Gene Summary

Gene:CD58; CD58 molecule
Aliases: ag3, LFA3, LFA-3
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The encoded protein is a ligand of the T lymphocyte CD2 protein, and functions in adhesion and activation of T lymphocytes. The protein is localized to the plasma membrane. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CD58 (cancer-related)

Dybkær K, Bøgsted M, Falgreen S, et al.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma classification system that associates normal B-cell subset phenotypes with prognosis.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(12):1379-88 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/04/2016 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Current diagnostic tests for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma use the updated WHO criteria based on biologic, morphologic, and clinical heterogeneity. We propose a refined classification system based on subset-specific B-cell-associated gene signatures (BAGS) in the normal B-cell hierarchy, hypothesizing that it can provide new biologic insight and diagnostic and prognostic value.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We combined fluorescence-activated cell sorting, gene expression profiling, and statistical modeling to generate BAGS for naive, centrocyte, centroblast, memory, and plasmablast B cells from normal human tonsils. The impact of BAGS-assigned subtyping was analyzed using five clinical cohorts (treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone [CHOP], n = 270; treated with rituximab plus CHOP [R-CHOP], n = 869) gathered across geographic regions, time eras, and sampling methods. The analysis estimated subtype frequencies and drug-specific resistance and included a prognostic meta-analysis of patients treated with first-line R-CHOP therapy.
RESULTS: Similar BAGS subtype frequencies were assigned across 1,139 samples from five different cohorts. Among R-CHOP-treated patients, BAGS assignment was significantly associated with overall survival and progression-free survival within the germinal center B-cell-like subclass; the centrocyte subtype had a superior prognosis compared with the centroblast subtype. In agreement with the observed therapeutic outcome, centrocyte subtypes were estimated as being less resistant than the centroblast subtype to doxorubicin and vincristine. The centroblast subtype had a complex genotype, whereas the centrocyte subtype had high TP53 mutation and insertion/deletion frequencies and expressed LMO2, CD58, and stromal-1-signature and major histocompatibility complex class II-signature genes, which are known to have a positive impact on prognosis.
CONCLUSION: Further development of a diagnostic platform using BAGS-assigned subtypes may allow pathogenetic studies to improve disease management.

Yoshida N, Karube K, Utsunomiya A, et al.
Molecular characterization of chronic-type adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(21):6129-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a human T-cell leukemia virus type-1-induced neoplasm with four clinical subtypes: acute, lymphoma, chronic, and smoldering. Although the chronic type is regarded as indolent ATL, about half of the cases progress to acute-type ATL. The molecular pathogenesis of acute transformation in chronic-type ATL is only partially understood. In an effort to determine the molecular pathogeneses of ATL, and especially the molecular mechanism of acute transformation, oligo-array comparative genomic hybridization and comprehensive gene expression profiling were applied to 27 and 35 cases of chronic and acute type ATL, respectively. The genomic profile of the chronic type was nearly identical to that of acute-type ATL, although more genomic alterations characteristic of acute-type ATL were observed. Among the genomic alterations frequently observed in acute-type ATL, the loss of CDKN2A, which is involved in cell-cycle deregulation, was especially characteristic of acute-type ATL compared with chronic-type ATL. Furthermore, we found that genomic alteration of CD58, which is implicated in escape from the immunosurveillance mechanism, is more frequently observed in acute-type ATL than in the chronic-type. Interestingly, the chronic-type cases with cell-cycle deregulation and disruption of immunosurveillance mechanism were associated with earlier progression to acute-type ATL. These findings suggested that cell-cycle deregulation and the immune escape mechanism play important roles in acute transformation of the chronic type and indicated that these alterations are good predictive markers for chronic-type ATL.

Xu S, Wen Z, Jiang Q, et al.
CD58, a novel surface marker, promotes self-renewal of tumor-initiating cells in colorectal cancer.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(12):1520-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal tumor-initiating cells (CT-ICs) have self-renewal capabilities and have an important role in tumorigenesis, metastasis, recurrence and treatment resistance in colorectal cancer. Multiple cell-surface molecules targeting CT-ICs, possibly representing different CT-IC subpopulations, have been reported. However, whether new surface markers exist, as well as the mechanisms by which the markers regulate self-renewal, remain unclear. In this study, we enriched a CT-IC population through a serum-free low-adhesion system in vitro. Within this population, we found that CD58 and CD44 were upregulated using a cDNA GeneChip, and CD44(high)CD58(high) cancer cells, the common existence of which was demonstrated by flow cytometry in multiple colon cancer cell lines and primary specimens, exhibited enhanced self-renewal ability, epithelial-mesenchymal transition ability and tumorigenicity, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, activated CD58 upregulated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and thus promoted self-renewal of CT-ICs; conversely, knockdown of CD58 significantly impaired sphere formation and tumor growth. With immunoprecipitation and western blotting approaches, CD58 was found to upregulate the Wnt pathway by degradation of Dickkopf 3. These results indicate that CD58 is a novel cell-surface marker that functionally regulates self-renewal of CT-ICs, which may provide an intriguing therapeutic target for the efficient killing and elimination of CT-ICs.

Knol AC, Nguyen JM, Pandolfino MC, et al.
Tissue biomarkers in melanoma patients treated with TIL.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e48729 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/04/2016 Related Publications
While treating stage III melanoma patients with autologous therapeutic TIL in an adjuvant setting, we previously reported a significant benefit of treatment on both progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with only one invaded lymph node (early stage III) compared to patients with more than one invaded lymph nodes (advanced stage III). In this context, in order to understand the difference of activity of TIL therapy according to the progression of the illness at stage III, the first objective of the present study was to determine potential differences in the characteristics of TIL populations obtained from an early stage III and a more advanced stage III when tumor burden is more important. The second objective was to determine possible differences in tissue expression level of several molecules involved in interactions between tumor cells and T cells between early and advanced stage III considering that the tumor microenvironment of invaded lymph nodes could become more tolerant with the progression of the disease. A total of 47 samples of melanoma invaded LN from stage IIIb (AJCC 2007) melanoma patients treated with TIL plus IL-2 were included in this study. We confirmed that both PFS and OS were significantly associated to the presence of tumor-reactive T-cells among TIL injected to the patients and that these tumor reactive T cells were more frequently observed at the early stage III. Moreover, while analyzing the expression of 17 markers on 34/47 tumor specimens using immunohistochemistry, we identified that 3 tissue markers involved in interactions between melanoma cells and T cells have a significant difference of expression between early and advanced stage III: MHC class I, adhesion molecule ICAM-1 and the co-stimulation molecule LFA-3 had a significantly weaker expression in melanoma tissue specimens from advanced stage III. In addition, the expression of the alpha chain of the IL-2 receptor (CD25) and the nuclear transcription factor Foxp3 was significantly increased in the melanoma tissue specimens from advanced stage III. Our results suggest differences in the immunological status of the tumor microenvironment between early and advanced stage III, which could explain the difference in clinical response to TIL infusion in an adjuvant setting between early and advanced stage III.

Gökmen-Polar Y, Sanders KL, Goswami CP, et al.
Establishment and characterization of a novel cell line derived from human thymoma AB tumor.
Lab Invest. 2012; 92(11):1564-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thymomas are low-grade epithelial tumors of the anterior mediastinum. The complexity of the disease and the lack of in vitro and in vivo models hamper the development of better therapeutics. In this study, we report a novel cell line, designated as IU-TAB-1, which was established from a patient with stage II thymoma (World Health Organization-type AB). The IU-TAB-1 cell line was established in vitro and characterized using histological and immunohistochemical staining, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, cytogenetic analyses and functional assays including in vitro and a NOD/SCID xenograft model. A whole-genome gene expression analysis (Illumina) was performed on the IU-TAB-1 cell line and 34 thymomas to determine the clinical relevance of the cell line. The IU-TAB-1 cell line was positive for epithelial markers (pan-cytokeratin and EpCAM/CD326) including thymic epithelial (TE) surface markers (such as CD29, CD9, CD54/ICAM-1, CD58 and CD24) and p63, and negative for B- and T-cell lineage markers. Gene expression profiling demonstrated overlapping and distinct genes between IU-TAB-1 and primary thymomas including the primary tumor (from which the cell line was derived). IU-TAB-1 cells are tumorigenic when implanted in immunodeficient mice with tumors reaching a volume of 1000 mm³ at around 130 days. The established cell line represents a biologically relevant new tool to investigate the molecular pathology of thymic malignancies and to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapeutics both in vitro and in vivo.

Gene inactivation promotes immune escape in DLBCL.
Cancer Discov. 2012; 2(2):OF8 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Major finding: The majority of DLBCLs fail to express cell surface–associated B2M and CD58.
CONCEPT: DLBCLs evade immune recognition by both CTLs and NK cells.
IMPACT: Immune escape provides selective pressure during lymphomagenesis.

Bernardo GM, Bebek G, Ginther CL, et al.
FOXA1 represses the molecular phenotype of basal breast cancer cells.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(5):554-63 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/04/2016 Related Publications
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that comprises multiple subtypes. Luminal subtype tumors confer a more favorable patient prognosis, which is, in part, attributed to estrogen receptor (ER)-α positivity and antihormone responsiveness. Expression of the forkhead box transcription factor, FOXA1, similarly correlates with the luminal subtype and patient survival, but is also present in a subset of ER-negative tumors. FOXA1 is also consistently expressed in luminal breast cancer cell lines even in the absence of ER. In contrast, breast cancer cell lines representing the basal subtype do not express FOXA1. To delineate an ER-independent role for FOXA1 in maintaining the luminal phenotype, and hence a more favorable prognosis, we performed expression microarray analyses on FOXA1-positive and ER-positive (MCF7, T47D), or FOXA1-positive and ER-negative (MDA-MB-453, SKBR3) luminal cell lines in the presence or absence of transient FOXA1 silencing. This resulted in three FOXA1 transcriptomes: (1) a luminal signature (consistent across cell lines), (2) an ER-positive signature (restricted to MCF7 and T47D) and (3) an ER-negative signature (restricted to MDA-MB-453 and SKBR3). Gene set enrichment analyses revealed FOXA1 silencing causes a partial transcriptome shift from luminal to basal gene expression signatures. FOXA1 binds to a subset of both luminal and basal genes within luminal breast cancer cells, and loss of FOXA1 increases enhancer RNA transcription for a representative basal gene (CD58). These data suggest FOXA1 directly represses a subset of basal signature genes. Functionally, FOXA1 silencing increases migration and invasion of luminal cancer cells, both of which are characteristics of basal subtype cells. We conclude FOXA1 controls plasticity between basal and luminal breast cancer cells, not only by inducing luminal genes but also by repressing the basal phenotype, and thus aggressiveness. Although it has been proposed that FOXA1-targeting agents may be useful for treating luminal tumors, these data suggest that this approach may promote transitions toward more aggressive cancers.

Smelt MJ, Faas MM, de Haan BJ, et al.
Susceptibility of human pancreatic β cells for cytomegalovirus infection and the effects on cellular immunogenicity.
Pancreas. 2012; 41(1):39-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has been suggested to be a causal factor in the development of type 1 diabetes, posttransplantation diabetes, and the failure of islet allografts. This effect of CMV has been interpreted as an indirect effect on the immune system rather than direct infection-induced cell death. In the present study, we investigated (i) the susceptibility of β cells to HCMV infection, (ii) regulation of immune cell-activating ligands, (iii) release of proinflammatory cytokines, and (iv) the effects on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) activation.
METHODS: CM insulinoma cells and primary β cells were HCMV-infected in vitro using a laboratory and a clinical HCMV strain. The susceptibility to infection was measured by the expression of viral genes and proteins. Furthermore, expression levels of Major Histocompatibility Complex I, Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1, and Lymphocyte Function Associated Antigen-3 and the release of proinflammatory cytokines were determined. In addition, PBMC activation to HCMV-infected β cells was determined.
RESULTS: β Cells were susceptible to HCMV infection. Moreover, the infection increased the cellular immunogenicity, as demonstrated by an increased MHC I and ICAM-1 expression and an increased proinflammatory cytokine release. Human cytomegalovirus-infected CM cells potently activated PBMCs. The infection-induced effects were dependent on both viral "sensing" and viral replication.
CONCLUSIONS: In vivo β-cell HCMV infection and infection-enhanced cellular immunogenicity may have important consequences for native or transplanted β-cell survival.

Challa-Malladi M, Lieu YK, Califano O, et al.
Combined genetic inactivation of β2-Microglobulin and CD58 reveals frequent escape from immune recognition in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Cancer Cell. 2011; 20(6):728-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/04/2016 Related Publications
We report that diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) commonly fails to express cell-surface molecules necessary for the recognition of tumor cells by immune-effector cells. In 29% of cases, mutations and deletions inactivate the β2-Microglobulin gene, thus preventing the cell-surface expression of the HLA class-I (HLA-I) complex that is necessary for recognition by CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells. In 21% of cases, analogous lesions involve the CD58 gene, which encodes a molecule involved in T and natural killer cell-mediated responses. In addition to gene inactivation, alternative mechanisms lead to aberrant expression of HLA-I and CD58 in >60% of DLBCL. These two events are significantly associated in this disease, suggesting that they are coselected during lymphomagenesis for their combined role in escape from immune-surveillance.

Lee G, Zhu M, Ge B, Potzold S
Widespread expressions of immunoglobulin superfamily proteins in cancer cells.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2012; 61(1):89-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
RP215 monoclonal antibody (Mab) was shown to recognize a carbohydrate-associated epitope of cancer cell-expressed glycoproteins, known as CA215. Extensive MALDI-TOF MS analysis was performed to search for the molecular identity of CA215. Besides immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chains, homology to human T-cell receptors (TCR) and Ig-like cell adhesion molecules was also detected. By using RT-PCR and cDNA sequencing, it was observed that as many as 80% of cancer cell lines showed significant levels of gene expressions of TCR-α and TCR-β. Selected Ig-like cell adhesion molecules such as CD47, CD54, CD58 and CD 147 were also highly expressed among all the cell lines tested. In contrast, co-receptors and co-stimulators of TCR such as CD3, CD4 and CD8 were rarely expressed demonstrating the non-functional nature of TCR in cancer cells. Results of immunohistochemical staining and Western blot assays of cancer cell lines as well as cancerous tissue sections were consistent with these observations. Anti-TCR and anti-human IgG antibodies were shown to induce complement-dependent cytotoxicity and apoptosis of cultured cancer cells indicating the surface nature of Ig-like proteins. Based on these experimental observations, it was hypothesized that the expressions of these immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) proteins may be relevant to the immune protection and proliferations of cancer cells during carcinogenesis or cancer progression. Surface-bound TCR-like proteins as well as immunoglobulins may be the potential targets for RP215-based anti-cancer drugs.

Megyola C, Ye J, Bhaduri-McIntosh S
Identification of a sub-population of B cells that proliferates after infection with Epstein-Barr virus.
Virol J. 2011; 8:84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/04/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven B cell proliferation is critical to its subsequent persistence in the host and is a key event in the development of EBV-associated B cell diseases. Thus, inquiry into early cellular events that precede EBV-driven proliferation of B cells is essential for understanding the processes that can lead to EBV-associated B cell diseases.
METHODS: Infection with high titers of EBV of mixed, primary B cells in different stages of differentiation occurs during primary EBV infection and in the setting of T cell-immunocompromise that predisposes to development of EBV-lymphoproliferative diseases. Using an ex vivo system that recapitulates these conditions of infection, we correlated expression of selected B cell-surface markers and intracellular cytokines with expression of EBV latency genes and cell proliferation.
RESULTS: We identified CD23, CD58, and IL6, as molecules expressed at early times after EBV-infection. EBV differentially infected B cells into two distinct sub-populations of latently infected CD23+ cells: one fraction, marked as CD23hiCD58+IL6- by day 3, subsequently proliferated; another fraction, marked as CD23loCD58+, expressed IL6, a B cell growth factor, but failed to proliferate. High levels of LMP1, a critical viral oncoprotein, were expressed in individual CD23hiCD58+ and CD23loCD58+ cells, demonstrating that reduced levels of LMP1 did not explain the lack of proliferation of CD23loCD58+ cells. Differentiation stage of B cells did not appear to govern this dichotomy in outcome either. Memory or naïve B cells did not exclusively give rise to either CD23hi or IL6-expressing cells; rather memory B cells gave rise to both sub-populations of cells.
CONCLUSIONS: B cells are differentially susceptible to EBV-mediated proliferation despite expression of viral gene products known to be critical for continuous B cell growth. Cellular events, in addition to viral gene expression, likely play a critical role in determining the outcome of EBV infection. By indentifying cells predicted to undergo EBV-mediated proliferation, our study provides new avenues of investigation into EBV pathogenesis.

Hanada K, Wang QJ, Inozume T, Yang JC
Molecular identification of an MHC-independent ligand recognized by a human {alpha}/{beta} T-cell receptor.
Blood. 2011; 117(18):4816-25 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/04/2016 Related Publications
During an analysis of T-cell responses against human renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we identified a CD4(+) T-cell line that showed TCR-mediated recognition and lysis of nearly all RCC lines regardless of MHC type. We have now elucidated the nature of the ligand for this α/β TCR, and it contains no MHC-related moiety and does not involve classic peptide processing. First, matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) expressed on RCC cells releases membrane-bound TRAIL expressed by the T cell; then, soluble TRAIL binds to its receptor DR4 (TRAIL-R1), which is expressed on tumor cells, and this TRAIL-DR4 complex is recognized by the TCR through a complementarity-determining region 3α (CDR3α)-mediated interaction. Direct and specific antigen-TCR interaction was demonstrated when the immobilized recombinant TRAIL/DR4 complex stimulated the TCR. In addition, amino acid substitutions in the CDR3α of the TCR either obliterated or enhanced target-specific recognition. This description of the molecular nature of a non-MHC target structure recognized by a naturally occurring α/β TCR not only broadens our concept of what the TCR can recognize, but also raises the question of whether such a T cell could be of clinical utility against RCC.

Lee CF, Ling ZQ, Zhao T, Lee KR
Distinct expression patterns in hepatitis B virus- and hepatitis C virus-infected hepatocellular carcinoma.
World J Gastroenterol. 2008; 14(39):6072-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/04/2016 Related Publications
AIM: To identify biomarkers indicating virus-specific hepatocarcinogenic process, differential mRNA expression in 32 patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were investigated by means of cDNA microarrays comprising of 886 genes.
METHODS: Thirty two HCC patients were divided into two groups based on viral markers: hepatitis B virus positive and HCV positive. The expression profiles of 32 pairs of specimens (tumorous and surrounding non-tumorous liver tissues), consisting of 886 genes were analyzed.
RESULTS: Seven up-regulated genes in HBV-associated HCC comprised genes involved in protein synthesis (RPS5), cytoskeletal organization (KRT8), apoptosis related genes (CFLAR), transport (ATP5F1), cell membrane receptor related genes (IGFBP2), signal transduction or transcription related genes (MAP3K5), and metastasis-related genes (MMP9). The up-regulated genes in HCV-infected group included 4 genes: VIM (cell structure), ACTB (cell structure), GAPD (glycolysis) and CD58 (cell adhesion). The expression patterns of the 11 genes, identified by cDNA microarray, were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR in 32 specimens.
CONCLUSION: The patterns of all identified genes were classified based on the viral factor involved in HBV- and HCV-associated HCC. Our results strongly suggest that the pattern of gene expression in HCC is closely associated with the etiologic factor. The present study indicates that HBV and HCV cause hepatocarcinogenesis by different mechanisms, and provide novel tools for the diagnosis and treatment of HBV- and HCV-associated HCC.

Caruso DA, Fraser S, Hardy K, et al.
Costimulation molecule expression and subset distribution of blood dendritic cells in normal children and newly diagnosed pediatric leukemia and lymphoma patients.
Exp Hematol. 2008; 36(12):1691-703 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To characterize dendritic cell (DC) numbers, subset distribution, phenotype, and costimulation molecule expression in a normal pediatric population and in a lymphoblastic malignant pretherapy pediatric population. DC are potent antigen-presenting cells and are crucial for initiating specific immune responses.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We first analyzed peripheral blood samples of healthy pediatric controls (n=72). Once a range of normal parameters was established, we compared these to newly diagnosed pediatric leukemia and lymphoma patients prior to receiving therapy (n=69). Using flow cytometry, we examined blood DC cell-surface expression of CD80, CD86, CD40, CD18, CD50, CD83, CD123, CD58, CD54, and CD11c.
RESULTS: Expression of each of these molecules was significantly altered except for CD80, CD83, and CD58. When compared to healthy children, absolute blood DC were reduced in children with leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma (p<0.0001) and children with Hodgkin's disease (p=0.0028). Additionally, lymphocyte function in vitro, was impaired (p=0.0489) for children with lymphoblastic malignancies, while patients with Hodgkin's disease had normal proliferative function.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that peripheral blood DC from children with newly diagnosed leukemia or lymphoma are significantly altered in number, subset distribution, and costimulation molecule expression, and that lymphocyte function is impaired compared to healthy pediatric controls.

Gulley JL, Arlen PM, Tsang KY, et al.
Pilot study of vaccination with recombinant CEA-MUC-1-TRICOM poxviral-based vaccines in patients with metastatic carcinoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2008; 14(10):3060-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/04/2016 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Poxviral vectors have a proven safety record and can be used to incorporate multiple transgenes. Prior clinical trials with poxviral vaccines have shown that immunologic tolerance to self-antigens can be broken. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and MUC-1 are overexpressed in a substantial proportion of common solid carcinomas. The primary end point of this study was vaccine safety, with immunologic and clinical responses as secondary end points.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We report here a pilot study of 25 patients treated with a poxviral vaccine regimen consisting of the genes for CEA and MUC-1, along with a triad of costimulatory molecules (TRICOM; composed of B7.1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3) engineered into vaccinia (PANVAC-V) as a prime vaccination and into fowlpox (PANVAC-F) as a booster vaccination.
RESULTS: The vaccine was well tolerated. Apart from injection-site reaction, no grade > or =2 toxicity was seen in more than 2% of the cycles. Immune responses to MUC-1 and/or CEA were seen following vaccination in 9 of 16 patients tested. A patient with clear cell ovarian cancer and symptomatic ascites had a durable (18-month) clinical response radiographically and biochemically, and one breast cancer patient had a confirmed decrease of >20% in the size of large liver metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: This vaccine strategy seems to be safe, is associated with both CD8 and CD4 immune responses, and has shown evidence of clinical activity. Further trials with this agent, either alone or in combination with immunopotentiating and other therapeutic agents, are warranted.

Arlen PM, Gulley JL, Madan RA, et al.
Preclinical and clinical studies of recombinant poxvirus vaccines for carcinoma therapy.
Crit Rev Immunol. 2007; 27(5):451-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) are by definition either weakly immunogenic or functionally nonimmunogenic. Vaccine strategies have been designed to present TAAs to the immune system that may result in far greater activation of T cells than that occurring naturally in the host. These strategies include (1) placing the gene coding for the tumor antigen into poxvirus vectors as a transgene; (2) using diversified prime-and-boost vaccine strategies employing two different types of poxvirus vectors; (3) using T-cell costimulation; and (4) using cytokines, including GM-CSF, as biologic adjuvants. Preclinical studies have been performed comparing the effects on induction of antigen-specific CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses using recombinant poxvirus vectors containing transgenes for a TAA and costimulatory molecules B7-1, ICAM-1, and LFA-3 (designated TRICOM). Antigen-specific T-cell responses were greatest in the group receiving the CEA-TRICOM vaccines and were shown to correlate with survival. We have now completed the first clinical trials with poxvirus vectors containing TRICOM, using the TAAs PSA, CEA, and MUC-1. In addition, clinical studies combining vaccines with radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and second-line hormone therapy have provided preliminary evidence of prolongation of time to disease progression and antigen cascade postvaccination.

Joshi N, Johnson LL, Wei WQ, et al.
Gene expression differences in normal esophageal mucosa associated with regression and progression of mild and moderate squamous dysplasia in a high-risk Chinese population.
Cancer Res. 2006; 66(13):6851-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled 2 x 2 factorial chemoprevention trial was conducted in Linxian, China to assess the effects of selenomethionine and celecoxib on the natural history of esophageal squamous dysplasia. Results from this study indicated that asymptomatic adults with mild dysplasia were more likely to show an improvement when treated with selenomethionine compared with placebo (P = 0.02). Prompted by this finding, we examined the molecular profiles associated with regression and progression of dysplastic lesions in normal mucosa from 29 individuals, a subset of the Linxian cohort, using the Affymetrix U133A chip. Twenty differentially expressed genes were associated with regression and 129 were associated with progression when we compared the change in gene expression over time. Genes associated with immune response (n = 15), cell cycle (n = 15), metabolism (n = 15), calcium transport or calcium ion activity (n = 10), regulation of transcription (n = 9), signal transduction (n = 7), cytoskeleton and microtubules (n = 5), nucleotide processing and biosynthesis (n = 4), G-coupled signaling (n = 4), and apoptosis (n = 3) were present in the list of 149 genes. Using the Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer pathway analysis program, only the immune response pathway was significantly overrepresented among these 149 genes. Individuals whose lesions regressed seemed to have higher expression of genes associated with immune stimulation, such as antigen presentation, survival of T cells, and T-cell activation (HLA-DRA, HLA-DPA1, HLA-DBQ1, CD58, and FCER1A). In contrast, individuals whose lesions progressed had higher expression of genes involved in immune suppression and inflammation (CNR2, NFATC4, NFRKB, MBP, INHBB, CMKLR1, CRP, ORMS, SERPINA7, and SERPINA1). These data suggest that local and systemic immune responses may influence the natural history of esophageal squamous dysplasia.

Kaufman HL, Cohen S, Cheung K, et al.
Local delivery of vaccinia virus expressing multiple costimulatory molecules for the treatment of established tumors.
Hum Gene Ther. 2006; 17(2):239-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Successful immunotherapy of established tumors depends on overcoming the suppressive influence of the local tumor microenvironment. The direct injection of vaccinia virus expressing the B7.1 (CD80) costimulatory molecule into melanoma lesions resulted in local and systemic immunity with associated clinical responses. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the effects of a vaccinia virus expressing three costimulatory molecules, B7.1, ICAM-1, and LFA-3 (rV-TRICOM), in patients with metastatic melanoma. A standard dose escalation phase I clinical trial was performed. Thirteen patients were enrolled and 12 were available for follow-up. Local vaccination was feasible, with only low-grade injection site reactions associated with mild fatigue and myalgia reported. There was one occurrence of grade 1 vitiligo. Overall there was a 30.7% objective clinical response, with one patient achieving a complete response for more than 22 months. An inverse association was detected between anti-vaccinia antibody and anti-vaccinia T cell responses. Patients who failed to respond to vaccination but received high-dose interleukin-2 had a trend toward improved survival. Collectively, these results confirm the safety profile and feasibility of direct injection of vaccinia virus expressing multiple costimulatory molecules in patients with established tumors. Further clinical investigation is needed to better define the role of antigen, adjuvant cytokines, costimulation, and cross-presentation in the host immune response to local vaccination with vaccinia viruses expressing immunomodulatory molecules.

Hodge JW, Greiner JW, Tsang KY, et al.
Costimulatory molecules as adjuvants for immunotherapy.
Front Biosci. 2006; 11:788-803 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) are by definition either weakly immunogenic or functionally nonimmunogenic. Therefore, efforts have concentrated on the development of vaccine strategies in which the presentation of TAAs to the immune system results in far greater activation of T cells than that occurring naturally in the host. Several strategies are being explored in our laboratory and others to enhance the immunogenicity of TAAs. These are: (a) placing the gene coding for the tumor antigen, as a transgene, into poxvirus vectors. (b) The use of diversified prime and boost vaccine strategies employing two different types of poxvirus vectors. (c) The use of T-cell costimulation; accomplished by placing transgenes for different T-cell costimulation molecules into viral vectors along with the transgenes for the TAA. (d) Altering the amino acid sequence of the TAA to enhance the host immune response. (e) The use of cytokines, and in particular GM-CSF, as a biologic adjuvant. This review will focus on the current state of the use of costimulatory molecules as adjuvants for immunotherapy, and in particular, as immunomodulators for cancer vaccines.

Yang S, Tsang KY, Schlom J
Induction of higher-avidity human CTLs by vector-mediated enhanced costimulation of antigen-presenting cells.
Clin Cancer Res. 2005; 11(15):5603-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/04/2016 Related Publications
The efficacy of antigen-specific CD8(+) CTLs depends not only on the quantity of CTLs generated but also perhaps, more importantly, on the avidity of the CTLs. To date, however, no strategy has been shown to preferentially induce higher-avidity human CTLs. In the present study, antigen-presenting cells (APC) generated from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected with a recombinant avipox vector (rF-) containing the transgenes for a triad of costimulatory molecules (human B7.1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and LFA-3, designated as rF-TRICOM) and then used to elicit peptide-specific CTLs from autologous T cells. Compared with peptide-pulsed noninfected APCs or peptide-pulsed APCs infected with wild-type vector, peptide-pulsed APCs infected with rF-TRICOM induced not only more CTLs but also higher-avidity CTLs; this was shown by tetramer staining, tetramer dissociation, IFN-gamma production, and cytolytic assays. Peptide-pulsed rF-TRICOM-infected dendritic cells were also shown to induce CTLs with a >10-fold higher avidity than CTLs induced using CD40L-matured dendritic cells; the use of peptide-pulsed CD40L-matured dendritic cells infected with rF-TRICOM as APCs induced CTLs of even greater avidity. To our knowledge, these studies are the first to show a methodology to induce higher-avidity human CTLs and have implications for the development of more efficient vaccines for a range of human cancers.

Marshall JL, Gulley JL, Arlen PM, et al.
Phase I study of sequential vaccinations with fowlpox-CEA(6D)-TRICOM alone and sequentially with vaccinia-CEA(6D)-TRICOM, with and without granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, in patients with carcinoembryonic antigen-expressing carcinomas.
J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23(4):720-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Our previous clinical experience with vaccinia and replication-defective avipox recombinant carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) vaccines has demonstrated safety and clinical activity with a correlation between CEA-specific immune response and survival. Preclinical evidence demonstrated that the addition of the transgenes for three T-cell costimulatory molecules (B7-1, ICAM-1, LFA-3, designated TRICOM) results in a significant improvement in antigen-specific T-cell responses and antitumor activity. We describe here the first trial in humans of the CEA-TRICOM vaccines (also including an enhancer agonist epitope within the CEA gene).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with advanced CEA-expressing cancers were accrued to eight cohorts that involved vaccinations with the following: replication-defective fowlpox recombinant (rF)-CEA(6D)-TRICOM; primary vaccination with recombinant vaccinia (rV)-CEA(6D)-TRICOM plus rF-CEA(6D)-TRICOM booster vaccinations; and rV-CEA(6D)-TRICOM and then rF-CEA(6D)-TRICOM, plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) with vaccines, or with divided doses of vaccine with GM-CSF. Vaccines were administered every 28 days for six doses and then once every 3 months. Reverting to treatments every 28 days was allowed if patients progressed on the 3-month schedule.
RESULTS: In this phase I study, no significant toxicity was observed. Twenty-three patients (40%) had stable disease for at least 4 months, with 14 of these patients having prolonged stable disease (> 6 months). Eleven patients had decreasing or stable serum CEA, and one patient had a pathologic complete response. Enhanced CEA-specific T-cell responses were observed in the majority of patients tested.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that the CEA-TRICOM vaccines are safe and can generate significant CEA-specific immune responses, and they seem to have clinical benefit in some patients with advanced cancer.

Suscovich TJ, Paulose-Murphy M, Harlow JD, et al.
Defective immune function of primary effusion lymphoma cells is associated with distinct KSHV gene expression profiles.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2004; 45(6):1223-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary effusion lymphomas (PEL) are uniformly infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and thus likely present both tumor and viral antigens to the immune system. In order to grow unrestricted and cause disease, multiple immune evasion strategies may be utilized by PEL to evade immune surveillance. Using six well-established PEL cell lines and comparing these to Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cell lines and peripheral blood B cells, significant differences were found in the surface expression of molecules involved in antigen presentation, T cell activation and cell-cell adhesion. Significantly reduced stimulation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, lowered sensitivity to natural killer cell-mediated lysis and impaired function as antigen presenting cells in mixed leukocyte reactions were found for three PEL cell lines with particularly low CD54, CD58 and CD81 expression. Comparative microarray analysis demonstrated specific patterns of KSHV-encoded gene expression that were associated with the different immune functions of these cell lines. Thus, the present data suggest that distinct patterns of KSHV gene expression may be associated with particular phenotypic and functional characteristics of PEL cells, which may influence PEL pathogenesis.

Daibata M, Matsuo Y, Machida H, et al.
Differential gene-expression profiling in the leukemia cell lines derived from indolent and aggressive phases of CD56+ T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
Int J Cancer. 2004; 108(6):845-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a rule, T cell large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukemia runs a chronic clinical course without need for therapy. Some cases, however, progress to an aggressive disease after the indolent clinical stage. The transformation mechanism into a high-grade malignancy has not been well studied. We have established 2 leukemia cell lines, MOTN-1 and PLT-2, derived from the same clone of CD56+ T-LGL leukemia in chronic and aggressive phases, respectively. The paired availability of such cell lines is valuable in biologic and genetic investigation of T-LGL leukemia. We used a microarray containing 406 cDNAs to elucidate alterations of gene expression between the 2 cell lines. We found a number of genes that were differentially expressed: 13 genes with increased expression and 3 genes with reduced expression in PLT-2 cells as compared to MOTN-1 cells. Increased expression of the dek, rac, Op18, CD6, CD58, CD106, Id2, ATF4, IRF5, ELL2 and D6 genes, and reduced expression of the GzmA and GzmK genes were confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, whose results paralleled the microarray data. These upregulated genes encode oncoproteins, cell surface antigens including molecules related to T cell proliferation, transcription factors, and a chemokine receptor. The two downregulated genes encode granzymes that play an important role for induction of cell death. These findings suggest that there is differential gene expression in different clinical phases of T-LGL leukemia and these differentially expressed genes would be potential targets for further studies to identify the genes involved in the transformation process of T-LGL leukemia.

Mlcáková A, Babusíková O
Multiparametric flow cytometry in detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of early B-cell phenotype.
Neoplasma. 2003; 50(6):416-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Leukemic cells can be distinguished from normal hematopoietic cells on the basis of chromosomal or molecular abnormalities, antigen receptor gene rearrangements and immunophenotype. Set of 3-, 4-combination of monoclonal antibodies was used for exact definition of immunophenotypic characteristics of B-cells populations from healthy donors and aberrant, asynchronous, over/under-expressed phenotypes and detection changes in intensity expression of markers that characterized pathological leukemic B-cells at diagnosis. These differences in normal and abnormal cell patterns were very important and could be utilized for analysis of minimal residual disease. On the basis of these findings we were able to clearly distinguish residual leukemic cells from hematogones (healthy B-lymphocyte precursors) too. We also verified that in some cases the CD58 marker is overexpressed on CD10+, CD34+ blast cells at diagnosis and can be feasible used for detection of minimal residual disease (MRD).

Genty V, Dine G, Dufer J
Phenotypical alterations induced by glucocorticoids resistance in RPMI 8226 human myeloma cells.
Leuk Res. 2004; 28(3):307-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resistance to glucocorticoids (GCs) frequently appears during treatment of hematological malignancies. This study investigates the phenotypical alterations observed in human myeloma cell sublines resistant to glucocorticoids. Using the RPMI8226 cell line, the cytotoxic efficiencies of four glucocorticoids, and the phenotypes of isolated resistant sublines were analyzed. Methyl-prednisolone and dexamethasone exhibited the higher toxic effects on RPMI8226 cells. All corticoids were able to induce drug-resistance. Resistant sublines showed an increased expression of the alpha-isoform of the glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), and specific modulations in CD23, CD38, CD44 and CD58 expressions. Thus, glucocorticoid resistance in RPMI8226 cells is accompanied by significant phenotypical alterations that could be implicated in survival enhancement to therapy and/or tumor spreading.

Veltroni M, De Zen L, Sanzari MC, et al.
Expression of CD58 in normal, regenerating and leukemic bone marrow B cells: implications for the detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphocytic leukemia.
Haematologica. 2003; 88(11):1245-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: CD58, a member of the Ig superfamily, is expressed by hematopoietic and non- hematopoietic cells. It has been demonstrated to be over-expressed in precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) blasts when compared to in their normal counterparts, suggesting its potential use in the detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) by flow cytometry (FC). To assess the reliability and accuracy of CD58 for this purpose, we studied its expression in a large series of normal and ALL bone marrow (BM) samples using quantitative FC.
DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 180 precursor-B ALL BM samples at diagnosis (8 pro-B, 164 early-B, 8 mature-B ALL) and 123 follow-up BM samples (n=54 at day +15 and n=69 at day +78), as well as 51 normal BM samples and 7 regenerating BM samples from patients with T-ALL at week 12. We used four-color quantitative FC, focusing analysis on CD58 expression. In follow-up samples from day +78, the MRD level was simultaneously evaluated by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) amplification of antigen receptor genes.
RESULTS: CD58 expression was significantly higher in ALL blasts than in normal B lymphocytes, while no significant differences between regenerating and normal B lymphocytes were observed. CD58 was expressed in 99.4% of the precursor-B ALL cases and 93.5% of these showed over-expression compared to normal. No significant modulation of CD58 expression during remission induction therapy was noted. Finally, 66 (95.6%) of 69 BM samples simultaneously analyzed using both FC and RQ-PCR at day +78 showed concordant results regarding MRD.
INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm and further evidence the role of CD58 in the diagnosis and monitoring of precursor-B ALL. In particular, we demonstrated its stability and accuracy in MRD detection at clinically relevant time points. These findings indicate that CD58 is a powerful tool for MRD detection in precursor-B ALL.

Chaturvedi V, Bonish B, Bacon P, et al.
Role for Id-1 in immunobiology of normal keratinocytes and in basal cell carcinoma.
Exp Dermatol. 2003; 12(3):255-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been established that Id proteins can block the basic helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors, thereby impacting the onset of senescence in keratinocytes, as well as influencing tumorigenesis involving squamous cell carcinomas. However, the ability of Id-1 to influence the immunologic response of epithelial cells to cytokines implicated in cutaneous oncology such as gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) has not been determined. Using a whole population of human keratinocytes infected with a retrovirus to induce over-expression of Id-1, the influence on early differentiation of rapidly proliferating keratinocytes was assessed, as was the response to IFN-gamma. While induction of involucrin, a marker of early differentiation, was not altered in Id-1 overexpressing keratinocytes, the IFN-gamma mediated increase in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and HLA-DR was reduced. No change in constitutive or inducible levels of MHC class I antigen, CD95 (Fas antigen) or LFA-3 (CD58) was observed in this system. Immunostaining and Western blot analysis revealed over-expression of Id-1 in basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). These tumors not only strongly and diffusely expressed Id-1, but were also characterized by reduced ICAM-1 and HLA-DR expression. Thus, dysregulated Id-1 may not only contribute to delaying the senescence program in keratinocytes, it may also contribute to the escape of the relatively undifferentiated tumor cells in BCC from immune surveillance.

Khanolkar A, Fu Z, Underwood LJ, et al.
CD4+ T cell-induced differentiation of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells is associated with diminished recognition by EBV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells.
J Immunol. 2003; 170(6):3187-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
EBV transformation of human B cells in vitro results in establishment of immortalized cell lines (lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL)) that express viral transformation-associated latent genes and exhibit a fixed, lymphoblastoid phenotype. In this report, we show that CD4(+) T cells can modify the differentiation state of EBV-transformed LCL. Coculture of LCL with EBV-specific CD4(+) T cells resulted in an altered phenotype, characterized by elevated CD38 expression and decreased proliferation rate. Relative to control LCL, the cocultured LCL were markedly less susceptible to lysis by EBV-specific CD8(+) CTL. In contrast, CD4(+) T cell-induced differentiation of LCL did not diminish sensitivity of LCL to lysis by CD8(+) CTL specific for an exogenously loaded peptide Ag or lysis by alloreactive CD8(+) CTL, suggesting that differentiation is not associated with intrinsic resistance to CD8(+) T cell cytotoxicity and that evasion of lysis is confined to EBV-specific CTL responses. CD4(+) T cell-induced differentiation of LCL and concomitant resistance of LCL to lysis by EBV-specific CD8(+) CTL were associated with reduced expression of viral latent genes. Finally, transwell cocultures, in which direct LCL-CD4(+) T cell contact was prevented, indicated a major role for CD4(+) T cell cytokines in the differentiation of LCL.

Gazouli M, Kokotas S, Zoumpourlis V, et al.
The complement inhibitor CD59 and the lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 (LFA-3, CD58) genes possess functional binding sites for the p53 tumor suppressor protein.
Anticancer Res. 2002 Nov-Dec; 22(6C):4237-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
p53 is an oncosuppressor protein, which acts via transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. The transcriptional function of p53 is mediated by specific responsive elements. In the present study we found active responsive elements, specific for the p53 within the 5'flanking region and within the first intron of the gene encoding for the CD59 membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis, and within the first intron of the gene encoding for the CD58 membrane protein (LFA-3). The results suggest that p53 may enhance the transcription of both CD59 and CD58 and imply a novel role for p53 as a direct regulator of the immune response.

Greiner JW, Zeytin H, Anver MR, Schlom J
Vaccine-based therapy directed against carcinoembryonic antigen demonstrates antitumor activity on spontaneous intestinal tumors in the absence of autoimmunity.
Cancer Res. 2002; 62(23):6944-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
By virtue of its tissue-specific expression, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an important self, tumor-associated antigen, which is expressed by different human adenocarcinomas and also serves as a target for active-specific immunotherapy. Similar to humans, CEA expression in mice transgenic for the human CEA gene (CEA.Tg) occurs predominantly along the gastrointestinal tract. CEA.Tg mice were crossed with mice bearing a mutation in the Apc gene (MIN mice), and the CEA.Tg/MIN progeny developed multiple intestinal neoplasms, which overexpress CEA to levels that are reminiscent of those reported for tubulovillous intestinal adenomas from patients. CEA.Tg/MIN mice were vaccinated with an aggressive diversified prime/boost vaccine regimen: (a) a primary vaccine consisting of recombinant vaccinia virus-expressing CEA and a triad of costimulatory molecules (TRICOM): B7.1, ICAM-1, and LFA-3 (rV-CEA-TRICOM); and (b) a booster vaccine using CEA-TRICOM in a recombinant avipox (fowlpox) virus (rF-CEA-TRICOM). Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor was administered as a biological adjuvant with all vaccinations, either as a recombinant protein (with rV-CEA-TRICOM) or as a recombinant avipox virus (with rF-CEA-TRICOM). That vaccine regimen generated strong CEA-specific host immune responses in CEA.Tg/MIN mice, which resulted in (a) a delayed onset of adult anemia and weight loss, (b) a significant reduction in the number of intestinal tumors, and (c) improved overall survival. No evidence of autoimmunity directed against normal tissues expressing CEA was observed in mice in which the CEA-based vaccine significantly reduced intestinal tumor load. The CEA.Tg/MIN mice present a clinically relevant model in which different CEA-based vaccine strategies can be tested on the spontaneous onset of intestinal tumorigenesis.

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