CDH2

Gene Summary

Gene:CDH2; cadherin 2
Aliases: CDHN, NCAD, CD325, CDw325
Location:18q12.1
Summary:This gene encodes a classical cadherin and member of the cadherin superfamily. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes a preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate a calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule and glycoprotein. This protein plays a role in the establishment of left-right asymmetry, development of the nervous system and the formation of cartilage and bone. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2015]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cadherin-2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CDH2 (cancer-related)

Kim R, Park SI, Lee CY, et al.
Alternative new mesenchymal stem cell source exerts tumor tropism through ALCAM and N-cadherin via regulation of microRNA-192 and -218.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2017; 427(1-2):177-185 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gliomas are the most common type of malignant primary brain tumors. Some treatments of gliomas exist, but they are rarely curative. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are emerging as potential modes of targeted cancer therapy owing to their capacity for homing toward tumor sites. It has been proposed that MSCs derived from various sources, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue and umbilical cord blood, can be used as cell-based therapy for brain tumors. Here, MSCs obtained from the synovial fluid of osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis patients were investigated as therapeutic candidates. Specifically, we compared migratory and adhesive abilities, as well as expression levels of related genes and microRNA in bone marrow derived-MSCs (BMMSCs), adipose derived-MSCs (ADMSCs), and synovial fluid derived-MSCs (SFMSCs) after treatment with conditioned medium from gliomas. Migration and adhesion of SFMSCs increased through upregulation of the activated lymphocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) and N-cadherin by microRNA-192 and -218 downregulation, similar to BMMSCs and ADMSCs. Migratory capacities of all types of MSCs were evaluated in vivo, and SFMSCs migrated intensively toward gliomas. These results suggest that SFMSCs have potential for use in cell-based antitumor therapies.

Gil D, Ciołczyk-Wierzbicka D, Dulińska-Litewka J, Laidler P
Integrin-linked kinase regulates cadherin switch in bladder cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):15185-15191 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cadherin switch is specific of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and is closely related to tumor cell invasion. However, the molecular mechanism that promotes the phenotypic changes remains unclear and elusive. We found that integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a key factor involved in cadherin switch. The expression and activity of ILK are elevated in a variety of cancers but its mechanisms are not exactly understood. In this report, we studied the role and mechanism of ILK in EMT of human bladder cancer. We showed that silencing of ILK expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly abolished the nuclear translocation or the presence of markers associated with EMT like Snail, Twist, Zeb, and beta-catenin. ILK knockdown by siRNA suppressed N-cadherin expression and increased re-expression of E-cadherin in bladder cancer cells. We suggest that ILK is a major signaling factor involved in EMT. It is essential to understand the molecular mechanism of EMT in aim to possibly use it in search for new therapeutic targets.

Rubin B, Regazzo D, Redaelli M, et al.
Investigation of N-cadherin/β-catenin expression in adrenocortical tumors.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13545-13555 [PubMed] Related Publications
β-catenin is a multifunctional protein; it is a key component of the Wnt signaling, and it plays a central role in cadherin-based adhesions. Cadherin loss promotes tumorigenesis by releasing membrane-bound β-catenin, hence stimulating Wnt signaling. Cadherins seem to be involved in tumor development, but these findings are limited in adrenocortical tumors (ACTs). The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in key components of cadherin/catenin adhesion system and of Wnt pathway. This study included eight normal adrenal samples (NA) and 95 ACT: 24 adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) and 71 adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs). β-catenin mutations were evaluated by sequencing, and β-catenin and cadherin (E-cadherin and N-cadherin) expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We identified 18 genetic alterations in β-catenin gene. qRT-PCR showed overexpression of β-catenin in 50 % of ACC (12/24) and in 48 % of ACA (21/44). IHC data were in accordance with qRT-PCR results: 47 % of ACC (7/15) and 33 % of ACA (11/33) showed increased cytoplasmic or nuclear β-catenin accumulation. N-cadherin downregulation has been found in 83 % of ACC (20/24) and in 59 % of ACA (26/44). Similar results were obtained by IHC: N-cadherin downregulation was observed in 100 % (15/15) of ACC and in 55 % (18/33) of ACA. β-catenin overexpression together with the aberrant expression of N-cadherin may play important role in ACT tumorigenesis. The study of differentially expressed genes (such as N-cadherin and β-catenin) may enhance our understanding of the biology of ACT and may contribute to the discovery of new diagnostic and prognostic tools.

Zhang L, Yan L, Cao M, et al.
SPAG9 promotes endometrial carcinoma cell invasion through regulation of genes related to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2016; 37(3):312-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) on proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in endometrial cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present authors' previous study demonstrated that SPAG9 is highly expressed in endometrial cancer tissues. They analyzed correlation between the levels of SPAG9 and mRNA of EMT-related genes in endometrial carcinoma tissue by using quantitative real-time PCR. They induced EMT process in ECC endometrial cancer cell lines by TGF-beta1 treatment and spheroids formation assay, and analyzed SPAG9 expression as well as correlation with EMT-related genes. In addition, they performed SPAG9 gene silencing in KLE and ECC endometrial cancer cells and evaluated the expression of genes involved in EMT, using real time PCR and Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation, colony formation, and transwell assays were employed to evaluate the functional role of SPAG9 in endometrial cancer.
RESULTS: The results showed that SPAG9 expression was positively correlated with Slug and N-cadherin (NcaD) in human endometrial cancer tissues. The expression of SPAG9 in ECC cells with TGF-β1 treatment and spheroids formation was increased, which was correlated with EMT-related genes. SPAG9 knockdown significantly inhibited cell growth and proliferation and reduced the motility and invasion of endometrial cancer cells. These phenotypes may partly be explained by decreased expression of EMT-related genes, including Twist, Slug, and Vimentin, after SPAG9 depletion.
CONCLUSIONS: SPAG9 may be required for cellular invasion and migration in endometrial cancer through regulation of EMT-related genes.

Nguyen T, Mège RM
N-Cadherin and Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors crosstalk in the control of developmental and cancer cell migrations.
Eur J Cell Biol. 2016; 95(11):415-426 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cell migrations are diverse. They constitutemajor morphogenetic driving forces during embryogenesis, but they contribute also to the loss of tissue homeostasis and cancer growth. Capabilities of cells to migrate as single cells or as collectives are controlled by internal and external signalling, leading to the reorganisation of their cytoskeleton as well as by the rebalancing of cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesions. Among the genes altered in numerous cancers, cadherins and growth factor receptors are of particular interest for cell migration regulation. In particular, cadherins such as N-cadherin and a class of growth factor receptors, namely FGFRs cooperate to regulate embryonic and cancer cell behaviours. In this review, we discuss on reciprocal crosstalk between N-cadherin and FGFRs during cell migration. Finally, we aim at clarifying the synergy between N-cadherin and FGFR signalling that ensure cellular reorganization during cell movements, mainly during cancer cell migration and metastasis but also during developmental processes.

Ma T, Zhao Y, Wei K, et al.
MicroRNA-124 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor by Regulating CDH2 and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 38(4):1563-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Abnormal expression of microRNA-124 (miR-124) was found in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the association between miR-124 and CDH2 has not been reported yet. This study aims to reveal the inhibiting effects of miR-124 on the expression of CDH2 in NSCLC.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the expression of miR-124 and CDH2 in NSCLC tissues. Cell viability, apoptosis and invasion assays were carried out in NSCLC cell lines after transfection. The regulation mechanism was confirmed by luciferase report assay and western blot (WB).
RESULTS: Significantly decreased expression of miR-124 was found in NSCLC specimens and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-124 apparently suppressed the proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cell lines in vitro. Luciferase report assay and WB revealed that CDH2 was a target gene of miR-124. Furthermore, results of WB showed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) could be inhibited by up-regulation of miR-124.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings present the first evidence that miR-124 could suppress the expression of CDH2 and regulate EMT, which might lead to a potential therapeutic strategy focusing on miR-124 and CDH2 for human lung cancer.

Wanderi C, Kim E, Chang S, et al.
Ginsenoside 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol Suppresses Viability of Human Glioblastoma Cells via Down-regulation of Cell Adhesion Proteins and Cell-cycle Arrest.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(3):925-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pharmacologically active components of ginseng, particularly protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides, have potent anticancer effects, although their effects on highly malignant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) have not been systemically evaluated. Identification of effective anticancer ginsenosides and further delineation of their mechanisms of action may provide valuable information that aids in the development of alternative or adjuvant therapy for malignant cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the viability of human GBM U251-MG and U87-MG cells treated with structurally related PPD-type ginsenosides, including F2, Rh2, compound K (C-K), and PPD.
RESULTS: Incubation with PPD, C-K, and Rh2 significantly reduced the viability of U251-MG and U87-MG cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of PPD was accompanied by reduced expression of cell adhesion proteins, including N-cadherin and integrin β1, which led to reduced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. Furthermore, incubation with PPD reduced the expression of cyclin D1 and subsequently induced cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase.
CONCLUSION: These results collectively indicate that PPD might provide a new strategy for treating malignant GBM, which is quite resistant to conventional anticancer treatment.

Weigand A, Boos AM, Tasbihi K, et al.
Selective isolation and characterization of primary cells from normal breast and tumors reveal plasticity of adipose derived stem cells.
Breast Cancer Res. 2016; 18(1):32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is a need to establish more cell lines from breast tumors in contrast to immortalized cell lines from metastatic effusions in order to represent the primary tumor and not principally metastatic biology of breast cancer. This investigation describes the simultaneous isolation, characterization, growth and function of primary mammary epithelial cells (MEC), mesenchymal cells (MES) and adipose derived stem cells (ADSC) from four normal breasts, one inflammatory and one triple-negative ductal breast tumors.
METHODS: A total of 17 cell lines were established and gene expression was analyzed for MEC and MES (n = 42) and ADSC (n = 48) and MUC1, pan-KRT, CD90 and GATA-3 by immunofluorescence. DNA fingerprinting to track cell line identity was performed between original primary tissues and isolates. Functional studies included ADSC differentiation, tumor MES and MEC invasion co-cultured with ADSC-conditioned media (CM) and MES adhesion and growth on 3D-printed scaffolds.
RESULTS: Comparative analysis showed higher gene expression of EPCAM, CD49f, CDH1 and KRTs for normal MEC lines; MES lines e.g. Vimentin, CD10, ACTA2 and MMP9; and ADSC lines e.g. CD105, CD90, CDH2 and CDH11. Compared to the mean of all four normal breast cell lines, both breast tumor cell lines demonstrated significantly lower ADSC marker gene expression, but higher expression of mesenchymal and invasion gene markers like SNAI1 and MMP2. When compared with four normal ADSC differentiated lineages, both tumor ADSC showed impaired osteogenic and chondrogenic but enhanced adipogenic differentiation and endothelial-like structures, possibly due to high PDGFRB and CD34. Addressing a functional role for overproduction of adipocytes, we initiated 3D-invasion studies including different cell types from the same patient. CM from ADSC differentiating into adipocytes induced tumor MEC 3D-invasion via EMT and amoeboid phenotypes. Normal MES breast cells adhered and proliferated on 3D-printed scaffolds containing 20 fibers, but not on 2.5D-printed scaffolds with single fiber layers, important for tissue engineering.
CONCLUSION: Expression analyses confirmed successful simultaneous cell isolations of three different phenotypes from normal and tumor primary breast tissues. Our cell culture studies support that breast-tumor environment differentially regulates tumor ADSC plasticity as well as cell invasion and demonstrates applications for regenerative medicine.

Tripathi SC, Peters HL, Taguchi A, et al.
Immunoproteasome deficiency is a feature of non-small cell lung cancer with a mesenchymal phenotype and is associated with a poor outcome.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(11):E1555-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The immunoproteasome plays a key role in generation of HLA peptides for T cell-mediated immunity. Integrative genomic and proteomic analysis of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines revealed significantly reduced expression of immunoproteasome components and their regulators associated with epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Low expression of immunoproteasome subunits in early stage NSCLC patients was associated with recurrence and metastasis. Depleted repertoire of HLA class I-bound peptides in mesenchymal cells deficient in immunoproteasome components was restored with either IFNγ or 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) treatment. Our findings point to a mechanism of immune evasion of cells with a mesenchymal phenotype and suggest a strategy to overcome immune evasion through induction of the immunoproteasome to increase the cellular repertoire of HLA class I-bound peptides.

Orzol P, Nekulova M, Holcakova J, et al.
ΔNp63 regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration in the BL2 subtype of basal-like breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):10133-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) comprise a heterogeneous subgroup of tumors with a generally poor prognosis. Subclassification of TNBC based on genomic analyses shows that basal-like TNBCs, specifically the basal A or BL2 subtype, are characterized by the expression of ΔNp63, a transcription factor that has been attributed a variety of roles in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and cell survival. To investigate the role(s) of p63 in basal-like breast cancers, we used HCC1806 cells that are classified as basal A/BL2. We show that these cells endogenously express p63, mainly as the ΔNp63α isoform. TP63 gene knockout by CRISPR resulted in viable cells that proliferate more slowly and adhere less tightly, with an increased rate of migration. Analysis of adhesion-related gene expression revealed a complex set of alterations in p63-depleted cells, with both increased and decreased adhesion molecules and adhesion substrates compared to parental cells expressing p63. Examination of the phenotype of these cells indicated that endogenous p63 is required to suppress the expression of luminal markers and maintain the basal epithelial phenotype, with increased levels of both CK8 and CK18 and a reduction in N-cadherin levels in cells lacking p63. On the other hand, the level of CK5 was not decreased and ER was not increased, indicating that p63 loss is insufficient to induce full luminal-type differentiation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that p63 exerts multiple pro-oncogenic effects on cell differentiation, proliferation and adhesion in basal-like breast cancers.

Ashaie MA, Chowdhury EH
Cadherins: The Superfamily Critically Involved in Breast Cancer.
Curr Pharm Des. 2016; 22(5):616-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer, one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity among females, is regulated in part by diverse classes of adhesion molecules one of which is known as cadherins. Located at adherens junctions, the members of this superfamily are responsible for upholding proper cell-cell adhesion. Cadherins possess diverse structures and functions and any alteration in their structures or functions causes impeding of normal mammary cells development and maintenance, thus leading to breast malignancy. E-, N-, P-, VE-, Proto-, desmosomal and FAT cadherins have been found to regulate breast cancer in positive as well as negative fashion, whereby both Ecadherin (CDH1) and N-cadherin (CDH2) contribute significantly towards transitioning from epithelial state to mesenchymal state (EMT) and enacting the abnormal cells to invade and metastasize nearby and distant tissues. Aberration in gene expression of cadherins can be either due to somatic or epigenetic silencing or via transcriptional factors. Besides other cadherins, E-cadherin which serves as hallmark of EMT is associated with several regulatory factors such as Snail, Slug, Twist, Zeb, KLF4, NFI, TBX2, SIX, b-Myb, COX-2, Arf6, FOXA2, GATA3 and SMAR1, which modulate E-cadherin gene transcription to promote or represses tumor invasion and colonization. Signaling molecules such as Notch, TGF-β, estrogen receptors, EGF and Wnt initiate numerous signaling cascades via these vital factors of cell programming, controlling expression of E-cadherin at transcriptional (mRNA) and protein level. Thus, interactions of cadherins with their roles in tumor suppression and oncogenic transformation can be beneficial in providing valuable insights for breast cancer diagnosis and therapeutics development.

Tanaka Y, Aoyagi K, Minashi K, et al.
Discovery of a Good Responder Subtype of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Signatures Activated by Chemoradiotherapy.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0143804 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is a less invasive therapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Five-year survival rate of locally advanced ESCC patients by definitive CRT were 37%. We previously reported that tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activation signatures were preferentially found in long-term survivors. However, it is unknown whether the CTL activation is actually driven by CRT. We compared gene expression profiles among pre- and post-treatment biopsy specimens of 30 ESCC patients and 121 pre-treatment ESCC biopsy specimens. In the complete response (CR) cases, 999 overexpressed genes including at least 234 tumor-specific CTL-activation associated genes such as IFNG, PRF1, and GZMB, were found in post-treatment biopsy specimens. Clustering analysis using expression profiles of these 234 genes allowed us to distinguish the immune-activated cases, designating them as I-type, from other cases. However, despite the better CR rate in the I-type, overall survival was not significantly better in both these 30 cases and another 121 cases. Further comparative study identified a series of epithelial to mesenchymal transition-related genes overexpressed in the early relapse cases. Importantly, the clinical outcome of CDH2-negative cases in the I-type was significantly better than that of the CDH2-positive cases in the I-type. Furthermore, NK cells, which were activated by neutrophils-producing S100A8/S100A9, and CTLs were suggested to cooperatively enhance the effect of CRT in the CDH2-negative I-type. These results suggested that CTL gene activation may provide a prognostic advantage in ESCCs with epithelial characteristics.

Zhao J, Yang C, Guo S, Wu Y
GM130 regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and invasion of gastric cancer cells via snail.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(9):10784-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of digestive tract tumor. Despite of recent advances in surgical techniques and development of adjuvant therapy, the underlying mechanisms of gastric cancer remain poorly understood and relevant insight into novel treatment strategies using gene target remains incomplete. Recently, several studies report that epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial process for the invasion and metastasis of epithelial tumors; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this transition are unknown. As a cis-Golgi matrix protein, GM130 plays an important role in cell cycle progression and transport of protein in the secretory pathway. In this study, we found that GM130 expression has a positive correlation with the pathological differentiation and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage of gastric cancer. High GM130 expression levels also predict shorter overall survival of gastric cancer patients. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of GM130 expression increased epithelial marker (E-cadherin) and decreased mesenchymal marker (N-cadherin and vimentin) expression in gastric cancer cells, suppressing cell invasion, and tumor formation. Furthermore, we found that GM130 upregulated expression of the key EMT regulator Snail (SNAI1), which mediated EMT activation and cell invasion by GM130. Taken together, our study indicates GM130 may be a promising therapeutic biomarker for gastric cancer.

Lu Y, Xiao L, Liu Y, et al.
MIR517C inhibits autophagy and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal (-like) transition phenotype in human glioblastoma through KPNA2-dependent disruption of TP53 nuclear translocation.
Autophagy. 2015; 11(12):2213-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal (-like) transition (EMT), a crucial embryonic development program, has been linked to the regulation of glioblastoma (GBM) progression and invasion. Here, we investigated the role of MIR517C/miR-517c, which belongs to the C19MC microRNA cluster identified in our preliminary studies, in the pathogenesis of GBM. We found that MIR517C was associated with improved prognosis in patients with GBM. Furthermore, following treatment with the autophagy inducer temozolomide (TMZ) and low glucose (LG), MIR517C degraded KPNA2 (karyopherin alpha 2 [RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1]) and subsequently disturbed the nuclear translocation of TP53 in the GBM cell line U87 in vitro. Interestingly, this microRNA could inhibit autophagy and reduce cell migration and infiltration in U87 cells harboring wild-type (WT) TP53, but not in U251 cells harboring mutant (MU) TP53. Moreover, the expression of epithelial markers (i.e., CDH13/T-cadherin and CLDN1 [claudin 1]) increased, while the expression of mesenchymal markers (i.e., CDH2/N-cadherin, SNAI1/Snail, and VIM [vimentin]) decreased, indicating that the EMT status was blocked by MIR517C in U87 cells. Compared with MIR517C overexpression, MIR517C knockdown promoted infiltration of U87 cells to the surrounding structures in nude mice in vivo. The above phenotypic changes were also observed in TP53(+/+) and TP53(-/-) HCT116 colon cancer cells. In summary, our study provided support for a link between autophagy and EMT status in WT TP53 GBM cells and provided evidence for the signaling pathway (MIR517C-KPNA2-cytoplasmic TP53) involved in attenuating autophagy and eliminating the increased migration and invasion during the EMT.

Tsai CH, Chiu JH, Yang CW, et al.
Molecular characteristics of recurrent triple-negative breast cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(5):7326-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Due to the fact that the treatment of breast cancer depends significantly on the molecular markers present in the cancer, including estrogen receptor (+), progesterone receptor (+) or erbB2 receptor (+), further investigation targeting triple‑negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes may assist in elucidating the mechanisms of recurrence of TNBC and enable the identification of novel therapeutic strategies for patients with TNBC. The aim of the present study was to compare the gene expression profiles between TNBC samples that were identified as having recurrent and non‑recurrent statuses. Between June 2011 and May 2012, a total of 30 patients with TNBC were examined using a follow-up period of at least 5 years. Their clinicopathological information was retrospectively reviewed and they were classified with a status either of recurrence [n=15 stage II (9), IIIA (2), IIIC (4)] or non‑recurrence [n=15 stage II (6), IIIA (1), IIIC (8)]. The total RNA from tissue samples obtained from the recurrent and non‑recurrent TNBC patients were used to performed oligonucleotide microarray analysis. The dataset was analyzed using GeneSpring software and validated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Principal component analysis demonstrated that there was a marked difference in the gene expression distribution between the stage IIIc recurrent samples and early stage (stages IIa, IIb and IIIa) recurrent samples. In early stage recurrence, the significant pathway‑associated upregulated genes were matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and genes associated with cancer cell migration (CDH2) and cell adhesion/motility (KRAS, CDC42, RAC1, ICAM and SRGAP2). By contrast, during stage IIIc recurrence, the significant pathway‑associated upregulated genes in the recurrent samples were WNT signaling genes, including WNT 4 and WNT 16. It was concluded that there were markedly different distributions and gene expression profiles between stage IIIc recurrent TNBC tumors and early stage (IIa, IIb, IIIa) recurrent TNBC tumors, which provides important information for the development of effective treatment strategies for TNBC.

Wang M, Liu X, Guo J, et al.
Inhibition of LSD1 by Pargyline inhibited process of EMT and delayed progression of prostate cancer in vivo.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 467(2):310-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) was identified as the first histone demethylase. LSD1 interacted with androgen receptor (AR) and promoted androgen-dependent transcription of target genes, such as PSA, by ligand-induced demethylation of mono- and dimethylated histone H3 at Lys 9 (H3K9). Meanwhile, the phenomenon of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) had received considerable attention in tumor recurrence and metastasis. This study examined the effect of Pargyline (an inhibitor of LSD1) on the process of EMT in vitro and in vivo. SCID mice were injected subcutaneously with LNCap cells. Pargyline was given intraperitoneally or not after castration (implemented with Bilateral orchidectomy), then PSA levels in serum and tumor were determined to assess time to androgen-independent progression. The results showed that LSD1 expression was up-regulated when PCa progressed to Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC). Pargyline reduced LNCap cells migration and invasion ability, and inhibited the process of EMT by up-regulating expression of E-cadherin, and down-regulating expressions of N-cadherin and Vimentin in vitro and in vivo. Although, Pargyline did not change the level of AR, it reduced PSA expression both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Pargyline delayed prostate cancer transition from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent state (CRPC). These findings indicated that inhibition of LSD1 might be a promise adjunctive therapy with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer.

Ge R, Wang Z, Wu S, et al.
Metformin represses cancer cells via alternate pathways in N-cadherin expressing vs. N-cadherin deficient cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(30):28973-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metformin has emerged as a potential anticancer agent. Here, we demonstrate that metformin plays an anti-tumor role via repressing N-cadherin, independent of AMPK, in wild-type N-cadherin cancer cells. Ectopic-expression of N-cadherin develops metformin-resistant cancer cells, while suppression of N-cadherin sensitizes cancer to metformin. Manipulation of AMPK expression does not alter sensitivity of cancer to metformin. We show that NF-kappaB is a downstream molecule of N-cadherin and metformin regulates NF-kappaB signaling via suppressing N-cadherin. Moreover, we also suggest that TWIST1 is an upstream molecule of N-cadherin/NF-kappaB signaling and manipulation of TWIST1 expression changes the sensitivity of cancer cells to metformin. In contrast to the cells that express N-cadherin, in N-cadherin deficient cells, metformin plays an anti-tumor role via activation of AMPK. Ectopic expression of N-cadherin makes cancer more resistant to metformin. Therefore, we suggest that metformin's anti-cancer therapeutic effect is mediated through different molecular mechanism in wild-type vs. deficient N-cadherin cancer cells. At last, we selected 49 out of 984 patients' samples with prostatic cancer after radical prostatectomy (selection criteria: Gleason score ≥ 7 and all patients taking metformin) and showed levels of N-cadherin, p65 and AMPK could predict post-surgical recurrence in prostate cancer after treatment of metformin.

Jiang Y, Feng X, Zheng L, et al.
Thioredoxin 1 mediates TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):25506-19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) which is characterized by wide local infiltration, perineural spread, a propensity to local recurrence and late distant metastasis. Our recent studies have disclosed that TGF-β is a crucial factor for EMT in metastatic SACC. In this study, we further uncovered small redox protein thioredoxin 1 (TXN) as a critical mediator of TGF-β induced EMT. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed significantly higher expressions of TXN, thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) and N-cadherin, and lower expression of E-cadherin in human metastatic SACC compared to non-metastatic SACC tissues. Consistently, cultured SACC cells with stable TXN overexpression had decreased E-cadherin and increased N-cadherin as well as Snail and Slug expressions. The enhanced migration and invasion potential of these cells was abrogated by Akt or TXNRD1 inhibitors. Expression of N-cadherin and Akt p-Akt decreased, whereas E-cadherin expression increased in a BBSKE (TXNRD1 inhibitor)-dose-dependent manner. In a xenograft mouse model, TXN overexpression facilitated the metastatic potential of SACC-83 cells to the lung. Our results indicate that TXN plays a key role in SACC invasion and metastasis through the modulation of TGF-β-Akt/GSK-3β on EMT. TXN could be a potential therapeutic target for SACC.

Jun KH, Lee JE, Kim SH, et al.
Clinicopathological significance of N-cadherin and VEGF in advanced gastric cancer brain metastasis and the effects of metformin in preclinical models.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(4):2047-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although brain metastasis is a rare complication of gastric cancer, no standard therapy for gastric cancer brain metastasis has been established. We attempted to identify biological markers that predict brain metastasis, and investigated how to modulate such markers. A case-control study of patients newly diagnosed with gastric cancer who had developed brain metastasis during follow-up, was conducted. These patients were compared with patients who had advanced gastric cancer but no evidence of brain metastasis. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, MSS1, claudin-3, claudin-4, Glut1, clusterin, ITGB4, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p53. The expression of VEGF tended to be higher in the case group (33.3 vs. 0%, p=0.055). Median survival was significantly correlated with vascular invasion (12 vs. 33 months, p=0.008) and N-cadherin expression (36 vs. 12 months, p=0.027). We also investigated the effects of metformin in tumor-bearing mouse models. VEGF expression was decreased and E-cadherin increased in the metformin‑treated group when compared with the control group. The expression of the mesenchymal marker MMP9 was decreased in the metformin-treated group. Brain metastasis of advanced gastric cancer was associated with the expression of VEGF. Metformin treatment may be useful for modulating the metastatic capacity by reducing VEGF expression and blocking epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

Yang X, Shi R, Zhang J
Co-expression and clinical utility of Snail and N-cadherin in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(1):413-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Papillary thyroid carcinoma is one of the most common subtypes of thyroid cancer and portends a good prognosis. N-cadherin (neural cadherin) is a member of the classical cadherin family and is often overexpressed in many types of cancers. Snail, a kind of zinc finger protein, is a transcriptional repressor which has been intensively studied in mammals. We investigate the immunohistochemical expression of Snail and N-cadherin in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues and cells and then discuss the clinical value of Snail and N-cadherin expression. Immunohistochemical technique was performed to detect Snail and N-cadherin in 60 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma and analyzed the relationship between the expression of Snail, N-cadherin, and clinicopathological indicators. Western blot was used to investigate the constitutive and inducible expression of Snail and N-cadherin. In our study, the expression rate of Snail and N-cadherin was 85.0 % (51/60) and 78.3 % (47/60), respectively, in papillary thyroid carcinoma. The expression rate of Snail and N-cadherin in thyroid papillary carcinoma with metastatic lymph nodes was 93.3 and 86.7 %, respectively, while in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue without lymph node metastasis, the expression rate was 60.0 and 53.3 %, respectively. The positive correlation of Snail and N-cadherin was observed (r = 0.721, p < 0.01). In addition, Western blot further identified the constitutive and inducible expression of Snail and N-cadherin in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues and cell lines. In conclusion, Snail and N-cadherin are constitutively and inducibly expressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma and may play important roles in the development and metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Snail and N-cadherin may be used as an effective indicator.

Mrozik KM, Cheong CM, Hewett D, et al.
Therapeutic targeting of N-cadherin is an effective treatment for multiple myeloma.
Br J Haematol. 2015; 171(3):387-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Elevated expression of the cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin (cadherin 2, type 1, N-cadherin (neuronal); CDH2) is associated with poor prognosis in newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients. In this study, we investigated whether targeting of N-cadherin represents a potential treatment for the ~50% of MM patients with elevated N-cadherin. Initially, we stably knocked-down N-cadherin in the mouse MM plasma cell (PC) line 5TGM1 to assess the functional role of N-cadherin in MM pathogenesis. When compared with 5TGM1-scramble-shRNA cells, 5TGM1-Cdh2-shRNA cells had significantly reduced adhesion to bone marrow endothelial cells. However, N-cadherin knock-down did not affect 5TGM1 cell proliferation or adhesion to bone marrow stromal cells. In the C57BL/KaLwRij murine MM model, mice intravenously inoculated with 5TGM1-Cdh2-shRNA cells showed significantly decreased tumour burden after 4 weeks, compared with animals bearing 5TGM1-scramble-shRNA cells. Finally, the N-cadherin antagonist ADH-1 had no effect on tumour burden in the established disease setting, whereas up-front ADH-1 treatment resulted in significantly reduced tumour burden after 4 weeks. Our findings demonstrate that N-cadherin may play a key role in the extravasation of circulating MM PCs promoting bone marrow homing. Moreover, these studies suggest that N-cadherin may represent a viable therapeutic target to prevent the dissemination of MM PCs and delay MM disease progression.

Liu Z, Jin ZY, Liu CH, et al.
MicroRNA-21 regulates biological behavior by inducing EMT in human cholangiocarcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(5):4684-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been demonstrated to play a crucial role in malignant progression including differentiation, proliferation, metastasis and invasion, MicroRNA-21 (mir-21) also has been reported to have association with tumor invasion and metastasis in some tumors including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). In this study, we further investigated the association of mir-21 with CCA biological behavior by transfecting miR-21 mimics or mir-21 inhibitor into QBC939 and RBE cells accompanied with the tumor xenografts experiment. Results indicated that over-expression of miR-21 significantly promoted cell migration, invasion and xenografts growth, whereas contrary phenomenon was observed in mir-21 inhibitor group. Furthermore, we explored the expression of EMT related proteins in CCA cells and tumor xenografts. Results showed that E-cadherin was decreased and N-cadherin, Vimentin were up-regulated significantly when miR-21 was over-expressed. In conclusion, microRNA-21 is crucial for CCA carcinogenesis and metastasis, which could induce EMT process, thereby promote the invasion and migration of CCA cells. These findings may provide new strategy for prevention and treatment of CCA in the future.

Li J, Yang S, Yan W, et al.
MicroRNA-19 triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lung cancer cells accompanied by growth inhibition.
Lab Invest. 2015; 95(9):1056-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
The miR-19 family (miR-19a and miR-19b-1) are key oncogenic components of the miR-17-92 cluster. Overexpression of miR-19 is strongly associated with cancer invasion and metastasis, and poor prognosis of cancer patients. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we found that enforced expression of miR-19 including miR-19a and miR-19b-1 triggered epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lung cancer cells A549 and HCC827 as shown by mesenchymal-like morphological conversion, downregulation of epithelial proteins (e.g., E-cadherin, ZO-1 (zona occludens 1), and α-catenin), upregulation of mesenchymal proteins (e.g., vimentin, fibronectin 1, N-cadherin, and snail1), formation of stress fibers, and reduced cell adhesion. In addition, enhanced migration and invasion were observed in the cancer cells A549 and HCC827 undergoing EMT. In contrast, silencing of endogenous miR-19 reversed EMT and reduced the migration and invasion abilities of A549 and HCC827 cells. DNA microarray results revealed significant changes of the expression of genes related to EMT, migration, and metastasis of miR-19-expressing A549 cells. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PTEN, a target of miR-19, also resulted in EMT, migration, and invasion of A549 and HCC827 cells, suggesting that PTEN is involved in miR-19-induced EMT, migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Furthermore, lung cancer cells undergoing EMT induced by miR-19 demonstrated reduced proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and enhanced resistance to apoptosis caused by TNF-α. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-19 triggers EMT, which has an important role in the invasion and migration of lung cancer cells, accompanied by the reduced proliferation of cells.

Mudduluru G, Abba M, Batliner J, et al.
A Systematic Approach to Defining the microRNA Landscape in Metastasis.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(15):3010-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The microRNA (miRNA) landscape changes during the progression of cancer. We defined a metastasis-associated miRNA landscape using a systematic approach. We profiled and validated miRNA and mRNA expression in a unique series of human colorectal metastasis tissues together with their matched primary tumors and corresponding normal tissues. We identified an exclusive miRNA signature that is differentially expressed in metastases. Three of these miRNAs were identified as key drivers of an EMT-regulating network acting though a number of novel targets. These targets include SIAH1, SETD2, ZEB2, and especially FOXN3, which we demonstrated for the first time as a direct transcriptional suppressor of N-cadherin. The modulation of N-cadherin expression had significant impact on migration, invasion, and metastasis in two different in vivo models. The significant deregulation of the miRNAs defining the network was confirmed in an independent patient set as well as in a database of diverse malignancies derived from more than 6,000 patients. Our data define a novel metastasis-orchestrating network based on systematic hypothesis generation from metastasis tissues.

Bayo P, Jou A, Stenzinger A, et al.
Loss of SOX2 expression induces cell motility via vimentin up-regulation and is an unfavorable risk factor for survival of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Oncol. 2015; 9(8):1704-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recurrent gain on chromosome 3q26 encompassing the gene locus for the transcription factor SOX2 is a frequent event in human squamous cell carcinoma, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Numerous studies demonstrated that SOX2 expression and function is related to distinct aspects of tumor cell pathophysiology. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood, and the correlation between SOX2 expression and clinical outcome revealed conflicting data. Transcriptional profiling after silencing of SOX2 expression in a HNSCC cell line identified a set of up-regulated genes related to cell motility (e.g. VIM, FN1, CDH2). The inverse regulation of SOX2 and aforementioned genes was validated in 18 independent HNSCC cell lines from different anatomical sites. The inhibition of cell migration and invasion by SOX2 was confirmed by constant or conditional gene silencing and accelerated motility of HNSCC cells after SOX2 silencing was partially reverted by down-regulation of vimentin. In a retrospective study, SOX2 expression was determined by immunohistochemical staining on tissue microarrays containing primary tumor specimens of two independent HNSCC patient cohorts. Low SOX2 expression was found in 19.3% and 44.9% of primary tumor specimens, respectively. Univariate analysis demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between low SOX2 protein levels and reduced progression-free survival (Cohort I 51 vs. 16 months; Cohort II 33 vs. 12 months) and overall survival (Cohort I 150 vs. 37 months; Cohort II 33 vs. 16 months). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis confirmed that low SOX2 expression serves as an independent prognostic marker for HNSCC patients. We conclude that SOX2 inhibits tumor cell motility in HNSCC cells and that low SOX2 expression serves as a prognosticator to identify HNSCC patients at high risk for treatment failure.

Zhang W, Gu Y, Sun Q, et al.
Ex Vivo Maintenance of Primary Human Multiple Myeloma Cells through the Optimization of the Osteoblastic Niche.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0125995 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We previously reported a new approach for culturing difficult-to-preserve primary patient-derived multiple myeloma cells (MMC) using an osteoblast (OSB)-derived 3D tissue scaffold constructed in a perfused microfluidic environment and a culture medium supplemented with patient plasma. In the current study, we used this biomimetic model to show, for the first time, that the long-term survival of OSB is the most critical factor in maintaining the ex vivo viability and proliferative capacity of MMC. We found that the adhesion and retention of MMC to the tissue scaffold was meditated by osteoblastic N-cadherin, as one of potential mechanisms that regulate MMC-OSB interactions. However, in the presence of MMC and patient plasma, the viability and osteogenic activity of OSB became gradually compromised, and consequently MMC could not remain viable over 3 weeks. We demonstrated that the long-term survival of both OSB and MMC could be enhanced by: (1) optimizing perfusion flow rate and patient-derived plasma composition in the culture medium and (2) replenishing OSB during culture as a practical means of prolonging MMC's viability beyond several weeks. These findings were obtained using a high-throughput well plate-based perfusion device from the perspective of optimizing the ex vivo preservation of patient-derived MM biospecimens for downstream use in biological studies and chemosensitivity analyses.

Jia W, Zhu J, Martin TA, et al.
Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Markers in Human Pituitary Adenomas Indicate a Clinical Course.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(5):2635-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Pituitary adenomas are brain tumors with invasive properties. Epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) is a cellular process linked to the transformation to an aggressive cancer phenotype. In the present study, we investigated the expression of a panel of EMT markers, namely E-cadherin, N-cadherin, SLUG, SNA1 and TWIST in a cohort of human pituitary adenomas.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fresh-frozen human pituitary tumors (n=95) were collected immediately after surgery for histology. Gene transcripts of the EMT markers were quantified using quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Levels of expression were analyzed against clinical, pathological, invasion and endocrine functions.
RESULTS: Levels of E-cadherin and N-cadherin had a negative and positive correlation with the appearance of intratumoral cystic lesions of pituitary tumors. E-cadherin and TWIST were associated with tumor size and staging. There was a significant link between SLUG/TWIST and the destruction of the sella fosa bones (p<0.030). EMT markers also showed links with the endocrine functions of pituitary tumors. In pituitary tumors, SLUG and SNA1 had significant correlation with N-cadherin.
CONCLUSION: EMT markers are significant indicators of the appearance of cystic lesions, tumor progression, bone destruction and endocrine functions. These markers are valuable biomarkers in assessing the clinical course of pituitary adenomas.

Xu K, Liu B, Liu Y
Impact of Brachyury on epithelial-mesenchymal transitions and chemosensitivity in non-small cell lung cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(1):995-1001 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of Brachyury on epithelial-mesenchymal transitions and chemosensitivity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In 115 archived NSCLC tissue samples, the expression of Brachyury was observed to be significantly higher than that in adjacent normal lung tissues. In addition, the current study demonstrated that the expression of Brachyury is closely associated with TNM staging, lymph node metastasis and the prognosis of NSCLC, although not with patient age, gender or tumor differentiation. Brachyury expression is also accompanied by the downregulation of E-cadherin and the upregulation of N-cadherin. Brachyury may promote lung cancer through induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which leads to metastasis and consequent poor prognosis in patients with lung cancer. Furthermore, the present study observed that interfering with Brachyury increases the sensitivity of cells to chemotherapeutic treatment with cisplatin. These results, in combination with those of additional studies, suggest that Brachyury may be used as a novel target for the prevention and treatment of lung cancer.

Wang XW, Xi XQ, Wu J, et al.
MicroRNA-206 attenuates tumor proliferation and migration involving the downregulation of NOTCH3 in colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(3):1402-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common cancer diagnosed worldwide, and the development of metastases is a major cause of mortality. Accumulating evidence suggests that microRNAs are important in carcinogenesis by affecting the expression of genes that regulate cancer progression. A number of studies have shown that miR-206 is frequently downregulated in many human malignancies, including CRC, and is associated with a more malignant phenotype. Previous studies involving HeLa and C2C12 cells have validated the inhibitory mechanism of miR-206 via NOTCH3 targeting. However, whether or not the interplay between miR-206 and NOTCH3 also occurs in CRC is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the tumor suppressive and metastatic effects of miR-206 and its target, NOTCH3, in CRC. Based on the inverse association between the expression of miR-206 and NOTCH3 in CRC tissues, miR-206 mimics were transiently transfected into the SW480 (and its metastatic strain) and SW620 colon cancer cell lines. Upregulation of miR-206 inhibited cancer cell prolife-ration and migration, blocked the cell cycle, and activated apoptosis. The tumor suppressive capacity of miR-206 had a similar effect on CRC cells, although with a different metastatic potential, and may be explained by direct NOTCH3 signaling inhibition and indirect cross-talk with other signaling pathways involving CDH2 and MMP-9. These results support miR-206 as a tumor suppressor in CRC and suggest a potential therapeutic target for clinical intervention.

Yang H, Wang L, Zhao J, et al.
TGF-β-activated SMAD3/4 complex transcriptionally upregulates N-cadherin expression in non-small cell lung cancer.
Lung Cancer. 2015; 87(3):249-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process in early stage of cancer metastasis. TGF-β-mediated EMT is characterized by repression of E-cadherin and induction of N-cadherin (CDH2) in various cancers. Although many investigations have focused on the regulation of E-cadherin expression, the transcription-mediated events that directly induce N-cadherin expression in TGF-β-induced EMT are not fully clear. Here, we mainly focus on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, in which expression of CDH2 can be activated upon TGF-β stimulation, to investigate the underlying mechanisms of CDH2 expression regulation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Western blot analysis, real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, luciferase reporter gene assays, RNA interference and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay were performed on human NSCLC cell lines A549 and SPC-A1. Twenty-six paired NSCLC tissues and adjacent noncancerous lung tissues were collected.
RESULTS: Luciferase reporter assay revealed that a functional TGF-β-response element was located at position -1078 to -891 in the CDH2 promoter region. Furthermore, in vivo ChIP experiment indicated that TGF-β-activated SMAD3/4 complex was directly recruited to CDH2 promoter region (-1078 to -891). Upon TGF-β1 stimulation, knockdown of SMAD3 or/and SMAD4 led to a significant reduction in CDH2 promoter activity, and silencing of SMAD3 or SMAD4 significantly inhibited CDH2 mRNA and protein expression in A549 and SPC-A1 cells. In human NSCLC tissues, SMAD3 or SMAD4 mRNA level was positively correlated with CDH2 mRNA level, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that TGF-β-activated SMAD3/4 complex may upregulate CDH2 expression by directly interacting with a specific SMAD-binding element in CDH2 promoter. Our findings provide insights into mechanisms underlying the transcriptional regulation of CDH2 expression in TGF-β-induced EMT and SMADs-based therapeutic strategies for NSCLCs.

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