Gene Summary

Gene:DLC1; DLC1 Rho GTPase activating protein
Aliases: HP, ARHGAP7, STARD12, p122-RhoGAP
Summary:This gene encodes a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that is a member of the rhoGAP family of proteins which play a role in the regulation of small GTP-binding proteins. GAP family proteins participate in signaling pathways that regulate cell processes involved in cytoskeletal changes. This gene functions as a tumor suppressor gene in a number of common cancers, including prostate, lung, colorectal, and breast cancers. Multiple transcript variants due to alternative promoters and alternative splicing have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:rho GTPase-activating protein 7
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (35)

Cancer Overview

DLC1 is a tumor suppressor gene which is underexpressed in a wide range of solid tumors. The gene was identified in a region freqiently deleted in hepatocellular carcinoma and other cancers. The gene is silenced in some cancers due to DNA methylation / hypermethylation of the promotor region for the gene (Yuan et al (2003)).

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Gene Deletion
  • Gene Silencing
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Epigenetics
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Apoptosis
  • Down-Regulation
  • Promoter Regions
  • bcl-X Protein
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Base Sequence
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Oncogenes
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Lung Cancer
  • Transfection
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Nasopharyngeal Cancer
  • Liver Cancer
  • Cell Movement
  • Mutation
  • Ubiquitination
  • GTPase-Activating Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • DLC1
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Breast Cancer
  • DNA Methylation
  • CpG Islands
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Chromosome 8
  • alpha-Fetoproteins
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: DLC1 (cancer-related)

Verma R, Agarwal AK, Sakhuja P, Sharma PC
Microsatellite instability in mismatch repair and tumor suppressor genes and their expression profiling provide important targets for the development of biomarkers in gastric cancer.
Gene. 2019; 710:48-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
We evaluated microsatellite instability (MSI) in selected mismatch repair (MMR) and tumor suppressor (TS) genes with a view to exploring genetic changes associated with the occurrence of gastric cancer (GC). Moreover, expression of MSI positive genes was measured to get insights into molecular events operating in the tumor microenvironment. We anticipated discovering new molecular targets with potential as molecular biomarkers of gastric cancer. Of the 13 genes screened, we observed 15% to 52.5% MSI at eight microsatellite loci located in 3' UTR and coding regions of six genes (TGFBR2, PDCD4, MLH3, DLC1, MSH6, and MSH3). The union probability of different combinations of unstable microsatellite loci unveiled a set of four MSI markers from TGFBR2, PDCD4, MLH3, and MSH3 genes that allows detection of up to 85% incidences of GC. Significant downregulation of MLH3, PDCD4, TGFBR2, and DLC1 genes was observed in tumor tissues. Protein structure analyses of two unexplored targets, MSH3 (TG

Wolosz D, Walczak A, Szparecki G, et al.
Deleted in Liver Cancer 2 (DLC2) protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Eur J Histochem. 2019; 63(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deleted in Liver Cancer (DLC) proteins belong to the family of RhoGAPs and are believed to operate as negative regulators of the Rho family of small GTPases. So far, the role of the first identified member from the DLC family, DLC1, was established as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma. The function of its close family relative, DLC2 is unequivocal. In the present study we attempted to determine whether the loss of DLC2 is a common feature of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue. We examined two types of hepatocellular carcinoma- typical and fibrolamellar one. Our analysis revealed that DLC2 protein is not diminished in cancer tissue when compared to non-cancerous liver specimens. What is more, we observed DLC2 to be more abundantly expressed in cancer tissue, particularly in tumors with the inflammation background. In addition, we found that DLC2 gene status was diploid in virtually all tumor samples examined. Our results indicate that DLC2 is not diminished in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. It appears that members of the DLC family, although structurally highly related, may function differently in cancer cells.

Yang J, Trépo E, Nahon P, et al.
PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 variants as risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma across various etiologies and severity of underlying liver diseases.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(3):533-544 [PubMed] Related Publications
Few single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reproducibly associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our aim was to test the association between nine SNPs and HCC occurrence. SNPs in genes linked to HCC (DEPDC5, GRIK1, KIF1B, STAT4, MICA, DLC1, DDX18) or to liver damage (PNPLA3-rs738409, TM6SF2-rs58542926) in GWAS were genotyped in discovery cohorts including 1,020 HCC, 2,021 controls with chronic liver disease and 2,484 healthy individuals and replication was performed in prospective cohorts of cirrhotic patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD, n = 249) and hepatitis C (n = 268). In the discovery cohort, PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 SNPs were associated with HCC (OR = 1.67 [CI95%:1.16-2.40], p = 0.005; OR = 1.45 [CI95%:1.08-1.94], p = 0.01) after adjustment for fibrosis, age, gender and etiology. In contrast, STAT4-rs7574865 was associated with HCC only in HBV infected patients (p = 0.03) and the other tested SNP were not linked with HCC risk. PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 variants were independently associated with HCC in patients with ALD (OR = 3.91 [CI95%:2.52-6.06], p = 1.14E-09; OR = 1.79 [CI95%:1.25-2.56], p = 0.001) but not with other etiologies. PNPLA3 SNP was also significantly associated with HCC developed on a nonfibrotic liver (OR = 2.19 [CI95%:1.22-3.92], p = 0.007). The association of PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 with HCC risk was confirmed in the prospective cohort with ALD. A genetic score including PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 minor alleles showed a progressive significant increased risk of HCC in ALD patients. In conclusion, PNPLA3-rs738409 and TM6SF2-rs58542926 are inherited risk variants of HCC development in patients with ALD in a dose dependent manner. The link between PNPLA3 and HCC on nonfibrotic liver suggests a direct role in liver carcinogenesis.

Gökmen-Polar Y, True JD, Vieth E, et al.
Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis identifies novel functional pathways of tumor suppressor DLC1 in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0204658 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deleted in Liver Cancer-1 (DLC1), a member of the RhoGAP family of proteins, functions as a tumor suppressor in several cancers including breast cancer. However, its clinical relevance is unclear in breast cancer. In this study, expression of DLC1 was correlated with prognosis using publicly available breast cancer gene expression datasets and quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR in cohorts of Estrogen Receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. Low expression of DLC1 correlates with poor prognosis in patients with ER+ breast cancer with further decrease in metastatic lesions. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data showed that down regulation of DLC1 is not due to methylation or mutations. To seek further insights in understanding the role of DLC1 in ER+ breast cancer, we stably overexpressed DLC1-full-length (DLC1-FL) in T-47D breast cancer cells; this inhibited cell colony formation significantly in vitro compared to its control counterpart. Label-free global proteomic and TiO2 phosphopeptide enrichment assays (ProteomeXchange identifier PXD008220) showed that 205 and 122 phosphopeptides were unique to DLC1-FL cells and T-47D-control cells, respectively, whereas 6,726 were quantified by phosphoproteomics analysis in both conditions. The top three significant clusters of differentially phosphopeptides identified by DAVID pathway analysis represent cell-cell adhesion, mRNA processing and splicing, and transcription regulation. Phosphoproteomics analysis documented an inverse relation between DLC1 expression and several phosphopeptides including epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 (ECT2). Decreased phosphorylation of ECT2 at the residue T359, critical for its active conformational change, was validated by western blot. In addition, the ECT2 T359-containing phosphopeptide was detected in both basal and luminal patient-derived breast cancers breast cancer phosphoproteomics data on the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) Assay portal. Together, for the first time, this implicates ECT2 phosphorylation in breast cancer, which has been proposed as a therapeutic target in lung cancer. In conclusion, this data suggests that low expression of DLC1 is associated with poor prognosis. Targeting ECT2 phosphopeptides could provide a promising mechanism for controlling poor prognosis seen in DLC1low ER+ breast cancer.

Lee IH, Kang K, Kang BW, et al.
Genetic variations using whole-exome sequencing might predict response for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer.
Med Oncol. 2018; 35(11):145 [PubMed] Related Publications
A good pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is associated with a better prognosis. However, there is no effective method to predict CRT response in LARC patients. Therefore, this study used whole-exome sequencing (WES) to identify novel biomarker predicting CRT benefit in LARC. Two independent tumor tissue sets were used to evaluate the genetic differences between the good CRT response group (15 patients achieved a pathologic complete response (pCR)) and the poor CRT response group (15 patients with pathologic stage III). After applying WES to the discovery set of 30 patients, additional samples (n = 67) were genotyped for candidate variants using TaqMan or Sanger sequencing for validation. Overall, this study included a total of 97 LARC patients. In the discovery and validation set, there was no known genetic mutation to predict response between two groups, while five candidate variants (BCL2L10 rs2231292, DLC1 rs3816748, DNAH14 rs3105571, ITIH5 rs3824658, and RAET1L rs912565) were found to be significantly associated with pCR. In the dominant model, the GC/CC genotype of DLC1 rs3816748 (p = 0.032), AC/CC genotype of DNAH14 rs3105571 (p = 0.009), and TT genotype of RAET1 rs912565 (p < 0.0001) were associated with a higher pCR rate. In the recessive model, BCL2L10 rs2231292 (p = 0.036) and ITIH5 rs3824658 (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with pCR. In the co-dominant model, 4 candidate variants (DLC1 rs3816748, DNAH14 rs3105571, ITIH5 rs3824658, and RAET1L rs912565) were significantly correlated with pCR. However, none of the candidate variants was associated with relapse-free or overall survival. The present results suggest that genetic variations of the BCL2L10 rs2231292, DLC1 rs3816748, DNAH14 rs3105571, ITIH5 rs3824658, and RAET1L rs912565 genes can be used as biomarkers predicting the CRT response for patients with LARC.

Fragoso MF, Romualdo GR, Vanderveer LA, et al.
Lyophilized açaí pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart) attenuates colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis while its main anthocyanin has the potential to affect the motility of colon cancer cells.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2018; 121:237-245 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study evaluated the possible protective effects of lyophilized açaí pulp (AP) in a colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC) rat model and the modifying effect of cyanidin 3-rutinoside (C3R) on the motility of RKO colon adenocarcinoma cells, using the wound healing assay. Male Wistar rats were induced to develop CAC using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene acid (TNBS). Animals were randomly assigned to different groups that received basal diet or basal diet supplemented with 5.0% or 7.5% lyophilized AP. The findings indicate: 1) C3R (25 μM) has the potential to reduce RKO cell motility in vitro; 2) ingestion of lyophilized AP reduces the total number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), ACF multiplicity, tumor cell proliferation and incidence of tumors with high grade dysplasia; 3) AP increases the gene expression of negative regulators of cell proliferation such as Dlc1 and Akt3, as well as inflammation (Ppara). Thus, lyophilized AP could exert a potential antitumor activity.

Rahmani M, Talebi M, Hagh MF, et al.
Aberrant DNA methylation of key genes and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 97:1493-1500 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA methylation is a dynamic process influencing gene expression by altering either coding or non-coding loci. Despite advances in treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL); relapse occurs in approximately 20% of patients. Nowadays, epigenetic factors are considered as one of the most effective mechanisms in pathogenesis of malignancies. These factors are reversible elements which can be potentially regarded as therapy targets and disease prognosis. DNA methylation, which primarily serves as transcriptional suppressor, mostly occurs in CpG islands of the gene promoter regions. This was shown as a key epigenetic factor in inactivating various tumor suppressor genes during cancer initiation and progression. We aimed to review methylation status of key genes involved in hematopoietic malignancies such as IKZF1, CDKN2B, TET2, CYP1B1, SALL4, DLC1, DLX family, TP73, PTPN6, and CDKN1C; and their significance in pathogenesis of ALL. The DNA methylation alterations in promoter regions of the genes have been shown to play crucial roles in tumorigenesis. Methylation -based inactivation of these genes has also been reported as associated with prognosis in acute leukemia. In this review, we also addressed the association of gene expression and methylation pattern in ALL patients.

Wu HT, Xie CR, Lv J, et al.
The tumor suppressor DLC1 inhibits cancer progression and oncogenic autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Lab Invest. 2018; 98(8):1014-1024 [PubMed] Related Publications
Downregulation of deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) is associated with poor prognosis of various cancers, but its functional mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the roles of DLC1 in tumor progression and autophagy of HCC. We found that DLC1 was frequently downregulated in HCC tissues. Underexpression of DLC1 correlated with AFP level, vascular invasion, poor differentiation, and poor prognosis. In vitro assays revealed that DLC1 not only suppressed the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HCC cells, but also inhibited autophagy of HCC cells. Mechanistic investigation revealed that DLC1 decreased TCF4 expression and the interaction between β-catenin and TCF4, then inactivated Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Additionally, DLC1 suppressed the ROCK1 activity and the dissociation of the Beclin1-Bcl2 complex, thereby inhibiting autophagy of HCC cells. In conclusion, our findings imply that loss of DLC1 contributes to the progression and oncogenic autophagy of HCC.

Zhang L, Cao H, He T, et al.
Overexpression of PRDM13 inhibits glioma cells via Rho and GTP enzyme activation protein.
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 42(2):966-974 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PR (PRDI‑BFI and RIZ) domain containing (PRDM) proteins have been shown to be important in several types of human cancer. PRDM13, a member of the PRDM family, contains transcriptional regulators involved in modulating several cellular processes. However, the function of PRDM13 in glioma remains to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the expression and effect of PRDM13 on glioma cells. It was found that the expression of PRDM13 was reduced in glioma cells, and the overexpression of PRDM13 significantly decreased the proliferation, migration and invasion of U87 glioma cells. Through validation of RNA‑sequencing analysis, genes regulating cell proliferation and migration were classified from Gene Ontology sources. In addition, PRDM13 was shown to be associated with Rho protein and GTP enzyme activation protein. The over-expression of PRDM13 upregulated deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) to inhibit the proliferation and invasion of U87 cells. In conclusion, PRDM13 decreased the proliferation and invasion of U87 cells, and may be of potential value for glioma therapy.

Sánchez-Martín D, Otsuka A, Kabashima K, et al.
Effects of DLC1 Deficiency on Endothelial Cell Contact Growth Inhibition and Angiosarcoma Progression.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2018; 110(4):390-399 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Deleted in Liver Cancer 1 (DLC1) is a tumor suppressor gene frequently deleted in cancer. However, DLC1 is not known to be deleted in angiosarcoma, an aggressive malignancy of endothelial cell derivation. Additionally, the physiologic functions of DLC1 protein in endothelial cells are poorly defined.
Methods: We investigated the effects of shRNA-induced DLC1 depletion in endothelial cells. Cell growth was measured by 3H thymidine incorporation, IncuCyte imaging, and population doublings; cell death by cell cycle analysis; gene expression by Affimetrix arrays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction; NF-κB activity by reporter assays; and protein levels by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence staining. We tested Tanespimycin/17-AAG and Fasudil treatment in groups of nine to 10 mice bearing ISOS-1 angiosarcoma. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results: We discovered that DLC1 is a critical regulator of cell contact inhibition of proliferation in endothelial cells, promoting statistically significant (P < .001) cell death when cells are confluent (mean [SD] % viability: control DLC1 = 15.6 [19.3]; shDLC1 = 73.4 [13.1]). This prosurvival phenotype of DLC1-depleted confluent endothelial cells is attributable to a statistically significant and sustained increase of NF-κB activity (day 5, P = .001; day 8, P = .03) associated with increased tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3/A20) signaling. Consistently, we found that DLC1 is statistically significantly reduced (P < .001 in 5 of 6) and TNFAIP3/A20 is statistically significantly increased (P < .001 in 2 of 3 and P = 0.02 in 1 of 3) in human angiosarcoma compared with normal adjacent endothelium. Treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor Tanespimycin/17-AAG statistically significantly reduced angiosarcoma tumor growth in mice (treatment tumor weight vs control, 0.50 [0.19] g vs 0.91 [0.21] g, P = .001 experiment 1; 0.66 [0.26] g vs 1.10 [0.31] g, P = .01 experiment 2).
Conclusions: These results identify DLC1 as a previously unrecognized regulator of endothelial cell contact inhibition of proliferation that is depleted in angiosarcoma and support NF-κB targeting for the treatment of angiosarcoma where DLC1 is lost.

Chai R, Fu H, Zheng Z, et al.
Resveratrol inhibits proliferation and migration through SIRT1 mediated post‑translational modification of PI3K/AKT signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(6):8037-8044 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Resveratrol (RES), a polyphenolic compound present in grapes and red wine, has potential anticancer properties. The present study aimed to examine the effects of resveratrol and its underlying mechanism on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines HepG2, Bel‑7402 and SMMC‑7721. It was demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited the viability and proliferation of HCC cells assessed by MTT and EdU assays. TUNEL assay revealed that resveratrol induced cell apoptosis by increasing HCC apoptosis rate from 3±0.78% to 16±1.12% with upregulation of B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑2 associated X, apoptosis regulator and cleaved‑poly (ADP‑Ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP), and downregulation of Bcl‑2, caspase‑3, caspase‑7 and PARP. As a sirtuin (SIRT) 1 activator, resveratrol elevated SIRT1 protein expression and its enzyme activity and decreased expression levels of phosphorylated (p)‑phosphoinositide‑3‑kinase (PI3K), p‑AKT Serine/Threonine Kinase 1 (AKT), and its downstream target p‑Forkhead Box O3a in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, inhibition of SIRT1 enzymatic activity by EX527 resulted in increased phosphorylation levels of PI3K and AKT. This demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited the PI3K/AKT pathway by SIRT1 activation. In addition to inhibition of cancer cell migration, tumor suppressor gene DLC1 Rho GTPase activating protein level was upregulated and its phosphorylation was enhanced by AKT with resveratrol treatment. These findings suggested that resveratrol inhibits proliferation and migration through SIRT1 mediated post‑translational modification of PI3K/AKT pathway in HCC cells.

Du J, Bai F, Zhao P, et al.
Hepatitis B core protein promotes liver cancer metastasis through miR-382-5p/DLC-1 axis.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2018; 1865(1):1-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
The hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc), also named core antigen, is well-known for its key role in viral capsid formation and virus replication. Recently, studies showed that HBc has the potential to control cell biology activity by regulating host gene expression. Here, we utilized miRNA microarray to identify 24 upregulated miRNAs and 21 downregulated miRNAs in HBc-expressed HCC cells, which were involved in multiple biological processes, including cell motility. Consistently, the in vitro transwell assay and the in vivo tail-vein injection model showed HBc promotion on HCC metastasis. Further, the miRNA-target gene network analysis displayed that the deleted in liver cancer (DLC-1) gene, an important negative regulator for cell motility, was potentially targeted by several differentially expressed miRNAs in HBc-introduced cells. Introduction of miRNAs mimics or inhibitors and 3'UTR luciferase activity assay proved that miR-382-5p efficiently suppressed DLC-1 expression and its 3'-UTR luciferase reporter activity. Importantly, cotransfection of miR-382-5p mimics/inhibitors and the DLC-1 expression vector almost abrogated HBc promotion on cell motility, indicating that the miR-382-5p/DLC-1 axis is important for mediating HBc-enhanced HCC motility. Clinical HCC samples also showed a negative correlation between miR-382-5p and DLC-1 expression level. Furthermore, HBc-positive HCC tissues showed high miR-382-5p level and reduced DLC-1 expression. In conclusion, our findings revealed that HBc promoted HCC motility by regulating the miR-382-5p/DLC-1 axis, which might provide a novel target for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

Torabi K, Wangsa D, Ponsa I, et al.
Transcription-dependent radial distribution of TCF7L2 regulated genes in chromosome territories.
Chromosoma. 2017; 126(5):655-667 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human chromosomes occupy distinct territories in the interphase nucleus. Such chromosome territories (CTs) are positioned according to gene density. Gene-rich CTs are generally located in the center of the nucleus, while gene-poor CTs are positioned more towards the nuclear periphery. However, the association between gene expression levels and the radial positioning of genes within the CT is still under debate. In the present study, we performed three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments in the colorectal cancer cell lines DLD-1 and LoVo using whole chromosome painting probes for chromosomes 8 and 11 and BAC clones targeting four genes with different expression levels assessed by gene expression arrays and RT-PCR. Our results confirmed that the two over-expressed genes, MYC on chromosome 8 and CCND1 on chromosome 11, are located significantly further away from the center of the CT compared to under-expressed genes on the same chromosomes, i.e., DLC1 and SCN3B. When CCND1 expression was reduced after silencing the major transcription factor of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, TCF7L2, the gene was repositioned and mostly detected in the interior of the CT. Thus, we suggest a non-random distribution in which over-expressed genes are located more towards the periphery of the respective CTs.

Yang B, Zhu W, Zheng Z, et al.
Fluctuation of ROS regulates proliferation and mediates inhibition of migration by reducing the interaction between DLC1 and CAV-1 in breast cancer cells.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2017; 53(4):354-362 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of our present study was to elucidate the effects of up-regulation and down-regulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level on proliferation, migration, and related molecular mechanism. Breast cancer cells were treated by catalase or H

Takaoka M, Ito S, Miki Y, Nakanishi A
FKBP51 regulates cell motility and invasion via RhoA signaling.
Cancer Sci. 2017; 108(3):380-389 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51), a member of the immunophilin family, is involved in multiple signaling pathways, tumorigenesis, and chemoresistance. FKBP51 expression correlates with metastatic potential in melanoma and prostate cancer. However, the functions of FKBP51, particularly involving the regulation of cell motility and invasion, are not fully understood. We discovered two novel interacting partner proteins of FKBP51, i.e., deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) and deleted in liver cancer 2 (DLC2), using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. DLC1 and DLC2 are Rho GTPase-activating proteins that are frequently downregulated in various cancers. Next, we demonstrated that overexpression of FKBP51 enhances cell motility and invasion of U2OS cells via upregulation of RhoA activity and enhanced Rho-ROCK signaling. Moreover, FKBP51-depleted cells displayed a cortical distribution of actin filaments and decreased cell motility and invasion. Consistent with this phenotype, FKBP51 depletion caused a downregulation of RhoA activity. Considered together, our results demonstrate that FKBP51 positively controls cell motility by promoting RhoA and ROCK activation; thus, we have revealed a novel role for FKBP51 in cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell migration and invasion.

Zhang C, Li J, Huang T, et al.
Meta-analysis of DNA methylation biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(49):81255-81267 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis to evaluate the contribution of DNA methylation to the risk of HCC. A total of 2109 publications were initially retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKI and Wanfang literature database. After a four-step filtration, we harvested 144 case-control articles in the meta-analysis. Our results revealed that 24 genes (carcinoma tissues vs adjacent tissues), 17 genes (carcinoma tissues vs normal tissues) and six genes (carcinoma serums vs normal serums) were significantly hypermethylated in HCC. Subgroup meta-analysis by geographical populations showed that six genes (carcinoma tissues vs adjacent tissues) and four genes (carcinoma tissues vs normal tissues) were significantly hypermethylated in HCC. Our meta-analysis identified the correlations between a number of aberrant methylated genes (p16, RASSF1A, GSTP1, p14, CDH1, APC, RUNX3, SOCS1, p15, MGMT, SFRP1, WIF1, PRDM2, DAPK1, RARβ, hMLH1, p73, DLC1, p53, SPINT2, OPCML and WT1) and HCC. Aberrant DNA methylation might become useful biomarkers for the prediction and diagnosis of HCC.

Liu Y, Zhou J, Hu Y, et al.
Curcumin inhibits growth of human breast cancer cells through demethylation of DLC1 promoter.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2017; 425(1-2):47-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
The heterogeneity of breast cancer makes it a challenging solid tumor to diagnose and treat. A tumor suppressor Deleted in Liver Cancer 1 (DLC1) has been reported to be down-regulated or even silenced in several kinds of cancer including breast cancer. Curcumin has been reported to modulate the growth of tumor cells through regulation of multiple cell signaling pathways and modulate epigenetic changes by CpG demethylation of many tumor suppressor genes. This study was designed to investigate the effect of curcumin on the expression of Deleted in Liver Cancer 1 (DLC1) in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-361 and the underlying mechanism in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin induced DLC1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. In curcumin-treated cells, methylation of DLC1 promoter was reduced and active forms of RhoA and Cdc42 were also decreased. DLC1 expression was closely related to tumor cell growth, demonstrated by Ki67 staining. Curcumin inhibited DNA methyltransferase 1 expression through down-regulation of transcription factor Sp1. Consistent with the in vitro data, in vivo administration of curcumin inhibited the growth of implanted MDA-MB-361 cells and induced DLC1 expression in tumor tissue. In MDA-MB-361 cells, curcumin down-regulates the expression of Sp1 to inhibit the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1, thus subsequently reducing hypermethylation of DLC1 promoter to induce DLC1 expression.

Goeppert B, Ernst C, Baer C, et al.
Cadherin-6 is a putative tumor suppressor and target of epigenetically dysregulated miR-429 in cholangiocarcinoma.
Epigenetics. 2016; 11(11):780-790 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a rare malignancy of the extrahepatic or intrahepatic biliary tract with an outstanding poor prognosis. Non-surgical therapeutic regimens result in minimally improved survival of CC patients. Global genomic analyses identified a few recurrently mutated genes, some of them in genes involved in epigenetic patterning. In a previous study, we demonstrated global DNA methylation changes in CC, indicating major contribution of epigenetic alterations to cholangiocarcinogenesis. Here, we aimed at the identification and characterization of CC-related, differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in potential microRNA promoters and of genes targeted by identified microRNAs. Twenty-seven hypermethylated and 13 hypomethylated potential promoter regions of microRNAs, known to be associated with cancer-related pathways like Wnt, ErbB, and PI3K-Akt signaling, were identified. Selected DMRs were confirmed in 2 independent patient cohorts. Inverse correlation between promoter methylation and expression suggested miR-129-2 and members of the miR-200 family (miR-200a, miR-200b, and miR-429) as novel tumor suppressors and oncomiRs, respectively, in CC. Tumor suppressor genes deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1), F-box/WD-repeat-containing protein 7 (FBXW7), and cadherin-6 (CDH6) were identified as presumed targets in CC. Tissue microarrays of a representative and well-characterized cohort of biliary tract cancers (n=212) displayed stepwise downregulation of CDH6 and association with poor patient outcome. Ectopic expression of CDH6 on the other hand, delayed growth in the CC cell lines EGI-1 and TFK-1, together suggesting a tumor suppressive function of CDH6. Our work represents a valuable repository for the study of epigenetically altered miRNAs in cholangiocarcinogenesis and novel putative, CC-related tumor suppressive miRNAs and oncomiRs.

Lawson CD, Der CJ
Filling GAPs in our knowledge: ARHGAP11A and RACGAP1 act as oncogenes in basal-like breast cancers.
Small GTPases. 2018; 9(4):290-296 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Like RAS proteins, the aberrant function of RHO family small GTPases has been implicated in driving cancer development and growth. However, unlike the RAS family, where gain-of-function missense mutations are found in ∼25% of all human cancers, missense mutations are relatively rare in RHO proteins. Instead, altered RHO activity in cancer more commonly arises through the aberrant functions of RHO GTPase regulators. In many cancer types, altered expression and/or mutation of RHO-selective guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RHOGEFs) or GTPase-activating proteins (RHOGAPs), which activate or inactivate RHO GTPases, respectively, is observed. For example, deletion or loss of expression of the RHOA GAP DLC1 is well-established to drive cancer growth. Recently, we identified high expression of 2 RHOGAPs, ARHGAP11A and RACGAP1, in the basal-like breast cancer subtype. Unexpectedly, both of these RHOA GAPs exhibited properties of oncoproteins rather than tumor suppressors, in contrast to DLC1. In this commentary, we summarize our findings and speculate that different RHOA GAPs can play distinct roles in cancer depending on their spatial regulation and cancer type context. We also evaluate our results in light of recently-described cancer genome sequencing studies that have identified loss-of-function mutations of RHOA in specific cancer types.

Bujko M, Kober P, Rusetska N, et al.
Aberrant DNA methylation of alternative promoter of DLC1 isoform 1 in meningiomas.
J Neurooncol. 2016; 130(3):473-484 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DLC1 encodes GTPase-activating protein with a well-documented tumor suppressor activity. This gene is downregulated in various tumors through aberrant promoter hypermethylation. Five different DLC1 isoforms can be transcribed from alternative promoters. Tumor-related DNA methylation of the DLC1 isoform 1 alternative promoter was identified as being hypermethylated in meningiomas in genome-wide DNA methylation profiling. We determined the methylation pattern of this region in 50 meningioma FFPE samples and sections of 6 normal meninges, with targeted bisulfite sequencing. All histopathological subtypes of meningiomas showed similar and significant increase of DNA methylation levels. High DNA methylation was associated with lack of DLC1 protein expression in meningiomas as determined by immunohistochemistry. mRNA expression levels of 5 isoforms of DLC1 transcript were measured in an additional series of meningiomas and normal meninges. The DLC1 isoform 1 was found as the most expressed in normal control tissue and was significantly downregulated in meningiomas. Transfection of KT21 meningioma cell line with shRNA targeting DLC1 isoform 1 resulted in increased activation of RHO-GTPases assessed with pull-down assay, enhanced cell migration observed in scratch assay as well as slight increase of cell metabolism determind by MTT test. Results indicate that isoform 1 represents the main pool of DLC1 protein in meninges and its downregulation in meningiomas is associated with hypermethylation of CpG dinucleotides within the corresponding promoter region. This isoform is functional GAP protein and tumor suppressor and targeting of its expression results in the increase of DLC1 related cell processes: RHO activation and cell migration.

Liu X, Pan YJ, Zheng JN, Pei DS
The Role of Tumor Suppressor DLC-1: Far From Clear.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2017; 17(7):896-901 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC-1) In human was originally isolated from rats brain and was often found to be deleted in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: We undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature using a focused review question and inclusion/exclusion criteria.
RESULTS: Subsequent studies have demonstrated that DLC-1 is generally expressed in normal human tissues as well as in rats, while it always exists inactivated or even lost in many human cancers, which characterizes DLC-1 as a potential tumor suppressor. Additionally, the RhoGAP (Rho-GTPase activating proteins) activity was found to play a pivotal role in regulating DLC-1.
CONCLUSION: Although emerging studies in a variety of cancers have identified DLC-1 and its downstream signaling molecules as potential therapeutic targets for treatments of DLC-1-related cancers, the mechanisms linked to DLC-1 remain undefined.

Cui H, Liu Y, Jiang J, et al.
IGF2-derived miR-483 mediated oncofunction by suppressing DLC-1 and associated with colorectal cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(30):48456-48466 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Emerging evidence indicates that IGF2 plays an important role in various human malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Hsa-miR-483 is located within intron 7 of the IGF2 locus. However, the mechanism by which increased IGF2 induces carcinogenesis remains largely elusive. DLC-1 has been identified as a candidate tumor suppressor. In this study, we aimed at investigating whether miR-483 transcription is IGF2-dependent, identifying the functional target of miR-483, and evaluating whether tissue and serum miR-483-3p or miR-483-5p levels are associated with CRC. Our results showed that sequences upstream miR-483 had undetectable promoter activity and levels of IGF2, miR-483-3p, and miR-483-5p were synchronously increased in CRC tissues. Positive correlations between IGF2 and miR-483-3p (r=0.4984, ***p<0.0001), and between IGF2 and miR-483-5p (r=0.6659, ***p<0.0001) expression were found. In addition, patients with CRC had a significantly higher serum miR-483-5p level (*p<0.05) compared to normal controls. DLC-1 expression was decreased in colorectal cancer tissues and diminished through transient transfection with miR-483-3p. Our results suggest that IGF2 may exert its oncofunction, at least partly, through its parasitic miR-483 which suppressed DLC-1 in CRC cells. Thus, miR-483 might serve as a new target for therapy and a potential biomarker for the detection of colorectal cancer.

Khan FS, Ali I, Afridi UK, et al.
Epigenetic mechanisms regulating the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and their promise for therapeutics.
Hepatol Int. 2017; 11(1):45-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers around the globe and third most fatal malignancy. Chronic liver disorders such as chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis often lead to the development of HCC. Accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations are involved in the development of HCC. Genetic research sparked by recent developments in next generation sequencing has identified the frequency of genetic alterations that occur in HCC and has led to the identification of genetic hotspots. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic aberrations are strongly associated with the initiation and development of HCC. Various important genes encoding tumor suppressors including P16, RASSF1A, DLC-1, RUNX3 and SOCS-1 are targets of epigenetic dysregulation during the development of HCC. The present review discusses the importance of epigenetic regulations including DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA mediated regulation of gene expression during tumorigenesis and their use as disease biomarkers. Furthermore, these epigenetic alterations have been discussed in relationship with promising therapeutic perspectives for HCC and related cancers.

Wang D, Qian X, Rajaram M, et al.
DLC1 is the principal biologically-relevant down-regulated DLC family member in several cancers.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(29):45144-45157 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The RHO family of RAS-related GTPases in tumors may be activated by reduced levels of RHO GTPase accelerating proteins (GAPs). One common mechanism is decreased expression of one or more members of the Deleted in Liver Cancer (DLC) family of Rho-GAPs, which comprises three closely related genes (DLC1, DLC2, and DLC3) that are down-regulated in a wide range of malignancies. Here we have studied their comparative biological activity in cultured cells and used publicly available datasets to examine their mRNA expression patterns in normal and cancer tissues, and to explore their relationship to cancer phenotypes and survival outcomes. In The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, DLC1 expression predominated in normal lung, breast, and liver, but not in colorectum. Conversely, reduced DLC1 expression predominated in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSC), lung adenocarcinoma (LAD), breast cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but not in colorectal cancer. Reduced DLC1 expression was frequently associated with promoter methylation in LSC and LAD, while DLC1 copy number loss was frequent in HCC. DLC1 expression was higher in TCGA LAD patients who remained cancer-free, while low DLC1 had a poorer prognosis than low DLC2 or low DLC3 in a more completely annotated database. The poorest prognosis was associated with low expression of both DLC1 and DLC2 (P < 0.0001). In cultured cells, the three genes induced a similar reduction of Rho-GTP and cell migration. We conclude that DLC1 is the predominant family member expressed in several normal tissues, and its expression is preferentially reduced in common cancers at these sites.

Ding X, Gao S, Yang Q
rs621554 single nucleotide polymorphism of DLC1 is associated with breast cancer susceptibility and prognosis.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(5):4095-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) on chromosome 8p22, is an important tumor suppressor gene originally identified to be deleted in hepatocellular carcinoma. It can regulate the structure of the actin cytoskeleton and inhibit cell proliferation, motility and angiogenesis, which predominantly depends on its homology to rat RhoGAP. There are many genetic variants in DLC1, which may influence its antitumor efficacy. The rs621554 (IVS19+108C>T) polymorphism is a synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) previously found to be associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. In the present study, 453 patients with breast cancer and 330 healthy females were analyzed using a cycling probe method. It was determined that the rs621554 polymorphism of DLC1 was associated with breast cancer susceptibility, with the CC and CT genotypes resulting in a higher risk of developing breast cancer. In regard to clinicopathological variables, it was demonstrated that the CT and CC genotype were associated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis and progesterone receptor status. Patients with the CT and CC genotype had shorter disease-free survival and overall survival rates compared with those with the TT genotype. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the rs621554 polymorphism was correlated with DLC1 expression at the mRNA level. These results suggested that the rs621554 polymorphism is associated with breast cancer susceptibility and prognosis, and may serve as a biomarker for breast cancer development and progression.

Zhu W, Ma L, Yang B, et al.
Flavone inhibits migration through DLC1/RhoA pathway by decreasing ROS generation in breast cancer cells.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2016; 52(5):589-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor suppressor protein deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) is a RhoGTPase-activating protein (RhoGAP) and inhibits cancer cell migration by inactivating downstream target protein RhoA. A few studies have reported the regulations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on RhoGAP. In this study, we investigated flavone (the core structure of flavonoids)-induced regulation on ROS generation and DLC1/RhoA pathway in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and explored whether flavone-induced upregulation of DLC1 is mediated by ROS. Our results showed that flavone decreased ROS production and inhibited cell migration through DLC1/RhoA pathway. To further investigate the role of ROS in flavone-induced regulation on DLC1/RhoA pathway, hydrogen peroxide was added to restore the ROS levels. Flavone-induced upregulation of DLC1 expression, downregulation of RhoA activity, and inhibition of cell migration were all restrained by hydrogen peroxide. We also found that flavone increased DLC1 stability by inhibiting DLC1 protein degradation in breast cancer cells. In summary, our study demonstrated that flavone inhibited cell migration through DLC1/RhoA pathway by decreasing ROS generation and suppressed DLC1 degradation in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

Song LJ, Liu Q, Meng XR, et al.
DLC-1 is an independent prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target in hepatocellular cancer.
Diagn Pathol. 2016; 11:19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The 5-year survival rate of patients with hepatocellular cancer (HCC) was very low because of invasion and metastasis in the early stage. Biomarkers might help predict early occurrence of invasion and metastasis. Accumulating evidence has shown that deleted in liver cancer-1 (DLC1) may be considered as a metastasis suppressor gene in numerous solid and hematological cancers. However, its prognostic role and mechanisms that regulate and coordinate these activities remain poorly understood.
METHODS: With the method of immunohistochemistry, the expression of DLC-1 as well as Rho A, ROCK2, moesin had been characterized in 80 HCC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues. The correlation between their expression and their relationships with clinicopathological characteristics of HCC were also investigated. In addition, the prognostic value of DLC1 expression within the tumor tissues was assessed by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis.
RESULTS: DLC1 expression was significantly lower in HCC tissues than in adjacent noncancerous tissues, and DLC-1 expression was found to be negatively correlated with tumor differentiation, TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, DLC-1 expression was found to inversely correlate with Rho A, ROCK2 and moesin which were all highly expressed in HCC tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that significantly longer 5-year survival rate was seen in HCC patients with higher DLC1 expression, compared to those with lower expression of DLC1. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses revealed that DLC1 was an independent factor affecting the overall survival probability.
CONCLUSION: DLC1 could be served as a tumor suppressor gene in the progression especially in the invasion and metastasis of HCC. DLC1 perhaps played its role by regulating the expression of Rho A, ROCK2 and moesin. Evaluation of the expression of DLC-1 might be a good prognostic marker for patients with HCC.

Jiang Y, Li JM, Luo HQ
Clinicopathological Significance of DLC-1 Expression in Cancer: a Meta-Analysis.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(16):7255-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent reports have shown that DLC-1 is widely expressed in normal tissues and is down- regulated in a wide range of human tumors, suggesting it may act as a tumor suppressor gene. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the correlation between DLC-1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics in cancers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A detailed literature search was made for relevant publications from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library databases, Web of Science, CNKI. The methodological quality of the studies was also evaluated. Analyses of pooled data were performed and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated and summarized.
RESULTS: Final analysis was performed of 1,815 cancer patients from 19 eligible studies. We observed that DLC- 1 expression was significantly lower in cancers than in normal tissues. DLC-1 expression was not found to be associated with tumor differentiation status. However, DLC-1 expression was obviously lower in advance stage than in early-stage cancers and was more down-regulated in metastatic than non-metastatic cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of our meta-analysis suggested that DLC-1 expression is significantly lower in cancers than in normal tissues. Aberrant DLC-1 expression may play an important role in cancer genesis and metastasis.

Park H, Cho SY, Kim H, et al.
Genomic alterations in BCL2L1 and DLC1 contribute to drug sensitivity in gastric cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(40):12492-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recent high-throughput analyses of genomic alterations revealed several driver genes and altered pathways in GC. However, therapeutic applications from genomic data are limited, largely as a result of the lack of druggable molecular targets and preclinical models for drug selection. To identify new therapeutic targets for GC, we performed array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) of DNA from 103 patients with GC for copy number alteration (CNA) analysis, and whole-exome sequencing from 55 GCs from the same patients for mutation profiling. Pathway analysis showed recurrent alterations in the Wnt signaling [APC, CTNNB1, and DLC1 (deleted in liver cancer 1)], ErbB signaling (ERBB2, PIK3CA, and KRAS), and p53 signaling/apoptosis [TP53 and BCL2L1 (BCL2-like 1)] pathways. In 18.4% of GC cases (19/103), amplification of the antiapoptotic gene BCL2L1 was observed, and subsequently a BCL2L1 inhibitor was shown to markedly decrease cell viability in BCL2L1-amplified cell lines and in similarly altered patient-derived GC xenografts, especially when combined with other chemotherapeutic agents. In 10.9% of cases (6/55), mutations in DLC1 were found and were also shown to confer a growth advantage for these cells via activation of Rho-ROCK signaling, rendering these cells more susceptible to a ROCK inhibitor. Taken together, our study implicates BCL2L1 and DLC1 as potential druggable targets for specific subsets of GC cases.

Basak P, Dillon R, Leslie H, et al.
The Deleted in Liver Cancer 1 (Dlc1) tumor suppressor is haploinsufficient for mammary gland development and epithelial cell polarity.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:630 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Deleted in Liver Cancer 1 (Dlc1) is a tumor suppressor gene, which maps to human chromosome 8p21-22 and is found frequently deleted in many cancers including breast cancer. The promoter of the remaining allele is often found methylated. The Dlc1 gene encodes a RhoGAP protein that regulates cell proliferation, migration and inhibits cell growth and invasion when restored in Dlc1 deficient tumor cell lines. This study focuses on determining the role of Dlc1 in normal mammary gland development and epithelial cell polarity in a Dlc1 gene trapped (gt) mouse.
METHODS: Mammary gland whole mount preparations from 10-week virgin heterozygous Dlc1(gt/+) gene-trapped mice were compared with age-matched wild type (WT) controls. Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) and Masson's Trichrome staining of histological sections were carried out. Mammary glands from Dlc1(gt/+) mice and WT controls were enzymatically digested with collagenase and dispase and then cultured overnight to deplete hematopoietic and endothelial cells. The single cell suspensions were then cultured in Matrigel for 12 days. To knockdown Dlc1 expression, primary WT mammary epithelial cells were infected with short hairpin (sh) RNA expressing lentivirus or with a scrambled shRNA control.
RESULTS: Dlc1(gt/+) mice showed anomalies in the mammary gland that included increased ductal branching and deformities in terminal end buds and branch points. Compared to the WT controls, Masson's Trichrome staining showed a thickened stromal layer with increased collagen deposition in mammary glands from Dlc1(gt/+) mice. Dlc1(gt/+) primary mammary epithelial cells formed increased solid acinar spheres in contrast with WT and scrambled shRNA control cells, which mostly formed hollow acinar structures when plated in 3D Matrigel cultures. These solid acinar structures were similar to the acinar structures formed when Dlc1 gene expression was knocked down in WT mammary cells by shRNA lentiviral transduction. The solid acinar structures were not due to a defect in apoptosis as determined by a lack of detectible cleaved caspase 3 antibody staining. Primary mammary cells from Dlc1(gt/+) mice showed increased RhoA activity compared with WT cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The results illustrate that decreased Dlc1 expression can disrupt the normal cell polarization and mammary ductal branching. Altogether this study suggests that Dlc1 plays a role in maintaining normal mammary epithelial cell polarity and that Dlc1 is haploinsufficient.

Further References

Yuan BZ, Durkin ME, Popescu NC
Promoter hypermethylation of DLC-1, a candidate tumor suppressor gene, in several common human cancers.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2003; 140(2):113-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant methylation of CpG islands within the promoter regions of tumor suppressor or cancer-related genes is a common mechanism leading to the silencing of gene expression. To determine whether aberrant methylation is a contributing factor to transcriptional inactivation of DLC-1 (deleted in liver cancer-1), a candidate tumor suppressor gene, we examined its methylation status in twelve hepatocellular carcinoma. breast, colon, and prostate tumor cell lines with low or undetectable expression of DLC-1. By Southern blot analysis of DNA digested with the methylation sensitive enzyme HpaII, we found a different degree of promoter hypermethylation in all cell lines with aberrant DLC-1 expression. The hypermethylation status was reversed by the addition of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent, in one human hepatocellular carcinoma line. These observations suggest that hypermethylation is responsible for abrogating the function of the DLC-1 gene in a subset of liver, breast, colon, and prostate cancers.

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