Gene Summary

Gene:CYP2C19; cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily C member 19
Aliases: CPCJ, CYP2C, P450C2C, CYPIIC17, CYPIIC19, P450IIC19
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and is known to metabolize many xenobiotics, including the anticonvulsive drug mephenytoin, omeprazole, diazepam and some barbiturates. Polymorphism within this gene is associated with variable ability to metabolize mephenytoin, known as the poor metabolizer and extensive metabolizer phenotypes. The gene is located within a cluster of cytochrome P450 genes on chromosome 10q24. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cytochrome P450 2C19
Source:NCBIAccessed: 14 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (21)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (5)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 14 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Tobacco, Smokeless
  • Alleles
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Smoking
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Vinblastine
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • Stereoisomerism
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Genotype
  • CYP2D6
  • Lung Cancer
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Polymorphism
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Liver Cancer
  • Urocortins
  • Solid Phase Extraction
  • Tamoxifen
  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer
  • Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • drug, Thalidomide
  • Breast Cancer
  • Stomach Ulcer
  • Chromosome 10
  • Proguanil
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Tag cloud generated 14 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CYP2C19 (cancer-related)

Yamauchi K, Kokuryo T, Yokoyama Y, et al.
Prediction of Early Recurrence After Curative Resection of Colorectal Liver Metastasis and Subsequent S-1 Chemotherapy.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(5):2175-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: S-1, an oral 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based medicine that combines tegafur, gimeracil and oteracil potassium is commonly used as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of colorectal cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 53 patients who underwent curative resection for colorectal cancer and liver metastasis (synchronous, n=24; metachronous, n=29). The subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy with oral S-1 administration was initiated within 56 days after liver resection. Recurrence was evaluated by imaging studies, that were performed during the first year after liver resection. Of the 53 patients, 25 who did not recur within 1 year were defined as being in the no-recurrence (NREC) group and the remaining 18 patients were defined as being in the early-recurrence (EREC) group. There were no significant differences in gene expression profiling for drug resistance and metabolism between the NREC group and the EREC group.
RESULTS: In synchronous liver metastasis, there was no significant difference in early recurrence between serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) ≤5 ng/ml and serum CEA >5 ng/ml (8/24 vs. 16/24, respectively). In metachronous liver metastasis, the early recurrence rate was significantly higher in patients with CEA >5 ng/ml compared to patients with CEA ≤5 ng/ml (15/29 vs. 14/29, p=0.05). The expression of cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) and ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) were significantly lower in the EREC group (6/15) compared to the NREC group (9/15) in colorectal cancer with metachronous liver metastasis and with serum CEA >5 ng/ml.
CONCLUSION: Although the exact reason for down-regulation of these genes in the group with poor prognosis is unknown, the information obtained in this study may be useful in clinical practice for colorectal cancer.

Veal GJ, Cole M, Chinnaswamy G, et al.
Cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics in children with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Eur J Cancer. 2016; 55:56-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Variation in cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics and metabolism has been highlighted as a factor that may impact on clinical outcome in various tumour types. The current study in children with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was designed to corroborate previous findings in a large prospective study incorporating genotype for common polymorphisms known to influence cyclophosphamide pharmacology.
METHODS: A total of 644 plasma samples collected over a 5 year period, from 49 B-cell NHL patients ≤ 18 years receiving cyclophosphamide (250 mg/m(2)), were used to characterise a population pharmacokinetic model. Polymorphisms in genes including CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 were analysed.
RESULTS: A two-compartment model provided the best fit of the population analysis. The mean cyclophosphamide clearance value following dose 1 was significantly lower than following dose 5 (1.83 ± 1.07 versus 3.68 ± 1.43 L/h/m(2), respectively; mean ± standard deviation from empirical Bayes estimates; P < 0.001). The presence of at least one CYP2B6*6 variant allele was associated with a lower cyclophosphamide clearance following both dose 1 (1.54 ± 0.11 L/h/m(2) versus 2.20 ± 0.31 L/h/m(2), P = 0.033) and dose 5 (3.12 ± 0.17 L/h/m(2) versus 4.35 ± 0.37 L/h/m(2), P = 0.0028), as compared to homozygous wild-type patients. No pharmacokinetic parameters investigated were shown to have a significant influence on progression free survival.
CONCLUSION: The results do not support previous findings of a link between cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics or metabolism and disease recurrence in childhood B-cell NHL. While CYP2B6 genotype was shown to influence pharmacokinetics, there was no clear impact on clinical outcome.

Agarwal G, Tulsyan S, Lal P, Mittal B
Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR) Analysis of Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme-Encoding Gene Polymorphisms may Predict Treatment Outcomes in Indian Breast Cancer Patients.
World J Surg. 2016; 40(7):1600-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prediction of response and toxicity of chemotherapy can help personalize the treatment and choose effective yet non-toxic treatment regimen for a breast cancer patient. Interplay of variations in various drug-metabolizing enzyme (DME)-encoding genes results in variable response and toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs. Generalized multi-analytical (GMDR) approach was used to determine the influence of the combination of variants of genes encoding phase 0 (SLC22A16); phase I (CYP450, NQO1); phase II (GSTs, MTHFR, UGT2B15); and phase III (ABCB1) DMEs along with confounding factors on the response and toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs in breast cancer patients.
METHODS: In an Indian breast cancer patient cohort (n = 234), response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 111) and grade 2-4 toxicity to chemotherapy were recorded. Patients were genotyped for 19 polymorphisms selected in four phases of DMEs by PCR or PCR-RFLP or Taqman allelic discrimination assay. Binary logistic regression and GMDR analysis was performed. Bonferroni test for multiple comparisons was applied, and p value was considered to be significant at <0.025.
RESULTS: For ABCB1 1236C>T polymorphism, CT genotype was found to be significantly associated with response to NACT in uni-variate and multi-variate analysis (p = 0.018; p = 0.013). The TT genotype of NQO1 609C>T had a significant association with (absence of) grade 2-4 toxicity in uni-variate analysis (p = 0.021), but a non-significant correlation in multi-variate analysis. In GMDR analysis, interaction of CYP3A5*3, NQO1 609C>T, and ABCB1 1236C>T polymorphisms yielded the highest testing accuracy for response to NACT (CVT = 0.62). However, for grade 2-4 toxicity, CYP2C19*2 and ABCB1 3435C>T polymorphisms yielded the best interaction model (CVT = 0.57).
CONCLUSION: This pharmacogenetic study suggests a role of higher order gene-gene interaction of DME-encoding genes, along with confounding factors, in determination of treatment outcomes and toxicity in breast cancer patients. This can be used as a potential objective tool for individualizing breast cancer chemotherapy with high efficacy and low toxicity.

Yoshizawa Y, Sugimoto M, Sato Y, et al.
Factors associated with healing of artificial ulcer after endoscopic submucosal dissection with reference to Helicobacter pylori infection, CYP2C19 genotype, and tumor location: Multicenter randomized trial.
Dig Endosc. 2016; 28(2):162-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Healing speed of peptic ulcer is affected by a number of factors, including Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and intragastric pH. Acid inhibition exerted by proton pump inhibitors differs by CYP2C19 genotype. Herein, we investigated whether healing speed of artificial ulcers formed after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was influenced by H. pylori infection, CYP2C19 genotype, or other factors.
METHODS: A total of 96 H. pylori-positive patients with gastric tumors scheduled for ESD were randomly assigned to receive eradication therapy for H. pylori before ESD (pre-ESD eradication) (n = 44) or after (post-ESD eradication) (n = 52). Patients received eradication therapy consisting of lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 750 mg, and clarithromycin 200 mg twice daily for 1 week. After ESD, lansoprazole 30 mg was given once daily for 8 weeks. Ulcer size was endoscopically measured on the next day and at 4 and 8 weeks after ESD.
RESULTS: Mean reduction rate of artificial ulcer area in the pre-ESD eradication group was 94.7% ± 5.5% at 4 weeks, which was similar to that in the post-ESD eradication group (94.7% ± 6.7%, P = 0.987), irrespective of CYP2C19 genotype. In multivariate analyses, location of gastric tumor (middle and upper, odds ratio: 4.05, 95% CI: 1.620-10.230, P = 0.003) was a factor for 97% reduction of artificial ulcer area at 4 weeks post-ESD, but CYP2C19 genotype and H. pylori infection were not.
CONCLUSION: Healing speed of ESD-induced artificial ulcer was affected by tumor location, but not by time of H. pylori eradication, resected size, or CYP2C19 genotype.

Bhat GA, Shah IA, Rafiq R, et al.
Family history of cancer and the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of oesophagus: a case-control study in Kashmir, India.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 113(3):524-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Only a few studies have examined the association between family history of cancer (FHC) and the risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in high incidence areas of ESCC. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the relationship between FHC and ESCC risk in Kashmir, India, with analysis of detailed epidemiological data and information on multiple gene polymorphisms.
METHODS: We collected detailed information on FHC and a number of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, and also obtained blood samples for genetic analysis from 703 histopathologically confirmed ESCC cases and 1664 individually matched controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).
RESULTS: Participants who had FHC showed a strong association with ESCC risk, and the risk was stronger when first-degree relatives (FDRs) had FHC (OR=6.8; 95% CI=4.6-9.9). Having a sibling with a cancer showed the strongest association (OR=10.8; 95% CI=6.0-19.3), but having a child with a cancer was not associated with ESCC risk. A history of any cancer in the spouse was also associated with ESCC risk (OR=4.1; 95% CI=1.6-10.2). Those with two or more relatives with FHC were at a higher risk of ESCC. After restricting FHC to familial ESCC only, the above associations were strengthened, except when spouses were affected with ESCC (OR=2.5; 95% CI=0.7-8.9). When we examined the associations between several single-nucleotide polymorphisms and ESCC in those with and without FHC, the associations of variant genotypes in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 and CYP2D6 and the wild genotype of CYP2E1 with ESCC were much stronger in those with FHC. The FHC had an additive interaction with several risk factors of ESCC in this population.
CONCLUSION: Our results showed that FHC was strongly associated with ESCC risk in Kashmir. It seems both genetic factors and shared environment are involved in this association.

Rodríguez-Sanz M, García-Giralt N, Prieto-Alhambra D, et al.
CYP11A1 expression in bone is associated with aromatase inhibitor-related bone loss.
J Mol Endocrinol. 2015; 55(1):69-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) used as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer cause diverse musculoskeletal side effects that include bone loss and its associated fracture. About half of the 391 patients treated with AIs in the Barcelona-Aromatase induced bone loss in early breast cancer cohort suffered a significant bone loss at lumbar spine (LS) and/or femoral neck (FN) after 2 years on AI-treatment. In contrast, up to one-third (19.6% LS, 38.6% FN) showed no decline or even increased bone density. The present study aimed to determine the genetic basis for this variability. SNPs in candidate genes involved in vitamin D and estrogen hormone-response pathways (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2, HSD17B3, CYP19A1, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, ESR1, DHCR7, GC, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, VDR and CYP24A1) were genotyped for association analysis with AI-related bone loss (AIBL). After multiple testing correction, 3 tag-SNPs (rs4077581, s11632698 and rs900798) located in the CYP11A1 gene were significantly associated (P<0.005) with FN AIBL at 2 years of treatment. Next, CYP11A1 expression in human fresh bone tissue and primary osteoblasts was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Both common isoforms of human cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (encoded by CYP11A1 gene) were detected in osteoblasts by western blot. In conclusion, the genetic association of CYP11A1 gene with AIBL and its expression in bone tissue reveals a potential local function of this enzyme in bone metabolism regulation, offering a new vision of the steroidogenic ability of this tissue and new understanding of AI-induced bone loss.

de Vries Schultink AH, Zwart W, Linn SC, et al.
Effects of Pharmacogenetics on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Tamoxifen.
Clin Pharmacokinet. 2015; 54(8):797-810 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The antiestrogenic drug tamoxifen is widely used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-α-positive breast cancer and substantially decreases recurrence and mortality rates. However, high interindividual variability in response is observed, calling for a personalized approach to tamoxifen treatment. Tamoxifen is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes such as CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5, resulting in the formation of active metabolites, including 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and endoxifen. Therefore, polymorphisms in the genes encoding these enzymes are proposed to influence tamoxifen and active tamoxifen metabolites in the serum and consequently affect patient response rates. To tailor tamoxifen treatment, multiple studies have been performed to clarify the influence of polymorphisms on its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Nevertheless, personalized treatment of tamoxifen based on genotyping has not yet met consensus. This article critically reviews the published data on the effect of various genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tamoxifen, and reviews the clinical implications of its findings. For each CYP enzyme, the influence of polymorphisms on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcome measures is described throughout this review. No clear effects on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were seen for various polymorphisms in the CYP encoding genes CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5. For CYP2D6, there was a clear gene-exposure effect that was able to partially explain the interindividual variability in plasma concentrations of the pharmacologically most active metabolite endoxifen; however, a clear exposure-response effect remained controversial. These controversial findings and the partial contribution of genotype in explaining interindividual variability in plasma concentrations of, in particular, endoxifen, imply that tailored tamoxifen treatment may not be fully realized through pharmacogenetics of metabolizing enzymes alone.

Peng XE, Chen HF, Hu ZJ, Shi XS
Independent and combined effects of environmental factors and CYP2C19 polymorphisms on the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Fujian Province of China.
BMC Med Genet. 2015; 16:15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms and various environmental factors and their interactions on the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a Chinese Han population.
METHODS: A 1:2 frequency-matched case control study of 285 patients and 570 controls was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011 in AnXi of Fujian province, China. Environmental factors were investigated using a self-administered questionnaire and genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism based methods. Unconditional logistic regression models were used for statistical evaluation.
RESULTS: Current or former smoking, consumption of pickled vegetables or hot beverages/food, having a first degree relative with ESCC and history of reflux esophagitis were significantly associated with increased ESCC risk, whereas tea drinking and consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits were significantly associated with decreased risk. The CYP2C19*2 GA/AA genotype was significantly more prevalent in ESCC patients and individuals with at least one copy of the CYP2C19*2 A allele had a 3.19-fold increased risk (adjusted 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.21-4.61, P < 0.001) of ESCC compared with those without this allele. We found no significant associations between CYP2C19*3 genotypes and ESCC. The Cyp2C19*2 polymorphism appeared to have a multiplicative joint effect with tea drinking and hot beverage/food consumption (gene-tea drinking: P(interaction) = 0.042; hot beverage/food consumption: P(interaction) = 6.98 × 10(-6)) and an additive joint effect with pickled vegetable consumption (interaction contrast ratio = 1.96, 95% CI: 0.12-3.80).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the CYP2C19*2 polymorphism plays an important role in the development of ESCC in the Chinese population, modified by tea drinking and consumption of pickled vegetables or hot beverages/food. Further studies are warranted to confirm our results.

Theile D, Haefeli WE, Weiss J
Effects of adrenolytic mitotane on drug elimination pathways assessed in vitro.
Endocrine. 2015; 49(3):842-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mitotane (1,1-dichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane, o,p'-DDD) represents one of the most active drugs for the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma. Its metabolites 1,1-(o,p'-dichlorodiphenyl) acetic acid (=o,p'-DDA) and 1,1-(o,p'-dichlorodiphenyl)-2,2 dichloroethene (=o,p'-DDE) partly contribute to its pharmacological effects. Because mitotane has a narrow therapeutic index and causes pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions, knowledge about these compounds' effects on drug metabolizing and transporting proteins is crucial. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, our study confirmed the strong inducing effects of o,p'-DDD on mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4, 30-fold) and demonstrated that other enzymes and transporters are also induced (e.g., CYP1A2, 8.4-fold; ABCG2 (encoding breast resistance cancer protein, BCRP), 4.2-fold; ABCB1 (encoding P-glycoprotein, P-gp) 3.4-fold). P-gp induction was confirmed at the protein level. o,p'-DDE revealed a similar induction profile, however, with less potency and o,p'-DDA had only minor effects. Reporter gene assays clearly confirmed o,p'-DDD to be a PXR activator and for the first time demonstrated that o,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDA also activate PXR albeit with lower potency. Using isolated, recombinant CYP enzymes, o,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDE were shown to strongly inhibit CYP2C19 (IC50 = 0.05 and 0.09 µM). o,p'-DDA exhibited only minor inhibitory effects. In addition, o,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDE, and o,p'-DDA are demonstrated to be neither substrates nor inhibitors of BCRP or P-gp function. In summary, o,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDE might be potential perpetrators in pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions through induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes or drug transporters and by potent inhibition of CYP2C19. In tumors over-expressing BCRP or P-gp, o,p'-DDD and its metabolites should retain their efficacy due to a lack of substrate characteristics.

Hlaváč V, Brynychová V, Václavíková R, et al.
The role of cytochromes p450 and aldo-keto reductases in prognosis of breast carcinoma patients.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2014; 93(28):e255 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metabolism of anticancer drugs affects their antitumor effects. This study has investigated the associations of gene expression of enzymes metabolizing anticancer drugs with therapy response and survival of breast carcinoma patients. Gene expression of 13 aldo-keto reductases (AKRs), carbonyl reductase 1, and 10 cytochromes P450 (CYPs) was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in tumors and paired adjacent nonneoplastic tissues from 68 posttreatment breast carcinoma patients. Eleven candidate genes were then evaluated in an independent series of 50 pretreatment patients. Protein expression of the most significant genes was confirmed by immunoblotting. AKR1A1 was significantly overexpressed and AKR1C1-4, KCNAB1, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 downregulated in tumors compared with control nonneoplastic tissues after correction for multiple testing. Significant association of CYP2B6 transcript levels in tumors with expression of hormonal receptors was found in the posttreatment set and replicated in the pretreatment set of patients. Significantly higher intratumoral levels of AKR1C1, AKR1C2, or CYP2W1 were found in responders to neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared with nonresponders. Patients with high AKR7A3 or CYP2B6 levels in the pretreatment set had significantly longer disease-free survival than patients with low levels. Protein products of AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR7A3, CYP3A4, and carbonyl reductase (CBR1) were found in tumors and those of AKR1C1, AKR7A3, and CBR1 correlated with their transcript levels. Small interfering RNA-directed knockdown of AKR1C2 or vector-mediated upregulation of CYP3A4 in MDA-MB-231 model cell line had no effect on cell proliferation after paclitaxel treatment in vitro. Prognostic and predictive roles of drug-metabolizing enzymes strikingly differ between posttreatment and pretreatment breast carcinoma patients. Mechanisms of action of AKR1C2, AKR7A3, CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and CBR1 should continue to be further followed in breast carcinoma patients and models.

Biswas NK, Das S, Maitra A, et al.
Somatic mutations in arachidonic acid metabolism pathway genes enhance oral cancer post-treatment disease-free survival.
Nat Commun. 2014; 5:5835 [PubMed] Related Publications
The arachidonic acid metabolism (AAM) pathway promotes tumour progression. Chemical inhibitors of AAM pathway prolong post-treatment survival of cancer patients. Here we test whether non-synonymous somatic mutations in genes of this pathway, acting as natural inhibitors, increase post-treatment survival. We identify loss-of-function somatic mutations in 15 (18%) of 84 treatment-naïve oral cancer patients by whole-exome sequencing, which we map to genes of AAM pathway. Patients (n = 53) who survived ≥ 12 months after surgery without recurrence have significantly (P = 0.007) higher proportion (26% versus 3%) of mutations than those who did not (n = 31). Patients with mutations have a significantly (P = 0.003) longer median disease-free survival (24 months) than those without (13 months). Compared with the presence of a mutation, absence of any mutation increases the hazard ratio for death (11.3) significantly (P = 0.018). The inferences are strengthened when we pool our data with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. In patients with AAM pathway mutations, some downstream pathways, such as the PI3K-Akt pathway, are downregulated.

Tervasmäki A, Winqvist R, Jukkola-Vuorinen A, Pylkäs K
Recurrent CYP2C19 deletion allele is associated with triple-negative breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:902 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Using a genome-wide approach, we have previously observed an increase in the frequency of rare copy number variants (CNVs) in familial and early-onset breast cancer cases when compared to controls. Moreover, the biological networks of the CNV disrupted genes differed between the two groups. Here, six of the previously observed CNVs were selected for further investigation. Four of these were singletons and disturbed the following genes: DCLRE1C, CASP3, DAB2IP and ITGA9, encoding proteins that are part of the TP53 and β-estradiol centered network. The two others were recurrent alleles and disrupted CDH19 and CYP2C19 genes. Of these, CDH19 encodes a cadherin functioning as a cell-cell adhesion receptor and CYP2C19 a CYP450 enzyme with a major function in estrogen catabolism.
METHODS: The exact breakpoints of the six previously observed CNV deletion alleles were defined by using qPCR, nested PCR and sequencing. The prevalence of these CNVs was investigated in 842 Northern Finnish breast cancer cases, unselected for family history of cancer and age at disease onset, as well as in 497 healthy female controls by using multiplex PCR. Also the association of the relatively common CDH19 and CYP2C19 deletion alleles with different clinical parameters was studied.
RESULTS: No significant differences in the carrier frequencies between cases and controls were found for any of the studied CNVs. However, the deletion in CYP2C19 showed a significant association with triple-negative breast cancer (p=0.021).
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that inherited changes in CYP2C19 gene participating in estrogen catabolism have an influence on the molecular subtype of breast cancer.

Chen J, Zheng X, Liu DY, et al.
Therapeutic effects and adverse drug reactions are affected by icotinib exposure and CYP2C19 and EGFR genotypes in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(17):7195-200 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate how CYP2C19 affects icotinib and metabolite' exposure, and to determine whether the exposure and EGFR genotype influences survival time, tumor metastasis and adverse drug reactions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 274 NSCLC patients who accepted 125 mg icotinib/t.i.d. were chosen from a phase III study. Blood samples were obtained in 672 nd (4th week) and 1,680 th hours (10th week), and plasma was used to quantify the concentration of icotinib and blood cells were sampled to check the genotypes. Clinical data were also collected at the same time, including EGFR genotypes. Plasma concentrations were assessed by HPLC-MS/MS and genotype by sequencing. All data were analyzed through SPSS 17.0 and SAS 9.2.
RESULTS: CYP 2C19 genotypes affected bio-transformation from icotinib to M24 and M26, especially in poor-metabolisers. Higher icotinib concentrations (>1000 ng/mL) not only increased patient PFS and OS but also reduced tumor metastasis. Patients with mutant EGFR experienced a higher median PFS and OS (234 and 627 days), especially those with the 19del genotype demonstrating higher PR ratio. Patients who suffered grade II skin toxicity had a higher icotinib exposure than those with grade I skin toxicity or no adverse effects. Liver toxic reactions might occur in patients with greater M20 and M23 plasma concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS: CYP2C19 polymorphisms significantly affect icotinib, M24 and M26 exposure. Patients with mutant EGFR genotype and higher icotinib concentration might have increased PFS and OS and lower tumor metastasis. Liver ADR events and serious skin effects might be respectively induced by greater M20, M23 and icotinib concentrations.

Chen H, Shen ZY, Xu W, et al.
Expression of P450 and nuclear receptors in normal and end-stage Chinese livers.
World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20(26):8681-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the expression of P450 enzyme genes by using end-stage liver disease samples and trimmed normal Chinese donor livers.
METHODS: The end-stage liver disease samples [n = 93, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), peri-HCC tissue, hepatitis B virus cirrhosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and severe cirrhosis] and trimmed normal Chinese donor livers (n = 35) from The Institute of Organ Transplantation in Beijing, China. Total RNA was extracted, purified, and subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis.
RESULTS: For cytochrome P450 enzymes 1 (CYP1) family, the expression of CYP1A2 was decreased 90% in HCC, 80% in alcoholic cirrhosis, and 65% in severe cirrhosis. For CYP2 family, the expression of CAR was decreased 50% in HCC, but increased 50% in peri-HCC tissues. Similar decreases (about 50%) of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 were observed in HCC, as compared to peri-HCC tissues and normal livers. CYP2C19 were decreased in all end-stage liver diseases and CYP2E1 also decreased in alcoholic cirrhosis and severe cirrhosis. For CYP3 family, the expression of PXR was decreased 60% in HCC, together with decreases in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7. In contrast, the expression of CYP3A7 was slightly increased in HBV cirrhosis. The expression of CYP4A11 was decreased 85% in HCC, 7% in alcoholic cirrhosis and severe liver cirrhosis, along with decreases in PPARα. The 93 end-stage livers had much higher inter-individual variations in gene expression than 35 normal livers.
CONCLUSION: The expression of CYP enzyme genes and corresponding nuclear receptors was generally decreased in end-stage liver diseases, and significant differences in gene expression were evident between peri-HCC and HCC.

Tadje M
Allelic expression of phase II metabolizing enzymes and relationship to irinotecan toxicity.
Oncol Nurs Forum. 2014; 41(4):443-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many drugs are associated with variable response rates and, of the 1,200 drugs approved for use in the United States, about 15% are associated with adverse drug responses (Jorde, Carey, & Bamshad, 2010c). Often, variable response and risk for toxicity can be explained because of differences in genes and in the proteins encoded by those genes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) responsible for variable expression can be found in genes encoding for drug targets (receptors) or in genes responsible for drug disposition, including those that encode metabolizing enzymes or transporter molecules (Jorde et al., 2010c; Kuo, Lee, & Ma, 2009; Ma & Lu, 2011). Although pharmacogenetics usually refers to drug interactions based on a relatively small number of genes, pharmacogenomics is the preferred term because it refers to interactions within the entire complement of genes (Krau, 2013; Ma & Lu, 2011). This article discusses how SNPs in phase II metabolizing enzymes can influence irinotecan-induced toxicity.

Li QY, Zhao NM, Wang LC, et al.
Individuals having variant genotypes of cytochrome P450 2C19 are at increased risk of developing primary liver cancer in Han populations, without infection with the hepatitis virus.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):9023-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, many researchers have reported that the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 may account for the interpatient variability of the clinical course in cancers including primary liver cancer (PLC). Besides the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19, hepatitis viruses (HV, including HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV, especially HBV and/or HCV) also account for the interpatient variability of the clinical course in PLC. This research covered the above two factors and divided the patients with PLC into two groups (one group with HBV infection and another without any HV infection) to find out whether the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 have different effects in the progressing of PLC in different groups of patients. Eight hundred sixty-four cancer-free Han people (controls, named group 1), 207 Han PLC patients with HBV infection (group 2), and 55 Han PLC patients without any HV infection (group 3) were involved in this study. A wild-type allele (CYP2C19*1) and two mutated alleles (CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3) were identified. The frequencies of the mutant alleles and genotypes were then compared with each other. The frequencies of the homozygous and heterozygous variant genotypes (*2/*2, *2/*3, *3/*3) in group 3 (25.5 %) were significantly higher than those in other groups (11.9 % in group 1 and 13.5 % in group 2, P = 0.014, 95 % confidence interval (CI)). The differences were statistically significant between group 1 and group 3 (P = 0.004, 95 % CI), but they were not statistically significant between group 1 and group 2 (P = 0.527, 95 % CI). Thus, we conclude that people which were not infected with HV but with the homozygous or heterozygous variant genotypes (*2/*2, *2/*3, *3/*3) of CYP2C19 may have higher possibilities of getting PLC than people with other allelic genotypes (*1/*1, *1/*2, *1/*3) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.523, 95 % CI = 1.329 ~ 4.788). However, in patients with HBV infection, the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 did not seem to be an important factor in the risk of developing PLC (OR = 1.156, 95 % CI = 0.738 ~ 1.810).

Ko JM, Zhang P, Law S, et al.
Identity-by-descent approaches identify regions of importance for genetic susceptibility to hereditary esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(2):860-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Worldwide, the highest prevalence of esophageal cancer (EC) occurs in Northern China. High-density SNP arrays allow identification of identity-by-descent (IBD) segments in genomic DNAs representative of shared common ancestral regions. We utilized IBD approaches to map susceptibility loci associated with low-penetrance SNPs in high-risk Henan hereditary esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Affymetrix GeneChip Human mapping SNP array IBD analysis was performed in 32 Henan family history-positive (FH+) ESCC patients, 18 Henan healthy unrelated individuals, and 45 Chinese individuals from a CHB HapMap dataset using PLink (scoring IBD segments individually) and Beagle (scoring of shared IBD segments among case/case vs. control/control pairs) software. Both analyses identified longer IBD segment lengths associated with FH+ ESCC compared to controls. However, there was no strong evidence for a genetic founder effect. Pairing IBD analysis with BEAGLE identified 8 critical IBD segments residing at 2q32.1-q32.2, 3p22.3-p22.2, 4q21.1-q21.21, 7p22.2, 8q23.2-q23.3, 10q23.33-q24.1, 14q24.3 and 16q11.2-q12.1, which were more significantly shared among case/case compared to control/control. The shared IBD segments in FH+ ESCC samples with no overlap with control/CHB Hapmap may encompass potential cancer susceptibility loci. Selected targeted genes, PLCE1, GPT2, SIAH1 and CYP2C-18, residing within the IBD segments at 10q23.33-q24.1 and 16q11.2-q12.1, had statistically significant differential expression in primary ESCC tissues and are likely involved in ESCC carcinogenesis. The importance of these IBD segments to the etiology and development of ESCC in high-risk areas requires further study with expanded sample sizes. This is the first report employing the pairing IBD approach for elucidation of the genetic basis of hereditary ESCC in Henan by applying high throughput SNP array analysis.

Tulsyan S, Agarwal G, Lal P, Mittal B
Significant role of CYP450 genetic variants in cyclophosphamide based breast cancer treatment outcomes: a multi-analytical strategy.
Clin Chim Acta. 2014; 434:21-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating chemotherapeutic drug, is catalyzed by the Phase I cytochrome P450 (CYPs) isozymes - CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. Hence this study aimed to elucidate the influence of genetic variants in CYP450 metabolizing enzymes on breast cancer treatment outcomes, using multi-analytical approaches.
METHODS: Treatment response was noticed in 111 patients whereas 234 patients were followed for myelo-toxicity. Eight known functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six CYP450 genes were selected for the study on the basis of CP metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms. The possible functional effects of CYP450 polymorphisms were determined by online Web servers F-SNP. Multifactor dimensionality reductions (MDR), haplotype analysis were combined with logistic regression to characterize gene-gene interaction model with treatment outcomes.
RESULTS: Haplotype analysis revealed significant association of G(rs10509681)-*1(rs1799853)-*3(rs1057910)-G(rs4244285) on chromosome 10 with overall toxicity (P=0.024) and grade 2-4 leucopenia (P=0.03). On MDR analysis, CYP3A5*3, CYP2C19*2, CYP2B6*5 yielded the highest testing accuracy for treatment response (0.60) and CYP2C8*3, CYP2C9*2 for overall toxicity (0.50).
CONCLUSION: Multi-analytical approaches may provide a better clinical prediction of pharmacogenetic based treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients.

Mwinyi J, Vokinger K, Jetter A, et al.
Impact of variable CYP genotypes on breast cancer relapse in patients undergoing adjuvant tamoxifen therapy.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014; 73(6):1181-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen is frequently used for the treatment of hormone receptor positive breast cancer (BC). Mainly CYP2D6 is responsible for the transformation to therapeutically active metabolites, but CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP2B6 also are involved. We investigated the impact of polymorphisms within the genes encoding these CYP enzymes on the relapse-free time (RFT) in patients with BC.
METHODS: Ninety-nine patients with hormone receptor positive BC, who had undergone adjuvant tamoxifen therapy, were genotyped for seventeen common variants within the genes encoding CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2B6 using TaqMan and PCR-RFLP technology. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to elucidate the impact of genetic variants on RFT. Furthermore, CYP2D6 metabolic activity was determined in a subset of 50 patients by assessing dextromethorphan/dextrorphan urinary excretion ratios. CYP2D6 activity was compared to the CYP2D6 allelic combinations to evaluate the predictive value of the CYP2D6 genotyping results on phenotype.
RESULTS: Although a trend toward longer RFTs in carriers of CYP2D6 allele combinations encoding for extensive and ultrafast metabolizer phenotypes was observed, none of the investigated genetic variants had a statistically significant impact on RFT. The combined analysis of five major CYP2D6 variants was useful for the discrimination between poor and non-poor metabolizers.
CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive CYP2D6 genotyping has a good predictive value for CYP2D6 activity. Common variants in CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2B6 did not have a significant impact on the RFT in this cohort of patients with BC.

Skrypnyk N, Chen X, Hu W, et al.
PPARα activation can help prevent and treat non-small cell lung cancer.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(2):621-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) not amenable to surgical resection has a high mortality rate, due to the ineffectiveness and toxicity of chemotherapy. Thus, there remains an urgent need of efficacious drugs that can combat this disease. In this study, we show that targeting the formation of proangiogenic epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EET) by the cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid epoxygenases (Cyp2c) represents a new and safe mechanism to treat NSCLC growth and progression. In the transgenic murine K-Ras model and human orthotopic models of NSCLC, we found that Cyp2c44 could be downregulated by activating the transcription factor PPARα with the ligands bezafibrate and Wyeth-14,643. Notably, both treatments reduced primary and metastatic NSCLC growth, tumor angiogenesis, endothelial Cyp2c44 expression, and circulating EET levels. These beneficial effects were independent of the time of administration, whether before or after the onset of primary NSCLC, and they persisted after drug withdrawal, suggesting the benefits were durable. Our findings suggest that strategies to downregulate Cyp2c expression and/or its enzymatic activity may provide a safer and effective strategy to treat NSCLC. Moreover, as bezafibrate is a well-tolerated clinically approved drug used for managing lipidemia, our findings provide an immediate cue for clinical studies to evaluate the utility of PPARα ligands as safe agents for the treatment of lung cancer in humans.

Markiewicz A, Wełnicka-Jaśkiewicz M, Skokowski J, et al.
Prognostic significance of ESR1 amplification and ESR1 PvuII, CYP2C19*2, UGT2B15*2 polymorphisms in breast cancer patients.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e72219 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Amplification of the ESR1 gene, coding for estrogen receptor alpha, was shown to predict responsiveness to tamoxifen, however its prognostic impact in breast cancer patients has not been thoroughly investigated. Other factors that could contribute to responsiveness to tamoxifen treatment are polymorphisms in ESR1 gene and genes involved in tamoxifen metabolism. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic role of ESR1 gene dosage in a consecutive group of breast cancer patients and to correlate this feature with clinico-pathological factors. Additionally, ESR1 PvuII, CYP2C19*2 and UGT2B15*2 polymorphisms were analyzed in the tamoxifen-treated subgroup of patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary tumor samples from 281 stage I-III consecutive breast cancer patients were analyzed for ESR1 gene dosage using real-time PCR with locked nucleic acids hydrolysis probes. In the tamoxifen-treated subgroup of patients, ESR1 PvuII, CYP2C19*2 and UGT2B15*2 polymorphism in leukocytes genomic DNA were analyzed. Results were correlated with clinico-pathological factors and with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: ESR1 amplification (with a cut-off level of 2.0) was found in 12% of the entire group of breast cancer patients, and in 18% of the ER-negative subgroup. This feature was associated with decreased DFS both in the entire group (P=0.007) and in the ER-negative subgroup (P=0.03), but not in the tamoxifen-treated patients. Patients with ESR1 PvuII wt/wt genotype and at least one UGT2B15 wt allele had a worse DFS (P=0.03) and showed a trend towards decreased Os (P=0.08) in comparison to patients with ESR1 PvuII wt/vt or vt/vt genotype and UGT2B15 *2/*2 genotype.
CONCLUSIONS: ESR1 amplification can occur in ER-negative tumors and may carry poor prognosis. In the tamoxifen-treated subgroup, poor prognosis was related to the combined presence of ESR1 PvuII wt/wt and UGT2B15wt/wt or wt/*2 genotype.

Zhou B, Song Z, Qian M, et al.
Functional polymorphisms in the CYP2C19 gene contribute to digestive system cancer risk: evidence from 11,042 subjects.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e66865 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CYP2C19 belongs to the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes involved in activating and detoxifying many carcinogens and endogenous compounds, which has attracted considerable attention as a candidate gene for digestive system cancer. CYP2C19 has two main point mutation sites (CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3) leading to poor metabolizer (PM) phenotype. In the past decade, the relationship between CYP2C19 polymorphism and digestive system cancer has been reported in various ethnic groups; however, these studies have yielded contradictory results.
METHODS: To clarify this inconsistency, we performed this meta-analysis. Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association.
RESULTS: In total, 18 studies with 4,414 cases and 6,628 controls were included. Overall, significantly elevated digestive system cancer risk was associated CYP2C19 PM with OR of 1.66 (95%CI: 1.31-2.10, P<10(-5)) when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. There was strong evidence of heterogeneity (P = 0.006), which largely disappeared after stratification by cancer type. In the stratified analyses according to cancer type, ethnicity, control source and sample size, significantly increased risks were found.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our meta-analysis suggested that the PM phenotype caused by the variation on CYP2C19 gene is associated with increased risk of digestive system cancer, especially in East Asians.

Maran S, Lee YY, Xu S, et al.
Gastric precancerous lesions are associated with gene variants in Helicobacter pylori-susceptible ethnic Malays.
World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19(23):3615-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To identify genes associated with gastric precancerous lesions in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-susceptible ethnic Malays.
METHODS: Twenty-three Malay subjects with H. pylori infection and gastric precancerous lesions identified during endoscopy were included as "cases". Thirty-seven Malay subjects who were H. pylori negative and had no precancerous lesions were included as "controls". Venous blood was collected for genotyping with Affymetrix 50K Xba1 kit. Genotypes with call rates < 90% for autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were excluded. For each precancerous lesion, associated SNPs were identified from Manhattan plots, and only SNPs with a χ² P value < 0.05 and Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium P value > 0.5 was considered as significant markers.
RESULTS: Of the 23 H. pylori-positive subjects recruited, one sample was excluded from further analysis due to a low genotyping call rate. Of the 22 H. pylori-positive samples, atrophic gastritis only was present in 50.0%, complete intestinal metaplasia was present in 18.25%, both incomplete intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia was present in 22.7%, and dysplasia only was present in 9.1%. SNPs rs9315542 (UFM1 gene), rs6878265 (THBS4 gene), rs1042194 (CYP2C19 gene) and rs10505799 (MGST1 gene) were significantly associated with atrophic gastritis, complete intestinal metaplasia, incomplete metaplasia with foci of dysplasia and dysplasia, respectively. Allele frequencies in "cases" vs "controls" for rs9315542, rs6878265, rs1042194 and rs10505799 were 0.4 vs 0.06, 0.6 vs 0.01, 0.6 vs 0.01 and 0.5 vs 0.02, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Genetic variants possibly related to gastric precancerous lesions in ethnic Malays susceptible to H. pylori infection were identified for testing in subsequent trials.

Zafra-Ceres M, de Haro T, Farez-Vidal E, et al.
Influence of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on serum levels of tamoxifen metabolites in Spanish women with breast cancer.
Int J Med Sci. 2013; 10(7):932-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer tumors depend on estrogen signaling for their growth and replication and can be treated by anti-estrogen therapy with tamoxifen. Polymorphisms of the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes are associated with an impaired response to tamoxifen. The study objective was to investigate the impact of genetic polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen and its metabolites in Spanish women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer who were candidates for tamoxifen therapy.
METHODS: We studied 90 women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, using the AmpliChip CYP450 test to determine CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 gene variants. Plasma levels of tamoxifen and its metabolites were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography.
RESULTS: The CYP2D6 phenotype was extensive metabolizer in 80%, intermediate metabolizer in 12.2%, ultra-rapid metabolizer in 2.2%, and poor metabolizer in 5.6% of patients, and the allele frequency was 35.0% for allele (*)1, 21.0% for *2, and 18.9% for *4. All poor metabolizers in this series were *4/*4, and their endoxifen and 4-hydroxy tamoxifen levels were 25% lower than those of extensive metabolizers. CYP2C19*2 allele, which has been related to breast cancer outcomes, was detected in 15.6% of the studied alleles.
CONCLUSION: CYP2D6*4/*4 genotype was inversely associated with 4-hydroxy tamoxifen and endoxifen levels. According to these results, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotyping appears advisable before the prescription of tamoxifen therapy.

Yao L, Wang HC, Liu JZ, Xiong ZM
Quantitative assessment of the influence of cytochrome P450 2C19 gene polymorphisms and digestive tract cancer risk.
Tumour Biol. 2013; 34(5):3083-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 metabolizes many promutagens and procarcinogens to biologically active metabolites, which strongly promote proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The CYP2C19 gene exhibits several genetic polymorphisms that are thought to play a major role in inter-individual variability in drug response, drug-xenobiotic interactions, and in cancer susceptibility. Two polymorphisms of the CYP2C19 gene (CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3) which was associated with reduced enzyme activity have been investigated extensively digestive tract cancer; however, these studies have yielded contradictory results. To clarify this inconsistency, we performed this meta-analysis including 15 case-control studies with a total of 3,252 cases and 6,269 controls. Overall, we found significant association between CYP2C19*2 and digestive tract cancer (OR = 1.27, 95 % CI, 1.07-1.51, P = 0.007) while no significant results were found for CYP2C19*3. Potential sources of heterogeneity including cancer types, ethnicity, source of control, and sample size of study were assessed. In the subgroup analyses by cancer types, significant association was detected only in esophagus cancer for CYP2C19*2. When stratified by ethnicity, significantly increased risks were found for the CYP2C19*2 polymorphism among Asians. This meta-analysis demonstrated that the CYP2C19*2 polymorphism is a risk factor for developing digestive tract cancer. However, additional very large-scale studies are warranted to provide conclusive evidence on the effects of the CYP2C19 gene on risk of digestive tract cancer.

Seong SJ, Lim M, Sohn SK, et al.
Influence of enzyme and transporter polymorphisms on trough imatinib concentration and clinical response in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.
Ann Oncol. 2013; 24(3):756-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study explored the impact of genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and transporters on the plasma trough concentration of imatinib mesylate (IM) and clinical response in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 82 patients with CML who had been administered 400 mg IM daily for over 6 months were genotyped for 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in nine genes (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, ABCB1, SLC22A1, SLC22A2 and ABCG2) using blood samples. The trough imatinib concentration and clinical responses were assessed 6 months after the initiation of IM therapy.
RESULTS: The CC, CA and AA genotypes in ABCG2 421C>A gave significantly different frequencies for the major molecular response (MMR) (P = 0.02). However, no significant differences were found between the genotypes of the CYP enzymes and transporters identified in this study and the imatinib plasma trough concentrations and clinical response frequencies, except for the correlation of ABCG2 with MMR.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study may indicate that the ABCG 421C>A genetic polymorphism influences the MMR of imatinib in patients with CML.

Shi Y, Luo GJ, Zhang L, et al.
Interaction between alcohol consumption and CYP 2C19 gene polymorphism in relation to oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e43412 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the interactions of CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms and several environmental factors and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
METHODS: In a case-control study of OSCC patients (n = 350) and healthy controls (n = 350), we investigated the roles of polymorphism in the CYP2C19 gene by the use of polymerase chain reaction--restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR - RFLP) analysis.
RESULTS: The CYP2C19(*)3 AG+AA genotype was significantly more prevalent in OSCC patients (10.0% versus 3.43%; P<0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed drinking (OR: 5.603, 95% CI: 3.431-11.112; P = 0.005) and smoking (OR: 4.341, 95% CI: 3.425-10.241; P = 0.001) was the independent risk factor of OSCC respectively, and there were significant interaction between CYP2C19(*)3 and drinking (OR: 8.747, 95% CI: 6.321-18.122; P = 0.009).
CONCLUSIONS: The CYP2C19(*)3 polymorphism and OSCC were synergistically and significantly associated in Chinese Han patients.

Seredina TA, Goreva OB, Talaban VO, et al.
Association of cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphisms with neoadjuvant chemotherapy efficacy in breast cancer patients.
BMC Med Genet. 2012; 13:45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family (CYPs) play an important role in the metabolism of a great variety of anticancer agents; therefore, polymorphisms in genes encoding for metabolizing enzymes and drugs transporters can affect drug efficacy and toxicity.
METHODS: The genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 were studied in 395 patients with breast cancer by RLFP analysis.
RESULTS: Here, we studied the association of functionally significant variant alleles of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 with the clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. A significant correlation was observed between the CYP2C9*2 polymorphism and chemotherapy resistance (OR = 4.64; CI 95% = 1.01 - 20.91), as well as between CYP2C9*2 heterozygotes and chemotherapy resistance in women with nodal forms of breast cancer and a cancer hereditary load (OR = 15.50; CI 95% = 1.08 - 826.12) when the potential combined effects were examined. No significant association between chemotherapy resistance and the other examined genotypes and the potential combined clinical and tumour-related parameters were discovered.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, CYP2C9*2 was associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy resistance (OR = 4.64; CI 95% = 1.01 - 20.91) in the population of interest.

Matsuzawa N, Nakamura K, Matsuda M, et al.
Influence of cytochrome P450 2C19 gene variations on pharmacokinetic parameters of thalidomide in Japanese patients.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2012; 35(3):317-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C19 polymorphisms may partly explain the variability of thalidomide concentration and adverse drug effects by altering its metabolism. To compare the genetic and clinical factors responsible for the adverse effects and efficacy of thalidomide treatment, we investigated CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms in Japanese subjects.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Variations in the CYP2C19 gene in 6 patients treated with thalidomide were analyzed. The dosage of thalidomide, concentrations of (R)- and (S)-thalidomide in whole blood, and clinical laboratory test results were used as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic indices. Using genomic DNA, CYP2C19*2 and *3 allele frequencies were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays.
RESULTS: The frequencies of CYP2C19 PM and hetero EM (hetEM) genotypes in Japanese patients taking thalidomide were 2 (33.3%) and 4 (66.7%), respectively. The areas under the curve (AUC) of (R)-thalidomide were 3.42 and 5.33 μg·h/L, and those of (S)-thalidomide were 1.64 and 2.46 μg·h/L for hetEM and PM, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provided new insights regarding the contribution of CYP2C19 gene variations to adverse responses to thalidomide. Genotyping of CYP2C19*2 and *3 can be considerably simplified by using KOD FX as a polymerase for prediction of adverse effects to thalidomide by the PCR-RFLP method. CYP2C19 PM patients tend to have high serum thalidomide concentrations.

Yiannakopoulou ECh
Pharmacogenomics of breast cancer targeted therapy: focus on recent patents.
Recent Pat DNA Gene Seq. 2012; 6(1):33-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adjuvant endocrine therapy as well as other forms of targeted therapy such as HER2 inhibitors and antiangiogenic agents reduce the risk of recurrence and improve survival among women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer. However, a significant percentage of women who receive targeted therapy as adjuvant or metastatic treatment do not benefit from this therapy, while a number of women who initially respond will eventually develop disease progression and relapse while on therapy. The observed variability in treatment response to targeted breast cancer treatment could be partly explained by pharmacogenomics. This paper reviews evidence on the role of pharmacogenomics of breast targeted therapy focusing on the clinical relevance of genetic variation. In particular, this article reviews the role of pharmacogenomics of tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, HER-2 inhibitors and anti-angiogenic agents. In addition, recent patents in the field are presented that provide promising steps in the field of personalized treatment of breast cancer, although future studies are needed for determining the clinical benefit of the proposed inventions. Finally, we present a testable hypothesis to aide the search for biologically meaningful genetic variation Specifically, we suggest the publication of negative results in the field of pharmacogenomics and pharmacoproteomics, will benefit future research in the field.

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