CHEK1

Gene Summary

Gene:CHEK1; checkpoint kinase 1
Aliases: CHK1
Location:11q24.2
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is required for checkpoint mediated cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage or the presence of unreplicated DNA. This protein acts to integrate signals from ATM and ATR, two cell cycle proteins involved in DNA damage responses, that also associate with chromatin in meiotic prophase I. Phosphorylation of CDC25A protein phosphatase by this protein is required for cells to delay cell cycle progression in response to double-strand DNA breaks. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:serine/threonine-protein kinase Chk1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (31)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Thyroid Hormones
  • Urea
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Spindle Apparatus
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Receptors, Peptide
  • Wedelia
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Topoisomerase I Inhibitors
  • Checkpoint Kinase 1
  • Rad51 Recombinase
  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer
  • Viral Matrix Proteins
  • RTPCR
  • Chromosome 11
  • RB1
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6
  • Tumor Stem Cell Assay
  • Pyridones
  • Phosphorylation
  • Pyrroles
  • Apoptosis
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway
  • Breast Cancer
  • RNA Helicases
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
  • p21-Activated Kinases
  • DNA Damage
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Transcription
  • User-Computer Interface
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Protein Kinases
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Sequence Deletion
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • Thiones
Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CHEK1 (cancer-related)

Wang Y, Dong X, Hu B, et al.
The effects of Micro-429 on inhibition of cervical cancer cells through targeting ZEB1 and CRKL.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 80:311-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA-429 (miR-429) has been suggested to inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), mainly due to targeting of ZEB1 and ZEB2, which are repressors of the cell to cell contact protein, E-cadherin. In this study, we indicated that regulation of miR-429 in cervical cancer cells modulates cell migration, elongation, as well as transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-induced stress fiber formation through regulating the cytoskeleton reorganization which is likely independent of the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox (ZEB)/E-cadherin axis. ZEB1 and Crk-like adapter protein (CRKL), as novel targets of miR-429 and direct regulators of the actin cytoskeleton were identified. Remarkably, expression levels of ZEB1 and CRKL were inversely associated with the level of miR-429 in cervical cancer cell lines. In addition, individual knockdown and over-expression of these targeting genes phenocopied the roles of miR-429 over-expression and inhibition on cell elongation, migration, stress fiber formation, and invasion. Targeting of ZEB1 by miR-429 led to a decreased expression and transcriptional activity of CRB3, regulated by interference with the translocation of the CRB3. This finally led to decreasing of the expression of Crumbs 3 (CRB3), which is needed for the formation of stress fiber and contractility. Therefore, miR-429 affects cervical cancer by modulating some EMT-related processes. And in this study, evidences were provided to support a role for miR-429 as a novel target suppressing invasion and migration of human cervical cancer cells through modulation of its targeting genes ZEB1 and CRKL. Taken together, our data indicate that miR-429 plays a pivotal role in cervical cancer progression, which is a potential therapeutic target for patients.

Wang XG, Peng Y, Song XL, Lan JP
Identification potential biomarkers and therapeutic agents in multiple myeloma based on bioinformatics analysis.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016; 20(5):810-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to identify potential therapeutic biomarkers and agents in multiple myeloma (MM) based on bioinformatics analysis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The microarray data of GSE36474 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. A total of 4 MM and 3 normal bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) samples were used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The hierarchical clustering analysis and functional enrichment analysis of DEGs were performed. Furthermore, co-expression network was constructed by Cytoscape software. The potential small molecular agents were identified with Connectivity Map (cMap) database.
RESULTS: A total of 573 DEGs were identified in MM samples comparing with normal samples, including 322 down- and 251 up-regulated genes. The DEGs were separated into two clusters. Down-regulated genes were mainly enriched in cell cycle function, while up-regulated genes were related to immune response. Down-regulated genes such as checkpoint kinase 1 (CHEK1), MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (MAD2L1) and DBF4 zinc finger (DBF4) were identified in cell cycle-related co-expression network. Up-regulated gene of guanylate binding protein 1, interferon-inducible (GBP1) was a hub node in immune response-related co-expression network. Additionally, the small molecular agent vinblastine was identified in this study.
CONCLUSIONS: The genes such as CHEK1, MAD2L1, DBF4 and GBP1 may be potential therapeutic biomarkers in MM. Vinblastine may be a potential therapeutic agent in MM.

Bargiela-Iparraguirre J, Prado-Marchal L, Fernandez-Fuente M, et al.
CHK1 expression in Gastric Cancer is modulated by p53 and RB1/E2F1: implications in chemo/radiotherapy response.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:21519 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Radiation has a limited but relevant role in the adjuvant therapy of gastric cancer (GC) patients. Since Chk1 plays a critical function in cellular response to genotoxic agents, we aimed to analyze the role of Chk1 in GC as a biomarker for radiotherapy resistance. We analyzed Chk1 expression in AGS and MKN45 human GC cell lines by RT-QPCR and WB and in a small cohort of human patient's samples. We demonstrated that Chk1 overexpression specifically increases resistance to radiation in GC cells. Accordingly, abrogation of Chk1 activity with UCN-01 and its expression with shChk1 increased sensitivity to bleomycin and radiation. Furthermore, when we assessed Chk1 expression in human samples, we found a correlation between nuclear Chk1 accumulation and a decrease in progression free survival. Moreover, using a luciferase assay we found that Chk1's expression is controlled by p53 and RB/E2F1 at the transcriptional level. Additionally, we present preliminary data suggesting a posttranscriptional regulation mechanism, involving miR-195 and miR-503, which are inversely correlated with expression of Chk1 in radioresistant cells. In conclusion, Chk1/microRNA axis is involved in resistance to radiation in GC, and suggests Chk1 as a potential tool for optimal stratification of patients susceptible to receive adjuvant radiotherapy after surgery.

Gu L, Chu P, Lingeman R, et al.
The Mechanism by Which MYCN Amplification Confers an Enhanced Sensitivity to a PCNA-Derived Cell Permeable Peptide in Neuroblastoma Cells.
EBioMedicine. 2015; 2(12):1923-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysregulated expression of MYC family genes is a hallmark of many malignancies. Unfortunately, these proteins are not amenable to blockade by small molecules or protein-based therapeutic agents. Therefore, we must find alternative approaches to target MYC-driven cancers. Amplification of MYCN, a MYC family member, predicts high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) disease. We have shown that R9-caPep blocks the interaction of PCNA with its binding partners and selectively kills human NB cells, especially those with MYCN amplification, and we now show the mechanism. We found elevated levels of DNA replication stress in MYCN-amplified NB cells. R9-caPep exacerbated DNA replication stress in MYCN-amplified NB cells and NB cells with an augmented level of MYC by interfering with DNA replication fork extension, leading to Chk1 dependence and susceptibility to Chk1 inhibition. We describe how these effects may be exploited for treating NB.

Huang SW, Chang SH, Mu SW, et al.
Imiquimod activates p53-dependent apoptosis in a human basal cell carcinoma cell line.
J Dermatol Sci. 2016; 81(3):182-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The tumor suppressor p53 controls DNA repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy and numerous other cellular processes. Imiquimod (IMQ), a synthetic toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 ligand for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC), eliminates cancer cells by activating cell-mediated immunity and directly inducing apoptosis and autophagy in cancer cells.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of p53 in IMQ-induced cell death in skin cancer cells.
METHODS: The expression, phosphorylation and subcellular localization of p53 were detected by real-time PCR, luciferase reporter assay, cycloheximide chase analysis, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Using BCC/KMC1 cell line as a model, the upstream signaling of p53 activation was dissected by over-expression of TLR7/8, the addition of ROS scavenger, ATM/ATR inhibitors and pan-caspase inhibitor. The role of p53 in IMQ-induced apoptosis and autophagy was assessed by genetically silencing p53 and evaluated by a DNA content assay, immunoblotting, LC3 puncta detection and acridine orange staining.
RESULTS: IMQ induced p53 mRNA expression and protein accumulation, increased Ser15 phosphorylation, promoted nuclear translocation and up-regulated its target genes in skin cancer cells in a TLR7/8-independent manner. In BCC/KMC1 cells, the induction of p53 by IMQ was achieved through increased ROS production to stimulate the ATM/ATR-Chk1/Chk2 axis but was not mediated by inducing DNA damage. The pharmacological inhibition of ATM/ATR significantly suppressed IMQ-induced p53 activation and apoptosis. Silencing of p53 significantly decreased the IMQ-induced caspase cascade activation and apoptosis but enhanced autophagy. Mutant p53 skin cancer cell lines were more resistant to IMQ-induced apoptosis than wildtype p53 skin cancer cell lines.
CONCLUSION: IMQ induced ROS production to stimulate ATM/ATR pathways and contributed to p53-dependent apoptosis in a skin basal cell carcinoma cell line BCC/KMC1.

Hocke S, Guo Y, Job A, et al.
A synthetic lethal screen identifies ATR-inhibition as a novel therapeutic approach for POLD1-deficient cancers.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(6):7080-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinase ATR represents a central checkpoint regulator and mediator of DNA-repair. Its inhibition selectively eliminates certain subsets of cancer cells in various tumor types, but the underlying genetic determinants remain enigmatic. Here, we applied a synthetic lethal screen directed against 288 DNA-repair genes using the well-defined ATR knock-in model of DLD1 colorectal cancer cells to identify potential DNA-repair defects mediating these effects. We identified a set of DNA-repair proteins, whose knockdown selectively killed ATR-deficient cancer cells. From this set, we further investigated the profound synthetic lethal interaction between ATR and POLD1. ATR-dependent POLD1 knockdown-induced cell killing was reproducible pharmacologically in POLD1-depleted DLD1 cells and a panel of other colorectal cancer cell lines by using chemical inhibitors of ATR or its major effector kinase CHK1. Mechanistically, POLD1 depletion in ATR-deficient cells caused caspase-dependent apoptosis without preceding cell cycle arrest and increased DNA-damage along with impaired DNA-repair. Our data could have clinical implications regarding tumor genotype-based cancer therapy, as inactivating POLD1 mutations have recently been identified in small subsets of colorectal and endometrial cancers. POLD1 deficiency might thus represent a predictive marker for treatment response towards ATR- or CHK1-inhibitors that are currently tested in clinical trials.

Wu F, Chen WJ, Yan L, et al.
Mus81 knockdown improves chemosensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by inducing S-phase arrest and promoting apoptosis through CHK1 pathway.
Cancer Med. 2016; 5(2):370-85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As a critical endonuclease in DNA repair, Mus81 is traditionally regarded as a tumor suppressor, but recently correlated with the sensitivity of mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil in colon cancer and breast cancer cells. However, its role in chemosensitivity of other human malignancies still remains unknown. This study therefore aims to investigate the effects of Mus81 knockdown on the chemosensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a usually chemorefractory tumor, and explore the underlying mechanisms. Mus81 expression in HepG2 and Bel-7402 HCC cell lines was depleted by lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA and the elevated sensitivity of these Mus81-inhibited HCC cells to therapeutic agents, especially to epirubicin (EPI), was evidenced by MTT assay and an HCC chemotherapy mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis also showed that Mus81 knockdown lead to an obvious S-phase arrest and an elevated apoptosis in EPI-treated HepG2 and Bel-7402 cells, which could be rescued by CHK1 inhibition. The activation of CHK1/CDC25A/CDK2 pathway was also demonstrated in Mus81-inhibited HepG2 cells and xenograft mouse tumors under EPI treatment. Meanwhile, the apoptosis of HepG2 cells in response to EPI was remarkably promoted by Mus81 knockdown through activating p53/Bax/Caspase-3 pathway under the controlling of CHK1. In addition, CHK2 inhibition slightly raised CHK1 activity, thereby enhancing the S-phase arrest and apoptosis induced by EPI in Mus81-suppressed HCC cells. In conclusion, Mus81 knockdown improves the chemosensitivity of HCC cells by inducing S-phase arrest and promoting apoptosis through CHK1 pathway, suggesting Mus81 as a novel therapeutic target for HCC.

Ajiro M, Jia R, Yang Y, et al.
A genome landscape of SRSF3-regulated splicing events and gene expression in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2016; 44(4):1854-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Alternative RNA splicing is an essential process to yield proteomic diversity in eukaryotic cells, and aberrant splicing is often associated with numerous human diseases and cancers. We recently described serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3 or SRp20) being a proto-oncogene. However, the SRSF3-regulated splicing events responsible for its oncogenic activities remain largely unknown. By global profiling of the SRSF3-regulated splicing events in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells, we found that SRSF3 regulates the expression of 60 genes including ERRFI1, ANXA1 and TGFB2, and 182 splicing events in 164 genes, including EP300, PUS3, CLINT1, PKP4, KIF23, CHK1, SMC2, CKLF, MAP4, MBNL1, MELK, DDX5, PABPC1, MAP4K4, Sp1 and SRSF1, which are primarily associated with cell proliferation or cell cycle. Two SRSF3-binding motifs, CCAGC(G)C and A(G)CAGCA, are enriched to the alternative exons. An SRSF3-binding site in the EP300 exon 14 is essential for exon 14 inclusion. We found that the expression of SRSF1 and SRSF3 are mutually dependent and coexpressed in normal and tumor tissues/cells. SRSF3 also significantly regulates the expression of at least 20 miRNAs, including a subset of oncogenic or tumor suppressive miRNAs. These data indicate that SRSF3 affects a global change of gene expression to maintain cell homeostasis.

Greve G, Schiffmann I, Pfeifer D, et al.
The pan-HDAC inhibitor panobinostat acts as a sensitizer for erlotinib activity in EGFR-mutated and -wildtype non-small cell lung cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:947 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) EGFR is overexpressed and mutated in NSCLC. These mutations can be targeted by RTK inhibitors (TKIs) such as erlotinib. Chromatin-modifying agents may offer a novel therapeutic approach by sensitizing tumor cells to TKIs.
METHODS: The NSCLC cell lines HCC827 (EGFR mutant, adenocarcinoma), A549 (EGFR wt, adenocarcinoma) and NCI-H460 (EGFR wt, large cell carcinoma) were analyzed by SNP6.0 array. Changes in proliferation after panobinostat (LBH-589, PS) and erlotinib treatment were quantified by WST-1 assay and apoptosis by Annexin V/7-AAD flow cytometry. Abundance of target proteins and histone marks (acH3, H3K4me1/2/3) was determined by immunoblotting.
RESULTS: As expected, the EGFR wt cell lines A549 and NCI-H460 were quite insensitive to the growth-inhibitory effect of erlotinib (IC50 70-100 μM), compared to HCC827 (IC50<0.02 μM). All three cell lines were sensitive to PS treatment (IC50: HCC827 10 nM, A549 20 nM and NCI-H460 35 nM). The combination of both drugs further reduced proliferation in HCC827 and in A549, but not in NCI-H460. PS alone induced differentiation and expression of p21WAF1/CIP1 and p53 and decreased CHK1 in all three cell lines, with almost no further effect when combined with erlotinib. In contrast, combination treatment additively decreased pEGFR, pERK and pAKT in A549. Both drugs synergistically induced acH3 in the adenocarcinoma lines. Surprisingly, we also observed induction of H3K4 methylation marks after erlotinib treatment in HCC827 and in A549 that was further enhanced by combination with PS.
CONCLUSION: PS sensitized lung adenocarcinoma cells to the antiproliferative effects of erlotinib. In these cell lines, the drug combination also had a robust, not previously described effect on histone H3 acetylation and H3K4 methylation.

Cea M, Cagnetta A, Adamia S, et al.
Evidence for a role of the histone deacetylase SIRT6 in DNA damage response of multiple myeloma cells.
Blood. 2016; 127(9):1138-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by a highly unstable genome, with aneuploidy observed in nearly all patients. The mechanism causing this karyotypic instability is largely unknown, but recent observations have correlated these abnormalities with dysfunctional DNA damage response. Here, we show that the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT6 is highly expressed in MM cells, as an adaptive response to genomic stability, and that high SIRT6 levels are associated with adverse prognosis. Mechanistically, SIRT6 interacts with the transcription factor ELK1 and with the ERK signaling-related gene. By binding to their promoters and deacetylating H3K9 at these sites, SIRT6 downregulates the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway genes, MAPK signaling, and proliferation. In addition, inactivation of ERK2/p90RSK signaling triggered by high SIRT6 levels increases DNA repair via Chk1 and confers resistance to DNA damage. Using genetic and biochemical studies in vitro and in human MM xenograft models, we show that SIRT6 depletion both enhances proliferation and confers sensitization to DNA-damaging agents. Our findings therefore provide insights into the functional interplay between SIRT6 and DNA repair mechanisms, with implications for both tumorigenesis and the treatment of MM.

Li CC, Yang JC, Lu MC, et al.
ATR-Chk1 signaling inhibition as a therapeutic strategy to enhance cisplatin chemosensitivity in urothelial bladder cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(2):1947-59 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA damage responses contribute to cisplatin resistance; however, therapeutic strategies to overcome cisplatin resistance have not yet been established. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of ATR-Chk1 pathway with the potent inhibitor WYC0209 sensitizes bladder cancer cells to cisplatin. In the clinical microarray profile, high ATR expression is associated with poor prognosis in bladder cancer patients who receive chemotherapy. We show that pharmacological and genetic suppressing of ATR sensitized cells to cisplatin. Treatment with WYC0209 or siATR increased levels of cisplatin-DNA adducts, concomitant with decreased levels of p-glycoprotein expression. Additionally, Combinations of cisplatin and WYC0209 show synergistic activity against bladder cancer. Ultimately, WYC0209 enhanced the anti-tumor effects of cisplatin and suppressed p-glycoprotein expression in bladder cancer xenografts. These results indicate that inhibiting ATR-Chk1 activation with WYC0209 suppresses p-glycoprotein expression and increases cisplatin activity in bladder cancer. Our findings collectively suggest that ATR-Chk1 is a target for improving the efficacy of cisplatin in bladder cancer.

Kanojia D, Nagata Y, Garg M, et al.
Genomic landscape of liposarcoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(40):42429-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Liposarcoma (LPS) is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma accounting for 20% of all adult sarcomas. Due to absence of clinically effective treatment options in inoperable situations and resistance to chemotherapeutics, a critical need exists to identify novel therapeutic targets. We analyzed LPS genomic landscape using SNP arrays, whole exome sequencing and targeted exome sequencing to uncover the genomic information for development of specific anti-cancer targets. SNP array analysis indicated known amplified genes (MDM2, CDK4, HMGA2) and important novel genes (UAP1, MIR557, LAMA4, CPM, IGF2, ERBB3, IGF1R). Carboxypeptidase M (CPM), recurrently amplified gene in well-differentiated/de-differentiated LPS was noted as a putative oncogene involved in the EGFR pathway. Notable deletions were found at chromosome 1p (RUNX3, ARID1A), chromosome 11q (ATM, CHEK1) and chromosome 13q14.2 (MIR15A, MIR16-1). Significantly and recurrently mutated genes (false discovery rate < 0.05) included PLEC (27%), MXRA5 (21%), FAT3 (24%), NF1 (20%), MDC1 (10%), TP53 (7%) and CHEK2 (6%). Further, in vitro and in vivo functional studies provided evidence for the tumor suppressor role for Neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene in different subtypes of LPS. Pathway analysis of recurrent mutations demonstrated signaling through MAPK, JAK-STAT, Wnt, ErbB, axon guidance, apoptosis, DNA damage repair and cell cycle pathways were involved in liposarcomagenesis. Interestingly, we also found mutational and copy number heterogeneity within a primary LPS tumor signifying the importance of multi-region sequencing for cancer-genome guided therapy. In summary, these findings provide insight into the genomic complexity of LPS and highlight potential druggable pathways for targeted therapeutic approach.

Peng S, Sen B, Mazumdar T, et al.
Dasatinib induces DNA damage and activates DNA repair pathways leading to senescence in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines with kinase-inactivating BRAF mutations.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(1):565-79 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Improved therapies are greatly needed for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that does not harbor targetable kinase mutations or translocations. We previously demonstrated that NSCLC cells that harbor kinase-inactivating BRAF mutations (KIBRAF) undergo senescence when treated with the multitargeted kinase inhibitor dasatinib. Similarly, treatment with dasatinib resulted in a profound and durable response in a patient with KIBRAF NSCLC. However, no canonical pathways explain dasatinib-induced senescence in KIBRAF NSCLC. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we used 2 approaches: gene expression and reverse phase protein arrays. Both approaches showed that DNA repair pathways were differentially modulated between KIBRAF NSCLC cells and those with wild-type (WT) BRAF. Consistent with these findings, dasatinib induced DNA damage and activated DNA repair pathways leading to senescence only in the KIBRAF cells. Moreover, dasatinib-induced senescence was dependent on Chk1 and p21, proteins known to mediate DNA damage-induced senescence. Dasatinib also led to a marked decrease in TAZ but not YAP protein levels. Overexpression of TAZ inhibited dasatinib-induced senescence. To investigate other vulnerabilities in KIBRAF NSCLC cells, we compared the sensitivity of these cells with that of WTBRAF NSCLC cells to 79 drugs and identified a pattern of sensitivity to EGFR and MEK inhibitors in the KIBRAF cells. Clinically approved EGFR and MEK inhibitors, which are better tolerated than dasatinib, could be used to treat KIBRAF NSCLC. Our novel finding that dasatinib induced DNA damage and subsequently activated DNA repair pathways leading to senescence in KIBRAF NSCLC cells represents a unique vulnerability with potential clinical applications.

Taylor EM, Lindsay HD
DNA replication stress and cancer: cause or cure?
Future Oncol. 2016; 12(2):221-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is an extensive and growing body of evidence that DNA replication stress is a major driver in the development and progression of many cancers, and that these cancers rely heavily on replication stress response pathways for their continued proliferation. This raises the possibility that the pathways that ordinarily protect cells from the accumulation of cancer-causing mutations may actually prove to be effective therapeutic targets for a wide range of malignancies. In this review, we explore the mechanisms by which sustained proliferation can lead to replication stress and genome instability, and discuss how the pattern of mutations observed in human cancers is supportive of this oncogene-induced replication stress model. Finally, we go on to consider the implications of replication stress both as a prognostic indicator and, more encouragingly, as a potential target in cancer treatment.

Gupta SK, Kizilbash SH, Carlson BL, et al.
Delineation of MGMT Hypermethylation as a Biomarker for Veliparib-Mediated Temozolomide-Sensitizing Therapy of Glioblastoma.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2016; 108(5) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Sensitizing effects of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors have been studied in several preclinical models, but a clear understanding of predictive biomarkers is lacking. In this study, in vivo efficacy of veliparib combined with temozolomide (TMZ) was evaluated in a large panel of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and potential biomarkers were analyzed.
METHODS: The efficacy of TMZ alone vs TMZ/veliparib was compared in a panel of 28 GBM PDX lines grown as orthotopic xenografts (8-10 mice per group); all tests of statistical significance were two-sided. DNA damage was analyzed by γH2AX immunostaining and promoter methylation of DNA repair gene O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) by Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-approved methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: The combination of TMZ/veliparib statistically significantly extended survival of GBM models (P < .05 by log-rank) compared with TMZ alone in five of 20 MGMT-hypermethylated lines (average extension in median survival = 87 days, range = 20-150 days), while the combination was ineffective in six MGMT-unmethylated lines. In the MGMT promoter-hypermethylated GBM12 line (median survival with TMZ+veliparib = 189 days, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 59 to 289 days, vs TMZ alone = 98 days, 95% CI = 49 to 210 days, P = .04), the profound TMZ-sensitizing effect of veliparib was lost when MGMT was overexpressed (median survival with TMZ+veliparib = 36 days, 95% CI = 28 to 38 days, vs TMZ alone = 35 days, 95% CI = 32 to 37 days, P = .87), and a similar association was observed in two nearly isogenic GBM28 sublines with an intact vs deleted MGMT locus. In comparing DNA damage signaling after dosing with veliparib/TMZ or TMZ alone, increased phosphorylation of damage-responsive proteins (KAP1, Chk1, Chk2, and H2AX) was observed only in MGMT promoter-hypermethylated lines.
CONCLUSION: Veliparib statistically significantly enhances (P < .001) the efficacy of TMZ in tumors with MGMT promoter hypermethylation. Based on these data, MGMT promoter hypermethylation is being used as an eligibility criterion for A071102 (NCT02152982), the phase II/III clinical trial evaluating TMZ/veliparib combination in patients with GBM.

Iacobucci I, Di Rorà AG, Falzacappa MV, et al.
In vitro and in vivo single-agent efficacy of checkpoint kinase inhibition in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
J Hematol Oncol. 2015; 8:125 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although progress in children, in adults, ALL still carries a dismal outcome. Here, we explored the in vitro and in vivo activity of PF-00477736 (Pfizer), a potent, selective ATP-competitive small-molecule inhibitor of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) and with lower efficacy of checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2).
METHODS: The effectiveness of PF-00477736 as single agent in B-/T-ALL was evaluated in vitro and in vivo studies as a single agent. The efficacy of the compound in terms of cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, and changes in gene and protein expression was assessed using different B-/T-ALL cell lines. Finally, the action of PF-00477736 was assessed in vivo using leukemic mouse generated by a single administration of the tumorigenic agent N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea.
RESULTS: Chk1 and Chk2 are overexpressed concomitant with the presence of genetic damage as suggested by the nuclear labeling for γ-H2A.X (Ser139) in 68 % of ALL patients. In human B- and T-ALL cell lines, inhibition of Chk1/2 as a single treatment strategy efficiently triggered the Chk1-Cdc25-Cdc2 pathway resulting in a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, and increased DNA damage. Moreover, treatment with PF-00477736 showed efficacy ex vivo in primary leukemic blasts separated from 14 adult ALL patients and in vivo in mice transplanted with T-ALL, arguing in favor of its future clinical evaluation in leukemia.
CONCLUSIONS: In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo results support the inhibition of Chk1 as a new therapeutic strategy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and they provide a strong rationale for its future clinical investigation.

Sarmento LM, Barata JT
CHK1 and replicative stress in T-cell leukemia: Can an irreverent tumor suppressor end up playing the oncogene?
Adv Biol Regul. 2016; 60:115-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Replicative stress (RS) is a cell-intrinsic phenomenon enhanced by oncogenic transformation. Checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) is a key component of the ATR-dependent DNA damage response pathway that protects cells from RS by preventing replication fork collapse and activating homologous DNA repair. Taking this knowledge into account, one would predict CHK1 behaves strictly as a tumor suppressor. However, the reality seems far more complex. CHEK1 loss-of-function mutations have not been found in human tumors, and transgenic expression of Chek1 in mice promotes oncogene-induced transformation through RS inhibition. Moreover, CHK1 is overexpressed in various human cancers and CHK1 inhibitors have been developed as sensitizers to enhance the cytotoxicity of DNA damage-inducing chemotherapies. Here, we summarize the literature on the involvement of CHK1 in cancer progression, including our recent observation that CHK1 sustains T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell viability. We also debate the importance of identifying patients that could benefit the most from treatment with CHK1 inhibitors, taking T-ALL as a model, and propose possible markers of therapeutic response.

Alsubhi N, Middleton F, Abdel-Fatah TM, et al.
Chk1 phosphorylated at serine345 is a predictor of early local recurrence and radio-resistance in breast cancer.
Mol Oncol. 2016; 10(2):213-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiation-induced DNA damage activates the DNA damage response (DDR). DDR up-regulation may predict radio-resistance and increase the risk of early local recurrence despite radiotherapy in early stage breast cancers. In 1755 early stage breast cancers, DDR signalling [ATM, ATR, total Ckh1, Chk1 phosphorylated at serine(345) (pChk1), Chk2, p53], base excision repair [PARP1, POLβ, XRCC1, FEN1, SMUG1], non-homologous end joining (Ku70/Ku80, DNA-PKcs) and homologous recombination [RAD51, BRCA1, γH2AX, BLM, WRN, RECQL5, PTEN] protein expression was correlated to time to early local recurrence. Pre-clinically, radio-sensitization by inhibition of Chk1 activation by ATR inhibitor (VE-821) and inhibition of Chk1 (V158411) were investigated in MDA-MB-231 (p53 mutant) and MCF-7 (p53 wild-type) breast cancer cells. In the whole cohort, 208/1755 patients (11.9%) developed local recurrence of which 126 (61%) developed local recurrence within 5 years of initiation of primary therapy. Of the 20 markers tested, only pChk1 and p53 significantly associated with early local recurrence (p value = 0.015 and 0.010, respectively). When analysed together, high cytoplasmic pChk1-nuclear pChk1 (p = 0.039), high cytoplasmic pChk1-p53 (p = 0.004) and high nuclear pChk1-p53 (p = 0.029) co-expression remain significantly linked to early local recurrence. In multivariate analysis, cytoplasmic pChk1 level independently predicted early local recurrence (p = 0.025). In patients who received adjuvant local radiotherapy (n = 949), p53 (p = 0.014) and high cytoplasmic pChk1-p53 (p = 0.017) remain associated with early local recurrence. Pre-clinically, radio-sensitisation by VE-821 or V158411 was observed in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and was more pronounced in MCF-7 cells. We conclude that pChk1 is a predictive biomarker of radiotherapy resistance and early local recurrence.

Restelli V, Chilà R, Lupi M, et al.
Characterization of a mantle cell lymphoma cell line resistant to the Chk1 inhibitor PF-00477736.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(35):37229-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma characterized by the chromosomal translocation t(11;14) that leads to constitutive expression of cyclin D1, a master regulator of the G1-S phase. Chk1 inhibitors have been recently shown to be strongly effective as single agents in MCL. To investigate molecular mechanisms at the basis of Chk1 inhibitor activity, a MCL cell line resistant to the Chk1 inhibitor PF-00477736 (JEKO-1 R) was obtained and characterized. The JEKO-1 R cell line was cross resistant to another Chk1 inhibitor (AZD-7762) and to the Wee1 inhibitor MK-1775. It displayed a shorter doubling time than parental cell line, likely due to a faster S phase. Cyclin D1 expression levels were decreased in resistant cell line and its re-overexpression partially re-established PF-00477736 sensitivity. Gene expression profiling showed an enrichment in gene sets involved in pro-survival pathways in JEKO-1 R. Dasatinib treatment partly restored PF-00477736 sensitivity in resistant cells suggesting that the pharmacological interference of pro-survival pathways can overcome the resistance to Chk1 inhibitors. These data further corroborate the involvement of the t(11;14) in cellular sensitivity to Chk1 inhibitors, fostering the clinical testing of Chk1 inhibitors as single agents in MCL.

Beumer JH, Fu KY, Anyang BN, et al.
Functional analyses of ATM, ATR and Fanconi anemia proteins in lung carcinoma : ATM, ATR and FA in lung carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:649 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: ATM and ATR are kinases implicated in a myriad of DNA-damage responses. ATM kinase inhibition radiosensitizes cells and selectively kills cells with Fanconi anemia (FA) gene mutations. ATR kinase inhibition sensitizes cells to agents that induce replication stress and selectively kills cells with ATM and TP53 mutations. ATM mutations and FANCF promoter-methylation are reported in lung carcinomas.
METHODS: We undertook functional analyses of ATM, ATR, Chk1 and FA proteins in lung cancer cell lines. We included Calu6 that is reported to be FANCL-deficient. In addition, the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database was interrogated for alterations in: 1) ATM, MRE11A, RAD50 and NBN; 2) ATR, ATRIP and TOPBP1; and 3) 15 FA genes.
RESULTS: No defects in ATM, ATR or Chk1 kinase activation, or FANCD2 monoubiquitination were identified in the lung cancer cell lines examined, including Calu6, and major alterations in these pathways were not identified in the TCGA database. Cell lines were radiosensitized by ATM kinase inhibitor KU60019, but no cell killing by ATM kinase inhibitor alone was observed. While no synergy between gemcitabine or carboplatin and ATR kinase inhibitor ETP-46464 was observed, synergy between gemcitabine and Chk1 kinase inhibitor UCN-01 was observed in 54 T, 201 T and H460, and synergy between carboplatin and Chk1 kinase inhibitor was identified in 201 T and 239 T. No interactions between ATM, ATR and FA activation were observed by either ATM or ATR kinase inhibition in the lung cancer cell lines.
CONCLUSIONS: Analyses of ATM serine 1981 and Chk1 serine 345 phosphorylation, and FANCD2 monoubiquitination revealed that ATM and ATR kinase activation and FA pathway signaling are intact in the lung cancer cell lines examined. As such, these posttranslational modifications may have utility as biomarkers for the integrity of DNA damage signaling pathways in lung cancer. Different sensitization profiles between gemcitabine and carboplatin and ATR kinase inhibitor ETP-46464 and Chk1 kinase inhibitor UCN-01 were observed and this should be considered in the rationale for Phase I clinical trial design with ATR kinase inhibitors.

Shen JP, Srivas R, Gross A, et al.
Chemogenetic profiling identifies RAD17 as synthetically lethal with checkpoint kinase inhibition.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(34):35755-69 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Chemical inhibitors of the checkpoint kinases have shown promise in the treatment of cancer, yet their clinical utility may be limited by a lack of molecular biomarkers to identify specific patients most likely to respond to therapy. To this end, we screened 112 known tumor suppressor genes for synthetic lethal interactions with inhibitors of the CHEK1 and CHEK2 checkpoint kinases. We identified eight interactions, including the Replication Factor C (RFC)-related protein RAD17. Clonogenic assays in RAD17 knockdown cell lines identified a substantial shift in sensitivity to checkpoint kinase inhibition (3.5-fold) as compared to RAD17 wild-type. Additional evidence for this interaction was found in a large-scale functional shRNA screen of over 100 genotyped cancer cell lines, in which CHEK1/2 mutant cell lines were unexpectedly sensitive to RAD17 knockdown. This interaction was widely conserved, as we found that RAD17 interacts strongly with checkpoint kinases in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the setting of RAD17 knockdown, CHEK1/2 inhibition was found to be synergistic with inhibition of WEE1, another pharmacologically relevant checkpoint kinase. Accumulation of the DNA damage marker γH2AX following chemical inhibition or transient knockdown of CHEK1, CHEK2 or WEE1 was magnified by knockdown of RAD17. Taken together, our data suggest that CHEK1 or WEE1 inhibitors are likely to have greater clinical efficacy in tumors with RAD17 loss-of-function.

Karnitz LM, Zou L
Molecular Pathways: Targeting ATR in Cancer Therapy.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(21):4780-5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
The human ATR gene encodes a kinase that is activated by DNA damage and replication stress as a central transducer of a checkpoint signaling pathway. Once activated, ATR phosphorylates multiple substrates, including the kinase Chk1, to regulate cell-cycle progression, replication fork stability, and DNA repair. These events promote cell survival during replication stress and in cells with DNA damage. Accordingly, there has been the tantalizing possibility that ATR inhibitors would be therapeutically useful, especially if they were more effective in tumor versus normal cells. Indeed, multiple studies have demonstrated that alterations that promote tumorigenesis, such as defects in the ATM-p53 pathway, constitutive oncogene activation, and acquisition of the alternative lengthening of telomeres pathway, render tumor cells sensitive to ATR inhibitor monotherapy and/or increase the synergy between ATR inhibitors and genotoxic chemotherapies. Now, nearly two decades after the discovery of ATR, two highly selective and potent ATR inhibitors, AZD6738 and VX-970, are in early-phase clinical trials either as monotherapies or paired with a variety of genotoxic chemotherapies. These trials will generate important insights into the effects of ATR inhibition in humans and the potential role of inhibiting this kinase in the treatment of human malignancies.

Duan S, Tsai Y, Keng P, et al.
IL-6 signaling contributes to cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer via the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic and DNA repair associated molecules.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(29):27651-60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is currently the most effective treatment regimen for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but eventually tumor resistance develops which limits its success. The potential implication of IL-6 signaling in the cisplatin resistance of NSCLC was explored by testing whether NSCLC cells with different levels of intracellular IL-6 show different responses to the cytotoxic treatment of cisplatin. When the cisplatin cytotoxicity of the IL-6 knocked down human NSCLC cells (A549IL-6si and H157IL-6si) were compared with their corresponding scramble control cells (A549sc and H157sc), higher cisplatin cytotoxicity was found in IL-6 si cells than sc cells. Subcutaneous xenograft mouse models were developed using a pair of A549sc and A549IL-6si cells. When the tumor grew to about 400 mm2, mice were treated with cisplatin and tumor regression was monitored. Higher tumor regression was detected in the A549IL-6si xenografts compared to A549sc xenografts following cisplatin treatment. Immunostaining study results from tumor tissues also supported this finding. Expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 and DNA repair associated molecules ATM, CHK1, TP73, p53, and ERCC1 were significantly up regulated in cisplatin-treated A549sc and H157sc cells, but no increase was detected in A549IL-6si and H157IL-6si cells. Further inhibitor studies revealed that up regulation of these molecules by IL-6 may be through activation of IL-6 downstream signaling pathways like Akt, MAPK, Stat3, and Erk. These results provide potential for combining cisplatin and inhibitors of IL-6 signaling or its downstream signaling pathway as a future therapeutic approach in preventing development of cisplatin resistant NSCLC tumors.

Mak JP, Man WY, Chow JP, et al.
Pharmacological inactivation of CHK1 and WEE1 induces mitotic catastrophe in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(25):21074-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare but highly invasive cancer. As radiotherapy is the primary treatment for NPC, this offers a rationale to investigate if uncoupling the DNA damage responses can sensitize this cancer type. The G2 DNA damage checkpoint is controlled by a cascade of protein kinases: ATM/ATR, which phosphorylates CHK1/CHK2, which in turn phosphorylates WEE1. A number of small molecule inhibitors have been developed against these kinases as potential therapeutic agents. Here we demonstrated that compare to that in immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells, ATR, CHK1, and WEE1 were overexpressed in NPC cell lines. Inhibitors of these kinases were unable to promote extensive mitotic catastrophe in ionizing radiation-treated NPC cells, indicating that they are not very effective radiosensitizer for this cancer. In the absence of prior irradiation, however, mitotic catastrophe could be induced with inhibitors against CHK1 (AZD7762) or WEE1 (MK-1775). NPC cells were more sensitive to WEE1 inactivation than nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Targeting CHK1 and WEE1 together induced more extensive mitotic catastrophe than the individual components alone. Taken together, our results show that NPC cells depend on CHK1 and WEE1 activity for growth and that inhibitors of these kinases may serve as potential therapeutics for NPC.

Zhang D, Tang B, Xie X, et al.
The interplay between DNA repair and autophagy in cancer therapy.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(7):1005-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
DNA is the prime target of anticancer treatments. DNA damage triggers a series of signaling cascades promoting cellular survival, including DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy. The elevated basal and/or stressful levels of both DNA repair and autophagy observed in tumor cells, in contrast to normal cells, have been identified as the most important drug-responsive programs that impact the outcome of anticancer therapy. The exact relationship between DNA repair and autophagy in cancer cells remains unclear. On one hand, autophagy has been shown to regulate some of the DNA repair proteins after DNA damage by maintaining the balance between their synthesis, stabilization, and degradation. One the other hand, some evidence has demonstrated that some DNA repair molecular have a crucial role in the initiation of autophagy. In this review, we mainly discuss the interplay between DNA repair and autophagy in anticancer therapy and expect to enlighten some effective strategies for cancer treatment.

Quan L, Wang Y, Liang J, et al.
Identification of the interaction network of hub genes for melanoma treated with vemurafenib based on microarray data.
Tumori. 2015 Jul-Aug; 101(4):368-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify possible biomarkers and to explore the mechanisms of suppression of vemurafenib on melanoma progression.
METHODS: GSE42872 affymetrix microarray data were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database for further analysis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between vehicle-treated samples and vemurafenib-treated samples were identified. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs were performed, followed by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction. Furthermore, the functional modules of the PPI network were screened using BioNet analysis tool. Finally, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis was performed for DEGs in the module.
RESULTS: In total, 794 upregulated transcripts corresponding to 214 genes and 977 downregulated transcripts corresponding to 325 genes were screened. The downregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in pathways such as cell cycle, DNA replication, and p53 signaling pathway. Upregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in phosphatidylinositol signaling system and inositol phosphate metabolism. Significantly enriched functions of downregulated DEGs were mitotic cell cycle, nuclear division, DNA metabolic process, cell cycle, and mitosis. Upregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in single multicellular organism process and multicellular organismal process. Moreover, cell division cycle 6, checkpoint kinase 1 (CHEK1), E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1-α (PIK3R1) of the module were remarkably enriched in pathways such as cell cycle, apoptosis, focal adhesion, and DNA replication.
CONCLUSIONS: Cell division cycle 6, CHEK1, E2F1, EGFR, and PIK3R1 of the module and their relative pathways, cell cycle, and focal adhesion might play important roles of suppression of vemurafenib on melanoma progression.

Hu H, Zhao X, Jin Z, Hou M
Hsa-let-7g miRNA regulates the anti-tumor effects of gastric cancer cells under oxidative stress through the expression of DDR genes.
J Toxicol Sci. 2015; 40(3):329-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oxidative stress is linked to increased risk of gastric cancer (GC). Recent reports have found that hsa-let-7 g microRNA (miRNA) has properties of anti-tumor and resistance to damages induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Dysregulation of hsa-let-7 g was present in GC in vivo and in vitro under exogenous stress. However, we didn't know whether there are regulatory mechanisms of hsa-let-7 g in GC under oxidative stress. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of hsa-let-7 g microRNA (miRNA) on GC under oxidative stress. The results showed that H2O2 induced the increase of DNA damage response (DDR) genes (ATM, H2AX and Chk1) and downregulation of hsa-let-7 g in GC cells. Further study confirmed Hsa-let-7 g caused the apoptosis and loss of proliferation in GC cells exposed to H2O2 associated with repression of DDR system. Yet, we found let-7 g didn't target DDR genes (ATM, H2AX and Chk1) directly. In addition, data revealed hsa-let-7 g miRNA increased the sensitivity of GC to X-rays involving in ATM regulation as well according to application of X-rays (another DDR inducer). In conclusion, Hsa-let-7 g miRNA increased the sensitivity of GC to oxidative stress by repression activation of DDR indirectly. Let-7 g improved the effects of X-rays on GC cells involving in DDR regulation as well.

Peng ZG, Yao YB, Yang J, et al.
Mangiferin induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase through ATR-Chk1 pathway in HL-60 leukemia cells.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(2):4989-5002 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to determine the effect of mangiferin on the cell cycle in HL-60 leukemia cells and expression of the cell cycle-regulatory genes Wee1, Chk1 and CDC25C and to further investigate the molecular mechanisms of the antileukemic action of mangiferin. The inhibitory effect of mangiferin on HL-60 leukemia cell proliferation was determined by the MTT assay. The impact of mangiferin on the HL-60 cell cycle was evaluated by flow cytometry. After the cells were treated with different concentrations of mangiferin, the expression levels of Wee1, Chk1 and CDC25C mRNA were determined by RT-PCR, and Western blot was used to evaluate the expression levels of cdc25c, cyclin B1, and Akt proteins. The inhibition of HL-60 cell growth by mangiferin was dose- and time-dependent. After treatment for 24 h, cells in G2/M phase increased, and G2/M phase arrest appeared with increased mRNA expression of Wee1, Chk1 and CDC25C. Mangiferin inhibited Chk1 and cdc25c mRNA expression at high concentrations and induced Wee1 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. It significantly inhibited ATR, Chk1, Wee1, Akt, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation but increased cdc2 and cyclin B1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, mangiferin reduced cdc25c, cyclin B1, and Akt protein levels while inducing Wee1 protein expression. It also antagonized the phosphorylation effect of vanadate on ATR, and the phosphorylation effect of EGF on Wee1. These findings indicated that mangiferin inhibits cell cycle progression through the ATR-Chk1 stress response DNA damage pathway, leading to cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in leukemia cells.

Pan X, Mou J, Liu S, et al.
SHP-1 overexpression increases the radioresistance of NPC cells by enhancing DSB repair, increasing S phase arrest and decreasing cell apoptosis.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(6):2999-3005 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study aimed to investigate the influence of SHP-1 on the radioresistance of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line CNE-2 and the relevant underlying mechanisms. The human NPC cell line CNE-2 was transfected with a lentivirus that contained the SHP-1 gene or a nonsense sequence (referred to as LP-H1802Lv201 and LP-NegLv201 cells, respectively). Cells were irradiated with different ionizing radiation (IR) doses. Cell survival, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and the expression of related proteins were assessed using colony formation assay, immunofluorescent assays (IFAs), flow cytometry (FCM) and western blot analyses, respectively. Compared with the control (CNE-2 cells) and LP-NegLv201 cells, LP-H1802Lv201 cells were more resistant to IR. IFAs showed that IR caused less histone H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX) and RAD51 foci in the LP-H1802Lv201 cells. Compared with the control and LP-NegLv201 cells, LP-H1802Lv201 cells showed increased S phase arrest. After IR, the apoptotic rate of the LP-H1802Lv201 cells was lower in contrast to the control and LP-NegLv201 cells. Western blot analyses showed that IR increased the phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2), ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) protein, checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) and p53. In LP-H1802Lv201 cells, the phosphorylation levels of ATM and CHK2 were significantly increased while the p53 phosphorylation level was decreased compared to these levels in the control and LP-NegLv201 cells. Phosphorylation of ATR and CHK1 did not show significant differences in the three cell groups. Overexpression of SHP-1 in the CNE-2 cells led to radioresistance and the radioresistance was related to enhanced DNA DSB repair, increased S phase arrest and decreased cell apoptosis.

Wang M, Chen X, Chen H, et al.
RNF8 plays an important role in the radioresistance of human nasopharyngeal cancer cells in vitro.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(1):341-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor residue or recurrence is common after radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) since the tumor cells can repair irradiation-induced DNA damage. The ubiquitination cascade mediates the assembly of repair and signaling proteins at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Ring finger protein 8 (RNF8) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that triggers ubiquitination at the site of DSBs. The present study aimed to identify whether and how RNF8 small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment enhances the radiosensitivity of irradiated human NPC cell lines. The CNE1, CNE2, and SUNE human NPC cell lines were stably transfected with a constructed RNF8-targeting siRNA expression vector. Western blotting was used to detect the effectiveness of RNF8 downregulation by RNF8 siRNA. The siRNA-transfected (RNF8-) and non-transfected (RNF8+) cells were irradiated at different doses by a linear accelerator. The growth inhibition ratio and apoptosis rate were detected by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), DNA-PKcs, Chk1, Chk2, Nbs1 and Ku80 protein levels in each group were determined. The growth inhibition ratio and apoptotic percentage of RNF8- cells were higher than those of the RNF8+ cells in each of the three cell lines. Lower protein expression levels of Chk1, Chk2, ATM, and Nbs1 were observed in the irradiated RNF8- cells compared to the irradiated RNF8+ cells in each of the three cell lines (P<0.01). As a result, a conclusion could be drawn that RNF8 recruits and ubiquitinates many factors to repair DNA damage, including DSBs, thereby conferring radioresistance to NPC cells.

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