Gene Summary

Gene:DUSP1; dual specificity phosphatase 1
Aliases: HVH1, MKP1, CL100, MKP-1, PTPN10
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a phosphatase with dual specificity for tyrosine and threonine. The encoded protein can dephosphorylate MAP kinase MAPK1/ERK2, which results in its involvement in several cellular processes. This protein appears to play an important role in the human cellular response to environmental stress as well as in the negative regulation of cellular proliferation. Finally, the encoded protein can make some solid tumors resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy, making it a target for cancer therapy. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:dual specificity protein phosphatase 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (22)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (6)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Phosphorylation
  • Tumor Stem Cell Assay
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer
  • Up-Regulation
  • CRAF
  • Temperature
  • siRNA
  • TGFB1
  • Phosphoprotein Phosphatases
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Glucocorticoid Receptors
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Immediate-Early Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Lung Cancer
  • Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1
  • Western Blotting
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • S-Nitrosothiols
  • Liver Cancer
  • Protein Phosphatase 1
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
  • JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Drug Resistance
  • Receptor, erbB-2
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Apoptosis
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Chromosome 5
  • Transcription Factors
  • Breast Cancer
  • Taxoids
  • Messenger RNA
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: DUSP1 (cancer-related)

Zhao B, You Y, Wan Z, et al.
Weighted correlation network and differential expression analyses identify candidate genes associated with BRAF gene in melanoma.
BMC Med Genet. 2019; 20(1):54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma is a cancer of the pigment cells of the skin, some of which are accompanied by BRAF mutation. Melanoma incidence and mortality rates have been rising around the world. As the current knowledge about pathogenesis, clinical and genetic features of cutaneous melanoma is not very clear, we aim to use bioinformatics to identify the potential key genes involved in the expression and mutation status of BRAF.
METHODS: Firstly, we used UCSC public hub datasets of melanoma (Lin et al., Cancer Res 68(3):664, 2008) to perform weighted genes co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and differentially expressed genes analysis (DEGs), respectively. Secondly, overlapping genes between significant gene modules and DEGs were screened and validated at transcriptional levels and overall survival in TCGA and GTEx datasets. Lastly, the functional enrichment analysis was accomplished to find biological functions on the web-server database.
RESULTS: We performed weighted correlation network and differential expression analyses, using gene expression data in melanoma samples. We identified 20 genes whose expression was correlated with the mutation status of BRAF. For further validation, three of these genes (CYR61, DUSP1, and RNASE4) were found to have similar expression patterns in skin tumors from TCGA compared with normal skin samples from GTEx. We also found that weak expression of these three genes was associated with worse overall survival in the TCGA data. These three genes were involved in the nucleic acid metabolic process.
CONCLUSION: In this study, CYR61, DUSP1, and RNASE4 were identified as potential genes of interest for future molecular studies in melanoma, which would improve our understanding of its causes and underlying molecular events. These candidate genes may provide a promising avenue of future research for therapeutic targets in melanoma.

Li Z, Xu W, Ren X, et al.
Puerarin promotes DUSP1 expression by regulating miR‑133a‑3p in breast cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(1):205-212 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous studies demonstrated that puerarin represents a potential therapeutic drug for breast cancer treatment, due to its ability to inhibit the migration of MCF‑7 and MDA‑MB‑231 cell lines. In order to investigate the mechanism of puerarin in breast cancer cells, the aim of the present study was to examine whether puerarin regulated the dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) expression level by promoting the microRNA‑133a‑3p (miR‑133a‑3p) expression level in breast cancer. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed in HCC38 cells by Cell Counting Kit‑8 assays and a flow cytometry assay, respectively. In total, four treatment groups were considered: Puerarin treatment, miR‑133a‑3p mimics transfection, puerarin + miR‑133a‑3p mimics and negative control. miR‑133a‑3p expression and DUSP1 mRNA expression levels were analyzed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and western blotting was used to detect the protein expression level. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter gene assay was used to test whether DUSP1 mRNA was a direct target of miR‑133a‑3p. The present results suggested that treatment with puerarin or miR‑133a‑3p mimics transfection affected the miR‑133a‑3p expression level and the activity of the DUSP1/p38 pathway, leading to inhibition of HCC38 cell viability and an increase in apoptosis. miR‑133a‑3p overexpression enhanced the drug action of peurarin. In conclusion, puerarin may increase DUSP1 expression by promoting the miR‑133a‑3p expression level in HCC38 breast cancer cells. Therefore, miR‑133a‑3p may represent a novel molecular marker for diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, and puerarin may represent a promising clinical drug for treatment of patients with breast cancer.

Wang Z, Zou F, Tian Y, et al.
Paclitaxel reversed trastuzumab resistance via regulating JUN in human gastric cancer cells identified by FAN analysis.
Future Oncol. 2018; 14(26):2701-2712 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: In this study, we aim to use bioinformatics approach to identify paclitaxel-targeted modulators potentially involved in the process of reversing the trastuzumab resistance. Materials & methods: We extracted data from GSE77346 to identify potential trastuzumab resistance-related genes, used bioinformatics analysis and functional/activity network approach to find genes involved in trastuzumab resistance reversal.
RESULTS: We identified hub differentially expressed genes related to trastuzumab resistance, trastuzumab targeting and paclitaxel targeting, respectively. We then found C-Jun may be critical in trastuzumab resistance reversal.  This process may involve transcriptional activation of DUSP1 by JUN, which lead to regulation of DUSP1-related signaling pathways.
CONCLUSION: The present study revealed paclitaxel may reverse the trastuzumab resistance by JUN, which possibly in turn regulated DUSP1 and DUSP1-related signaling pathways.

Teng F, Xu Z, Chen J, et al.
DUSP1 induces apatinib resistance by activating the MAPK pathway in gastric cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(3):1203-1222 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dual‑specificity phosphatase‑1 (DUSP1) is an oncogene that is associated with cancer progression following drug resistance. In order to investigate the potential relationship between DUSP1 and apatinib resistance in gastric cancer cells, we preformed many assays to study this problem. DUSP1 gene was detected by RT‑qPCR assay, proteins in MAPK pathway were quantified by western blot assay, and CCK‑8 assay, flow cytometry and Hoechest 33342 stain were performed to detect the resistance of cells, cell cycles and apoptosis, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining was used to discover the expression of DUSP1 protein in patients' tumor or paratumor tissues. It was found that apatinib (Apa)‑resistant gastric cancer (GC) cells showed increased expression of DUSP1, whereas the knockdown of DUSP1 in resistant cells resensitized these cells to Apa. The restored sensitivity to Apa was the result of inactivation of mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and the induction of apoptosis. The in vitro use of Apa in combination with a DUSP1 inhibitor, triptolide, exerted significant effects on inhibiting the expression of DUSP1, growth inhibition, and apoptosis via the inactivation of MAPK signaling. In patients who did not undergo chemotherapy or targeted therapy, the expression of DUSP1 in adjacent tissues was higher when compared with that observed in tumor tissues. In addition, the expression of DUSP1 was higher in the early stages of GC than in the advanced stages. The expression of DUSP1 in tumor tissues was not associated with the survival rate of the patients. Therefore, increased expression of DUSP1 may be responsible for Apa resistance, and DUSP1 may serve as a biomarker for Apa efficacy. In conclusion, inducing the downregulation of DUSP1 may be a promising strategy to overcome Apa resistance.

Youns M, ElKhoely A, Kamel R
The growth inhibitory effect of gambogic acid on pancreatic cancer cells.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2018; 391(5):551-560 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer, the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths, is one of the most aggressive and devastating human malignancies with increasing incidence worldwide. To date, surgical resection is the only potentially curative therapy available for pancreatic cancer patients. Early diagnosis of pancreatic tumors is difficult, and hence, nearly 80% of patients cannot receive surgical resection. Natural products have always been a vital source for novel compounds for cancer treatment. The naturally occurring prenylated xanthone, gambogic acid, has been previously shown to exert potent anticancer, anti-inflammatory, apoptotic, antiangiogenic, and antioxidant activities. However, to our knowledge, there have been no specific studies showing its effect on the whole-genome expression in pancreatic cancer cells. Here, the anticancer activity of gambogic acid toward a panel of pancreatic cancer cells with different differentiation stages has been evaluated. Additionally, a whole-genome transcription profiling study was performed in order to identify possible candidate players modulating the antitumor effect of gambogic acid on pancreatic cancer cells. Expression analysis results showed that the pancreatic adenocarcinoma signaling pathway was specifically affected upon gambogic acid treatment. Moreover, the growth inhibitory effect of gambogic acid on pancreatic cancer cells was modulated through up-regulation of DDIT3, DUSP1, and DUSP5 and down-regulation of ALDOA, TOP2A, and ATG4B. The present work is a starting point for the generation of hypotheses on significantly regulated candidate key player genes and for a detailed dissection of the potential role of each individual gene for the activity of gambogic acid on pancreatic cancer.

Dou D, Shi YF, Liu Q, et al.
Hsa-miR-202-3p, up-regulated in type 1 gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms, may target
World J Gastroenterol. 2018; 24(5):573-582 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To detect abnormal microRNA (miRNA) expression in type 1 gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms (g-NENs) and find potential target genes.
METHODS: Tumour tissues from patients with type 1 g-NENs were used as experimental samples, and gastric mucosal tissues from the same patients obtained during gastroscopy review after several months were used as control samples. miRNA expression was examined with Agilent human miRNA chips and validated
RESULTS: Six miRNAs were significantly upregulated or downregulated in the tumours compared to the control samples. Among them, miR-202-3p was extraordinarily upregulated. RT-PCR of seven sample sets confirmed that miR-202-3p was upregulated in tumour tissues. In total, 215 target genes were predicted to be associated with miR-202-3p. Among them, dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) was reported to be closely related to tumour occurrence and development. The dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-202-3p directly regulated
CONCLUSION: miR-202-3p is upregulated in type 1 g-NEN lesions and might play important roles in the pathogenesis of type 1 g-NENs by targeting

Kober P, Boresowicz J, Rusetska N, et al.
DNA methylation profiling in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018; 473:194-204 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are among the most frequent intracranial tumors but their molecular background, including changes in epigenetic regulation, remains poorly understood. We performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of 34 NFPAs and normal pituitary samples. Methylation status of the selected genomic regions and expression level of corresponding genes were assessed in a group of 75 patients. NFPAs exhibited distinct global methylation profile as compared to normal pituitary. Aberrant DNA methylation appears to contribute to deregulation of the cancer-related pathways as shown by preliminary functional analysis. Promoter hypermethylation and decreased expression level of SFN, STAT5A, DUSP1, PTPRE and FGFR2 was confirmed in the enlarged group of NFPAs. Difference in the methylation profiles between invasive and non-invasive NFPAs is very slight. Nevertheless, invasiveness-related aberrant epigenetic deregulation of the particular genes was found including upregulation of ITPKB and downregulation CNKSR1 in invasive tumors.

Weng W, Liu N, Toiyama Y, et al.
Novel evidence for a PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) as an oncogenic mediator of disease progression, and a potential prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) may be important epigenetic regulators of gene expression in human cancers; however, their functional and clinical significance in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown.
METHODS: We performed piRNA expression profiling in paired cancer and normal tissues through small RNA-sequencing. The clinical significance of candidate piRNAs was investigated, and independently validated in 771 CRC patients from three independent cohorts. The biological function of piRNAs was characterized in cell lines, followed by identification and validation of downstream target genes in CRC tissues.
RESULTS: We identified piR-1245 as a novel and frequently overexpressed noncoding RNA in CRC, and its expression significantly correlated with advanced and metastatic disease. Patients with high piR-1245 expression experienced significantly shorter overall survival, and multivariate analysis identified its expression to serve as an independent prognostic biomarker in CRC. Functionally, piR-1245 acts as an oncogene and promotes tumor progression, and gene expression profiling results identified a panel of downstream target-genes involved in regulating cell survival pathway. Based upon piRNA:mRNA sequence complementarity, we identified a panel of tumor suppressor genes (ATF3, BTG1, DUSP1, FAS,NFKBIA, UPP1, SESN2, TP53INP1 and MDX1) as direct targets of piR-1245, and successfully validated an inverse correlation between their expression and piR-1245 in CRC.
CONCLUSIONS: We for the first time have identified the role for a PIWI-interacting noncoding RNA, piR-1245, as a novel oncogene and a potential prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer.

Liao B, Zhou H, Liang H, Li C
Regulation of ERK and AKT pathways by hepatitis B virus X protein via the Notch1 pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(5):1449-1459 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the dominant risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV X protein (HBx) plays crucial roles in HCC carcinogenesis. HBx interferes with several signaling pathways including the Notch1 pathway in HCC. In this study, we found that Notch1 was highly expressed in HCC, especially in large HCCs. Notch1 and HBx co-localized in HCC and their levels were positively correlated with each other. Notch1 expression was more elevated in HepG2.2.15 cells than that in HepG2 cells. HBx activated the Notch1 pathway in HepG2.2.15 cells. Suppression of HBx and the Notch1 pathway attenuated the growth of HepG2.2.15 cells. Notch1, ERK, and AKT pathways were inhibited after γ-secretase inhibitor treatment. Dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were upregulated after γ-secretase inhibitor treatment and Hes1 inhibition. Luciferase reporter assays showed that Hes1 suppressed the promoters of DUSP1 and PTEN genes, which was reversed by γ-secretase inhibitor treatment. Western blotting demonstrated that DUSP1 dephosphorylated pERK and PTEN dephosphorylated pAKT. Collectively, we found a link among HBx, the Notch1 pathway, DUSP1/PTEN, and ERK/AKT pathways, which influenced HCC cell survival and could be a therapeutic target for HCC treatment.

Horváth J, Szabó A, Tar I, et al.
Oral Health May Affect the Performance of mRNA-Based Saliva Biomarkers for Oral Squamous Cell Cancer.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2018; 24(4):833-842 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a dismal 50% five-year survival rate, emphasizing the need to develop reliable and sensitive tools for early diagnosis. In this study we evaluated the performance of 7 previously identified, potential mRNA biomarkers of OSCC in saliva samples of Hungarian patients. Expression of the putative OSCC biomarkers (DUSP1, OAZ1, H3F3A, IL1B, IL8, SAT and S100P), 2 biomarkers of inflammation (IL6 and TNFα) and 8 putative normalizing genes was quantified from each sample using real-time quantitative PCR. In contrast with previous studies, the expression pattern of the 7 mRNA biomarkers was similar between OSCC patients and age-matched control patients in the Hungarian patient population. On the other hand, 5 of the 7 mRNA biomarkers were present at significantly higher levels in saliva samples of OSCC patients when compared to young control patients. The best biomarker combination could distinguish only the OSCC vs. young control patients, but not the OSCC vs. age-matched control patients. In conclusion, the significant differences between our results and previous studies, and the clinical characteristics of the patients suggest that inflammatory processes in the oral cavity may affect the performance of the 7 putative salivary mRNA biomarkers. Lastly, since IL6 mRNA was quantifiable in the majority of OSCC cases, but only in a few control samples, salivary IL6 mRNA may be utilized as part of a biomarker combination to detect OSCC.

Wang J, Kho DH, Zhou JY, et al.
MKP-1 suppresses PARP-1 degradation to mediate cisplatin resistance.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(43):5939-5947 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Understanding the mechanisms of platinum compound resistance, including cisplatin resistance, has important implications for improving cancer treatments. Previous studies identified a potential role for mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in cisplatin resistance. This work focuses on the regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) expression by MKP-1. We found that MKP-1 overexpression stimulates PARP-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) protein expression and cisplatin resistance while its downregulation suppresses PARP-1 and PAR protein expression and cisplatin resistance. Silencing MKP-1 promoted PARP-1 ubiquitination, which decreased PARP-1 protein levels. We also found that silencing c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) decreased PARP-1 ubiquitination while increasing total PARP-1 protein levels. Furthermore, we showed that acquired cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells expressed high levels of MKP-1 and PARP-1 proteins, and that silencing MKP-1 or PARP-1 increased cisplatin sensitivity in resistant cells. Notably, the pharmacologic inhibition of PARP activity restored cisplatin sensitivity in MKP-1 overexpressing cells. Thus, this work indicates that suppression of JNK1/2 activity by MKP-1 maintains PARP-1 levels and suggests that MKP-1-mediated cisplatin resistance can be bypassed by PARP-1 inhibition.

Li H, Wu H, Zhang H, et al.
Identification of curcumin-inhibited extracellular matrix receptors in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells by RNA sequencing.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(6):1010428317705334 [PubMed] Related Publications
Curcumin is a potent anti-cancer drug in several types of human cancers. Despite of several preclinical and clinical studies of curcumin, the precise mechanism of curcumin in cancer prevention has remained unclear. In our study, we for the first time investigated whole transcriptome alteration in A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines after treatment with curcumin using RNA sequencing. We found that lots of genes and signaling pathways were significantly altered after curcumin treatment in A549 cells. With bioinformatics approaches (gene ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and STRING), we found that those curcumin altered genes were not only the genes that induce cell death but also those extracellular matrix receptors and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway genes which regulate cell migration and proliferation. Among those significantly altered genes, eight genes ( COL1A1, COL4A1, COL5A1, LAMA5, ITGA3, ITGA2B, DDIT3, and DUSP1) were further examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis in four non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. Both in cell lines and in mouse model, the extracellular matrix receptors including the integrin ( ITGA3 and ITGA2B), collagen ( COL5A1), and laminin ( LAMA5) were significantly inhibited by curcumin at messenger RNA and protein levels. Functional studies confirmed that curcumin not only induced A549 cell death but also repressed cell proliferation and migration by regulating extracellular matrix receptors. Collectively, our study suggests that curcumin may be used as a promising drug candidate for intervening lung cancer in future studies.

Hocsak E, Szabo V, Kalman N, et al.
PARP inhibition protects mitochondria and reduces ROS production via PARP-1-ATF4-MKP-1-MAPK retrograde pathway.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2017; 108:770-784 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oxidative stress induces DNA breaks and PARP-1 activation which initiates mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell death through pathways not yet identified. Here, we show the mechanism by which PARP-1 influences these processes via PARylation of activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) responsible for MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression and thereby regulates MAP kinases. PARP inhibitor, or silencing, of PARP induced MKP-1 expression by ATF4-dependent way, and inactivated JNK and p38 MAP kinases. Additionally, it induced ATF4 expression and binding to cAMP-response element (CRE) leading to MKP-1 expression and the inactivation of MAP kinases. In contrast, PARP-1 activation induced the PARylation of ATF4 and reduced its binding to CRE sequence in vitro. CHIP-qPCR analysis showed that PARP inhibitor increased the ATF4 occupancy at the initiation site of MKP-1. In oxidative stress, PARP inhibition reduced ROS-induced cell death, suppressed mitochondrial ROS production and protected mitochondrial membrane potential on an ATF4 and MKP-1 dependent way. Basically identical results were obtained in WRL-68, A-549 and T24/83 human cell lines indicating that the aforementioned mechanism can be universal. Here, we provide the first description of PARP-1-ATF4-MKP-1-JNK/p38 MAPK retrograde pathway, which is responsible for the regulation of mitochondrial integrity, ROS production and cell death in oxidative stress, and may represent a new mechanism of PARP in cancer therapy since cancer stem cells development is JNK-dependent.

Li L, Cai S, Liu S, et al.
Bioinformatics analysis to screen the key prognostic genes in ovarian cancer.
J Ovarian Res. 2017; 10(1):27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer (OC) is a gynecological oncology that has a poor prognosis and high mortality. This study is conducted to identify the key genes implicated in the prognosis of OC by bioinformatic analysis.
METHODS: Gene expression data (including 568 primary OC tissues, 17 recurrent OC tissues, and 8 adjacent normal tissues) and the relevant clinical information of OC patients were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. After data preprocessing, cluster analysis was conducted using the ConsensusClusterPlus package in R. Using the limma package in R, differential analysis was performed to identify feature genes. Based on Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival analysis, prognostic seed genes were selected from the feature genes. After key prognostic genes were further screened by cluster analysis and KM survival analysis, they were performed functional enrichment analysis and multivariate survival analysis. Using the survival package in R, cox regression analysis was conducted for the microarray data of GSE17260 to validate the key prognostic genes.
RESULTS: A total of 3668 feature genes were obtained, among which 75 genes were identified as prognostic seed genes. Then, 25 key prognostic genes were screened, including AXL, FOS, KLF6, WDR77, DUSP1, GADD45B, and SLIT3. Especially, AXL and SLIT3 were enriched in ovulation cycle. Multivariate survival analysis showed that the key prognostic genes could effectively differentiate the samples and were significantly associated with prognosis. Additionally, GSE17260 confirmed that the key prognostic genes were associated with the prognosis of OC.
CONCLUSION: AXL, FOS, KLF6, WDR77, DUSP1, GADD45B, and SLIT3 might affect the prognosis of OC.

Kesarwani M, Kincaid Z, Gomaa A, et al.
Targeting c-FOS and DUSP1 abrogates intrinsic resistance to tyrosine-kinase inhibitor therapy in BCR-ABL-induced leukemia.
Nat Med. 2017; 23(4):472-482 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for human cancers is not curative, and relapse occurs owing to the continued presence of tumor cells, referred to as minimal residual disease (MRD). The survival of MRD stem or progenitor cells in the absence of oncogenic kinase signaling, a phenomenon referred to as intrinsic resistance, depends on diverse growth factors. Here we report that oncogenic kinase and growth-factor signaling converge to induce the expression of the signaling proteins FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (c-FOS, encoded by Fos) and dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1). Genetic deletion of Fos and Dusp1 suppressed tumor growth in a BCR-ABL fusion protein kinase-induced mouse model of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Pharmacological inhibition of c-FOS, DUSP1 and BCR-ABL eradicated MRD in multiple in vivo models, as well as in mice xenotransplanted with patient-derived primary CML cells. Growth-factor signaling also conferred TKI resistance and induced FOS and DUSP1 expression in tumor cells modeling other types of kinase-driven leukemias. Our data demonstrate that c-FOS and DUSP1 expression levels determine the threshold of TKI efficacy, such that growth-factor-induced expression of c-FOS and DUSP1 confers intrinsic resistance to TKI therapy in a wide-ranging set of leukemias, and might represent a unifying Achilles' heel of kinase-driven cancers.

Li J, Chen Y, Yu H, et al.
DUSP1 promoter methylation in peripheral blood leukocyte is associated with triple-negative breast cancer risk.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:43011 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA methylation is one of the most common epigenetic alterations, providing important information regarding cancer risk and prognosis. A case-control study (423 breast cancer cases, 509 controls) and a case-only study (326 cases) were conducted to evaluate the association of DUSP1 promoter methylation with breast cancer risk and clinicopathological characteristics. No significant association between DUSP1 methylation in peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) DNA and breast cancer risk was observed. DUSP1 methylation was significantly associated with ER/PR-negative status; in particular, triple-negative breast cancer patients showed the highest frequency of DUSP1 methylation in both tumour DNA and PBL DNA. Soybean intake was significantly correlated with methylated DUSP1 only in ER-negative (OR 2.978; 95% CI 1.245-7.124) and PR negative (OR 2.735; 95% CI 1.315-5.692) patients. Irregular menstruation was significantly associated with methylated DUSP1 only in ER-positive (OR 3.564; 95% CI 1.691-7.511) and PR-positive (OR 3.902, 95% CI 1.656-9.194) patients. Thus, DUSP1 methylation is a cancer-associated hypermethylation event that is closely linked with triple-negative status. Further investigations are warranted to confirm the association of environmental factors, including fruit and soybean intake, irregular menstruation, and ER/PR status, with DUSP1 methylation in breast tumour DNA.

Shen J, Zhou S, Shi L, et al.
DUSP1 inhibits cell proliferation, metastasis and invasion and angiogenesis in gallbladder cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(7):12133-12144 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DUSP1/MKP1 is a dual-specific phosphatase that regulates MAPK activity and is known to play a key role in tumor biology. Its function in gallbladder cancer (GBC) remains largely unknown, however. By exploring its activities in two GBC cell lines (SGC996 and GBC-SD), DUSP1 was found to inhibit GBC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Moreover, DUSP1 inhibited GBC growth and metastasis in nude mice subcutaneously xenografted with SGC996 cells. The tumor suppression appeared to be mediated via the DUSP1-pERK/MAPK-MMP2 signal pathway. Angiogenesis was associated with the tumor metastasis in the mouse model and was impaired by DUSP1, which suppressed VEGF expression. These results suggest that DUSP1 suppresses GBC growth and metastasis by targeting the DUSP1-pERK-MMP2/VEGF axis. Identification of the DUSP1-pERK-MMP2/VEGF signals may provide new biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets to better suppress GBC metastasis in the future.

Lopes LJS, Tesser-Gamba F, Petrilli AS, et al.
MAPK pathways regulation by DUSP1 in the development of osteosarcoma: Potential markers and therapeutic targets.
Mol Carcinog. 2017; 56(6):1630-1641 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent primary bone tumor that affect children and adolescents. This tumor is highly aggressive with high risk of metastasis and the implementation of new drugs has not been successful. The search for biomarkers or new therapeutic targets is urgently needed and can help in advances of OS treatment. MAPKs are major signaling transduction molecules that play an important role in regulating a variety of cellular responses. DUSP1 is a phosphatase that dephosphorylates the MAPKs. Both MAPKs and DUSPs have been implicated as major modulators of critical signaling pathways that are dysregulated in various diseases. In a previous study, we found an increase in MAPK7 gene expression contributed for worst overall survival and treatment response. We analyzed gene expression of MAPK pathways that participate in MAPK7 regulation, and DUSP1 gene using paired 28 pre/post-chemotherapy and 12 metastasis OS samples. To understand the DUSP1 role in the pathogenesis of OS, we assessed the function of DUSP1 in four OS cell lines through a series of cellular assays combined with gene silencing technique. Our findings showed increased MAP2K6, MAP4K3, and DUSP1 gene expression in post-chemotherapy OS samples presenting poor prognosis. We also found that the suppression of DUSP1 gene expression resulted in decreased proliferation, migration, and invasion in OS cells. These results suggest that members of MAPK family may be possible prognostic markers in OS and DUSP1 has a relevant role in the OS pathogenesis and can be an attractive therapeutic target in new strategies of OS treatment.

Ceccarini MR, Vannini S, Cataldi S, et al.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:7529521 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Rincón R, Zazo S, Chamizo C, et al.
c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Inactivation by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase 1 Determines Resistance to Taxanes and Anthracyclines in Breast Cancer.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(11):2780-2790 [PubMed] Related Publications
MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is overexpressed during malignant transformation of the breast in many patients, and it is usually associated with chemoresistance through interference with JNK-driven apoptotic pathways. Although the molecular settings of the mechanism have been documented, details about the contribution of MKP-1 to the failure of chemotherapeutic interventions are unclear. Transient overexpression of MKP-1 and treatment with JNK-modulating agents in breast carcinoma cells confirmed the mediation of MKP-1 in the resistance to taxanes and anthracyclines in breast cancer, through the inactivation of JNK1/2. We next assessed MKP-1 expression and JNK1/2 phosphorylation status in a large cohort of samples from 350 early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy. We detected that MKP-1 overexpression is a recurrent event predominantly linked to dephosphorylation of JNK1/2 with an adverse impact on relapse of the tumor and overall and disease-free survival. Moreover, MKP-1 and p-JNK1/2 determinations in 64 locally advanced breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy showed an inverse correlation between MKP-1 overexpression (together with JNK1/2 inhibition) and the pathologic response of the tumors. Our results emphasize the importance of MKP-1 as a potential predictive biomarker for a subset of breast cancer patients with worse outcome and less susceptibility to treatment. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(11); 2780-90. ©2016 AACR.

Nettersheim D, Jostes S, Fabry M, et al.
A signaling cascade including ARID1A, GADD45B and DUSP1 induces apoptosis and affects the cell cycle of germ cell cancers after romidepsin treatment.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(46):74931-74946 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In Western countries, the incidence of testicular germ cell cancers (GCC) is steadily rising over the last decades. Mostly, men between 20 and 40 years of age are affected. In general, patients suffering from GCCs are treated by orchiectomy and radio- or chemotherapy. Due to resistance mechanisms, intolerance to the therapy or denial of chemo- / radiotherapy by the patients, GCCs are still a lethal threat, highlighting the need for alternative treatment strategies.In this study, we revealed that germ cell cancer cell lines are highly sensitive to the histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin in vitro and in vivo, highlighting romidepsin as a potential therapeutic option for GCC patients.Romidepsin-mediated inhibition of histone deacetylases led to disturbances of the chromatin landscape. This resulted in locus-specific histone-hyper- or hypoacetylation. We found that hypoacetylation at the ARID1A promotor caused repression of the SWI/SNF-complex member ARID1A. In consequence, this resulted in upregulation of the stress-sensors and apoptosis-regulators GADD45B, DUSP1 and CDKN1A. RNAi-driven knock down of ARID1A mimicked in parts the effects of romidepsin, while CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of GADD45B attenuated the romidepsin-provoked induction of apoptosis and cell cycle alterations.We propose a signaling cascade involving ARID1A, GADD45B and DUSP1 as mediators of the romidepsin effects in GCC cells.

Wang J, Zhou JY, Kho D, et al.
Role for DUSP1 (dual-specificity protein phosphatase 1) in the regulation of autophagy.
Autophagy. 2016; 12(10):1791-1803 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Accumulating evidence suggests that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate macroautophagy/autophagy. However, the involvement of dual-specificity protein phosphatases (DUSPs), endogenous inhibitors for MAPKs, in autophagy remains to be determined. Here we report that DUSP1/MKP-1, the founding member of the DUSP family, plays a critical role in regulating autophagy. Specifically, we demonstrate that DUSP1 knockdown by shRNA in human ovarian cancer CAOV3 cells and knockout in murine embryonic fibroblasts, increases both basal and rapamycin-increased autophagic flux. Overexpression of DUSP1 had the opposite effect. Importantly, knockout of Dusp1 promoted phosphorylation of ULK1 at Ser555, and BECN1/Beclin 1 at Ser15, and the association of PIK3C3/VPS34, ATG14, BECN1 and MAPK, leading to the activation of the autophagosome-initiating class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) complex. Furthermore, knockdown and pharmacological inhibitor studies indicated that DUSP1-mediated suppression of autophagy reflected inactivation of the MAPK1-MAPK3 members of the MAPK family. Knockdown of DUSP1 sensitized CAOV3 cells to rapamycin-induced antigrowth activity. Moreover, CAOV3-CR cells, a line that had acquired cisplatin resistance, exhibited an elevated DUSP1 level and were refractory to rapamycin-induced autophagy and cytostatic effects. Knockdown of DUSP1 in CAOV3-CR cells restored sensitivity to rapamycin. Collectively, this work identifies a previously unrecognized role for DUSP1 in regulating autophagy and suggests that suppression of DUSP1 may enhance the therapeutic activity of rapamycin.

Kang YS, Seok HJ, Jeong EJ, et al.
DUSP1 induces paclitaxel resistance through the regulation of p-glycoprotein expression in human ovarian cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016; 478(1):403-409 [PubMed] Related Publications
The heterogeneity and genetic instability of ovarian cancer cells often lead to the development of drug resistance, closely related with the increased cancer-related mortality. In this study, we investigated the role of dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) in the development of the resistance in human ovarian cancer cells against paclitaxel. Overexpression of DUSP1 in HeyA8 human ovarian cancer cells (HeyA8-DUSP1) up-regulated the expression of the drug efflux pump, p-glycoprotein. Consequently, HeyA8-DUSP1 cells are highly resistant to paclitaxel, with the resistance comparable to that of a multi-drug resistance cell line (HeyA8-MDR). Moreover, over expression of DUSP1 significantly increased the activation of p38 MAPK, leaving the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 unaffected. Pharmacological suppression of p38 MAPK activity prevents the up-regulation of p-glycoprotein expression and the consequent resistance against paclitaxel in HeyA8-DUSP1 cells. By contrast, HeyA8-MDR cells expressed a significantly higher level of DUSP1, but treatment with small interference RNA against DUSP1 significantly suppressed the expression of p-glycoprotein and the resistance against paclitaxel in HeyA8-MDR cells. Ectopic expression of MKK3, an upstream activator of p38 MAPK, significantly up-regulated the expression of p-glycoprotein and increased the consequent resistance against paclitaxel in HeyA8 cells. Collectively, these data indicated that DUSP1 may induce the resistance against paclitaxel through the p38 MAPK-mediated overexpression of p-glycoprotein in human ovarian cancer cells.

Martin JL
Validation of Reference Genes for Oral Cancer Detection Panels in a Prospective Blinded Cohort.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(7):e0158462 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Reference genes are needed as internal controls to determine relative expression for clinical application of gene expression panels. Candidate constitutively expressed genes must be validated as suitable reference genes in each body fluid and disease entity. Prior studies have predominantly validated oral squamous cell carcinoma associated messenger RNAs (mRNAs) based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) quantification cycle (Cq) values without adjustment for housekeeping genes.
METHODS: One hundred sixty eight patients had saliva collected before clinically driven biopsy of oral lesions suspicious for cancer. Seven potential housekeeping mRNAs and six pre-specified oral cancer associated mRNAs were measured with qPCR by personnel blinded to tissue diagnosis. Housekeeping gene stability was determined with the NormFinder program in a training set of 12 randomly selected cancer and 24 control patients. Genes with stability indices <0.02 were then tested in the validation set consisting of the remaining cancer and control patients and were further validated by the geNorm program. Cancer gene delta Cqs were compared in case and control patients after subtracting the geometric mean of the reference gene raw Cqs.
RESULTS: B2M and UBC had stability indices >0.02 in the training set and were not further tested. MT-ATP6, RPL30, RPL37A, RPLP0 and RPS17 all had stability indices <0.02 in the training set and in the verification set. The geNorm M values were all ≤1.10. All six pre-specified cancer genes (IL8, IL1, SAT, OAZ1, DUSP1 and S100P) were up-regulated in cancer versus control patients with from nearly twofold to over threefold higher levels (p<0.01 for all based on delta Cq values).
CONCLUSIONS: Five reference genes are validated for use in oral cancer salivary gene expression panels. Six pre-specified oral carcinoma associated genes are demonstrated to be highly significantly up-regulated in cancer patients based on delta Cq values. These cancer and reference genes are suitable for inclusion in gene expression panels for research and clinical applications.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01587573.

Shen J, Zhang Y, Yu H, et al.
Role of DUSP1/MKP1 in tumorigenesis, tumor progression and therapy.
Cancer Med. 2016; 5(8):2061-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dual-specificity phosphatase-1 (DUSP1/MKP1), as a member of the threonine-tyrosine dual-specificity phosphatase family, was first found in cultured murine cells. The molecular mechanisms of DUSP1-mediated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) dephosphorylation have been subsequently identified by studies using gene knockout mice and gene silencing technology. As a protein phosphatase, DUSP1 also downregulates p38 MAPKs and JNKs signaling through directly dephosphorylating threonine and tyrosine. It has been detected that DUSP1 is involved in various functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in normal cells. In various human cancers, abnormal expression of DUSP1 was observed which was associated with prognosis of tumor patients. Further studies have revealed its role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Besides, DUSP1 has been found to play a role in tumor chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and biotherapy. In this review, we will focus on the function and mechanism of DUSP1 in tumor cells and tumor treatment.

Wang H, Yu Y, Jiang Z, et al.
Next-generation proteasome inhibitor MLN9708 sensitizes breast cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:26456 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Doxorubicin (Dox), one of the most effective chemotherapy drug for cancer treatment, is limited by its severe side effects and chemoresistance. Dox induces DNA damage and leads to significant proteomic changes in the cancer cells, which makes the ubiquitin-proteasome system a potential target to enhance the efficacy of Dox therapy. The unsuccessful clinical trials of proteasome inhibitor PS-341 (bortezomib) in solid tumors led to the invention of MLN9708 (ixazomib), an orally bioavailable next-generation proteasome inhibitor with improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features. In this preclinical study, we used eight human breast cancer cell lines, which represent the major molecular subtypes of breast cancer, to validate the cytotoxic effects of MLN9708, alone and in combination with Dox. We found that MLN9708 had cytotoxic effects, induced autophagy and MKP-1 expression, and enhanced Dox-induced apoptosis in these cell lines. MLN9708 also enhanced Dox-induced JNK and p38 phosphorylation and inhibited Dox-induced IκBα degradation. Our in vitro results suggest that MLN9708 has antitumor effects in breast cancer and can sensitize breast cancer cells to Dox treatment. This promising combination may be an effective and feasible therapeutic option for treating breast cancer and warrants clinical validation.

Lin ZY, Kuo CH, Wu DC, Chuang WL
Anticancer effects of clinically acceptable colchicine concentrations on human gastric cancer cell lines.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2016; 32(2):68-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colchicine is a very cheap microtubule destabilizer. Because microtubules are an ideal target for anticancer drugs, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether clinically acceptable colchicine concentrations have anticancer effects on gastric cancer cells, and its possible anticancer mechanisms. Two human gastric cancer cell lines (i.e., AGS and NCI-N87) were investigated by proliferative assay, microarray, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and a nude mice study using clinically acceptable colchicine concentrations (2 ng/mL and 6 ng/mL for in vitro tests and 0.07 mg colchicine/kg/d for in vivo tests). Our results showed that colchicine had the same inhibitory effects on the proliferation of both cell lines. The antiproliferative effects of colchicine on both cell lines were achieved only at the concentration of 6 ng/mL (p < 0.0001). In both cell lines, 18 genes were consistently upregulated and 10 genes were consistently downregulated by 6 ng/mL colchicine, compared with 2 ng/mL colchicine. Among these genes, only the upregulated DUSP1 gene may contribute to the antiproliferative effects of colchicine on gastric cancer cells. The nude mice (BALB/c-nu) experiment showed that colchicine-treated mice after 14 days of treatment had lower increased tumor volume ratios (p = 0.0199) and tumor growth rates (p = 0.024) than the control mice. In conclusion, colchicine has potential for the palliative treatment of gastric cancer. However, the anticancer effects are achieved only at high clinically acceptable colchicine concentrations. Monitoring the colchicine plasma concentration is mandatory if this drug is applied for the palliative treatment of gastric cancer.

Boulding T, Wu F, McCuaig R, et al.
Differential Roles for DUSP Family Members in Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cell Regulation in Breast Cancer.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0148065 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) dephosphorylate threonine/serine and tyrosine residues on their substrates. Here we show that DUSP1, DUSP4, and DUSP6 are involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and breast cancer stem cell (CSC) regulation. DUSP1, DUSP4, and DUSP6 are induced during EMT in a PKC pathway signal-mediated EMT model. We show for the first time that the key chromatin-associated kinase PKC-θ directly regulates a subset of DUSP family members. DUSP1, DUSP4, and DUSP6 globally but differentially co-exist with enhancer and permissive active histone post-translational modifications, suggesting that they play distinct roles in gene regulation in EMT/CSCs. We show that nuclear DUSP4 associates with the key acetyltransferase p300 in the context of the chromatin template and dynamically regulates the interplay between two key phosphorylation marks: the 1834 (active) and 89 (inhibitory) residues central to p300's acetyltransferase activity. Furthermore, knockdown with small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) shows that DUSP4 is required for maintaining H3K27ac, a mark mediated by p300. DUSP1, DUSP4, and DUSP6 knockdown with siRNAs shows that they participate in the formation of CD44hi/CD24lo/EpCAM+ breast CSCs: DUSP1 knockdown reduces CSC formation, while DUSP4 and DUSP6 knockdown enhance CSC formation. Moreover, DUSP6 is overexpressed in patient-derived HER2+ breast carcinomas compared to benign mammary tissue. Taken together, these findings illustrate novel pleiotropic roles for DUSP family members in EMT and CSC regulation in breast cancer.

Cimas FJ, Callejas-Valera JL, Pascual-Serra R, et al.
MKP1 mediates chemosensitizer effects of E1a in response to cisplatin in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(42):44095-107 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The adenoviral gene E1a is known to enhance the antitumor effect of cisplatin, one of the cornerstones of the current cancer chemotherapy. Here we study the molecular basis of E1a mediated sensitivity to cisplatin in an experimental model of Non-small cell lung cancer. Our data show how E1a blocks the induction of autophagy triggered by cisplatin and promotes the apoptotic response in resistant cells. Interestingly, at the molecular level, we present evidences showing how the phosphatase MKP1 is a major determinant of cisplatin sensitivity and its upregulation is strictly required for the induction of chemosensitivity mediated by E1a. Indeed, E1a is almost unable to promote sensitivity in H460, in which the high expression of MKP1 remains unaffected by E1a. However, in resistant cell as H1299, H23 or H661, which display low levels of MKP1, E1a expression promotes a dramatic increase in the amount of MKP1 correlating with cisplatin sensitivity. Furthermore, effective knock down of MKP1 in H1299 E1a expressing cells restores resistance to a similar extent than parental cells.  In summary, the present work reinforce the critical role of MKP1 in the cellular response to cisplatin highlighting the importance of this phosphatase in future gene therapy approach based on E1a gene.

Kang Y, Nagaraja AS, Armaiz-Pena GN, et al.
Adrenergic Stimulation of DUSP1 Impairs Chemotherapy Response in Ovarian Cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(7):1713-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Chronic adrenergic activation has been shown to associate with adverse clinical outcomes in cancer patients, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The focus of the current study was to determine the functional and biologic effects of adrenergic pathways on response to chemotherapy in the context of ovarian cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Increased DUSP1 production by sympathetic nervous system mediators (e.g., norepinephrine) was analyzed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and by Western blotting. In vitro chemotherapy-induced cell apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry. For in vivo therapy, a well-characterized model of chronic stress was used.
RESULTS: Catecholamines significantly inhibited paclitaxel- and cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Genomic analyses of cells treated with norepinephrine identified DUSP1 as a potential mediator. DUSP1 overexpression resulted in reduced paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells compared with control; conversely, DUSP1 gene silencing resulted in increased apoptosis compared with control cells. DUSP1 gene silencing in vivo significantly enhanced response to paclitaxel and increased apoptosis. In vitro analyses indicated that norepinephrine-induced DUSP1 gene expression was mediated through ADRB2 activation of cAMP-PLC-PKC-CREB signaling, which inhibits JNK-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun and protects ovarian cancer cells from apoptosis. Moreover, analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas data showed that increased DUSP1 expression was associated with decreased overall (P= 0.049) and progression-free (P= 0.0005) survival.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a new understanding of the mechanisms by which adrenergic pathways can impair response to chemotherapy and have implications for cancer management.

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