Gene Summary

Gene:CDH2; cadherin 2
Aliases: CDHN, NCAD, CD325, CDw325
Summary:This gene encodes a classical cadherin and member of the cadherin superfamily. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes a preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate a calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule and glycoprotein. This protein plays a role in the establishment of left-right asymmetry, development of the nervous system and the formation of cartilage and bone. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2015]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CDH2 (cancer-related)

Kishore C, Sundaram S, Karunagaran D
Vitamin K3 (menadione) suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal-transition and Wnt signaling pathway in human colorectal cancer cells.
Chem Biol Interact. 2019; 309:108725 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor recurrence and metastasis decrease the survival rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Menadione reduces the numbers and incidences of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon tumors in mouse but the mechanism of anticancer activity of menadione in colorectal cancer is not very clear. Since Wnt signaling is constitutively active in CRC and it aggravates the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), the regulation of EMT and Wnt signaling by menadione (vitamin K3) was investigated in CRC cells. Menadione showed cytotoxicity against human CRC cells (SW480 and SW620) and human primary colon cancer cells but was relatively ineffective against the cells from human normal colon (CRL-1790) and human primary colon epithelial cells. Menadione suppressed invasion, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human CRC cells by upregulating the expression of E-cadherin (CDH1), ZO-1 and downregulating that of N-cadherin (CDH2), Vimentin (VIM), ZEB1, MMP2 and MMP9. Menadione decreased TOPFlash/FOPFlash luciferase activity and expression of several downstream targets of Wnt signaling and coactivators such as β-catenin (CTNNB1), TCF7L2, Bcl9l, p300 (EP300) and cyclin D1 (CCND1) was suppressed. Menadione induced differentiation and increased apoptotic cell population in SubG0 phase of cell cycle in SW480 and SW620 cells. The ability of menadione to suppress EMT, migration, invasion, Wnt signaling, cell proliferation and induce Sub G0 arrest, highlights its potential to be considered for intensive preclinical and clinical investigation in CRC.

Kim E, Lisby A, Ma C, et al.
Promotion of growth factor signaling as a critical function of β-catenin during HCC progression.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1909 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. β-catenin is widely thought to be a major oncogene in HCC based on the frequency of mutations associated with aberrant Wnt signaling in HCC patients. Challenging this model, our data reveal that β-catenin nuclear accumulation is restricted to the late stage of the disease. Until then, β-catenin is primarily located at the plasma membrane in complex with multiple cadherin family members where it drives tumor cell survival by enhancing the signaling of growth factor receptors such as EGFR. Therefore, our study reveals the evolving nature of β-catenin in HCC to establish it as a compound tumor promoter during the progression of the disease.

Xu LH, Zhao F, Yang WW, et al.
MYB promotes the growth and metastasis of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(5):1579-1590 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The incidence of recurrent t(6;9) translocation of the MYB proto‑oncogene to NFIB (the gene that encodes nuclear factor 1 B‑type) in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) tumour tissues is high. However, MYB [the gene that encodes transcriptional activator Myb (MYB)] overexpression is more common, indicating that MYB serves a key role in ACC. The current study aimed to investigate the role of MYB in salivary (S)ACC growth and metastasis. A total of 50 fresh‑frozen SACC tissues and 41 fresh‑frozen normal submandibular gland (SMG) tissues were collected to measure MYB mRNA expression, and to analyse the associations between MYB and epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Compared with normal SMG tissue, SACC tissues demonstrated significantly increased MYB expression, with a high expression rate of 90%. Interestingly, MYB tended to be negatively correlated with CDH1 [the gene that encodes cadherin‑1 (E‑cadherin)] and positively correlated with VIM (the gene that encodes vimentin), suggesting that MYB is associated with SACC metastasis. To explore the role of MYB in SACC, the authors stably overexpressed and knocked down MYB in SACC cells. The authors of the current study demonstrated that MYB overexpression promoted SACC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, whereas its knockdown inhibited these activities. Additionally, when MYB was overexpressed, CDH1 expression was downregulated, and CDH2 (the gene that encodes cadherin‑2), VIM and ACTA2 (the gene that encodes actin, aortic smooth muscle) expression was upregulated. Then, the effect of MYB on lung tumour metastasis was investigated in vivo in non‑obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice. MYB overexpressing and control cells were injected into the mice through the tail vein. The results revealed that MYB promoted SACC lung metastasis. Collectively, these results demonstrated that MYB is aberrantly overexpressed in SACC tissues, and promotes SACC cell proliferation and metastasis, indicating that MYB may be a novel therapeutic target for SACC.

Zhuo H, Zhao Y, Cheng X, et al.
Tumor endothelial cell-derived cadherin-2 promotes angiogenesis and has prognostic significance for lung adenocarcinoma.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In lung cancer, antiangiogenic strategies targeting tumor-derived endothelial cells (TECs) afford a survival advantage, but the characteristics of TECs have not been comprehensively elucidated. Herein, high-purity (> 98%) TECs were obtained, and these cells retained expression of EC markers and exhibited high viability. ITRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS was performed to profile the proteome and the heterogeneity of ECs. Only 31 of 1820 identified proteins were differentially expressed between adenocarcinoma (ADC)- and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)-derived TECs (TEC-A and TEC-S, respectively), and cadherin-2 (CDH2) was the most significantly upregulated protein in TEC-A samples. Positive immunostaining for CDH2 (score > 3) was significantly more frequent in the endothelium of ADC tissues than in that of SCC tissues. Loss- or gain-of-function analysis showed that CDH2 significantly promoted in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis and sensitivity to the antagonist exherin. The MAPK/ERK and MAPK/JNK signaling pathways may play crucial roles in CDH2-induced HIF-1α/VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. Moreover, high CDH2 expression in TECs was significantly associated with tumor stage, visceral pleural metastasis, and decreased overall survival in patients with ADC but not SCC. Together, these data indicate the importance of CDH2 in angiogenesis and highlight its potential both for antiangiogenic therapy and as a candidate prognostic marker for ADC.

Xin H, Wang C, Liu Z
miR-196a-5p promotes metastasis of colorectal cancer via targeting IκBα.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA-196a-5p (miR-196a-5p) has been reported to be involved in the metastatic process of several cancers. In present work, we aimed to investigate the effects of miR-196a-5p and its potential target IκBα on migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells.
METHODS: CCK-8 assay, wound healing assay and cell invasion assay were performed to evaluate the cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In vivo metastasis models were used to investigate the tumor metastasis ability. Real-time PCR, immunofluorescence staining or western blot were utilized to detect the expression of miR-196a-5p, IκBα, p-IκBα, nuclear p65 and EMT markers including E-cadherin, N-cadherin and fibronectin. Dual luciferase reporter assay was carried out to determine whether there is a direct interaction between miR-196a-5p and IκBα mRNA.
RESULTS: Using SW480 cell with miR-196-5p over-expressed plus SW620 and HCT116 cells with miR-196a-5p knockdown, we found that miR-196a-5p promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and facilitated liver metastasis in vivo. We also observed that miR-196a-5p knockdown or NF-κB pathway inhibition up-regulated E-cadherin while down-regulated N-cadherin and fibronectin. By contrast, miR-196a-5p over-expression promoted EMT process of CRC. Data of dual luciferase reporter assay indicated that miR-196a-5p targeted the IκBα. Moreover, miR-196a-5p down-regulated IκBα expression while up-regulated nuclear p65 expression. Additionally, over-expression of IκBα in CRC cells attenuated the effects of miR-196a-5p on cell migration, invasion and EMT.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-196a-5p may play a key role in EMT, invasion and metastasis of CRC cells via targeting the IκBα.

Savci-Heijink CD, Halfwerk H, Hooijer GKJ, et al.
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition status of primary breast carcinomas and its correlation with metastatic behavior.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 174(3):649-659 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated as an important step in the development of distant metastases. We therefore wished to study EMT status of primary breast carcinomas from patients who during follow-up developed distant metastases.
METHODS: mRNA expression profiles of primary breast carcinoma samples (n = 151) from patients who developed metastatic disease were analyzed and EMT status was designated using a previously described EMT-core signature. EMT status of the primary tumor was correlated to clinicopathological characteristics, molecular subtypes, metastasis pattern, chemotherapy response and survival outcomes. In addition, using immunohistochemistry, the expression levels of several proteins implicated in EMT were studied (CDH1, CDH2, NAT1, SNAI2, TWIST1, VIM, and ZEB1) compared with the designated EMT status and survival.
RESULTS: Utilizing the 130-gene-EMT-core signature, 66.2% of the primary tumors in the current study was assessed as EMT-activated. In contrast to our expectations, analyses revealed that 84.6% of Luminal A tumors, 65.1% of Luminal B tumors, and 55.6% of HER2-like had an activated EMT status, compared to only 25% of the basal-type tumors (p < 0.001). EMT status was not correlated to the pattern of metastatic disease, metastasis-specific survival, and overall survival. Similarly, there was not a significant association between EMT status of the primary tumor and chemotherapy response in the metastatic setting. Immunostaining for NAT1 and TWIST1 correlated with the EMT status (p 0.003 and p 0.047, respectively). Multivariate analyses showed that NAT1 and TWIST1 staining was significantly associated with EMT status regardless of the estrogen receptor status of the tumors (p values: 0.020 and 0.027, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: The EMT status of breast cancers, as defined by the presence of a core EMT gene expression signature is associated with non-basal-type tumors, but not with the pattern of distant metastasis. Of several potential immunohistochemical EMT markers, only NAT1 and TWIST1 expression levels were associated with the gene expression-based EMT status.

Hou XM, Yuan SQ, Zhao D, et al.
LDH-A promotes malignant behavior via activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung adenocarcinoma.
Biosci Rep. 2019; 39(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is a key enzyme during glycolysis, which increases the synthesis of related proteins and has elevated activity in cancer cells. The role of LDH-A in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) progression was investigated in the present study. Expression levels of LDH-A were assessed in LUAD samples, and the relationship between LDH-A expression status and the prognosis of LUAD patients was confirmed. The effect of LDH-A on proliferation, invasion, migration, and colony formation of cancer cells was assessed. We further determined the role of LDH-A in tumor growth

Qiu J, Zhang W, Zang C, et al.
Identification of key genes and miRNAs markers of papillary thyroid cancer.
Biol Res. 2018; 51(1):45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: In this study, crucial genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with the progression, staging, and prognosis of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) were identified.
METHODS: Four PTC datasets, including our own mRNA-sequencing (mRNA-seq) dataset and three public datasets downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas, were used to analyze differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and miRNAs (DEMs) between PTC tumor tissues and paired normal tissues (control). Gene ontology (GO) terms and pathways associated with these DEGs were identified, and protein-protein interactions (PPIs) were analyzed. Additionally, an miRNA-mRNA regulatory network was constructed and the functions of DEMs were explored. Finally, miRNAs/mRNAs associated with tumor staging and prognosis were identified. The expression levels of several key genes and miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR.
RESULTS: Numerous DEGs and DEMs were identified between tumor and control groups in four datasets. The DEGs were significantly enriched in cell adhesion and cancer-related GO terms and pathways. In the constructed PPI network, ITGA2, FN1, ICAM1, TIMP1 and CDH2 were hub proteins. In the miRNA-mRNA negative regulatory networks, miR-204-5p regulated the largest number of target genes, such as TNFRSF12A. miR-146b, miR-204, miR-7-2, and FN1 were associated with tumor stage in PTC, and TNFRSF12A and CLDN1 were related to prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested the important roles of ITGA2, FN1, ICAM1, TIMP1 and CDH2 in the progression of PTC. miR-204-5p, miR-7-2, and miR-146b are potential biomarkers for PTC staging and FN1, CLDN1, and TNFRSF12A may serve as markers of prognosis in PTC.

Li J, Li Q, Lin L, et al.
Targeting the Notch1 oncogene by miR-139-5p inhibits glioma metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
BMC Neurol. 2018; 18(1):133 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioma metastasis, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and chemoresistance indicate poor prognosis. Accumulating evidence reveals that Notch1 is an important factor in tumour progression. However, the role of Notch1 in glioma EMT and associated microRNAs (miRNAs) with the Notch pathway remain controversial.
METHODS: Utilizing cBioPortal database to examine the gene signature of NOTCH1 (encoding Notch1), CDH2 (encoding N-cadherin) and SNAI1 (encoding Snail-1) in disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). We analyzed the Notch1 expression from Oncomine. We used Western blot (WB), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence to determine protein levels. Transcription was evaluated by quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR. siRNA and lentivirus were used to knock down Notch1 and overexpress miR-139-5p, respectively. The migration and invasion of glioma cells were assessed by wound healing and transwell assays. Luciferase reporter assays were utilized to verify the relationship between Notch1 and miR-139-5p. A U87-implanted intracranial model was used to study the effect of miR-139-5p on tumour growth and Notch1 suppression efficacy or EMT reversion.
RESULTS: It revealed the association of NOTCH1, CDH2, SNAI1 genomic alterations with decreases in DFS and OS. Notch1 was upregulated in classical and proneural subtypes of GBM, and associated with tumour grade. Notch1 inhibition suppressed the biological behaviours of metastasis, invasion and EMT. Notch1 was identified as a novel direct target of miR-139-5p. MiR-139-5p overexpression partially phenocopied Notch1 siRNA, whereas the forced expression of Notch1 reversed the effects of miR-139-5p on the invasion of glioma. Moreover, intracranial tumourigenicity and EMT behaviours were reduced by the introduction of miR-139-5p and partially mediated by the decreased Notch1 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-139-5p was identified as a tumour suppressor by negatively targeting Notch1, and this work suggests a possible molecular mechanism of the miR-139/Notch1/EMT axis for glioma treatment.

Benhadjeba S, Edjekouane L, Sauvé K, et al.
Feedback control of the CXCR7/CXCL11 chemokine axis by estrogen receptor α in ovarian cancer.
Mol Oncol. 2018; 12(10):1689-1705 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the most intractable diseases, exhibiting tremendous molecular heterogeneity and lacking reliable methods for screening, resulting in late diagnosis and widespread peritoneal dissemination. Menopausal estrogen replacement therapy is a well-recognized risk factor for OC, but little is known about how estrogen might contribute to this disease at the cellular level. This study identifies chemokine receptor CXCR7/ACKR3 as an estrogen-responsive gene, whose expression is markedly enhanced by estrogen through direct recruitment of ERα and transcriptional active histone modifications in OC cells. The gene encoding CXCR7 chemokine ligand I-TAC/CXCL11 was also upregulated by estrogen, resulting in Ser-118 phosphorylation, activation, and recruitment of estrogen receptor ERα at the CXCR7 promoter locus for positive feedback regulation. Both CXCR7 and CXCL11, but not CXCR3 (also recognized to interact with CXCL11), were found to be significantly increased in stromal sections of microdissected tumors and positively correlated in mesenchymal subtype of OC. Estrogenic induction of mesenchymal markers SNAI1, SNAI2, and CDH2 expression, with a consequent increase in cancer cell migration, was shown to depend on CXCR7, indicating a key role for CXCR7 in mediating estrogen upregulation of mesenchymal markers to induce invasion of OC cells. These findings identify a feed-forward mechanism that sustains activation of the CXCR7/CXCL11 axis under ERα control to induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition pathway and metastatic behavior of OC cells. Such interplay underlies the complex gene profile heterogeneity of OC that promotes changes in tumor microenvironment and metastatic acquisition.

Shan Z, Wei Z, Shaikh ZA
Suppression of ferroportin expression by cadmium stimulates proliferation, EMT, and migration in triple-negative breast cancer cells.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2018; 356:36-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Cadmium (Cd) has been linked to a variety of cancers, including breast cancer; however, the molecular mechanism of its carcinogenic activity is not fully understood. To this end, the present study investigated the roles of ferroportin (FPN), a prognostic marker of breast cancer, in Cd-induced stimulation of cell proliferation and cell migration. Triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with 1-3 μM Cd. The cells exhibited significant reduction in FPN expression and concomitant increase in iron concentration. Cells treated with Cd for 8 weeks displayed elevated proliferative and migratory activities which were inversely related with FPN expression. Reduced FPN expression also resulted in EMT as indicated by an increase in the expression of E-cadherin, and a decrease in the expression of N-cadherin, Twist and Slug. Further investigation revealed that Cd suppressed FPN expression at least partially by activating TGF-β, a known regulator of FPN expression. Taken together, these results indicate that Cd-induced stimulation of MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, EMT, and migration is brought about by suppression of FPN expression and associated disruption of iron homeostasis.

Song H, Tao Y, Ni N, et al.
miR-128 targets the CC chemokine ligand 18 gene (CCL18) in cutaneous malignant melanoma progression.
J Dermatol Sci. 2018; 91(3):317-324 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) has a higher expression in some tumors, while the CCL18 level can be a marker of tumor progression and prognosis. We previously reported that the expression of CCL18 gene was dramatically up-regulated in cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and its expression levels were correlated with tumor thickness.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate miRNAs which could target the CCL18 gene so as to mediate CMM development and improvement.
METHODS: The expression of miR-128 and CCL18 in CMM were measured by qRT-PCR. The interaction of miR-128 with CCL18 3'UTR was verified by Luciferase reporter gene assay. The changes in expression of CCL18 after miR-128 mimic transfection of A375 melanoma cells were determined by both qRT-PCR and Western-bloting. Cell viability was accessed by CCK8-assay. Flow cytometry was employed to detect the incidence of apoptosis. Clonogenic assay was used to detect the ability of colony formation. Cell migration was evaluated by Transwell migration study. The protein levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as E-cadherin, N-cadherin and β-catenin were analyzed by Western-bloting.
RESULTS: The expression of miR-128 had negative relevance with CCL18 in CMM. miR-128 could interact with CCL18 3'UTR. Transfected miR-128 mimic significantly reduced CCL18 expression and this impairment of CCL18 gene promoted apoptosis, inhibited migration and colony formation of A375 melanoma cells. Furthermore, the relative expression of N-cadherin was decreased.
CONCLUSION: CCL18 is a target gene of miR-128. Overexpression of miR-128 inhibits the oncogenic effect of CCL18.

Martinucci B, Minatel BC, Cucielo MS, et al.
Basement membrane extract attenuates the more malignant gene expression profile accentuated by fibronectin in prostate cancer cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2019; 451(1-2):131-138 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) has high mortality rates, with most of the deaths resulting from the development of metastasis. Fibronectin (FN) plays key roles in cell adhesion and affects the migratory behavior of cells. In the tumor microenvironment and also in the blood plasma during metastasis, FN displays increased expression, however its role in prostate cancer remains poorly understood. This study aimed to unveil the specific roles of FN as a soluble component, alone or in combination with a complex basement membrane. To investigate the impact of FN in neoplastic prostate cells, we evaluated the gene expression of LNCaP cells by RT-qPCR after exposure to soluble FN (25 µg/mL) either alone or in combination with a basement membrane. When FN was the predominant matrix element, such as in blood plasma, PCa tumor cells increased their expression of genes related to an invasive behavior and resistance to apoptosis, including CDH2, ITGA5, AKT1, and BCL2. However, the combined presence of FN and a complex basement membrane had the opposite effect on LNCaP cells, in which the expression levels of CDH2, ITGA5, AKT1, and BCL2 were reduced. Hierarchical clustering analysis with LNCaP and RWPE-1 cells showed that LNCaP cells exposed to an enriched extracellular matrix displayed an expression pattern more similar to that shown by RWPE-1 cells, a cell line that illustrates characteristics of the normal prostate epithelium. These findings provide the groundwork for future studies addressing the role of FN in tumor growth, particularly in the context of cancer evolution/progression from a solid primary tumor to a transitory circulating state.

Gerashchenko GV, Mevs LV, Chashchina LI, et al.
Expression of steroid and peptide hormone receptors, metabolic enzymes and EMT-related genes in prostate tumors in relation to the presence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion.
Exp Oncol. 2018; 40(2):101-108 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To analyze an expression pattern of the steroid and peptide hormone receptors, metabolic enzymes and EMT-related genes in prostate tumors in relation to the presence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion; and to examine a putative correlation between gene expression and clinical characteristics, to define the molecular subtypes of prostate cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relative gene expression (RE) of 33 transcripts (27 genes) and the presence/absence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion were analyzed by a quantitative PCR. 37 prostate cancer tissues (T) paired with conventionally normal prostate tissue (CNT) and 21 samples of prostate adenomas were investigated. RE changes were calculated, using different protocols of statistics.
RESULTS: We demonstrated differences in RE of seven genes between tumors and CNT, as was calculated, using the 2-ΔCT model and the Wilcoxon matched paired test. Five genes (ESR1, KRT18, MKI67, MMP9, PCA3) showed altered expression in adenocarcinomas, in which the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion was detected. Two genes (INSR, isoform B and HOTAIR) expressed differently in tumors without fusion. Comparison of the gene expression pattern in adenomas, CNT and adenocarcinomas demonstrated that in adenocarcinomas, bearing the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion, genes KRT18, PCA3, and SCHLAP1 expressed differently. At the same time, we detected differences in RE of AR (isoform 2), MMP9, PRLR and HOTAIR in adenocarcinomas without the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion. Two genes (ESR1 and SRD5A2) showed differences in RE in both adenocarcinoma groups. Fourteen genes, namely AR (isoforms 1 and 2), CDH1, OCLN, NKX3-1, XIAP, GCR (ins AG), INSR (isoform A), IGF1R, IGF1R tr, PRLR, PRL, VDR and SRD5A2 showed correlation between RE and tumor stage. RE of four genes (CDH2, ESR2, VDR and SRD5A2) correlated with differentiation status of tumors (Gleason score). Using the K-means clustering, we could cluster adenocarcinomas in three groups, according to gene expression profiles. A specific subtype of prostate tumors is characterized by the activated ERG signaling, due to the presence of TMPRSS2/ERG fusion, and also by high levels of the androgen receptor, prolactin, IGF, INSR and PCA3.
CONCLUSIONS: We have found the specific differences in expression of the steroid and peptide hormone receptors, metabolic enzymes and EMT-related genes, depending on the pre-sence/absence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion in prostate adenocarcinomas, CNT and adenomas. We showed three different gene expression profiles of prostate adenocarcinomas. One of them is characteristic for adenocarcinomas with the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion. Further experiments are needed to confirm these data in a larger cohort of patients.

Sunil Gowda SN, Rajasowmiya S, Vadivel V, et al.
Gallic acid-coated sliver nanoparticle alters the expression of radiation-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in non-small lung cancer cells.
Toxicol In Vitro. 2018; 52:170-177 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is the most widely used treatment method for treating cancer with or without surgery and chemotherapy. In lung cancer, it is one of the important treatment steps in excising the tumor from the lung tissue; unfortunately, radiation can induce epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT), a typical physiological process in which cuboidal shaped epithelial cell loses its phenotype and acquires mesenchymal-like phenotype thus, increases the metastasis progression in the body. To prevent EMT mediated metastasis, we aimed to 1) synthesize silver nanoparticles by using Gallic acid, a potential antioxidant which acts as stabilizing and reducing agent in the form of silver nanoparticle (GA-AgNPs) 2) to analyze its effect on EMT markers during radiation-induced EMT in A549 cells.
METHODS: A549 cells were irradiated with 8Gy (X-ray) and treated with GA-AgNPs at a fixed concentration under in vitro condition. GA-AgNPs were prepared and characterized for absorption, potential stability, size and morphology by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, Zeta potential and Transmission electron microscopy respectively. After irradiation, the morphology changes were observed using an inverted microscope, the gene and protein expression of EMT markers were analyzed by RT-PCR and western blotting.
RESULTS/CONCLUSION: GA-AgNPs are in nano size with fair stability. The synthesized nanoparticles suppressed the EMT markers including Vimentin, N-cadherin, Snail-1 and increased E-cadherin expression which might inhibit cancer cells to acquire radio resistant metastasis potential.

Inoue K, Tsubamoto H, Isono-Nakata R, et al.
Itraconazole treatment of primary malignant melanoma of the vagina evaluated using positron emission tomography and tissue cDNA microarray: a case report.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):630 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is extremely rare, with a poorer prognosis than cutaneous malignant melanoma. Previous studies have explored the repurposing of itraconazole, a common oral anti-fungal agent, for the treatment of various cancers. Here, we describe a patient with metastatic, unresectable vaginal malignant melanoma treated with 200 mg oral itraconazole twice a day in a clinical window-of-opportunity trial.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old Japanese woman with vaginal and inguinal tumours was referred to our institution. On the basis of an initial diagnosis of vaginal cancer metastatic to the inguinal lymph nodes, we treated her with itraconazole in a clinical trial until the biopsy and imaging study results were obtained. During this period, biopsies were performed three times, and
CONCLUSION: The findings of this case suggest that itraconazole is a potential effective treatment option for primary malignant melanoma of the vagina. Moreover, we identified potential itraconazole target genes, which could help elucidate the mechanism underlying this disease and potentially aid in the development of new therapeutic agents.

Zhang Y, Qiao HX, Zhou YT, et al.
Fibrinogen‑like‑protein 1 promotes the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer and is associated with poor prognosis.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(2):1465-1472 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The protective role of fibrinogen‑like‑protein 1 (FGL1) in liver injury has been reported previously. However, there are few studies on FGL1 expression in gastric cancer (GC) tissues, and the role of FGL1 in GC remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between FGL1 expression and prognosis in GC patients. Data was downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database, and 50 pairs of GC tissues and the corresponding non‑tumor tissues were collected between 2008 to 2011. Furthermore, FGL1 expression was silenced in order to explore its role in SGC‑7901 cell proliferation, invasion and migration using Cell Counting Kit‑8, wound healing, Transwell invasion and migration assays, respectively. Finally, whether FGL1 is involved in epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulation in SGC‑7901 cells was determined by western blotting. The results revealed that FGL1 expression was upregulated in GC tissues, and the overall survival time of GC patients with high FGL1 expression levels was markedly shorter than that of GC patients with low FGL1 expression levels (P=0.005). In addition, silencing FGL1 significantly inhibited SGC‑7901 cell proliferation, invasion and migration in vitro. Finally, western blot analyses indicated that knockdown of FGL1 markedly increased E‑cadherin expression levels (P<0.01), and significantly decreased N‑cadherin (P<0.01) and vimentin expression levels (P<0.01), thereby suggesting that FGL1 may promote EMT. These results indicated that FGL1 has the potential to be a predictor in GC patients as well as a target for the treatment of GC.

Eroğlu C, Avcı E, Vural H, Kurar E
Anticancer mechanism of Sinapic acid in PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cell lines.
Gene. 2018; 671:127-134 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sinapic acid (SA) is a derivative of hydroxycinnamic acid and found in various vegetables and fruit species. Aim was to evaluate the anticancer effects of SA in PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. The effect of SA on cell viability was determined using XTT assay. Expressions of 8 genes for apoptosis and 6 genes for metastasis were evaluated by qPCR. Caspase-3 activity was determined using caspase-3 colorimetric assay kit. Effect of SA on cell invasion was evaluated with cell invasion assay. The IC

Katoh M
Multi‑layered prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation, organ fibrosis and cancer associated with canonical WNT/β‑catenin signaling activation (Review).
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 42(2):713-725 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
β‑catenin/CTNNB1 is an intracellular scaffold protein that interacts with adhesion molecules (E‑cadherin/CDH1, N‑cadherin/CDH2, VE‑cadherin/CDH5 and α‑catenins), transmembrane‑type mucins (MUC1/CD227 and MUC16/CA125), signaling regulators (APC, AXIN1, AXIN2 and NHERF1/EBP50) and epigenetic or transcriptional regulators (BCL9, BCL9L, CREBBP/CBP, EP300/p300, FOXM1, MED12, SMARCA4/BRG1 and TCF/LEF). Gain‑of‑function CTTNB1 mutations are detected in bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and uterine cancer, whereas loss‑of‑function CTNNB1 mutations are also detected in human cancer. ABCB1, ALDH1A1, ASCL2, ATF3, AXIN2, BAMBI, CCND1, CD44, CLDN1, CTLA4, DKK1, EDN1, EOMES, FGF18, FGF20, FZD7, IL10, JAG1, LEF1, LGR5, MITF, MSX1, MYC, NEUROD1, NKD1, NODAL, NOTCH2, NOTUM, NRCAM, OPN, PAX3, PPARD, PTGS2, RNF43, SNAI1, SP5, TCF7, TERT, TNFRSF19, VEGFA and ZNRF3 are representative β‑catenin target genes. β‑catenin signaling is involved in myofibroblast activation and subsequent pulmonary fibrosis, in addition to other types of fibrosis. β‑catenin and NF‑κB signaling activation are involved in field cancerization in the stomach associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and in the liver associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and other etiologies. β‑catenin‑targeted therapeutics are functionally classified into β‑catenin inhibitors targeting upstream regulators (AZ1366, ETC‑159, G007‑LK, GNF6231, ipafricept, NVP‑TNKS656, rosmantuzumab, vantictumab, WNT‑C59, WNT974 and XAV939), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting protein‑protein interactions (CGP049090, CWP232228, E7386, ICG‑001, LF3 and PRI‑724), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting epigenetic regulators (PKF118‑310), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting mediator complexes (CCT251545 and cortistatin A) and β‑catenin inhibitors targeting transmembrane‑type transcriptional outputs, including CD44v6, FZD7 and LGR5. Eradicating H. pylori and HCV is the optimal approach for the first‑line prevention of gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), respectively. However, β‑catenin inhibitors may be applicable for the prevention of organ fibrosis, second‑line HCC prevention and treating β‑catenin‑driven cancer. The multi‑layered prevention and treatment strategy of β‑catenin‑related human diseases is necessary for the practice of personalized medicine and implementation of precision medicine.

Janik ME, Szwed S, Grzmil P, et al.
RT-qPCR analysis of human melanoma progression-related genes - A novel workflow for selection and validation of candidate reference genes.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2018; 101:12-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this study was to identify a normalizer or combination of normalizers for quantitative evaluation of the expression of a target gene of interest during melanoma progression. Adult melanocytes, uveal primary melanoma cells and cutaneous primary and metastatic melanoma cells were used to construct a panel of 14 experimental models reflecting cancer promotion and progression. Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1), glucuronidase beta (GUSB), ribosomal protein S23 (RPS23), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein progression. Adult melanocytes, uveal primary melanoma cells and cutaneous primary and metastatic melanoma cells were used to construct a panel of 14 experimental models reflecting cancer promotion and progression. Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1), glucuronidase beta (GUSB), ribosomal protein S23 (RPS23), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide A (SRNPA) were chosen as candidate housekeeping genes. NormFinder software was used to identify the best reference gene or pair of reference genes from five candidate housekeeping genes, on the basis of expression stability in a given experimental model. The suitability of references was validated by normalizing the transcriptional activities of E-cadherin (CDH1), N-cadherin (CDH2) and endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) target genes. It has been shown that the relative expression of CDH2 and ERAP1 target genes in a given cell line may vary between experimental models, leading to biological misinterpretation. In view of this, we devised a strategy for improved selection of the best stable reference and for obtaining biologically consistent results. This strategy avoided experimental model- and normalizer-dependent conclusions concerning the relative expression of target gene, in the examined cell lines.

Tang CX, Gu YX, Liu XF, et al.
Cross-link regulation of precursor N-cadherin and FGFR1 by GDNF increases U251MG cell viability.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(1):443-453 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is considered to be involved in the development of glioma. However, uncovering the underlying mechanism of the proliferation of glioma cells is a challenging work in progress. We have identified the binding of the precursor of N-cadherin (proN-cadherin) and GDNF on the cell membrane in previous studies. In the present study, we observed increased U251 Malignant glioma (U251MG) cell viability by exogenous GDNF (50 ng/ml). We also confirmed that the high expression of the proN-cadherin was stimulated by exogenous GDNF. Concurrently, we affirmed that lower expression of proN-cadherin correlated with reduced glioma cell viability. Additionally, we observed glioma cell U251MG viability as the phosphorylation level of FGFR1 at Y653 and Y654 was increased after exogenous GDNF treatment, which led to increased interaction between proN-cadherin and FGFR1 (pY653+Y654). Our experiments presented a new mechanism adopted by GDNF supporting glioma development and indicated a possible therapeutic potential via the inhibition of proN-cadherin/FGFR1 interaction.

Chen YC, Kuo CC, Chian CF, et al.
Knockdown of POLDIP2 suppresses tumor growth and invasion capacity and is linked to unfavorable transformation ability and metastatic feature in non-small cell lung cancer.
Exp Cell Res. 2018; 368(1):42-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
The main problem in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is known as the critical signaling in tumor progression, metastasis, and also the drug resistance. In this study, we reported a novel gene Polymerase delta-interacting protein 2 (POLDIP2) was downregulated in NSCLC tissues and first demonstrated that overexpression of POLDIP2 increased the anchorage-independent growth (AIG) and invasiveness of H1299 cells. In addition, we examined that knockdown of POLDIP2 in H1299 and A549 cells reduced tumorigenicity and metastatic capacity in vitro and also in vivo. Moreover, downregulation of the cell proliferation marker cyclin D1 and EMT markers CDH2, Slug, and Twist was showed in H1299 cells by POLDIP2 knockdown, suggesting that the inhibition of malignancy was affected by modulating key genes for tumor growth and invasiveness. Taken together, our study is the first study that demonstrated that POLDIP2 gene was function as an oncogene in NSCLC and implied the oncogenic ability might be through promoting cell proliferation or EMT.

Lee JW, Guan W, Han S, et al.
MicroRNA-708-3p mediates metastasis and chemoresistance through inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(5):1404-1413 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Metastasis and chemoresistance remain major challenges in the clinical treatment of breast cancer. Recent studies show that dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in metastasis and chemoresistance development in breast cancer. Herein, we identified downregulated expression of miR-708-3p in breast cancers. In particular, miR-708-3p expression was significantly decreased in specimens from breast cancer patients with metastasis compared to that in specimens from patients with no metastasis. Consistent with clinical data, our in vitro data show that miR-708-3p was more significantly decreased in invasive breast cancer cell lines. In addition, our data show that inhibition of miR-708-3p significantly stimulated breast cancer cell metastasis and induced chemoresistance both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, overexpression of miR-708-3p dramatically inhibited breast cancer cell metastasis and enhanced the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to chemotherapy both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we identified that miR-708-3p inhibits breast cancer cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by directly targeting EMT activators, including ZEB1, CDH2 and vimentin. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-708-3p acts as a cancer suppressor miRNA and carries out its anticancer function by inhibiting EMT in breast cancer. In addition, our findings suggest that restoration of miR-708-3p may be a novel strategy for inhibiting breast cancer metastasis and overcoming the chemoresistance of breast cancer cells.

Miao J, Wang W, Wu S, et al.
miR-194 Suppresses Proliferation and Migration and Promotes Apoptosis of Osteosarcoma Cells by Targeting CDH2.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 45(5):1966-1974 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Studies have shown that miR-194 functions as a tumour suppressor and is associated with tumour growth and metastasis. This study intends to uncover the mechanism of tumour suppression by miR-194. The expression of miR-194 in osteosarcoma cell lines and tissues were monitored by real-time PCR.
METHODS: The proliferation ability was examined by MTT assay. Migration and apoptosis of cells were monitored by migration assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The regulation of miR-194 on CDH2 was determined by luciferase assays and western blot assays.
RESULTS: The results showed that miR-194 was significantly reduced in osteosarcoma compared with that in normal bone tissue. Overexpression of miR-194 significantly attenuated the proliferation and migration and induced the apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-194 has inhibited the malignant behaviour of osteosarcoma by downregulating CDH2 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested that miR-194 may act as a tumour suppressor in osteosarcoma. miR-194/CDH2 may be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of osteosarcoma.

Zahra A, Rubab I, Malik S, et al.
Meta-Analysis of miRNAs and Their Involvement as Biomarkers in Oral Cancers.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:8439820 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Recent studies have highlighted the role of miRNA in disease pathology, indicating its potential use as an early diagnostic marker. Dysregulated expression of miRNAs is known to affect cell growth, and these may function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in various cancers. The main objective of this study was to characterize the extracellular miRNAs involved in

Ciołczyk-Wierzbicka D, Laidler P
The inhibition of invasion of human melanoma cells through N-cadherin knock-down.
Med Oncol. 2018; 35(4):42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
N-cadherin seems to promote cell migration and invasion in many types of cancers. The object of this study is recognition of the possible role of N-cadherin and selected downstream protein kinases: PI3K, ERK1/2, and mTOR in cell invasion in malignant melanoma. Melanoma cells were transfected with the small interfering RNA (siRNA) that targets human N-cadherin gene (CDH2). Inhibitors LY294002 (PI3K), U0126 (ERK1/2), and everolimus (mTOR) were used to inhibit selected kinases of signalling pathways. In vitro cell invasion was studied using Matrigel and an analysis of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity by gelatinase zymogram assay. Treatment of melanoma cell with either siRNA against N-cadherin or protein kinase inhibitors led to significantly decreased MMPs expression and activity, as well as diminished invasion. Both the current and the former results suggest that activation of PI3/AKT, mTOR, and ERK kinase, following N-cadherin expression, contributes not only to increased proliferation but also invasive potential of melanoma cells. The results also indicate that N-cadherin, as well as the studied kinases, should be considered as a potential target in melanoma therapy.

Sun G, Sui X, Han D, et al.
TRIM59 promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Pharmazie. 2017; 72(11):674-679 [PubMed] Related Publications
The human tripartite motif (TRIM) 59 has been implicated in tumorigenesis of many types of cancer. However, the biological function and molecular mechanism of TRIM59 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In our study, the purpose was to investigate the impact of TRIM59 on the biologic behavior of HCC cells. We observed that TRIM59 was highly expressed in HCC cells compared with a normal human hepatocyte cell line. Lentivirus-mediated knocking down of TRIM59 significantly suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells, whereas overexpression of TRIM59 enhanced cell growth and metastasis. Furthermore, our study showed that silencing of TRIM59 decreased the expression of E-cadherin and increased N-cadherin and vimentin expression, whereas TRIM59 overexpression had the opposite effects on the above proteins. Finally, we found that p53 protein expression level was regulated by TRIM59, so we proposed that TRIM59 may enhance HCC cell proliferation and metastasis through p53 signaling pathway. In summary, these data indicated that TRIM59 may be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Quintanal-Villalonga Á, Ojeda-Márquez L, Marrugal Á, et al.
The FGFR4-388arg Variant Promotes Lung Cancer Progression by N-Cadherin Induction.
Sci Rep. 2018; 8(1):2394 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The FGFR4-388Arg variant has been related to poor prognosis in several types of cancer, including lung cancer. The mechanism underlying this association has not been addressed in detail in patients with this pathology. Here, we report that this FGFR4 variant induces MAPK and STAT3 activation and causes pro-oncogenic effects in NSCLC in vitro and in vivo. This variant induces the expression of EMT-related genes, such as N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail1 and Twist1. Indeed, the induction of N-cadherin protein expression by this variant is essential for its pro-tumorigenic role. The presence of the FGFR4-388Arg variant correlates with higher N-cadherin expression levels in clinical NSCLC samples and with poorer outcome in patients with FGFR expression. These results support the prognostic role of this FGFR variant in lung cancer and show that these effects may be mediated by the induction of N-cadherin expression and an EMT phenotype.

Kang S, Oh SC, Min BW, Lee DH
Transglutaminase 2 Regulates Self-renewal and Stem Cell Marker of Human Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(2):787-794 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) in colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the TU12 cell line possessing CD133-expressing CCSCs. After isolating CD133 (-) and CD133 (+) CCSCs, we overexpressed and knocked-down TGM2 to investigate its role in human CCSCs.
RESULTS: The expression level of TGM2 was 25-fold higher in tumorigenic cells than non-tumorigenic cells. We found that knockdown of TGM2 by specific RNA interference markedly inhibited cell growth and caused down-regulation of the stemness markers, CD133, SOX2, and β-catenin. We further demonstrated that knockdown of TGM2 inhibited cell metastatic abilities by down-regulating N-cadherin and vimentin and up-regulating E-cadherin. These findings revealed that TGM2 expression is markedly increased in human colorectal cancer and that down-regulation of TGM2 in tumors may serve as a treatment for colorectal cancer patients. Therefore, this study indicate that TGM2 affects the metastatic potential and stemness of CCSCs by regulating EMT- and stemness-related proteins.
CONCLUSION: The metastatic potential of CSCs arises from highly expressed TGM2.

Silva RS, Lombardi APG, de Souza DS, et al.
Activation of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) regulates the expression of N-cadherin, E-cadherin and β-catenin in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2018; 96:40-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of the activation of estrogen receptors on expression and localization of N-cadherin, E-cadherin and non-phosphorylated β-catenin in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and DU-145) and in human post pubertal prostate epithelial cells (PNT1A). Expression of N-cadherin was detected in PNT1A and PC-3 cells, but not in DU-145 cells. E-cadherin was detected only in DU-145 cells and β-catenin was detected in all cells studied. N-cadherin and β-catenin were located preferentially in the cellular membrane of PNT1A cells and in the cytoplasm of PC-3 cells. E-cadherin and β-catenin were located preferentially in the cellular membrane of DU-145 cells. 17β-estradiol (E2) or the ERα-selective agonist PPT did not affect the content and localization of N-cadherin in PC-3 and PNT1A cells or E-cadherin in DU-145 cells. In PC-3 cells, ERβ-selective agonist DPN decreased the expression of N-cadherin. DPN-induced downregulation of N-cadherin was blocked by pretreatment with the ERβ-selective antagonist (PHTPP), indicating that ERβ1 is the upstream receptor regulating the expression of N-cadherin. In DU-145 cells, the activation of ERβ1 by DPN increased the expression of E-cadherin. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of ERβ1 is required to maintain an epithelial phenotype in PC-3 and DU-145 cells. The activation of ERβ1 also increased the expression of β-catenin in cytoplasm of PC-3 and in the cellular membrane of DU-145 cells. In conclusion, our results indicate differential expression and localization of N-cadherin, E-cadherin and β-catenin in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. The reduction of N-cadherin content by activation of ERβ, exclusively observed in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells (PC-3), may be related to the activation of signaling pathways, such as the release of β-catenin into the cytoplasm, translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus and activation of gene transcription.

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