohorts than in the NK cohort. Our analysis also revealed alternative splicing events (ASEs) differentially expressed across subtypes, with 337 t(8;21)-specific and 407 Inv(16)-specific ASEs detected, the majority of which were acetylated proteins (p = 1.5 x 10(-51) and p = 1.8 x 10(-54) for the two subsets). In addition to known fusions, we identified and verified 16 de novo fusions in 43 patients, including three fusions involving NUP98 in six patients. Clustering of differentially expressed genes indicated that the homeobox (HOX) gene family, including two transcription factors (MEIS1 and NKX2-3) were down-regulated in CBF compared to NK samples. This finding supports existing data that the dysregulation of HOX genes play a central role in biology CBF-AML hematopoiesis. These data provide comprehensive transcriptome profiling of CBF-AML and delineate genes and pathways that are differentially expressed, providing insights into the shared biology as well as differences in the two CBF subsets.

Cheng X, Byrne M, Brown KD, et al.
PKR inhibits the DNA damage response, and is associated with poor survival in AML and accelerated leukemia in NHD13 mice.
Blood. 2015; 126(13):1585-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increased expression of the interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) has been reported in acute leukemia and solid tumors, but the role of PKR has been unclear. Now, our results indicate that high PKR expression in CD34(+) cells of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients correlates with worse survival and shortened remission duration. Significantly, we find that PKR has a novel and previously unrecognized nuclear function to inhibit DNA damage response signaling and double-strand break repair. Nuclear PKR antagonizes ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) activation by a mechanism dependent on protein phosphatase 2A activity. Thus, inhibition of PKR expression or activity promotes ATM activation, γ-H2AX formation, and phosphorylation of NBS1 following ionizing irradiation. PKR transgenic but not PKR null mice demonstrate a mutator phenotype characterized by radiation-induced and age-associated genomic instability that was partially reversed by short-term pharmacologic PKR inhibition. Furthermore, the age-associated accumulation of somatic mutations that occurs in the Nup98-HOXD13 (NHD13) mouse model of leukemia progression was significantly elevated by co-expression of a PKR transgene, whereas knockout of PKR expression or pharmacologic inhibition of PKR activity reduced the frequency of spontaneous mutations in vivo. Thus, PKR cooperated with the NHD13 transgene to accelerate leukemia progression and shorten survival. Taken together, these results indicate that increased nuclear PKR has an oncogenic function that promotes the accumulation of potentially deleterious mutations. Thus, PKR inhibition may be a therapeutically useful strategy to prevent leukemia progression or relapse, and improve clinical outcomes.

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